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S. D.



Published in: Russia Looks at India. A Spectrum of Philosophical Views / Edited by arietta Stepanyants. !ew "elhi# Indian $ouncil of Philosophical Research and ".%.Printworld. Publishers of Indian &raditions' ()*). Pp. +(, -+,*.

This pape is bu! a hu"ble p eli"ina # a!!e"p! $n "# pa ! !$ app $a%h !he %$"pli%a!ed and a!he deli%a!e !he"e &hi%h has been al ead# !$u%hed' in $ne &a# $ an$!he ' b# s$"e e"inen! au!h$ s. I! is (ui!e &ell )n$&n !ha! !he na"es $* T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna %a"e !$+e!he in !he &$ )s $* !he *a"$us , en%h & i!e R$"ain R$lland &h$ & $!e *i s! -in 1.11/ a bi$+ aph# $* T$ls!$# and la!e -in bi$+ aphies $* Ra"a) ishna and 4i5e)ananda. Bu!' *$ his pu p$ses as a bi$+ aphe ' i! &as su**i%ien! *$ R. R$lland 6us! !$ "en!i$n !he *a%! !ha! T$ls!$# )ne& ab$u! Ra"a) ishna. Ne7! %$"es "# %$"pa! i$! D . A.I. Shi*"an -Ale7ande Shi*"an' 1.389 1..2/. He &as a dis!in+uished T$ls!$# s%h$la and has been *$ "an# #ea s ass$%ia!ed &i!h !he T$ls!$# Museu" .pp. +(,/+(/0 in M$s%$&. D . A.I. Shi*"an has & i!!en in Russian a b$$) unde !he !i!le Tolstoy and the East -M$s%$&' 1.:3; 0nd enla +ed ed.' 1.81/. 0 A pa ! $* !his &$ ) -in a s$"e&ha! "$di*ied 5e si$n/ has been ! ansla!ed in!$ En+lish and published in India' b# !he Sahi!#a A)ade"i' as a sepa a!e b$$) unde !he !i!le Tolstoy and India. 2 This &as in "an# &a#s a pi$nee in+ &$ ). D . A.I. Shi*"an in5es!i+a!ed T$ls!$#<s a %hi5es and b $u+h! !$ li+h! "an# *a%!s' "an# bi!s $* in*$ "a!i$n' n$! )n$&n be*$ e and n$! p esen!ed in a be!!e &a# s$ *a . N$ s!ud# $* T$ls!$#<s ela!i$ns &i!h India %an d$ &i!h$u! D . A.I. Shi*"an<s b$$)s. Bu! !he# sh$uld be used % i!i%all#. Thei au!h$ &as n$! an Ind$l$+is! and !he e*$ e !hese b$$)s %$n!ain' as *a as !hin+s Indian a e %$n%e ned' a nu"be $* ina%%u a%ies b$!h in *a%!s and 6ud+e"en!s' = !h$u+h $n !he &h$le D . A.I. Shi*"an has de"$ns! a!ed an en5iable s%h$la l# a%u"en and a 5e # s! $n+ %$""$n sense. An$!he %$"pa! i$! $* "ine' D . A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu) -1.029033?/' deli5e ed a le%!u e in Ben+ali $n @T$ls!$# and 4i5e)anandaA a! !he Ra"a) ishna Missi$n Ins!i!u!e $* Bul!u e in De%e"be 1.?C. An En+lish 5e si$n $* !his le%!u e -! ansla!ed b# M . Ha ish B. >up!a/ appea ed *i s! in !he Ma %h and Ap il 1.?: issues $* !he Ins!i!u!e<s @Bulle!inA and !hen as a sepa a!e b$$)le!. C Dui!e na!u all#' D . A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu) has .pp. +(//+(10 paid s$"e a!!en!i$n !$ !he T$ls!$#1Ra"a) ishna !he"e as &ell. The le%!u e is an ad"i able pie%e $* s%h$la ship and has' !$ "# "ind' $nl# $ne *la&: D . A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu) &an!s !$ p $5e b# all "eans !ha! T$ls!$#

abs$lu!el# ad"i ed 4i5e)ananda $ a!he $u+h! !$ ha5e ad"i ed hi" and all his ideas &i!h$u! e7%ep!i$n. And D . A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu) d$es his bes! !$ e7plain a&a# &ha!e5e e5iden%es !$ !he %$n! a # !he e happen !$ appea . The unde l#in+ assu"p!i$n see"s !$ be s$"e!hin+ li)e !he &ell1)n$&n di%!u" !ha! @all + ea! "inds "ee!A. Bu! I !hin) !ha! !his di%!u" sh$uld n$! be unde s!$$d !$$ li!e all#' sh$uld n$! be pushed !$$ *a . O!he &ise &e "a# +e! !$ !he n$!$ i$us s!#le $* & i!in+ &hen all "$ e $ less e"inen! pe s$ns a e de%$ a!ed &i!h !he sa"e labels li)e @hu"anis!A' @de"$% a!A' and @p $+ essi5eA. > ea! "inds d$ di**e (ui!e $*!en' espe%iall# i* !he# bel$n+ !$ di**e en! %ul!u es' !$ di**e en! ! adi!i$ns. And !he di**e en%es be!&een + ea! "inds a e n$! less in!e es!in+ and enli+h!enin+ !han !hei "ee!in+ p$in!s. B$n!a%!s be!&een !he "inds $* T$ls!$# and 4i5e)ananda' $* T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna a e pa !s $* la +e in!e %ul!u al %$n!a%!s &hi%h a e b# n$ "eans *a%ile $ * ee * $" p $ble"s and di**i%ul!ies. The A"e i%an s%h$la D . Ma # M. La+$' &h$ has edi!ed !he %$ esp$nden%e be!&een Rabind ana!h Ta+$ e and his B i!ish * iend Eillia" R$!hens!ein' has %alled he b$$) Imperfect Encounter. 6 And !his is a 5e # ap! !i!le indeed' n$! $nl# *$ !he %ase $* R. Ta+$ e and E. R$!hens!ein' bu! *$ $!he si"ila %ases as &ell. Ehen I ead !he %$ esp$nden%e be!&een R$"ain .pp. +(1/+(20 R$lland and Rabind ana!h Ta+$ e' be!&een R. R$lland and M.K. >andhi' and e5en be!&een M.K. >andhi and L.N. T$ls!$#' I %$uld n$! help e%allin+ !ha! e7p essi$n: @I"pe *e%! En%$un!e A. And !his applies !$ !he %ase $* T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna' !$$. The# &e e %$n!e"p$ a ies. Ra"a) ishna -1?2:91??:/ &as ab$u! ei+h! #ea s #$un+e !han T$ls!$# -1?0?91.13/' bu! died ab$u! !&en!#1*$u #ea s ea lie . A hund ed #ea s a+$ $u &$ ld &as n$! as uni!ed b# in*$ "a!i$nal ne!&$ )s as i! is n$&. I* T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna had li5ed !$da# and had been as *a"$us in !hei espe%!i5e %$un! ies as !he# &e e in !hei $&n !i"e' !he# &$uld ha5e a! leas! hea d ab$u! ea%h $!he . Bu! in !he nine!een!h %en!u # a Russian & i!e ' 5e # *a"$us in his %$un! #' and an Indian sain!' 5e # *a"$us in his land' %$uld be i+n$ an! ab$u! ea%h $!he . B# !he "iddle $* 1??3s T$ls!$# had al ead# be%$"e *a"$us in En+lish1 spea)in+ %$un! ies -*i s! En+lish ! ansla!i$ns $* his &$ )s ha5in+ appea ed as ea l# as 1?:3s/. ,$ ins!an%e' Indian Na!i$nal Lib a # in Bal%u!!a has a %$p# $* My Religion b# T$ls!$# published in L$nd$n in 1??=' a %$p# $* !he Childhood, Boyhood, Youth -i.e. !he au!$bi$+ aphi%al ! il$+# $* T$ls!$# / published in L$nd$n in 1??:' and $ne $* !he *i s! En+lish ! ansla!i$ns $* T$ls!$#<s War and eace als$ published in L$nd$n in 1???. 8 In 1??.' $nl# !h ee #ea s a*!e Ra"a) ishna<s dea!h' Rabind ana!h Ta+$ e in a le!!e !$ his nie%e' Indi a De5i' "en!i$ned 9 a!he un*a5$u abl# 9 T$ls!$#<s !nna "arenina. ? S$ i! is (ui!e p $bable !ha! in Ra"a) ishna<s li*e!i"e s$"e edu%a!ed pe$ple in Bal%u!!a al ead# ead T$ls!$#<s &$ )s in En+lish. .pp. +(2/+(30 Bu! Ra"a) ishna hi"sel* ha dl# hea d ab$u! T$ls!$#. M$ e$5e ' he &$uld ha5e ha dl# app e%ia!ed' sa#' !he War and eace $ !nna "arenina. P $babl#' T$ls!$#<s la!e eli+i$us1phil$s$phi%al &$ )s &$uld ha5e appealed !$ hi" "$ e. Bu! I &$uld n$! d&ell *u !he $n su%h +uesses.

