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A HANDBOOKOF FORSTITCHERS

Leaering

Aboutthis book: The Author hassetout irl this book with three distinct aims. Firstly to wite a concise historyofLettering, tracing the development from the simplest markingsto the elaborate and decorative monogtam. Secondly to givan illustated dictionary of all stitchesthat are suitable for carrlng out any lettering. Finally to displayin an illustrated section the greatvarietyollettering designs suitable for variousstitches using every letter of the alphabet as examples. The result is a book which witl appeal to all thoseinterested in embroideryandtheprofusionofdesign ideaswill help and inspireanybody who enjoysmonogramming.

A VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD BOOK

HANDBOOK OF

Lettering
FOR STITCHERS

A HANDBOOK OF

Lettering
FOR STITCHERS
ELSIE SVENNAS

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',to.tpatrD RLI\HoLD (oi,4PAN\ \oRK LlNcltNAll fo\DoN MtLBoLRNf

van NostrandRejnholdcompany RegionalOmces: New York Cincinnari Chicago Miilbrae Dallas olfices: Van NostrandReinhoidCompanyInternational Toronto Melbourne London This book wasorisinallypublished in Swedish entitledn4arkbokandMarkbok 2, in two volumes, Sweden by LC.A. Fdrlaget,Vasreras, and CopyrishtO ElsieSvennas 1966 LC.A. Fijrlaget.Vesteras. EnglishtranslationO Van Noslrand ReinholdConpany Ltd. 1973 CatalosCard Number: 72 5278 Library of Consress rsBN: 0 ,142 28085 8 No part of A1l rightsreserved. by the this work covered or xsedin any form copyrigh!hereonmay be reproduced elecro.ic. or or by any means graphic, recording. includiig pholocopyinS. nechanical, aDdretrieval tapingor informalionstorage oithe publisher systems withoul written permission This book is prinredin Great Britain by Jolly and BarberLimited, Rugby Book Conpanr. and bound by the Ferndale P u b l i s h e d b y V a n N o s t r aR ne di n h o l d C o n p a n y , l n c . 4 5 0 W e s t 3 3 r d S t . New York, N.Y. 10001 and Van NostrandReirhold CompanyLtd. EgginlonHouse,25 28 BuckinghanCate, London S.W.l. Published sinuhaneously in Canadaby Van Noslrand ReinholdLld. 1 61 51 41 31 21 l 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Marking

E v c n d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g c s , b c f o r ct h e a r t o f w r i t i n g became general. the well-to-do families ol Europe 'mark' used 1o put a private or mark of ownership on their houses and possessions. h went \,!ith the farm or the fanily and usually enjoyed legal pro 'mark'was t e c t i o n .I h i s a s i g n o r s o m e l i m c sa l e t l c r , It was made up of straight lines, circles and othef sinple heraldic devices. owing to the fact that the material was often stubborn to work in. (This type of marking is still in use, for ex,rmpte, on timber and cattle.) Textile naterials, on thc othcr hand, wcrc easily worked, and there the mark was replaced at an early stage by lettets or a manogrcm. which comes from the Greek word meaning a singlc leltcr. The worked monograms had both a praclical and acsthctic lunction and were formed in the style and manner of the period. For somc inexplicable reason. however. textile marking has not developed over the past fifty ycars. All too oftcn the letters are still formed in styles which we now avoid in other contexts such as books, newspapen and other typographical products. On inherited linen we iike to see thc old monogmms. ollen large and highly elaborare perhaps becauseit givcs a nostalgic rcminder of the pas1. For the sake of future generarions, however, we ought to build on tradition, and adapt the shape and size of thc monog m m t o t h e t a s t ea n d s t y l eo f t h e d a y .

A well-worked monogram is nowadays oftcn thc only decoration on- lor example. a sheet. And to relieve the plainness of other texlile aflicles such as tablemats,napkincases b.i b s , s t o r a g e b a g s . h a n d b a g s .rnd clothes ofvarious sorts. a monogmm is a suitable decoration which at the same time makes the article more personal. The monograms in this book are in many casesas simple asthe old idiograph, but thereare also examples of letters in various kinds oftype as well as fantastic and romanticised forms. Most ol them can be embroidcred in various stitches, some easy, some more difilcult. Some are intcnded to be worked in 'free style' embroidery, that is. following traccd lines, others are 1() be worked in cross stitch and other 'counted thread' embroideries. For a marking to be beautilul it must be wellexeculed and take textile properties into conslder arion. Choice of letlers, material and embroidery tcchnique depend of course not only on thc article to be marked and the time al your disposal, but also on yourskill. We aUnnd pleasurein havinga beautiful Iinen store. and marking can be an enjoyable and exciting way of expresslng your personal taste and style. This book will show you how the wcrk is done and the many techniques and forms ofletters at your disposal.

