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I. Read the text and answer the quest !ns.

Petroleum is a brownish-black oily fluid that can be found in the ground and in the sea. In its unprocessed form, it is known as crude oil. There are many petroleum products that are essential for our everyday life. Fuels, like petrol for motor vehicles and kerosene for heaters, plastic, asphalt and wax for candles are all obtained from petroleum. The four main producers of crude oil in the world today are the iddle !ast, "ussia, the #nited $tates and %ene&uela.

Petroleum was formed under the ground many millions of years ago. Plants and animals living in the sea sank to the sea bed when they died. Their remains, mixed with sand and mud in layered deposits, built up slowly over the years. The combined action of heat, pressure and bacteria turned these deposits into petroleum. The petroleum moved slowly upwards to the porous rocks and became trapped there. 'ith the passage of time, land that was once under water rose to the surface of the sea. (s such, petroleum deposits are now found on or near dry land. )rude oil is obtained from the ground through drilling. ( drill is hung from a derrick which may be as high as *+ meters. ( derrick is a tower-like structure which is built over an oil well to raise and lower the drill. If the drill reaches oilbearing rocks, the oil may rush to the surface at great force and gush like a

fountain. ,owever, this seldom happens. #sually the oil rises to the surface slowly. $ometimes, when there is no or low underground pressure, the crude oil has to be pumped out. -nce the crude oil is obtained, it is sent to a refinery to be processed. Pipelines carry the oil from the oil fields to the collecting stations. Then, huge oil tankers are used to carry the crude oil by sea to the refineries. (t the refinery, the crude oil undergoes a basic refinery process called distillation, which separates it into fractions or components. )rude oil is heated to various high temperatures during distillation. The hot vapors rise up the fractionating tower which is more than .+ meters high. (s these vapors cool, different fractions begin to condense and form lubricating oils, kerosene and gasoline. $elected petroleum fractions may be sub/ected to chemical processes to obtain other products.

From paragraph 1 : 0 1a2 3ame some petroleum products. . 1b2 In this paragraph, explain the meaning of 4crude4. 1c2 'ho are the largest producers of petroleum in the world 5 From paragraph 2 : 6 1a2 ,ow is petroleum formed 5 . 1b2 'hich word in this paragraph means 4changed4 5 1c2 'hich word in this paragraph has the same meaning as the phrase 4moved slowly upwards4 5 From paragraph 3 : . 1a2 'hat is a derrick 5 . 1b2 'hat does the word 4this4 refer to 5 1c2 'hat could happen if oil rushes out to the surface at a great force 5

1d2 'hen is crude oil pumped out 5 From paragraph 4 : 7 ,ow is crude oil transported to the collecting stations 5 . From paragraph 5 : 8 1a2 'hat happens to crude oil during distillation 5 . 1b2 9escribe the distillation process. 1c2 :ive another word which has the same meaning as the word 4selected4. 1d2 'hat does the word 4basic4 in the phrase 4basic refinery process4 mean 5

II. Read the de" n t !ns !" the w!rds#$hrases %e&!w and ma'e u$ (!ur !wn senten)es us n* them. +E,ROLE-M ; a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons< +E,ROLE-M JELL. / a semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum< used in medicinal ointments and for lubrication< +E,ROLE-M GEOLOG. / the branch of economic geology that deals with the occurrence and exploitation of oil and gas fields< REFINER. / an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance< +E,ROLE-M#OIL REFINER. ; a refinery for petroleum< LI0-EFIE1 +E,ROLE-M GAS / ,ydrocarbon gases, usually propane or butane, kept under pressure< ORGANIZA,ION OF +E,ROLE-M2E3+OR,ING 4O-N,RIES / an organi&ation of countries formed in 0=*0 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.

+arts !" a 5$etr!&eum re" ner(56 4at )ra)'er, )ata&(t ) )ra)'er ; a chemical reactor for converting oils with high boiling points into fuels with lower boiling points in the presence of a catalyst< Re"!rmer ; an apparatus that reforms the molecular structure of hydrocarbons to produce richer fuel.

III. 4!m$&ete the w!rds n the %&an's. ,he " rst "ew &etters ha7e %een * 7en t! (!u. 0. Petroleum is formed under the !arth4s surface by the dec material. 6. From the surface deposits cr !arth or onto the ocean floor. .. Petroleum is one of the most valuable natural re economy of the whole world. 7. The modern era of ex and production of petroleum began in the late in the world oil can flow out to the surface of the of organic

because it is essential to the industry, the production of energy and generally the

sixties under the great demand of the international market. 8. ( de *. Po is a supporting structure that holds the drilling apparatus. is the most important factor because it affects the >uality of a

petroleum reservoir.

?. The cost of heating oil is determined by the cost of extraction, production, and dis of oil as well as the profits of refineries and dealers. . and it pools.