Nei!he did T$ls!$# hea ab$u! Ra"a) ishna in !he la!!e <s li*e!i"e. The Russian & i!e +$! !$ )n$& ab$u! his Indian %$n!e"p$ a # $nl# b# !he end $* his $&n l$n+ li*e. H$& did T$ls!$# +e! !$ )n$& ab$u! Ra"a) ishnaF Eha! e7a%!l# did he +e! !$ )n$&F Eha! &as T$ls!$#<s ea%!i$n !$ !his )n$&led+eF Ans&e s !$ su%h (ues!i$ns &e %an +e! * $" se5e al s$u %es: T$ls!$#<s dia ies' T$ls!$#<s le!!e s' his la!e &$ )s' and' las! bu! n$! leas!' * $" n$!es $* T$ls!$#<s * iend and pe s$nal ph#si%ian' D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# -!he n$!es &e e !a)en * $" 1.3C/. . I! "us! be s! essed * $" !he $u!se! !ha! !he in*$ "a!i$n #ielded b# !hese s$u %es is a!he "ea+ e' * a+"en!a #' in%$"ple!e' and s$"e!i"es a!he %$n! adi%!$ #. ,u !he esea %h "a# add !$ $u )n$&led+e and unde s!andin+' bu! !he "a +in see"s !$ be n$! !$$ la +e. Besides' in in!e p e!in+ T$ls!$#<s la!e &$ )s' n$!es' and e"a )s s$"e e7e+e!i%al and he "eneu!i% p $ble"s a e in5$l5ed &hi%h e(ui e a 5e # spe%ial (uali*i%a!i$n' a spe%ial s)ill' &hi%h I %ann$! %lai" !$ p$ssess. Ei!h all !hese ese 5a!i$ns' I &ill ! # and p esen! !he pie%es $* in*$ "a!i$n a5ailable !$ "e n$&. I! &as $n 10 ,eb ua # 1.32 !ha! T$ls!$# & $!e d$&n in his dia #: @. . . GIH ead an e7%ellen! !he$s$phi%al 6$u nal; .pp. +(3/++)0 !he e is "u%h in %$""$n &i!h "# unde s!andin+A. 13 , $" !he e7!ensi5e and 5e # in*$ "a!i5e %$""en!a ies &hi%h a%%$"pan# T$ls!$#<s & i!in+s in !he 5$lu"es $* his Complete Wor#s &e lea n !ha! T$ls!$# ead s$"e issues *$ 1.30 and 1.32 $* !he 6$u nal @The$s$phis%he Ee+&eise A -i.e. @The$s$phi%al >uideA/ 11 &hi%h he had e%ei5ed * $" >e "an#. The issues %$n!ained a nu"be $* sa#in+s and pa ables $* Ra"a) ishna' and D . Ale7ande Shi*"an -p. 08/ in*$ "s us !ha! T$ls!$#' &hile eadin+ !he 6$u nal' unde lined s$"e $* !he". S$ &e "a# indeed p esu"e !ha! T$ls!$#<s &$ ds @!he e is "u%h in %$""$n &i!h "# unde s!andin+A e*e ed a! leas! pa !iall# !$ !he >e "an ! ansla!i$ns $* Ra"a) ishna<s sa#in+s. This +uess is supp$ !ed b# !he *a%! !ha! in !he b$$) Thoughts of Wise Men for E$ery %ay, %$"piled b# T$ls!$# in 1.32' &e *ind *i5e sa#in+s and pa ables $* Ra"a) ishna !a)en * $" !he >e "an 6$u nal. In an# %ase &e "a# su el# da!e -as D . A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu) d$es/ !he *i s! a%(uain!an%e $* T$ls!$# &i!h Ra"a) ishna<s na"e and ideas a! leas! as ea l# as 1.32. 10 .pp. ++)/++*0 Ne7! e*e en%es !$ Ra"a) ishna in T$ls!$#<s & i!in+s and !al)s appea in 1.3:. Thus in a le!!e !$ his a%(uain!an%e -and his bi$+ aphe / P.A. Se +e#en)$ $n 12 ,eb ua # 1.3? T$ls!$# & $!e: @Than) #$u' "# dea P#$! Ale7e#e5i%h' *$ #$u le!!e and *$ #$u e7%ellen! e7%e p!s. Ra"a) ishna I )n$&. And I ha5e +$! "an# e7%e p!s * $" hi"II )n$& Ra"a) ishna * $" !he$s$phi%al 6$u nals. GBu!H !h$se e7%ellen! !h$u+h!s !ha! #$u ha5e %$pied $u! a e n$! !he e. Ehe e did #$u !a)e G!he"H * $"FA -CW, 4$l. 8:' pp. .?1./ D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# e%$ ds !ha! $n 18 ,eb ua # 1.3: T$ls!$# said' a"$n+ $!he !hin+s: @ISe +e#en)$ has sen! "e e7%ellen! e7%e p!s * $" Buddhis! b$$)s and * $" Ra"a) ishna. I! &as a B ah"in &h$ died e%en!l#IA -Ma).' 4$l. 0' p. C2/. And a+ain $n 08 ,eb ua # 1.3:: @Se +e#en)$ has sen! "e e7%e p!s * $" MJlle <s b$$) Rama#rishna, 12 9 said LGe5H NGi)$la#e5i%hH. 9 He has %$pied $u! &$nde *ul sa#in+s. Ra"a) ishna died ab$u! C3 -KF/ #ea s a+$. A "$s! e"a )able

&ise "anA. D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# adds : @L.N. ead al$ud s$"e G$* !he sa#in+sHIA -Ma).' 4$l. 0' p. :=/. B$""en!a ies !$ !he (u$!ed passa+es !ell us !ha! P.A. Se +e#en)$ had indeed sen! !$ T$ls!$# s$"e e7%e p!s * $" Ma7 MJlle <s b$$) $n Ra"a) ishna' bu! T$ls!$# la!e "ispla%ed !he" and s$ !he# a e n$! a5ailable n$&. Bu! * $" !&$ $!he en! ies in D.P. Ma)$5i!s)#<s &otes &e "a# in*e &ha! i"p essi$ns and &ha! ideas T$ls!$# "i+h! ha5e +$! &hile eadin+ !h$se e7%e p!s. On 0 De%e"be 1.3:' in a .pp. ++*/++(0 %$n5e sa!i$n &i!h a +ues!' T$ls!$# said: @IEe d$ n$! )n$& ab$u! G$!he pe$ples<H eli+i$us "$5e"en!s' ab$u! Baba' 1= ab$u! Ra"a) ishna -he li5ed in !he =3s/. The *unda"en!als $* all eli+i$us !ea%hin+s a e !he sa"e' $nl# !he# a e en%u"be edA -Ma).' 4$l. 0' p. 218/. On 1C Lanua # 1.38 T$ls!$# had a !al) &i!h an$!he +ues!' a Russian a is!$% a! &h$ had be%$"e an O !h$d$7 Bh is!ian "$n). T$ls!$# said: @Ra"a) ishna 9 he &as an Indian sain!' he li5ed in !he las! %en!u #' his sa#in+s a e 5e # +$$dA. The +ues! e7p essed his su p ise !ha! an Indian sh$uld be %alled a sain!. He $b5i$usl# "ean! !ha! sain!s %$uld be $nl# Bh is!ian. T$ls!$# e!$ !ed: @Indian and Bhinese eli+i$us1e!hi%al !ea%hin+s !ea%h !he sa"e as !he Bh is!ian $neA -Ma).' 4$l. 0' p. 2C2/. S$ &e see !ha! in b$!h %ases !he e*e en%es !$ Ra"a) ishna a e %$nne%!ed in T$ls!$#<s !al)s &i!h !he idea $* e(ual 5alue $* di**e en! eli+i$ns' &i!h !he idea $* eli+i$us uni5e salis". I! is (ui!e p $bable !ha! si"ila ideas &e e e7p essed in !h$se e7! a%!s * $" Ra"a) ishna<s sa#in+s &hi%h P.A. Se +e#en)$ had sen! !$ T$ls!$#. Bu!' ha5in+ "ispla%ed !h$se e7! a%!s' T$ls!$#' i! see"s' ne5e used !he" in his &$ )s. All a%!ual (u$!a!i$ns $ pa aph ases * $" Ra"a) ishna in T$ls!$#<s !e7!s +$ ba%) !$ !ha! >e "an !he$s$phi%al 6$u nal. Du in+ !he las! #ea s $* his li*e -* $" 1.32 !$ 1.13/ T$ls!$# %$"piled se5e al b$$)s *$ e5e #da# eadin+s' "ean! "$s!l# *$ !he %$""$n pe$ple' !h$u+h n$! $nl# *$ !he". In Indian !e "s' !h$se b$$)s "i+h! be %alled NM!i1NOs! as' $ Dha "a1NOs! as' $ pe haps e5en LPOna1NOs! as' as T$ls!$# s! $5e !$ en%$"pass in !he" b$!h &$ ldl# and eli+i$us .pp. ++(/+++0 &isd$". The *i s! b$$) in !his se ies &as !i!led Thoughts of Wise Men for E$ery %ay -*i s! published in 1.32/. The se%$nd is )n$&n as !he Circle of Reading -*i s! published in 1.3:/. The !hi d b$$) &as %alled 6us! 'or E$ery %ay -%$"piled in 1.3:11.13' bu! *i s! published in *ull $nl# in 1.0.' in !he Complete Wor#s/. And !he las! b$$) in !he se ies &as The ath of (ife -%$"piled in 1.13/. These b$$)s %$n!ain aph$ is"s' sa#in+s' pa ables' and e5en sh$ ! s!$ ies %ulled * $" 5a i$us s$u %es' eas!e n and &es!e n' an%ien! and "$de n' &ell )n$&n and a!he $bs%u e. In "an# %ases T$ls!$# e& $!e $ i+inal pie%es. S$"e en! ies &e e & i!!en b# T$ls!$# hi"sel*. The *i s! b$$)' Thoughts of Wise Men for E$ery %ay -1.32/' %$n!ained' as has been al ead# said' *i5e en! ies b# Ra"a) ishna. M$ e e7a%!l#' !he# &e e Russian ende in+s $* !h$se >e "an 5e si$ns !ha! T$ls!$# had *$und in !he @The$s$phis%he Ee+&eise A. I! e"ains !$ be in5es!i+a!ed !$ &ha! e7!en! !he esul!in+ Russian !e7!s %$n5e# !he $ i+inal &$ ds and ideas $* Ra"a) ishna. The !e7! !ha! %$"es *i s!' *$ 00 ,eb ua #' eads:

@>$d li5es in all pe$ple' bu! n$! all pe$ple li5e in >$d. This is !he %ause $* pe$ple<s su**e in+s. As a la"p %ann$! bu n &i!h$u! *i e' s$ "an %ann$! li5e &i!h$u! >$dA. -CW, 4$l. =3' p. .3/ An$!he !e7!' *$ 0 Ma %h' is a pa able: @B ain&$ ) %ann$! sa!ia!e. In!$ a +a den !he e %a"e !&$ pe s$ns: a s%ien!is! and $ne &h$ li5ed in a%1 %$ dan%e &i!h >$d. The s%ien!is! be+an i+h! a&a# !$ %he%) !he nu"be $* ! ees' !$ %$un! * ui! and de!e "ine !he p i%e $* !he +a den. Bu! !he pi$us $ne +$! i+h! a&a# a%(uain!ed &i!h !he "as!e $* !he +a den' %a"e up !$ $ne $* !he ! ees and sa!ia!ed hi"sel* &i!h i!s * ui!. Ma)e use $* * ui!. The %$un!in+ $* lea5es and idle .pp. +++/++40 %al%ula!i$ns &ill n$! sa!is*# #$u hun+e . N$! !he a%!i5i!# $* eas$n' bu! li*e in >$d +i5es #$u !he *ullness $* sup e"e blissA -CW, 4$l. =3' p. .=/. The !hi d en! # si+ned @Ra"a) ishnaA -*$ 0. Ap il/ is a+ain a pa able: @A lea ned b ah"in $n%e %a"e !$ a &ise )in+ and said: QI )n$& &ell h$l# b$$)s and !he e*$ e &$uld li)e !$ !ea%h #$u ! u!h.Q The )in+ ans&e ed !$ hi": QI !hin) !ha! #$u #$u sel* ha5e n$! #e! su**i%ien!l# *a!h$"ed !he "eanin+ $* h$l# b$$)s. >$ and ! # !$ ea%h ! ue unde s!andin+ and !hen I &ill a%%ep! #$u as "# !ea%he .Q The b ah"in &en! a&a#. He e ead $n%e "$ e Qh$l# b$$)sQ and a+ain %a"e !$ !he )in+. Bu! !he )in+ sen! hi" ba%) a+ain. ,$ !he !hi d !i"e !he b ah"in did n$! appea be*$ e !he )in+ be%ause he' !he b ah"in' ealiRed !he *u!ili!# $* &$ ldl# +ains and !he sup e"e ne%essi!# $* Qsel*1pe *e%!i$nQ. S$ in !he end !he )in+ hi"sel* %a"e !$ !he b ah"in' )nel! be*$ e hi" and said: QN$& I see !ha! #$u ha5e ea%hed !he eal unde s!andin+ $* !he "eanin+ $* !he s% ip!u es' and n$&' i* $nl# i! pleases #$u' I a" ead# !$ be #$u pupilQ .@ -CW, 4$l.=3' p. 13C/ The *$u !h en! #' *$ 1. Sep!e"be ' %$nsis!s $* !&$ sa#in+s: 1. @Ehen ain1&a!e *l$&s d$&n s$"e +u!!e s' i! see"s !$ us !ha! i! *l$&s $u! $* !he"' &he eas in eali!# &a!e *alls d$&n * $" !he s)#. The sa"e &i!h !he h$l# !ea%hin+s &hi%h a e !$ld !$ us b# +$dl# pe$ple. I! see"s !ha! !he !ea%hin+s %$"e * $" !he"' bu! in eali!# !he# %$"e * $" >$dA

0. @In $ de !$ e7! a%! a splin!e !ha! has +$! in!$ $ne<s *$$!' $ne !a)es an$!he splin!e !$ $us! !he *i s! $ne; bu! &hen !his is d$ne' $ne !h $&s a&a# b$!h splin!e s. E7a%!l# in !he sa"e &a# eas$n is needed $nl# in $ de !$ e"$5e !he un eas$n .pp. ++4/++,0 &hi%h da )ens !he 5isi$n $* !he di5ine QIQ' bu!' 5e il#' b$!h eas$n and un eas$n d$ n$! %$ns!i!u!e !he ! ue e5ela!i$n. He &h$ has ea%hed !he ! ue e5ela!i$n %an be %alled nei!he a "an $* eas$n' n$ a "an $* un eas$n' be%ause he has libe a!ed hi"sel* * $" an# duali!#' * $" an# ela!i$nsA -CW, 4$l. =3, p. 188/. The *i*!h and !he las! en! # si+ned @Ra"a) ishnaA in !he b$$) -*$ 23 N$5e"be / is $ne "$ e des% ip!i$n $* a pe s$n<s spi i!ual de5el$p"en!: @The lea5es Gpe!alsH $* a *l$&e *all d$&n' &hen !he * ui! be+ins + $&in+. In !he sa"e &a# #$u &ea)nesses &ill *all d$&n * $" #$u' &hen !he e be+ins + $&in+ in #$u !he %$ns%i$usness $* >$d. E5en i* du in+ "illennia da )ness has been *illin+ spa%e' i! be%$"es i""edia!el# li+h!ed' &hen li+h! pene! a!es in!$ i!. The sa"e &i!h #$u s$ul: h$&e5e l$n+ i! "i+h! ha5e been en5el$ped &i!h da )ness' i! &ill i""edia!el# be li+h!ed' as s$$n as >$d $pens in i! his e#esA. -CW, 4$l. =3' p. 03=/ T&$ "$ e e7! a%!s * $" !he @The$s$phis%he Ee+&eise A e"ained in !he p epa a!$ # d a*!s *$ !he b$$) and &e e used b# T$ls!$# la!e . The se%$nd LPOna1NOs! a b# T$ls!$#' !he Circle of Reading, %$n!ained $nl# !h ee sa#in+s $* Ra"a) ishna' all !a)en * $" !he *i s! b$$) in !he se ies -&i!h s$"e sli+h! 5e bal %han+es he e and !he e/: .pp. ++,/++/0 1/ @>$d li5es in all pe$ple . . .A -"$5ed !$ 1= Ma#; CW, 4$l. =1' p. 20C./ 0) *Ehen ain1&a!e *l$&s d$&n s$"e +u!!e s. . .A -"$5ed !$ 1 Lul#; CW, 4$l. =1' p. =:1./ 2/ @The pe!als $* a *l$&e *all d$&n . . .A -"$5ed !$ 1? O%!$be ; CW, 4$l. =0' p. 1C2./

The !hi d LPOna1NOs! a' 'or E$ery %ay, %$n!ained a+ain *i5e en! ies +$in+ ba%) !$ Ra"a) ishna. S$"e $* !he" had been e& i!!en b# T$ls!$# and "a )ed &i!h !he &$ ds @A*!e Ra"a) ishnaA. Thus !he en! # *$ 0 Lanua # eads li)e !his: @As a %andle %ann$! bu n &i!h$u! *i e' s$ "an %ann$! li5e &i!h$u! spi i!ual *$ %e. Spi i! li5es in all pe$ple' bu! n$! all pe$ple )n$& i!. L$#*ul is !he li*e $* a pe s$n' &h$ )n$&s i!' and unhapp# is !he li*e $* a pe s$n &h$ d$es n$! )n$& i!A. -CW, 4$l. =2' p. C/ As &e see' !he &$ d @>$dA has been epla%ed he e b# !he &$ d @spi i!A. P $babl#' !his epla%e"en! e*le%!s !he e5$lu!i$n $* T$ls!$#<s eli+i$us !hin)in+ in his las! #ea s. He "us! ha5e *$und !he &$ d @>$dA n$! uni5e sal en$u+h !$ be a%%ep!ed as a desi+na!i$n $* a sup e"e 5alue b# all %ul!u al ! adi!i$ns $* "an)ind. And i! is e7a%!l# !he all1e"b a%in+ uni5e sali!# !ha! he s! $5e !$ a%hie5e. T$ %$"e ba%) !$ !he b$$) 'or E$ery %ay, i!s en! # *$ 11 Ma %h' si+ned a+ain @A*!e Ra"a) ishnaA' is a pa able ab$u! a "$n)' a &ise $ld "an' and a peasan!. The pa able be+ins !hus: @A "$n) &as see)in+ sal5a!i$n in a he "i!a+e. And he in%essan!l# ead p a#e s' and &$uld +e! up !&i%e a! ni+h! !$ p a#. ,$$d &as b $u+h! !$ hi" b# a peasan!. And !he e %a"e a suspi%i$n !$ !he "$n)' i* su%h a &a# $* his li*e &as +$$d. And he &en! *$ ad5i%e !$ a &ise $ld "anA -CW, 4$l. =2' p. 128/. .pp. ++//++10 In !he end $* !he pa able !he @&ise $ld "anA de"$ns! a!es !$ !he "$n) !ha! !he peasan!<s &a# $* li*e is in a sense supe i$ !$ his. This pa able dese 5es a spe%ial s!ud#. In !he $ i+inal i! !ells ab$u! !he sa+e NO ada' >$d 4ishnu' and a peasan!. Bu! T$ls!$# * $" !he 5e # be+innin+' s$ !$ sa#' de1IndianiRed i!. The e a e a! leas! !&$ 5e si$ns $* !he pa able & i!!en b# T$ls!$#' and !he *inal 5e si$n in%luded in !he b$$) 'or E$ery %ay "us! ha5e a!he a e"$!e ese"blan%e !$ !he Indian $ i+inal. Bu! i! see"s !ha! !he %en! al idea 9 $* a pi$us %$""$n "an<s supe i$ i!# !$ a @ eli+i$us p $*essi$nalA 9 had been al ead# !he e in !he $ i+inal. 1C The en! # *$ = Ma# in !he b$$) 'or E$ery %ay is si+ned 6us! @Ra"a) ishnaA and eads !hus: @As l$n+ as a pe s$n sin+s' % ies $u!' sa#s: QO' L$ d' L$ dKQ #$u sh$uld )n$& !ha! he has n$! *$und !he L$ d; he &h$ has *$und Hi"' )eeps silen!A. -CW' 4$l. =C' p. :8/

