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Antonis Phasouliotis and Daniel K.C. So

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering

The University of Manchester

Manchester, UK

email: antonis.phasouliotis@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk, d.so@manchester.ac.uk

Abstract In this paper, a chip level ordered successive spatial

and multiuser interference cancellation (OSSMIC) receiver

architecture is presented for downlink multiple-input multiple-

output multi-carrier code division multiple access (MIMO MC-

CDMA) systems. The proposed receiver performs ordered layer

space-time detection. Unlike the existing ordered successive

interference cancellation (OSIC) receiver, the proposed receiver

cancels both spatial & multiuser interference in the SIC process.

This allows detection in multiuser scenario, which is not possible

in conventional chip level OSIC receiver. Simulation results show

that the proposed receiver significantly outperforms both the

existing chip level OSIC detector and the chip level linear

receiver. As the proposed receiver only requires the knowledge of

the desired users spreading sequence, it is a viable solution for

downlink MIMO MC-CDMA communications.

I. INTRODUCTION

The introduction of new wireless communication services

including mobile internet, video telephony, and high quality

multimedia streaming increases the demand for more

bandwidth efficient wireless communication systems that can

achieve higher user capacities and faster data rates from

already existing technologies. The research towards a new

wireless platform, called fourth generation (4G), has been

initiated worldwide. One of the possible solutions for 4G is the

multiple input multiple output multi-carrier code division

multiple access (MIMO MC-CDMA) system [1]. This refers to

the combination of MIMO techniques [2] with MC-CDMA

system [3], the latter being the combined scheme of orthogonal

frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with code division

multiple access (CDMA).

OFDM is a multicarrier modulation technique employed

for high data rate wireless applications and is suitable for

combating inter-symbol interference (ISI) that arises in

frequency selective channels. CDMA is a multiplexing

technique which permits multiple users to access the wireless

channel simultaneously by modulating and spreading their

input data signals with different spreading sequences.

In addition, MIMO system, a scheme based on multiple

transmitting and multiple receiving antennas can achieve very

high data rates in rich multipath scattering environment without

increasing the transmission bandwidth or the total transmitted

power of the system. The vertical Bell labs layered space-time

(V-BLAST) architecture (or ordered successive interference

cancellation (OSIC)) [4] is a MIMO system that has recently

gained major research attention because it can realize very high

data transfer rates by using spatial multiplexing to exploit the

multiple spatial channels. For MIMO MC-CDMA system, a

chip level OSIC receiver has been proposed and demonstrated

good performance for single user case [5]. However, its

performance is severely degraded in multiuser cases and has a

high error floor appearing in medium SNR range due to

multiple access interference (MAI) and error propagation.

Therefore, it performs even worse than the linear zero forcing

(ZF) or minimum mean square error (MMSE) receivers. In [6],

chip level and symbol level MMSE linear receivers are

presented. Although the symbol level detector has better

performance over the chip level detector, it needs high

computational complexity and also requires the knowledge of

all other users spreading sequence. A partial MMSE-OSIC

receiver based on multiuser detection [7] achieves similar

performance to the symbol level MMSE-OSIC, but also

requires all other users spreading sequence. Without a

practical receiver architecture, downlink MIMO MC-CDMA

system is not as favourable as other simpler transceiver

schemes such as MIMO OFDMA.

In this paper, a more practical receiver namely the chip

level ordered successive spatial and multiuser interference

cancellation (OSSMIC) receiver is proposed for downlink

MIMO MC-CDMA systems. This receiver performs layered

space-time processing with both spatial and multiuser

interference cancellation. It outperforms linear receivers [6]

and unlike [5], it is capable for multiuser scenarios. Moreover,

the receiver does not require the knowledge of other users

spreading sequences and is suitable for downlink

communications. It should also be noted that the proposed

scheme invalidates the perception that linear MMSE detector

performs better than iterative detectors for MIMO MC-CDMA

systems [7, 8, 9].

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II

introduces the system model by presenting both the transmitted

and the received signal. In Section III, the novel chip level

OSSMIC receiver design for the downlink MIMO MC-CDMA

is proposed. In Section IV, the performance of the proposed

architecture is evaluated through simulations and is compared

with the performance of the linear detectors and the chip level

OSIC detector. Finally, section V concludes and summarizes

the paper.

