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How to Irrigate and Dress Minor Abrasions Can you make this first page look more like a manual (and less like an article)? Also, who wrote this?
The purpose of this User Manual is to provide essential information on how to care for minor abrasions. It includes a list of materials to perform the procedure and ensure safety of the healthcare provider. These step-by-step procedures of preparation, cleaning, dressing, and disposal are user-friendly and contain illustrations to guide users with the utmost proper care. Minor abrasions are wounds that are closely related to the scraping of the skin that is caused by an injury. Abrasions most commonly occur on the elbows, knees, and palms (Thompson, 2004). Damage is done on the surface of the skin and does not necessarily require the care of a doctor unless the wound is deeply severe. The part of the skin that is damaged is the epidermis, which is the outer layer. The skin protects individuals against possible bacteria and germs. An abrasion may uncover the structure of the deep skin, which leads to possible infections (Nazario, 2011). Proper initial care of an abrasion is important to clean the wound and prevent further contamination. This manual is designed for all users. It is written in a format that is understandable for beginners and advanced individuals. This manual can be used in a variety of settings, such as in a first aid situation or by healthcare providers, to clean a wound and prevent contamination. Nice intro

Information in red ensures safety for the patient and the healthcare provider. Following these safety warnings will help prevent exposure to bloodborne pathogens and minimize risks of infections. contaminating the wound.

Information in green provides options for providing first aid care in non-health care settings.

I really like this key. Materials:

Chux pad or emesis basin Gloves Sterile dressing Roller gauze bandage Irrigation saline or sterile water Bulb syringe or sterile syringe

pictures/illustrations always help

Introduction Biohazard bag Disinfectant wipes Tape

STEP 1: Gather materials

Chux pad or emesis basin Non-latex gloves Bulb syringe or sterile syringe Sterile water or irrigation saline Sterile dressings Roller gauze Tape Biohazard bag Disinfectant wipes

STEP 2: Protect self and patient

Wash hands Apply gloves

Washing hands helps prevent transmitting disease to patient. Gloves protects healthcare worker from bloodborne pathogens. According to your key, this should be red.

Section 1: Preparation STEP 3: Position patient

Place extremity over chux pad or emesis basin Position limb so that . . . .Allow irrigation solution to run from upper portion of wound to lower portion of wound.

STEP 4: OPEN DRESSING Open packet and leave dressing inside for
sterility Grasp dressing by corner

Section 2: Clean STEP 5: Clean wound

Brush or remove large debris Flush with water from upper end of wound to lower Stop flushing when solution runs clear Ensure run-off is captured by either pad or basin Use tap water an acceptable substitute if there is no access to sterile water (Moscati, Mayrose, Reardon, Janicke, & Jehle, 2007)

I like your use of color

STEP 6: Dry wound

Dab with sterile dressing from least contaminated to most contaminated edge Also dry skin around wound

Run-off irrigation solution may contain bloodborne pathogens. Capture on pad or emesis basin to prevent spread of pathogens and to keep the patient dry.red

Research involving tap water versus sterile water did not result in a statistically greater rate of infection.green

Section 3: Bandage STEP 7: Apply sterile dressing and tape

Ensure dressing completely covers wound edges

STEP 8: Wrap with bandage and tape

Wrap from distal end of limb to proximal end to keep bandage tight.define jargon Tape loose end

Section 4: Disposal

STEP 9: Gather trash

Dispose of biohazard materials in red bag Dispose of non-contaminated materials in regular trash.

STEP 10: Remove gloves and wash hands

Dispose of gloves in red bag Wash and dry hands Re-apply gloves

Gloves have possible bloodborne pathogens from the bandaging process. Remove gloves, wash hands and re-apply gloves prior to cleaning to prevent contamination from bloodborne pathogens. Healthcare grade disinfectant is irritating to skin. Use of gloves prevents possible damage to skin as well as exposure to bloodborne pathogens on contaminated surfaces (Professional Disposables International, 2011).

Section 4: Disposal

STEP 11: Disinfect area

Wipe with disinfectant solution

STEP 12: Disposal of disinfection materials

Dispose of disinfection materials and gloves in biohazard bag Wash hands

Section 5: Conclusion & References

Abrasions appear in different forms: cuts, punctures, scrapes, and grazes (Mohrman, 2010). These can occur in knees, palms, and elbows because of minimal padding and frequent contact with the ground. By recognizing an abrasion, proper first aid treatment can be given. Properly following this procedure can reduce or eliminate the risks of an infection, resulting from dirt and bacteria contacting the abrasion. Cleaning and dressing the wound properly is important to ensure proper wound healing (Gabriel, 2013). Without proper cleaning, bacterial contamination can result scars or prolonged healing time. Proper wound care along with a nutrient rich diet allows for proper wound healing showing the state of general health of the individual (Carranza, 2010).

Section 5: Conclusion & References

L. Bruce English 360

Instruction Manual Assessment Sheet*

Names: 1) Do the instructions have a clear, appropriate title? 2) Does the introduction to the instructions o o o State the purpose of the task? Describe safety measures or other concerns that readers should understand? List necessary tools and materials? YES YES YES NO NO NO YES NO

3) Are the step-by-step instructions o o o o o Numbered? Expressed w/ active, imperative verbs? Simple, clear, and direct? Easy to followcould you do this procedure using this guide? Accompanied by appropriate citations? YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO NO

4) Are the graphics o o o o Appropriate and clear? Located near their corresponding text? Accompanied by descriptive captions? Accompanied by appropriate citations? YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO

5) Does the conclusion o o Include any necessary follow-up advice? Include, if appropriate, a troubleshooting guide? YES YES YES NO NO NO

6) Is the manual designed effectively, with adequate white space?

Section 5: Conclusion & References

*Assessment Sheet, adapted from Markels page 574

Assessment Overview (hint: start with a positivewhats working here?):

With a few exceptions, this is a beautifully executed manual. Your language, steps, and illustrations are clear and lead the reader easily through this process. Your limited problems include: Color coding is inconsistent, at only one point (see above) your instructions could be clearer. See above for greater detail in comments. Great work. GRADE: 92

Section 5: Conclusion & References

References Carranza, W. (2010, September 28). How to improve the rate of healing of the skin read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/250681-how-to-improve-the-rate-of-healing-of-theskin/ Gabriel, A. (2013, August 2). Wound Irrigation. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1895071-overview#a1 Mohrman, J. (2013, August 16). How to heal skin over a wound. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/110574-heal-skin-over-wound/ Moscati, R. M., Mayrose, J., Reardon, R. F., Janicke, D. M., Jehle, D. V. (2007). A multicenter comparison of tap water versus sterile saline for wound irrigation. Academic Emergency Medicine, 14, 404-409. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2007.01.007 Nazario, R. (2012, September 2). Will abrasion wounds heal faster uncovered? Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/535706-will-abrasion-wounds-heal-faster-uncovered/ Professional Disposables Interinational, Inc. (2011, April, 4). Material Safety Data Sheet PDI Sani-Cloth AF3 Germicidal Disposal Wipe. Retrieved from http://pdihc.com/uploads/datasheets/522d0c5e86a5500b41411555a96c491d.pdf Thompson, D. (2004). Skin injury (cuts, scrapes, bruises). Banner Health, Retrieved from http://www.bannerhealth.com/incfiles/housecalls/adult/SkinLocalizedSymptoms/SkinInju ryCutsScrapesBruises.htm Zulma, C. (2011). Abrasion care in healthy young adults. Nursing, 41(5), 68-69. doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000396452.12370.39