The en! # *$ 1 Lune -si+ned a+ain @A*!e Ra"a) ishnaA/ is a 5e si$n $* !he sa#in+ al ead# (u$!ed -@Ehen ain1&a!e *l$&s d$&n s$"e +u!!e sIA/' bu! &i!h a 5e # in!e es!in+ addi!i$n. He e !he *inal ph ase eads !hus: @IThe sa"e &i!h !he !ea%hin+s $* sain!s and &ise "en 9 such as Christ and others -e"phasis "ine 9 +.%.+./: i! see"s !$ us !ha! !he !ea%hin+s %$"e * $" !he"' bu! !he# %$"e * $" >$d.< -CW, 4$l.=2' pp. 23:18/ The &$ ds @su%h as Bh is! and $!he sA a e 5e # si+ni*i%an!. The# pu! Bh is! $n $ne le5el &i!h $!he @sain!s and &ise "enA. A de5$u! Bh is!ian &$uld ne5e d$ !his. Bu! I belie5e .pp. ++1/++20 Ra"a) ishna &$uld a+ ee &i!h !his addi!i$n' &i!h !his spe%i*i%a!i$n' as i! &e e' $* his &$ ds. N$& &e %$"e !$ !he las! en! # si+ned @Ra"a) ishnaA in !he b$$) 'or E$ery %ay, !he en! # *$ : Lune. I! is a+ain $ne $* !he sa#in+s al ead# (u$!ed: @The pe!als $* a *l$&e *all d$&n' &hen !he * ui! be+ins + $&in+IA Bu! a+ain !he e is a si+ni*i%an! %han+e a! !he end: @IThe sa"e &i!h #$u s$ulI' i! &ill i""edia!el# be li+h!ed' as s$$n as spi i! $pens in i! his e#esA. -CW, 4$l. =2' p. 212/ The &$ d @>$dA is $n%e a+ain epla%ed b# !he &$ d @spi i!A. Du in+ !he 5e # las! #ea $* his ea !hl# e7is!en%e T$ls!$# %$"piled $ne "$ e LPOna1NOs! a %alled The ath of (ife -in Russian: ut, -hi-ni, &hi%h "i+h! be ! ansla!ed in!$ Sans) i! as ./$ana0patha/. He e &e *ind !h ee al ead# *a"ilia sa#in+s $* -$ a*!e / Ra"a) ishna -in !his b$$) en! ies a e a an+ed n$! a%%$ din+ !$ da!es' bu! !he"a!i%all#/: 1/ @Ehen ain1&a!e *l$&s d$&n s$"e +u!!e sIA -CW, 4$l. =C' p. 21/ Bu! !he e*e en%e !$ Bh is! is dele!ed. 0/ @As a %andle %ann$! bu n &i!h$u! *i e' s$ "an %ann$! li5e &i!h$u! spi i!ual *$ %eIA 1CW, 4$l. =C' p. 22/ This is !a)en &i!h$u! %han+es * $" !he b$$) 'or E$ery %ay. 2/ @As l$n+ as a pe s$n sin+s' % ies $u!' sa#s in e5e #b$d#<s p esen%e: Q O' L$ d' L$ d KQ...A -CW, 4$l. =C' p. :8/ This !$$ is !a)en &i!h a sli+h! 5e bal %han+e * $" !he b$$) 'or E$ery %ay. .pp. ++2/++30 S$' I ha5e p a%!i%all# e7haus!ed !he lis! $* sa#in+s and pa ables &hi%h +$ ba%) !$ Ra"a) ishna and ha5e been used b# T$ls!$# in his &$ )s. ,$ !he !i"e bein+ I ha5e !$ lea5e i! !$ !h$se &h$ )n$& !he le+a%# $* Ra"a) ishna be!!e !han I' !$

6ud+e h$& ade(ua!el# !he *eelin+s and !h$u+h!s $* Ra"a) ishna ha5e been e*le%!ed in !he passa+es !ha! I ha5e (u$!ed. I &$uld $nl# is) su++es!in+ !ha! !he a%(uain!an%e $* T$ls!$# &i!h Ra"a) ishna !h $u+h !he "ediu" $* !he >e "an !he$s$phi%al 6$u nal &as b$und !$ be a!he in%$"ple!e and' s$ !$ sa#' sele%!i5e. I! &$uld be in!e es!in+ and e5en ne%essa # !$ *ind $u! &ha! $!he sa#in+s and pa ables $* Ra"a) ishna' i* an#' !he e &e e in !ha! !he$s$phi%al 6$u nal and &ha! )ind $* se%$nda # sele%!i$n &as d$ne b# T$ls!$# hi"sel*. Bu! n$& le! us anal#se *u !he T$ls!$#<s $&n sa#in+s ab$u! Ra"a) ishna. On 1= Ma# 1.3? T$ls!$# e%$ ded in his dia # !ha! $n !he p e5i$us da# he had &$ )ed a! his' b# n$& *a"$us' a !i%le @I %ann$! be silen!A' 1: and i""edia!el# a*!e !his n$!e !he e %$"e !he *$ll$&in+ &$ ds: @GIH &al)ed b# *$$!' !h$u+h! &ell. H$& &$nde *ull# si"ple is !he s$lu!i$n $* li*e<s iddle: !he li*e $* an indi5idual 9 $* a Le5' a P#$! ' an I5an 9 is an absu d e $ . I! is >$d !ha! li5es in "e' and I a" His $ +an. Q>$d li5es in e5e #$ne' bu! n$! e5e #$ne )n$&s i!.Q Yes' "# s$ul *eels &$nde *ull# &ellA -CW, 4$l. C:' p. 11?/. Thus in his dia # en! # *$ 1= Ma# 1.3? T$ls!$# (u$!ed *$ hi"sel* !he sa#in+ $* Ra"a) ishna &hi%h he' T$ls!$#' had in%luded in his Circle of Reading -1.3:/ e7a%!l# unde !he da!e @1= Ma#A. D. P. Ma)$5i!s)# in his &otes als$ e%$ ded $n 1= Ma# 1.3?: .pp. ++3/+4)0 @L. N. said !ha! >$d li5es in all pe$ple' bu! n$! all pe$ple )n$& hi" -T$da#<s en! # in !he Circle of Reading/A -Ma).' 4$l. 2' p. ??/. In T$ls!$#<s a !i%le @On !he Anne7a!i$n $* B$snia and He Re+$5ina b# Aus! iaA' *inished $n C N$5e"be 1.3?' 18 !he se5en!h pa ! be+ins &i!h !he *$ll$&in+ &$ ds: @The d$%! ine' !ea%hin+ !ha! e5e # hu"an bein+ has in hi"sel* !he %$""$n spi i!ual p in%iple s! i5in+ !$ uni!# !h $u+h l$5e' !his d$%! ine has been p $%lai"ed "an# !i"es and a"$n+ 5a i$us pe$ples: b# B$n*u%ius' b# La$1TRu' b# Le&ish p $phe!s' b# !he > ee) S$% a!es' b# !he Buddha' b# Ra"a) ishna' b# !he R$"ans Epi%!e!us and Ma %us Au elius' and' in a pa !i%ula l# %lea and &ell1 a +ued &a#' b# Lesus Bh is!A -CW, 4$l. 28' p. 022/. A+ain' T$ls!$# "us! ha5e had in "ind !he sa"e sa#in+ $* Ra"a) ishna. And !his passa+e is !he $nl# $ne in T$ls!$#<s published &$ )s' $!he !han !he LPOna1 NOs! as' &he e Ra"a) ishna is "en!i$ned b# na"e. 1.3? see"s !$ ha5e been !he he#da# $* T$ls!$#<s in!e es! in Ra"a) ishna and 4i5e)ananda. D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# e%$ ds !ha! $n 0: Ma# 1.3?' ha5in+ ead !&$ 5$lu"es $* 4i5e)ananda' e%en!l# e%ei5ed' T$ls!$# said: @E$nde *ull# p $*$und: ab$u! >$d' s$ul' "an' uni!# $* eli+i$ns. He is Ra"a) ishna<s pupil' and died in 1.30A -Ma).' 4$l. 2' p. .:/.