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II. MIMOMC-CDMASIGNAL MODEL

A. Transmitted Signal Model

Consider a downlink MIMO MC-CDMA transmitter

model with N transmitting antennas for K users. The QPSK

symbols are grouped into N substreams of P symbols each, and

thus the symbol matrix for user k (k = 1,2,,K) can be

represented as

1 2 N

k k k k

=

D d d d

N P

C

where the row vector d

k

n

denotes the datastream of P symbols

that will be transmitted by the n-th antenna (n = 1,2,,N), and

is defined as

T

,1 , 2 ,

n n n n

k k k k P

d d d =

d

1 P

C .

The symbols of each user are first serial-to-parallel converted

to form the N substreams, and then spread with the

corresponding user specific spreading sequence in order to

form the chip-level transmit matrix

,1 , 2 , k k k k PG k k

= =

S s s s D c

N PG

C

where

,1 , 2 , k k k k G

c c c =

c

1 G

C

is the signature sequence of user k, C refers to the chip

alphabet, denotes the Kronecker product and G is the length

of the spreading sequence. Each user is allocated a distinct

spreading code and in order to ensure orthogonality between

the different users, Walsh-Hadamard sequences are used. The

spread signals of all users from each transmitting antenna are

then combined and all the P x G parallel data sequences are

interleaved in the frequency domain with a chip level block

interleaver of size P x G. The interleaved data are next mapped

onto N

c

= P x G available subcarriers (f = f

1

, f

2

,,

c

N

f ) and

transformed into the time domain by the inverse fast Fourier

transform (IFFT). The N

c

subcarriers can be represented by

index i and related to the p-th symbol (p = 1,2,,P) and the g-

th chip (g = 1,2,,G) by i = (p 1)G + g. The transmitted

chips of all users at the i-th subcarrier can be indicated as

T

1 2

,

1

K

N

i i i i k i

k

x x x

=

= =

x s

1 N

C (1)

where x

i

n

is the chip transmitted by the n-th antenna at the i-th

subcarrier, and can be expressed as

, , , /

1 1

K K

n n n

i k i k i k i G

k k

x s c d

= =

= =

(2)

in which

,

n

k i

s indicates the chip transmitted by the n-th antenna

for the k-th user at the i-th subcarrier, and a

denotes the

largest integer that is smaller than a. The output signal from the

IFFT is added with cyclic prefix (CP) before transmission over

the wireless multipath channel. The channel is considered to be

quasi-static frequency selective fading corrupted by additive

white Gaussian noise (AWGN). In order to avoid inter symbol

interference (ISI), the duration of CP is assumed to be longer

than the maximum delay spread of the channel.

B. Received Signal Model

The receiver of the desired user consists of M receiving

antennas. Upon receiving the signal, the cyclic prefix (CP) is

removed and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of size N

c

is

performed. The received signal model at the i-th subcarrier,

after the FFT operation can be characterized as

i i i i

= + r H x n (3)

where the received signal, the channel and the noise vectors are

represented respectively as

T

1 2 M

i i i i

r r r =

r

1 M

C

(1,1) (1, )

1

( ,1) ( , )

, ,

N

i i

N

i i i

M M N

i i

h h

h h

= =

H h h

. . .

M N

C

T

1 2 M

i i i i

n n n =

n

1 M

C .

The channel response at the i-th subcarrier between transmit

antenna n (n = 1,2,,N) and receive antenna m (m = 1,2,,M)

is denoted by h

i

(m,n)

and the N x 1 AWGN noise vector at the i-

th subcarrier is signified by n

i

. The received signal expression

in (1) can be rearranged as

' ' ' '

, , ', ',

' ' ' '

CAI MAI 1 MAI 2

n n n n n n n n

i i k i i k i i k i i k i i

n n k k k k n

s s s s

= + + + +

r h h h h n

. (4)

Considering the right hand side of (4), the first term represents

the transmitted chips from the desired substream n of the

desired user k. The second term corresponds to the co-antenna

interference (CAI) arising from the other substreams of the

desired user. Multiple access interference (MAI) coming from

other users n-th substream and all other substreams are

expressed by the third term (MAI 1) and the fourth term (MAI

2) respectively.