@. )rude oil prices are determined by worldwide supply and de =. If the sedimentary rocks are non-permeable, oil is tr 0+. Petroleum may ac sedimentary rocks. I8. ,rans&ate the "!&&!w n* text nt! R!man an.

inside the underground traps of impermeable

The energy is very important in our life because we use it for transportation, for electricity production, for house heating and for cooking gas. Traditional energy sources are coal, petroleum and natural gas. )oal is a solid fossil fuel used for production of energy and chemical compounds. Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions. 3atural gas and other fossil fuels are separated from crude oil through fractional distillation. 3atural gas in mainly composed by methane< since its colourless and odourless, for safety reasons an odorant called mercaptan is added to the gas before being delivered. The use of fossil fuels rises several issues related to the environmental pollution, since combustion releases )-6 in the atmosphere contributing to global warming, to the high risks of environmental disasters during extraction and delivery and to the increasing costs due to their limited availability. 8. Read the texts %e&!w and answer the quest !ns. 0. )3: - compressed natural gas, is stored under high pressure as compressed

natural gas 1)3:2. )3: is a very important fossil fuel because it is easy to transport through pipes. )3: is used for power generation. It is now being used as a fuel for transport vehicles because it is less polluting. It is a cleaner fuel. $imilarly, AP:- Ai>uefied Petroleum :as is used as fuel for home and industry as it is less polluting and easy to transport and to use. 9hat are the ad7anta*es !" us n* 4NG and L+G as "ue&s: 6. Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. (s these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and clay. -ver millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas. Ex$&a n the $r!)ess !" $etr!&eum "!rmat !n us n* (!ur !wn w!rds. .. The formation of fossil fuels is a very slow process, takes million of years in nature. 'e have limited reserves of fossil fuels in nature. Fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources, as limited fossil fuels reserves like coal, petroleum, natural gas are being depleted very fast by human activities like rapid urbani&ation, industriali&ation and transportation. Ex$&a n wh( "!ss & "ue&s are exhaust %&e natura& res!ur)es us n* (!ur !wn w!rds.

8I. Read the de" n t !ns !" the w!rds#$hrases %e&!w and use them n (!ur !wn senten)es. BEAM +-M+ING -NI, ; a machine designed specifically for sucker rod

pumping. (n engine or motor 1prime mover2 is mounted on the unit to power a rotating crank. The crank moves a hori&ontal member 1walking beam2 up and down to produce reciprocating motion. This reciprocating motion operates the pump. BI, ; the cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells. BORE ; 0. the inside diameter of a pipe or a drilled hole. vB to penetrate or pierce with a rotary tool. BO,,OM;OLE ; the lowest or deepest part of a well. 4ASING ; 0. steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well to prevent the wall of the hole from caving in, to prevent movement of fluids from one formation to another and to aid in well control. 1ERRI4< ; a large load-bearing structure, usually of bolted construction. In drilling, the standard derrick has four legs standing at the corners of the substructure and reaching to the crown block. The substructure is an assembly of heavy beams used to elevate the derrick and provide space to install blowout preventers, casingheads, and so forth. 1ERRI4< FLOOR# RIG FLOOR ; the area immediately around the rotary table and extending to each corner of the derrick or mastCthat is, the area immediately above the substructure on which the rotary table, and so forth rest. 1RILL ; to bore a hole in the earth, usually to find and remove subsurface formation fluids such as oil and gas. OILFIEL1 ; region rich in petroleum deposits 1especially one with producing oil wells2 RIG ; the derrick or mast, drawworks, and attendant surface e>uipment of a drilling or workover unit. 8II. L!!' at the "!&&!w n* d a*ram and des)r %e the ma=!r $arts !" a

dr && n* r *. ,rans&ate the terms nt! R!man an.

8III. ,rans&ate the "!&&!w n* text nt! R!man an. ( petroleum system is defined here as a natural system that encompasses a pod of active source rock and all related oil and gas and which includes all the geologic elements and processes that are essential if a hydrocarbon accumulation is to exist. This once-active source rock may now be inactive or spent 1depleted2. Petroleum here includes high concentrations of 102 thermal or biogenic gas found in conventional reservoirs or in gas hydrate, tight reservoirs, fractured shale, and coal< or 162 condensates, crude oils, and asphalts found in nature.

RE8ISION E3ER4ISES I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate information. 0. $ome petroleum products are DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD. 6. Petroleum is formed whenDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD .. ( derrick is DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD. 7. ( drill bit is DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 8. ( wellbore is DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD.. II. Aist the main components of a petroleum onshore drilling rig. III. Translate the following text into "omanian -ffshore -il Field 9rilling "igs are essentially a multifaceted structure that comprises of a number of multifarious parts each with its own specific function and purpose. It is a unit made of smaller units like drill machinery, the control and power system, and all sorts of instrumentation re>uired for efficient oil extraction. -ffshore -il Field 9rilling $ystems are always in needed to have wide-ranging, integrated power along with proper instrumentation and control and communication system as the working conditions in an oil field are highly demanding. "igs are re>uired, on a compulsory level to maintain a static level of safety and also ensure measures to protect the ecological milieu. If you are planning to install offshore drilling rigs, then it is necessary for you to have a detailed idea of the various components and aspects that /oin together to erect huge offshore oil field drilling rigs. There are a number of systems, tools and e>uipments that go in the set up of such large scale offshore field extraction /obs.