Bu! *u !he eadin+ $* 4i5e)ananda and Ra"a) ishna e5iden!l# disapp$in!ed T$ls!$# and in! $du%ed %e !ain a"bi5alen%e in his 6ud+e"en!s ab$u! !he". Sn*$ !una!el#' he said and & $!e 5e # li!!le ab$u! Ra"a) ishna' bu! !he e .pp. +4)/+4*0 a e s$"e passa+es ab$u! 4i5e)ananda !ha! a e &$ !h %$nside in+ in !his %$n!e7!. In !hese passa+es' & i!!en en!i el# *$ hi"sel*' T$ls!$# 6ud+es 4i5e)ananda a!he ha shl#' bu! I a" +$in+ !$ (u$!e !he" n$! *$ !he sa)e $* !hei ha shness' bu! be%ause !he# !h $& s$"e li+h! $n !he eas$ns $* T$ls!$#<s disapp$in!"en! &i!h 4i5e)ananda and' indi e%!l#' $n !he eas$ns $* his disapp$in!"en! &i!h Ra"a) ishna' !$$. On 0. Lune 1.3? T$ls!$# & $!e in his dia #: @GI a"H eadin+ !he Hindu -i.e. 4i5e)ananda 9 +.%.+./. 4e # &i!!#' 5e b$se' and e"p!#. He &an!s !$ 6us!i*# !hei belie*s in $b6e%!i5e bein+s and !hei d$ub!s in !he". 1? And all !his is e"p!# %ha!!e . One !hin+ is and $ne !hin+ is be#$nd d$ub!: my life and my p$ssibili!# and ne%essi!# !$ de%ide h$& !$ spend i!. This al$ne' !his al$ne is !he basis $* all eli+i$ns' $* all phil$s$phies. And !his al$ne is !he eA -CW, 4$l. C:' p. 2:=/. D . A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu) -p. 1:/ ! ies !$ e7plain a&a# !his passa+e as a shee "isunde s!andin+ $* 4i5e)ananda $n !he pa ! $* T$ls!$#. Bu! I belie5e D . Ale7ande Shi*"an -p. 2=/ is nea e !$ ! u!h &hen he %$""en!s: @These % i!i%al e"a )s e*e !$ 4i5e)ananda<s a**i "a!i$n !ha! s$ul is i""$ !al' !ha! "an ne5e dies' be%ause his s$ul "e +es &i!h !he i"pe ishable &$ ld s$ul 9 B ah"aA. Indeed' !he $n!$l$+i%al aspe%!s $* 4i5e)ananda<s phil$s$ph# "us! ha5e been alien !$ T$ls!$#. M$ e$5e !he passa+e 6us! (u$!ed sh$&s !ha! T$ls!$# disli)ed !he 5e # s!#le' !he 5e # "anne $* 4i5e)ananda<s phil$s$phisin+. This "anne "a# be %alled @$b6e%!i5eA: a phil$s$phe p esen!s s!a!e"en!s and a +u"en!s ab$u! &ha! !he &$ ld is' &ha! >$d is' &ha! "an is' and s$ $n. T$ls!$#' $n !he $!he hand' "$s!l# *el! li)e .pp. +4*/+4(0 phil$s$phisin+ in &ha! "a# be %alled a @sub6e%!i5eA "anne . In !his espe%! he &as a)in !$ s$"e $* !he e7is!en!ialis! phil$s$phe s. This is (ui!e %lea * $" !he dia # en! # (u$!ed ab$5e. This be%$"es e5en %lea e * $" an$!he en! # in T$ls!$#<s dia # $* = Lul# 1.3?. On !ha! da# T$ls!$# & $!e d$&n: @GIH ha5e ead a supe b a !i%le b# 4i5e)ananda ab$u! >$d. I! "us! be ! ansla!ed. I "#sel* !h$u+h! ab$u! !his: 1/ His % i!i%is" $* S%h$penhaue <s QEillQ 1. is pe *e%!l# i+h!. One !hin+ is & $n+: !ha! he s!a !s &i!h an -$b6e%!i5e/ eas$nin+ ab$u! !he &$ ld -Sni5e se/. 03 Reas$nin+ ab$u! !his is n$! +i5en !$ us. And all su%h eas$nin+s' h$&e5e i"p$ !an! !he# "i+h! see"' a e !&addleI Sensible eas$nin+ al&a#s "a# and "us! s!a ! $nl# &i!h !he indi5idual' &i!h $nesel*. T$ eas$n ab$u! !he e7!e nal' ab$u! !he &$ ld' &i!h$u! ha5in+ said ab$u! $nesel*' ab$u! hi" &h$ sees !he &$ ld' is !he sa"e as !$ be+in a s!$ # li)e !his:


Qbe%ause &hen he aised his hand a+ains! "eQ e!%.' i.e. !$ !ell a s!$ # &i!h$u! "en!i$nin+ &h$' &he e and !$ &h$" spea)sA -CW, 4$l. C:' pp. 12?1./. I ha5e d&el! a! s$"e len+!h $n !his p$in! in $ de !$ sh$& !ha! T$ls!$#<s % i!i%is" $* 4i5e)ananda &as n$! al&a#s %aused b# "isunde s!andin+. S$"e!i"es !he e &e e eal di**e en%es $* $pini$n and $u!l$$). And !he sa"e applies !$ !he %ase $* T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna. Bu!' in spi!e $* s$"e disa+ ee"en!s &i!h 4i5e)ananda and Ra"a) ishna' all !h $u+h 1.3. T$ls!$# en!e !ained an idea $* a b$$) -$ ' p $babl#' b$$)s/ ab$u! !he" in a planned se ies $* %heap b$$)s *$ !he %$""$n pe$ple. The e is a e5ealin+ en! # in T$ls!$#<s dia # $n 03 Ma %h 1.3.. ,i s! .pp. +4(/+4+0 T$ls!$# "en!i$ned in his !al)s &i!h his ass$%ia!es' P.I. Bi #u)$5 and I.I. >$ bun$51 P$sad$5' ab$u! %$"pilin+ and publishin+ b$$)s *$ !he %$""$n pe$ple. A*!e !ha! he e%$ ded: @All !h $u+h !his "$ nin+ I ha5e been eadin+ !he le+end ab$u! K ishna. !nd 2hat I ha$e re3ected, ha$ing in mind our section of society is super4 for the common people -e"phasis "ine 9 +.%. +./: a le+end' si"ila !$ !he Bh is!ian $ne' a"ids! an$!he ' alien pe$ple. Ee ha5e de%ided G!$ %$"pile !he *$ll$&in+ b$$)sH: 1/ an essa# ab$u! IndiaI' 0/ !he le+end ab$u! K ishna and 2/ sa#in+s $* K ishna. Then p$ssibl# =/ sa#in+s $* !he "$de ns 9 $* Ra"a) ishna and 4i5e)anandaIA -CW, 4$l. C8' p. =3/ In T$ls!$#<s n$!es and !al)s !h $u+h 1.3. !he e a e s$"e "$ e e*e en%es !$ Ra"a) ishna' and !he# a e s$"e&ha! %$n! adi%!$ #. Thus $n 8 Ma# 1.3. D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# e%$ ded !ha! T$ls!$# and >$ bun$51 P$sad$5 dis%ussed !hei plans !$ b in+ $u! b$$)s *$ !he %$""$n pe$ple and T$ls!$# said !ha! !he *i s! b$$) sh$uld be ab$u! K ishna. >$ bun$51P$sad$5 as)ed i* T$ls!$# "ean! K ishna $ Ra"a) ishna. T$ls!$# ans&e ed: @N$. Ra"a) ishna is "$de n' and he is &ea). A"$n+ "$de n Indian !hin)e s !he $u!s!andin+ $nes a e 4i5e)ananda 9 he &ill ha5e !$ be ab id+ed and published 9 and AbhedanandaA -Ma).' 4$l. 2' p. =3=/. Bu! a "$n!h and a hal* la!e ' $n 0= Lune 1.3.' s$"e$ne p aised in T$ls!$#<s p esen%e !he @4e)hiA -@Land"a )sA/' !he &ell1)n$&n and %$n! $5e sial %$lle%!i$n $* phil$s$phi%al and p$li!i%al a !i%les b# se5e al Russian au!h$ s -published *i s! in Ma %h 1.3./' and' a%%$ din+ !$ D.P. Ma)$5i!s)#<s &otes, @L. N. said !ha! !he 5e#hi a e n$! &$ !h eadin+ -!hei au!h$ s d$ n$! )n$& &ha! !he# &an!/ &hen $ne %an ead .pp. +4+/+440 Ra"a) ishna' !he Buddha' 4i5e)ananda' !he >$spel' !he Epis!le $* L$hnA -Ma).' 4$l. 2' p. =C3/. On I N$5e"be 1.3. T$ls!$# "ade a sh$ ! n$!e in his dia #: @GIH ead Ra"a) ishna. Eea)A -CW, 4$l. C8' p. 1:2/.