III. OSSMICRECEIVER

A. Successive Interference Cancellation procedure

The chip level OSIC receiver proposed in [5] for multiuser

MIMO MC-CDMA systems has a poor performance. This is

because, after the chip level linear filter that removes CAI &

MAI 2, chip detection is made before despreading. For this

reason, the MAI 1 in (4) is not suppressed before detection and

thus causes severe degradation. Instead, we propose a novel

OSSMIC receiver design that performs chip level spatial

nulling, optimum detection ordering of the received

substreams, symbol detection after despreading, and chip level

spatial and multiuser interference cancellation. The block

diagram of the novel receiver without interleaving for the

desired user k is depicted in Figure 1. This could easily be

extended to the interleaved case. The strongest received

substream is considered initially to be the desired signal for

detection while the remaining substreams are suppressed. The

layered detection process is performed using an optimum

selection ordering which is discussed in the next section.

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Without loss of generality, the first substream is considered.

For convenience the analysis of ZF filtering is discussed first

and it can be easily extended to the MMSE case. Some issues

for the MMSE case will be explained later in this section.

Hence, considering the received signal passing through a linear

ZF filter, the estimates of the transmitted chips for the first

substream at the i-th subcarrier can be expressed as

1

,

1 1 1

k i i i i i i i i

y

+ + +

= = +

H r H H x H n

1 1

, ',

'

k i k i i

k k

s s n

= + +

(5)

where H

i

+

is the pseudoinverse matrix of H

i

and [A]

1

denotes

the first row of matrix A. The symbol decision statistic is

obtained when the chip estimates in (5) are despread by the

desired users spreading sequence.

1 1 1 1

, , , , , , ', ,

1 1 ' 1 1

G G G G

k p k g k i k g k i k g k i k g i

g g k k g g

z c y c s c s c n

= = = =

= = + +

1

, ,

1

G

k p k g i

g

d c n

=

= +

(6)

where i is related to p and g as shown in section II A., and this

is used for all subsequent expressions. The p-th symbol

detection for the first substream of the k-th user is then

performed to obtain

1

,

k p

d . The next step in a layered space-time

receiver is to remove the detected substream from the received

signal. The modified channel matrix is then formed by setting

the detected substreams channel response to zero, i.e. the first

column of H

i

is zeroed [4]. This modified channel matrix is

subsequently used to compute the nulling filter for the next

stage. The channel zeroing process is important as it increases

the post detection SNR for the following detection stages.

However, if the multiuser interference coming from the first

transmit antenna is not completely removed, it will not be

suppressed by any subsequent nulling processes. This will

significantly deteriorate the performance. With the described

cancellation procedure, the interference caused by the

substream of the other users, i.e. MAI 1 in (4), is not removed

and it causes poor system performance. Therefore, the MAI 1

in the detected substream must be eliminated.

The most straight forward method to determine this MAI

term is to detect the first substream for all users. However, this

requires the knowledge of all other users spreading sequence

and will increase the computational complexity. Alternatively,

this MAI term could be computed for every i-th subcarrier by

spreading the symbol decision statistic z

1

k,p

with the desired

users spreading sequence to produce

T

1

, , ( 1) 1 , ( 1) 2 , , k p k p G k p G k pG k k p

v v v z

+ +

= =

v c . (7)

This respread signal v

k,p

contains the desired user signal and

noise. It is then subtracted from the chip estimate

1

, k i

y in (5) to

obtain the signal contribution in MAI 1 term and a second term

which enhances the noise

1 1 T

, , , ', , ,

' 1

G

k i k i k i k i k g k g i

k k g

I y v s c c n

=

= = +

. (8)

The whole cancellation procedure for the first substream from

the received signal at the i-th subcarrier can be characterized by

T

1 T

, , ,

1

( )

i i k g k p k i i

c d I

= +

r r H (9)

where

i

MAI 2 and enhanced noise terms for the next detection layer.