Bu! $n 0 N$5e"be 1.3. D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# e%$ ded: @He -i.e. T$ls!$# 9 +.%. +./ has %h$sen * $" The +ayings of Rama#rishna 133 aph$ is"s and &an!s !$ add !$ !he" s$"e!hin+ * $" GAbhedananda<s b$$)H My MasterA -Ma).' 4$l. =' p. .=/. In !h$se da#s T$ls!$# "us! ha5e !al)ed "u%h ab$u! Ra"a) ishna' be%ause $n = N$5e"be 1.3. D. P. Ma)$5i!s)# e%$ ded an e7aspe a!ed e"a ) b# a lad# +ues! -M s. S. A. S!a)h$5i%h' a %l$se * iend $* T$ls!$#<s *a"il#/ add essed !$ T$ls!$# hi"sel*; @Please lea5e al$ne #$u %$n*$unded Ra"a) ishnaKA -Ma).' 4$l. =' p. .:/ , $" !he %$""en!a ies !$ !he C8!h 5$lu"e $* !he Complete Wor#s &e lea n !ha! a! !he be+innin+ $* N$5e"be 1.3. T$ls!$# ead a b$$) !i!led The +ayings of +ri Rama#rishna aramahamsa and published in Mad as in 1.3C 01 1CW, 4$l. C8' p. 2?1/. I! is in !his b$$) !ha! T$ls!$# "a )ed ab$u! $ne hund ed @sa#in+sA !$ be ! ansla!ed and published in Russian. The b$$) i!sel* is ep$ !ed !$ ha5e been p ese 5ed a! !he lib a # in Yasna#a P$l#ana' T$ls!$#<s es!a!e -n$& T$ls!$#<s "useu"/. A%%$ din+ !$ D. P. Ma)$5i!s)#<s &otes, as la!e as 0 De%e"be 1.3.' less !han a #ea be*$ e his dea!h' T$ls!$# a+ain dis%ussed &i!h >$ bun$51 P$sad$5 !he &$uld1be b$$) ab$u! Ra"a) ishna -Ma).' 4$l. =' p. 101/. Bu!' un*$ !una!el#' du in+ T$ls!$#<s li*e!i"e !his b$$) did n$! "a!e ialiRe. I! is $nl# a*!e T$ls!$#<s dea!h' in 1.12' !ha! a @T$ls!$#anA' I. ,. NaRhi5in' ! ansla!ed in!$ Russian and +$! .pp. +44/+4,0 published Ma7 MJlle Ts b$$) $n Ra"a) ishna' in%ludin+ a sele%!i$n $* Ra"a) ishna<s @sa#in+sA. 00 I! is &$ !h n$!in+ !ha! I.,. NaRhi5in<s ! ansla!i$n &as published in !he se ies %alled @The > een S!i%)A. Ehen T$ls!$# &as a b$#' his elde b $!he !$ld hi" !ha! !he e e7is!ed a "i a%ul$us @+ een s!i%)A &hi%h %$uld "a)e happ# !he &h$le $* "an)ind. The !&$ b$#s ! ied !$ *ind !his @+ een s!i%)A' bu! *ailed. And I.,. NaRhi5in %alled his b$$) se ies &i!h !he na"e $* T$ls!$#<s %hildh$$d d ea". S$' !he e is a %e !ain a"bi5alen%e in T$ls!$#<s a!!i!ude !$&a ds Ra"a) ishna du in+ 1.3.. 02 An indubi!able in!e es!' $n !he $ne hand' and a!he ha sh % i!i%al 6ud+e"en!s' $n !he $!he hand. H$& shall &e e7plain !hisF ,$ !he !i"e bein+ I &$uld su++es! !he *$ll$&in+ !en!a!i5e e7plana!i$n. Be*$ e 1.3. T$ls!$# had )n$&n Ra"a) ishna $nl# !h $u+h !he "edia!i$n ei!he $* !he >e "an !he$s$phi%al 6$u nal $ $* P.A. Se +e#en)$ -&h$ sen! !$ T$ls!$# e6cerpts * $" Ma7 MJlle <s b$$)' p $babl# ha5in+ %h$sen e7a%!l# &ha! he !h$u+h! "i+h! in!e es! and please T$ls!$#/. Bu! &hen in 1.3. T$ls!$# hi"sel* %a"e !$ ead .pp. +4,/+4/0 an Indian edi!i$n $* Ra"a) ishna<s @sa#in+sA' he &as *$ !he *i s! !i"e %$n* $n!ed &i!h !he &h$le +a"u! $* Ra"a) ishna<s *eelin+s' !h$u+h!s' and e7p essi$ns. And $b5i$usl# s$"e $* !he" &en! a+ains! T$ls!$#<s $&n *eelin+s and !h$u+h!s' %$ndi!i$ned as !he# &e e b# "$de n Russian' i.e. Eu $pean' %ul!u e. Hen%e !he e"a )s ab$u! Ra"a) ishna<s @&ea)nessA. I! "a# &ell be !ha! s$"e!i"es T$ls!$# 6us! "isunde s!$$d Ra"a) ishna' be%ause T$ls!$#<s )n$&led+e $* Indian %ul!u e &as' a*!e all' a!he li"i!ed -&hi%h li"i!a!i$n he sha ed &i!h !he "a6$ i!# $* his %$"pa! i$!s/. Had T$ls!$# unde s!$$d Ra"a) ishna be!!e ' he "i+h! ha5e *$und hi" n$! @&ea)A. Bu! s$"e!i"es T$ls!$# li)ed Ra"a) ishna e7a%!l# be%ause he "isunde s!$$d his


deeds and his in!en!s. ,$ ins!an%e' D.P. Ma)$5i!s)# in his &otes e%$ ded !ha! $n 1? N$5e"be 1.3. !he e &as a !al) ab$u! se7ual edu%a!i$n and T$ls!$# said: @I I li)ed 5e # "u%h: Ra"a) ishna &$uld d ess as a &$"an and li5e a"$n+ &$"en in $ de !$ annihila!e in hi"sel* !he %$ns%i$usness $* se7ual di**e en%eA -Ma).' 4$l. =' p. 13?/. Bu!' as *a as I unde s!and' !he eas$ns &h# Ra"a) ishna @&$uld d ess as a &$"an and li5e a"$n+ &$"enA &e e di**e en! * $" !h$se su "ised b# T$ls!$#. T$ls!$# &$uld ha5e ha dl# unde s!$$d $ app e%ia!ed !he eal eli+i$us eas$ns $* Ra"a) ishna in !his %ase. I &$n<! ! # !$ *u !he spe%i*# he e "# su++es!i$n and !$ de*ine &ha! e7a%!l# T$ls!$# "us! ha5e disli)ed in Ra"a) ishna<s @sa#in+sA' &ha! he "i+h! ha5e unde s!$$d and &ha! "isunde s!$$d. This "us! be%$"e a sub6e%! $* a %a e*ul esea %h. A"$n+ $!he !hin+s' $ne has !$ s!ud# %l$sel# !he %$p# $* The +ayings of +ri Rama#rishna aramahamsa &i!h T$ls!$#<s "a )s p ese 5ed in !he "useu" $* Yasna#a P$l#ana' !$ see &ha! T$ls!$# has %h$sen and &ha! he has e6e%!ed. These and si"ila de!ailed $bse 5a!i$ns "us! be .pp. +4//+410 in%luded in !he * a"e&$ ) $* a "$ e %$"p ehensi5e %$"pa a!i5e s!ud#. The e "us! be %$"pa ed' $n !he $ne hand' T$ls!$#<s phil$s$phi%al and eli+i$us $u!l$$) as a &h$le' in i!s e5$lu!i$n' and' $n !he $!he hand' Ra"a) ishna<s eli+i$us &$ ld. M$ e$5e ' !hese !&$ $u!s!andin+ pe s$nali!ies sh$uld be s!udied and %$"pa ed n$! 6us! as uni(ue !hin)e s $ sa+es' bu! as ep esen!a!i5es $* !hei espe%!i5e %ul!u es' $* !hei espe%!i5e ! adi!i$ns. This is a hu+e !as) indeed. He e and n$& I &$uld li)e 6us! !$ sh$& !ha! !his )ind $* esea %h is 5e # p $"isin+ and "a# b in+ in!e es!in+ esul!s. The %ul!u al si!ua!i$ns in &hi%h T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna li5ed &e e si"ila in "an# i"p$ !an! espe%!s. B$!h in Russia and in India ! adi!i$nal eli+i$us s#s!e"s &e e s! ained in !he p $%ess $* "$de niRa!i$n and &e e %$n* $n!ed &i!h $!he eli+i$ns $* "an)ind. B$!h in Russia and in India !he e &e e pe$ple &h$ ea%!ed !$ !hese %hallen+es b# ! #in+ !$ %l$se !he"sel5es up in !hei $ !h$d$7#' !$ e6e%! an# inn$5a!i$n' an# sea %h in !he *ield $* eli+i$n. Bu! in b$!h %$un! ies !he e &e e als$ su%h pe$ple &h$ &e e ead# !$ *a%e !he %hallen+es $* !he !i"e' !$ *ind ne& ans&e s !$ ne& p $ble"s. T$ls!$# and Ra"a) ishna bel$n+ed !$ !his !#pe $* pe$ple. T$ls!$# *i s! ! ied !$ e*$ " !he O !h$d$7 Bh is!iani!# &hi%h he had inhe i!ed as a Russian. O* %$u se' he hi"sel* !h$u+h! and said !ha! he &an!ed !$ +$ ba%) !$ !he @ ealA' @p is!ineA Bh is!iani!#. In !his espe%! he "a# be %$"pa ed &i!h %e !ain Hindu e*$ "e s $* !he nine!een!h %en!u #. Bu! b# !he end $* his li*e T$ls!$# a%!uall# &en! be#$nd Bh is!iani!# !$&a ds a )ind $* uni5e sal' i* a!he 5a+uel# de*ined' eli+i$n. I supp$se s$"e "$de n Indian pa allels !$ !his "a# als$ be *$und. N$& I &$uld li)e !$ (u$!e s$"e passa+es * $" T$ls!$#' &hi%h &ill sh$& his 5ie&s $n phil$s$phi%al and eli+i$us .pp. +41/+420 s#n!hesis' $n phil$s$phi%al and eli+i$us uni5e salis". On 1: Ma# 1??. T$ls!$# pu! d$&n in his dia #: @GIH ead an a !i%le ab$u! La"enais Gsi%KH 0= b# Lane!. 0C The e is "u%h !ha! is +$$d. H$& !$ $b!ain !he %e !ain!# $* )n$&led+eF The# al&a#s sa#: b# eas$nF