The above stated steps are repeated until all the remaining

substreams are detected.

It must be noted that when linear MMSE filter is used, the

interference calculated in this case, i.e. I

k,i

, also contains some

form of residual CAI and MAI. This happens because when the

received signal is filtered using the MMSE, the CAI & MAI 2

in (4) are not completely removed. Moreover, as the MMSE is

not an inversion process as in ZF case, the MAI for the n-th

substream after filtering will not have a normalized magnitude

as in (8). Hence, MAI 1 cannot be completely removed by the

despreading process. Nevertheless, as the MMSE filter

minimizes the mean-square error between the original and the

estimated data, its performance will still be superior to the ZF

OSSMIC receiver as shown in section IV.

B. Detection Ordering

The optimum detection order for the novel OSSMIC

receiver is determined according to the substream which

produces the smallest mean square error. The MSE matrix for

the MMSE receiver with respect to the i-th subcarrier is given

by

1

0

diag( )

H

i i xx i N

N

= + J H R H I (10)

where diag(A) denotes the diagonal elements of matrix A,

superscript H indicates matrix Hermitian, I

N

signifies the N x N

identity matrix and R

xx

=E

x

(K/G)I

N

with E

x

being the chip

energy. The total MSE of the n-th substream is given by

1

( )

N

n i

i

c

j n

=

=

J . (11)

The substream with the smallest total MSE is detected first.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

The performance of the proposed ZF / MMSE OSSMIC

receiver with and without chip level block interleaving for

downlink MC-CDMA systems is evaluated through Monte

Carlo simulations and is presented in this section. In addition,

the performance of the novel receiver is compared with the

performance of other detectors for MIMO MC-CDMA

systems. Four transmit and four receive antennas are

considered for the downlink system. Each transmitted frame is

assumed to comprise of eight uncoded QPSK modulated

symbols (P = 8) and each spreading sequence contains eight

chips (G = 8). Walsh-Hadamard spreading sequences are used

for each user. The size of the FFT is considered to be the same

as the number of the subcarriers i.e. N

c

= 64 per frame. The

MIMO channel includes an independent channel path with the

same power level for each transmit and receive antenna pair

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F

F

T

F

F

T

Nulling

Filter

Nulling

Filter

Nulling

Filter

Nulling

Filter

P

/

S

&

R

E

O

R

D

E

R

Symbol

Detector

P

/

S

Interference

Canceller

Interference

Canceller

MAI

Calculation

Symbol

Mapper

Spreading

MIMO Linear

Detector

Symbol

Mapper

Spreading

Interference

Canceller

MIMO Linear

Detector

MIMO Linear

Detector

(User k)

Ant 1

Ant M

Despreading

, k G

c

,1 k

c

,1 k

c

, k G

c

1

N

c

r

M

N

c

r

1

1

r

1

M

r

N

c

r

1

r

G

r

1

,1 k

y

1

, k G

y

1

, k N

c

y

1 N G

c

+

r

1

, 1 k N G

c

y

+

1

,1 k

z

1

, k P

z

1

k

z

1

k

d

1

I

2

I

Detected

Data

1

k

y

Figure 1: The block diagram of OSSMIC receiver for downlink MIMO MC-CDMA system.

Each of the MIMO channels is assumed to possess frequency

selective Rayleigh fading with two taps at arrival times {0,1}

normalized to the chip period. It is assumed that the

maximum delay spread is shorter than the duration of the

cyclic prefix. Hence, ISI is avoided and each chip experiences

flat fading.

Figure 2 demonstrates the BER performance with respect to

different E

b

/N

0

for the linear chip level ZF & MMSE detectors

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[6], the chip level OSIC detectors [5] and our novel ZF &

MMSE OSSMIC detectors for the half loaded four user (K = 4)

case. In view of the performance of ZF and MMSE OSIC

detectors, significant error floors appear at BER = 2x10

-1

for

E

b

/N

o

= 5 dB due to MAI arising to the system. It is evident

that the proposed OSSMIC for both ZF and MMSE filters

overcomes the problem of MAI resulting in a superior

performance over the OSIC detectors. Further observations

show that at BER = 10

-3

, ZF OSSMIC detector produces 5 dB

improvement over linear ZF receiver. Similarly, the MMSE

OSSMIC detector shows 9 dB improvement at BER = 10

-4

over

linear MMSE detector. In addition, when an 8 x 8 chip level

block interleaving is applied to the novel MMSE OSSMIC

receiver, frequency diversity is better exploited ensuing in a

further 4 dB improvement at BER = 10

-5

.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-7

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No in dB

B

E

R

ZF-OSIC

MMSE-OSIC

linear ZF

linear MMSE

ZF-OSSMIC

MMSE-OSSMIC

MMSE-OSSMIC-interleaving

Figure 2: BER performance of novel OSSMIC, linear and OSIC detectors for

4 user downlink MIMO MC-CDMA system.

The same architectures are evaluated for the fully loaded (K =

8) case and their BER performances are depicted in Figure 3. It

can be clearly observed that the problem of MAI causing error

floors is still significant for OSIC receiver. Both the novel ZF

and MMSE OSSMIC detectors produce similar performance

improvement as the previous case over linear detectors. It

should be noted that when the number of users in the system

increases, the performance improvement by block interleaving

is reduced due to higher residual interference.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, a chip level OSSMIC receiver architecture with

ZF or MMSE filtering is proposed for downlink MIMO MC-

CDMA systems. The proposed scheme cancels both CAI and

MAI that arises within the system during multiuser

transmission. Furthermore, the proposed receiver only requires

the desired users signature sequence during the detection

process. Simulations reveal a significant advantage in the BER

0 5 10 15 20 25

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No in dB

B

E

R

ZF-OSIC

MMSE-OSIC

linear ZF

linear MMSE

ZF-OSSMIC

MMSE-OSSMIC

MMSE-OSSMIC-interleaving

Figure 3: BER performance of novel OSSMIC, linear and OSIC detectors for

8 user downlink MIMO MC-CDMA system.

performance of the OSSMIC receiver over existing receivers.

Shattering existing perception, the proposed receiver permits

layered space-time processing with good performance for

spatially multiplexed MC-CDMA system.

REFERENCES

[1] M. Juntti, M. Vehkapera, J. Leinonen, Z. Li, D. Tujkovic, and S.

Tsumura, S. Hara, MIMO MC-CDMA communications for future

cellular systems, IEEE Comms Mag, vol. 43, issue 2, pp.118-124, Feb

2005.

[2] D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, S. Da-shan, P.J. Smith and A. Naguib, From

theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless

systems, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun, vol. 21, issue 3, pp. 281302,

Oct. 1998.

[3] C.R. Nassar, B. Natarajan, Z. Wu, D. Wiegandt, S.A. Zekavat, and S.

Shattil, Multi-carrier Technologies for Wireless Communications, USA:

Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

[4] P.W. Wolniansky, G.J. Foschini, G.D. Golden, and R.A. Valenzuela,

V-Blast: An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-

scattering wireless channel, in Proc IEEE ISSSE-98, pp. 295-300, Sep.

1998.

[5] L. Zhongding, P. Xiaoming, and C. Francois V-BLAST receivers for

downlink MC-CDMA systems, in Proc. VTC Fall, vol. 2, pp.866-870,

2003.

[6] M. Vehkapera D. Tujkovic, Z. Li, and M. Juntti, Receiver design for

spatially layered downlink MC-CDMA system, IEEE Trans. on

Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1042-1055, May 2005.

[7] Y. Lee, H. Park, Low-Complexity Detections for downlink MIMO

MC-CDMA systems, in Proc. PIMRC Fall, pp. 1-5, Sep 2006

[8] K. Kyeongyeon, H. Jaesang, L. Chungyong, and S. Seijoon,

Asymptotic analysis of downlink MIMO multicarrier CDMA systems

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3, pp. 1501-1505, 2006.

[9] J. Hu, K. Kim, S. Shim, M. Kim, and C. Lee, An MMSE-nulling

partial-PIC receiver for multiuser downlink MIMO MC-CDMA

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pp. 1725-1729, Apr 2005.

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