Bu! e5e #$ne has his $&n eas$n. S$ an au!h$ i!# is needed: a e5ela!i$n' %$n*i "ed &i!h a "i a%le. Eha! an a&*ul ubbish. And &ha! )ind $* s$phis! #K I! is supp$sed !ha! su%h a ! u!h is needed &i!h &hi%h all pe$ple &$uld a+ ee. Bu! su%h a ! u!h &i!h &hi%h all pe$ple &$uld a+ ee !he e is n$!' n$! be%ause !he e is n$ ! u!h' bu! be%ause n$! all a+ ee. And !he es!ablishin+ $* ! u!h !h $u+h e5ela!i$n %$n*i "ed &i!h a "i a%le d$es n$! lead !$ a + ea!e a+ ee"en!' $n !he %$n! a #' i! leads !$ a + ea!e disa+ ee"en!: a "i a%le a+ains! an$!he "i a%le' a e5ela!i$n a+ains! an$!he e5ela!i$n' $ne ne+a!es an$!he . The e is n$ ! u!h' &i!h &hi%h all pe$ple &$uld a+ ee' bu! !he e is a %$ns!an! "$5e"en!' b$!h "ine and $* all pe$ple' !$ !he ! u!h &i!h &hi%h all a+ ee' %ann$! help a+ eein+. All pe$ple belie5e in su%h ! u!h and +$ !$ i!. And in !he "$5e"en! !$&a ds ! u!h !he e is al&a#s a+ ee"en!. Disa+ ee"en! is !he e $nl# in !he i"a+ined *i7ed ! u!hA -CW, 4$l. C3' p. ?0/. 0: .pp. +42/+430 On 0? Lanua # 1?.1 T$ls!$# & $!e a le!!e !$ D.A. Khil)$5' 08 &h$ a! !ha! !i"e %$nside ed hi"sel* a *$ll$&e $* T$ls!$#<s ideas and su++es!ed !ha! all su%h *$ll$&e s sh$uld "ee! and' p $babl#' uni!e. In !his le!!e T$ls!$# & $!e: @Y$u sa#: uni!#. Bu! uni!# is p$ssible $nl# in ! u!h. In $ de !$ $b!ain uni!# &i!h pe$ple' &e need n$! +$ !$&a ds ea%h $!he ' !$&a ds pe$ple' bu! &e all "us! +$ !$&a ds >$d $ ! u!h. Onl# !he e uni!# is $b!ained' and n$! &i!h hi" &i!h &h$" I &an! $ supp$se !ha! I ha5e !$ +e! uni!#' bu! &i!h hi" &h$ has %$"e !$ !he sa"e pla%e &he e I ha5e %$"e. I i"a+ine !he &$ ld as a hu+e !e"ple' in &hi%h li+h! *alls d$&n * $" ab$5e !$&a ds !he 5e # "iddle. In $ de !$ %$"e !$+e!he ' all pe$ple ha5e !$ +$ !$&a ds !his li+h!' and i! is !he e' in !he "iddle' !ha! &e all' %$"in+ * $" di**e en! sides' &ill %$"e all !$+e!he Uand &ill "ee! (ui!e une7pe%!ed pe$ple. And !his is e7a%!l# &ha! &ill +i5e 6$#. I! is !his )ind $* uni!# and b# !his )ind $* "eans !ha! &e %an and "us! see); bu! &e %ann$! help ea%h $!he &i!h !hisA. -CW, 4$l. :C' p. 023/ Ehen I *i s! ead an e7! a%! * $" !his le!!e in R. R$lland<s b$$) $n T$ls!$#' I e%alled i+h! a&a# Ra"a) ishna<s &ell1)n$&n &$ ds: .ata mat, tata path -The e a e as "an# &a#s as !he e a e p$in!s $* 5ie&/. Indeed' !he si"ila i!# he e is s! i)in+. And !he las! passa+e !ha! I &$uld li)e !$ (u$!e is !a)en * $" T$ls!$#<s le!!e !$ an$!he @*$ll$&e A $* his' .pp. +43/+,)0 M.4. Al#$)hin' 0? &h$ had als$ su++es!ed !ha! all @T$ls!$#ansA sh$uld uni!e. T$ls!$# & $!e ba%) !$ hi" in Lune 1?.0: @Sni!# is p$ssible $nl# in ! u!h' and in $ de !$ a%hie5e ! u!h $nl# $ne !hin+ is needed: !$ see) i! &i!h %$ns!an!' in%essan! spi i!ual e**$ !s... One has !$ be hu"ble' !$ +e! id $* p ide' $* !he 5ani!# $* $ne<s $&n sepa a!e $pini$n' and' ab$5e all' !$ +e! id $* all su%h %$nside a!i$ns as' *$ ins!an%e' i* I belie5e in !his &a#' I &ill be &i!h !he +$5e n"en! $ &i!h !he pe$ple' $ &i!h h$l# *a!he s $ !he


%hu %h' $ ' i* I belie5e in !his &a#' I "a# be 6us!i*ied be*$ e pe$ple and "#sel*' $ !ha! i! is %us!$"a # !$ belie5e s$. One has !$ +e! id $* all !his and be*$ ehand be ead# !$ a%%ep! !ha! !he ealiRa!i$n $* ! u!h &ill be unp $*i!able *$ "e' &ill hu"ilia!e "e. B$"in+ !$+e!he &$n<! help !$ )n$& ! u!h. The e is $nl# $ne sal5a!i$n 9 in %$"in+ nea e !$ ! u!h' and !his is !he $nl# "eans $* uni!#. An a !i*i%ial uni*i%a!i$n "a# en*eeble !he u +e !$&a ds ! u!h... Besides' !he uni!# !ha! #$u see)' !he uni!# in >$d' is e**e%!ed a! su%h a dep!h' &he e $u si+h! $*!en %ann$! pene! a!e... S$ le! us d$ !ha! &hi%h leads !$ uni!#' i.e. d a& $u sel5es nea e !$ >$d' and le! us n$! ! $uble ab$u! uni!#... Y$u sa# i! is easie !$ d$ !hin+s !$+e!he . Eha! s$ !s $* !hin+sF Pl$u+hin+' "$&in+' d i5in+ piles in!$ ea !h 9 #es' bu! d a&in+ nea e !$ >$d is p$ssible $nl# al$ne. Onl# !h $u+h >$d' as !h $u+h a hea !' !he e is a * ee %$""uni%a!i$n $* all pa !s $* a b$d#. And a di e%! %$""uni%a!i$n' n$! !h $u+h >$d' is bu! see"in+. Y$u "us! ha5e e7pe ien%ed i!. And I ha5e e7pe ien%ed and e7pe ien%e. And &ha! "i+h! see" s! an+e: &i!h !h$se pe$ple &i!h &h$" !he e is a eal %$""uni%a!i$n !h $u+h >$d' !he e is n$!hin+ !$ !al) ab$u!' !he e is n$ need !$ !al)' !he e is n$ desi e !$ !al)' bu! !he e is a desi e !$ !al)' !$ a +ue ab$u! s$"e!hin+ and .pp. +,)/+,*0 de*ine s$"e!hin+ $nl# &i!h !h$se &i!h &h$" !he e is n$! #e! !his +$dl# %$""uni%a!i$n; &i!h su%h pe$ple #$u ! # !$ es!ablish a bl$$d1%i %ui! &i!h$u! a hea !' bu! i! is i"p$ssible' a *u!ile &$ )A. -CW, 4$l. ::' pp. 0=110/ Bu! a! !he 5e # end $* !he sa"e le!!e ' s&i!%hin+' as i! &e e' * $" !he p7ram8rthi#a -sup e"e ! u!h/ !$ !he $y7$ah7ri#a -p a%!i%al e7is!en%e/ le5el $* dis%$u se' T$ls!$# & $!e: @I ,u !he s!eps I en5isa+e i+h! n$&... in d$in+ e7a%!l# !he $pp$si!e !$ &ha! #$u &an!' i.e. !$ sepa a!e $u sel5es' !$ %l$se $u an)s; G&e "us!H d$ !he $pp$si!e: !$ *ind !he bes! "eans $* %$""uni%a!i$n &i!h !he &h$le la +e &$ ld $* all pe$ple' !$ *ind su%h a &a# $* %$""uni%a!i$n' &hi%h &ill enable us' &i!h$u! "a)in+ an# %$n%essi$ns' !$ %$""uni%a!e' !$ l$5e and be l$5ed. ,a e&ellKA -Ibid./ These @sa#in+sA $* @Maha shiA T$ls!$#' i* I a" n$! "is!a)en' s$und 5e # Indian and 5e # !$pi%al *$ all $* us !$da#. NOTES AND RE,ERENBES

This pape &as $ i+inall# & i!!en b# !he end $* 1.?: and p esen!ed in Lanua # $* 1.?8 a! a %$n*e en%e in Bal%u!!a' a! !he Ra"a) ishna Missi$n Ins!i!u!e $* Bul!u e. I! &as *i s! published -unde !he !i!le (eo Tolstoy and +ri Rama#rishna/ in !he Bulle!in $* !he Ra"a) ishna Missi$n Ins!i!u!e $* Bul!u e -4$l. VVV4III' W 8' Lul# 1.?8' pp. 1:2 9 1:.; 4$l. VVV4III' W ?' Au+us! 1.?8' pp. 1.: 9 030/ and la!e as a b$$)le!: S.D.Se eb ian#' (eo Tolstoy and +ri Rama#rishna' Bal%u!!a: The Ra"a) ishna Missi$n Ins!i!u!e $* Bul!u e' 1.?8' == p. Sin%e !hen I ha5e n$! been able !$ %$n!inue !his pa !i%ula line $* esea %h. S$ *$ !his publi%a!i$n !he pape has been $nl# sli+h!l# e5ised. S$"e n$!es ha5e been added $ enla +ed. X.Y. Z[\]^_' 9:; <=>?@=A B C=?@=D, 01` [ab.' c`d`d^efg^__f` [ bfcfh_`__f`' ifjkl^: mn^ok^p' 1.81 GA.I. Shi*"an' (eo Tolstoy and the East' M$s%$&: @Nau)aA puiblishe s' 1.81H. N$& an ele%! $ni% 5e si$n $* !he b$$) is a5ailable a! !he add ess: h!!p:qq"a se77.na $d. uq!$ls!$#15$s!$) Ale7ande Shi*"an' Tolstoy and India, ! . * $" Russian b# A. 4. Esaul$5' Ne& Delhi: Sahi!#a A)ade"i' 1.:.; 0nd ed.' 1.8?. -,u !he e*e en%es !$ !his edi!i$n in !he !e7! $* !he pape ./
= 2 0

In !he Indian 5e si$n s$"e bu! n$! all $* !hese ina%%u a%ies ha5e been %$ e%!ed.

A. P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu)' Tolstoy and 5i$e#ananda, Bal%u!!a: The Ra"a) ishna Missi$n Ins!i!u!e $* Bul!u e' 1.?:. -,u !he e*e en%es !$ !his edi!i$n in !he !e7! $* !he pape ./ Imperfect Encounter. Le!!e s $* Eillia" R$!hens!ein and Rabind ana!h Ta+$ e. Ed. &i!h an In! $du%!i$n and N$!es b# Ma # M. La+$. Ba"b id+e -Mass./: Ha 5a d Sni5e si!# P ess' 1.80.
8 :

See: (eo Tolstoy. EFGF0EHIF. ! Boo# E6hi4ition. Bal%u!!a: Na!i$nal Lib a #' 1.8..

Rabind ana!h Ta+$ e' Chinnapatr7$ali -in Ben+ali/' Bal%u!!a: 4iN5Obha a!M > an!hOla#a' 1.:3' p. 1=. r.s. i^kfl[tk[u' J?K=L=>MK?DB: NOLB?DB, gg. 1 9 =' ifjkl^' 1.:1 GD.P. Ma)$5i!s)#' N$!es * $" Yasna#a P$l#ana' 4$ls. 11=' M$s%$&' 1.?1H. He ea*!e i^). ,u !he e*e en%es in !he !e7! $* !he pape . Sele%!i$ns * $" !hese @N$!esA a e n$& a5ailable in !he In!e ne!: h!!p:qq"a se77.na $d. uq!$ls!$#q!$ls!$#1"a)$5i%)ii.h!"l v.n. w f h j g f u , P=>K=: ?=QROKB: ?=SBK:KBAT C HU @. VQB>:AK=: BNWOKB: 1EFGFX EHGF)' ifjkl^ 9 v`_[_xd^b: yfjob^djgl`__f` [ab^g`hzjglf' 1.0? 9 1.:=' g. C=' j. 1CC GL. N. T$ls!$#' Complete Wor#s in HU $olumes' M$s%$& 9 Lenin+ ad' 1.0? 9 1.:=' 4$l. C=' p. 1CCH. He ea*!e CW. ,u !he e*e en%es in !he !e7! $* !he pape /. All ! ansla!i$ns * $" Russian in!$ En+lish in !his pape a e "ine 9 +.%.+. The *ull !i!le $* !he 6$u nal is e"a )able: @The$s$phis%he Ee+&eise Ru E lan+un+ de +{!!li%hen Selbs!e )enn!nis. M$na!ss%h i*! Ru 4e b ei!un+ eine h{he en Eel!ans%hauun+ und Ru 4e &i )li%hun+ de Idee eine all+e"einen Mens%hen5e b Jde un+ au* de > undla+e de E )enn!nis de &ah en Mens%henna!u @. I! &as published * $" LeipRi+ in 1?.? 9 1.38.


A.P. >na!#u)1Danil<%hu)' $p. %i!' p. .. Ale7ande Shi*"an & i!es -$p. %i!., pp. 0C1:/ !ha! as ea l# as 1?.: T$ls!$# ead Ra"a) ishna<s %iscourses. Bu! n$ e*e en%es a e +i5en' and i! is n$! %lea &ha! b$$) is "ean!. P $babl#' !his s!a!e"en! $* Ale7ande Shi*"an is a esul! $* a "isunde s!andin+.


Ob5i$usl#' !he *$ll$&in+ b$$) is "ean!: ,. Ma7 MJlle ' Rama#rishna, Yis (ife and +ayings' L$nd$n e!%.: L$n+"ans' > een' and B$' 1?.? -$ s$"e la!e edi!i$n/. N$& !he b$$) is a5ailable in !he In!e ne!: h!!p:qq&&&.sa% ed1!e7!s.%$"qhinq lsqinde7.h!"

He e Baba P e"ananda Bha a!i -Su end ana!h Mu)he 6ee' 1?C811.1C/ is "ean! &h$ %$ esp$nded &i!h T$ls!$# *$ s$"e !i"e.

See !he %$"pa is$n $* !he 5e si$n !ha! &as !he @$ i+inalA *$ T$ls!$# &i!h his 5a i$us ende in+s: CW, 4$l.==' pp. =8311; Ale7ande Shi*"an' $p. %i!.' pp. 081..


B*. h!!p:qqen.&i)is$u %e.$ +q&i)iqI|Bann$!|Be|Silen!

This a !i%le &as published in En+lish in !he 1.:3s unde !he !i!le The Crisis of Ci$ilisation -! ansla!ed b# R.4. Sa"ps$n/. B*. h!!p:qq&&&."anas6$u nal.$ +qpd*|lib a #q4$lu"eVV|1.:8qVV1 30.pd*

This sen!en%e -bein+ pa ! $* a p i5a!e n$!e' n$! in!ended *$ publi%a!i$n/ in !he Russian $ i+inal' !$$' is a!he $bs%u e and' pe haps' needs a )ind $* de%iphe in+.


Tha! is' The World as Will and as an Idea, !he "ain &$ ) $* !he >e "an phil$s$phe . The &$ d @Sni5e seA in !he b a%)e!s &as & i!!en b# T$ls!$# in En+lish.


The sayings of +ri Rama#rishna aramahamsa' 0nd ed.' Mad as : P in!ed a! !he B ah"a5adin P ess' 1.3C.

i^kj i}hh`d' Zd[ ~^]^kd[_^ s^d^]^x^]a^. xf [a_z [ o`_[`. s`d`lfb j ^_xh. Y. . n^[l[_^. ifjkl^: [ab1lf `h`_^ c^hfk^@' 1.12 GMa7 MJlle ' Sh i Ra"a) ishna Pa a"aha"sa. His Li*e and Tea%hin+. T . , $" En+lish b# I.,. NaRhi5in. M$s%$&: @> een S!i%)A publishe s' 1.12H. I! is &$ !h n$!in+ !ha! I. ,. NaRhi5in' in !he p e*a%e !$ his ! ansla!i$n $* Ma7 MJlle <s b$$) $n Ra"a) ishna' e"a )ed !ha! he had e6e%!ed' had n$! in%luded in his edi!i$n' a nu"be $* Ra"a) ishna<s sa#in+s' be%ause he %$nside ed !he" @&ea)A. I! &$uld be in!e es!in+ !$ %$"pa e !he sele%!i$ns "ade b# T$ls!$# hi"sel* and b# his @*$ll$&e A. ,$ !he las! #ea $* T$ls!$#<s li*e' 1.13' &e see" !$ ha5e $nl# $ne e*e en%e !$ Ra"a) ishna: in D.P. Ma)$5i!s)#<s &otes *$ 2 Ap il 1.13 -Ma).' 4$l. =' p. 01?/. In T$ls!$#<s p esen%e his * iend P.A. B$ulan+e -a Russian &i!h a , en%h su na"e/ p aised Ra"a) ishna. Bu! n$ e"a )s b# T$ls!$# hi"sel* a e e%$ ded in !his %ase. Hu+ues1,li%i! R$be ! de La"ennais -alias de La Mennais' 18?0 9 1?C=/ &as a , en%h Ba!h$li% p ies!' and phil$s$phi%al and p$li!i%al & i!e .



Paul Lane! -1?02 9 1?../ &as a 5e # p $li*i% , en%h phil$s$phi%al & i!e . I! is di**i%ul! !$ sa# &ha! pape b# hi" T$ls!$# ead in 1??.. Bu! !he e is a b$$): Paul Lane!' La Phil$s$phie de La"ennais' Pa is: ,li7 Al%an' 1?.3. In 033? !he b$$) &as epublished as a pape ba%): h!!p:qq&&&.!henile.%$".auqb$$)sqPaul1Lane!qLa1Phil$s$phie1de1La"ennaisq.8?3CC=8?1.8:q


B*. h!!p:qqaR.lib. uq!q!$ls!$6|le&|ni)$lae&i%hq!e7!|12:3.sh!"l

P in%e D"i! i# Ale7and $5i%h Khil)$5 -1?C?91.1=/ &as a Russian "ili!a # $**i%e in*luen%ed b# T$ls!$#Ts ideas and pe se%u!ed *$ @T$ls!$#is"A. Be!&een 1??8 and 1.3C T$ls!$# and Khil)$5 %$ esp$nded a l$!. Bu! a*!e 1.3C Khil)$5 &as e%$n5e !ed !$ O !h$d$7 Bh is!iani!# and Russian pa! i$!is". He pe ished a! !he * $n! a! !he 5e # be+innin+ $* E$ ld Ea I.

Mi! $*an 4asilT#e5i%h Al#$)hin -1?C891.2:/ &as a Russian pain!e ' banished in 1.33 !$ !he !$&n $* Nal%hi) *$ his @T$ls!$#is"A.

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