Choice of letters, enlarging and reducing

Nowadaysa'singleletter is often usedfor marking. The linen storeis, afterall, the propertyofthe whole family,sothat theinitial ofthe familynameissuitable as a monogram.The shape and sizedepends on the posilion wherc the monogramis to be placed.also bearinginmind anypatternon the fabdc.To simplify pagesin the choiceof monogramthere are several this book showinga collectionof diferent stylesol the sameletter. The lettersare very closetogether, but when you have chosenone or two styles,trace paper.You will be able to see them on transparent betterhow the letterlooksaloneand see whether it is suitable.Most of the letteG are intendedto stand alone,but just a few of the stylesrecur on diferent pages and can be usedtogether. If a number of lettersare to be usedtogethea it is bestto choosethem from an alphabetin which the actual lettersare so shapedthat they balancewell together.Placeall the lette^ on the samelevel for preference. This is more up{o-date than standing them on a slant or entwining them together.The distancebetweenthe lettersmust be carefullyconsidered. Experiment by drawingtheletters on separate pieces ofpaper and bringingthemclosertogether or fufther apart. The lettersneednot be intertwrned. There are examplesin this book of a few such combinations,but the inexperienced worker will 6

o b r f i nb c l L erre , u l l . b ) n o ra l | e r p r ' n g rL' . By all meansincludethe date. lt is interesting to haveboth da1 and letters in orderto checkwearand tear and for the benefitof future generations. It will be seenfrom the earliermonogramsreproduced in this book that the date oftentook up as much space asthe letten. The sizeofthe letters in this book is not always the sizeyou will want. Sometimes the fabric or artrcle will demanda differentscale.Many peoplelike to have all their linen unifonnly marked and then the monogrammustbe workedin differentsizes. It must not look eithertoo largeor too small.On an ordinary unpattemed hand towel about I inch high is a reasonable size.The figurcson the left showhow to enlargeor reducewith the help of squaredpapersThis can either be bought in varioussizesor homemade.Ifyou are goingto usethe monograma lot, it will savetime if you have photostatcopiesmade, enlarged or reduced. The placingofa monogram is alsoimportant.Find out the most pmctical place and rememberthat traditionally a monogramshould be seenand also decorate the article.On a placemat, lor example, it must not b covered by the plateand on tablecloths, napkinsand towelsit must be placedso that it will whenthe articleis foldedup. be seen

T r a n s f e r t o t h e m a t e r i aI

when the form and size of the monogmm has been decided. draw it on a piece oflransparent paper with a hard, sharp lead pencil. lfyou are going to work a lot of identical monograms il is better to draw it in lndian ink on tracing cloth. To help in placing it on the material draw a vertical and horizontal line on the paper. Then select the place for the monogram and tack a cross on the fabric along the line of the weave (rcmember that nowadays monograms are seldom placed obliquely over corners). On applying the paper, nt the two sets of lines exactly over the tacked cross. Sometimes lines can be marked by drawing a pin along the surface instead oftacking. The transfer can then be made by any one offour differenr methods. Theeasiest is by using r ar6on paper (dark or light according to the colour of the fabdc). Lay the fabric on a hard, smooth surface and 6x the paper with the monogram nrmly over it with pins or tape orby lacking it down. Then lay the carbon paper coloured side down between the fabric and the paper. Draw over alllhe lines with a pen, steelknittingneedle orcrochet hook, carcfully liftingtheedge ofthe paper to make sure the impression is clear. You can ifyou wish make carbon paper yourself by colouring the back of the paper on which you have drawn the monogram with soft lead pencil or chalk. The best results are usually obtained by the more

laborious method of pouncing. Lay the paper or tracing cloth on which the monogram has been drawn on a soft surface and prick along all lhe lines with a sewing needle. Fix the pricked monogram over the fabdc and with a piece ofcotton wool or a twist of wool smear coloured powder all over the monogram so that it works through the holes. Thecoloured powder can be ordinary talcum for dark fabrics and talcum mixed with blue for light fabrics. After removing the paper you will see the lines as rows of pricks and can fill them in with pencil or Indian ink. A simple method applicable in the case of light, thin fabrics is transfer by hgrt. This involves making the letter drawn on the paper show lhrough the labric by holding bolh to a light. This can be carried out in comforl by laying a sheet ofglass, for example. over a suitably wide gap between two tables ofequalheight and placing a srrong lamp undemeath the glass. A darkened room will facilitate the process. Whlle you are drawing the letter on to the fabric this musl be held taut with the left hand or be fixed in a frame. The fourth method is by working small tunning s/il.rer along the outiines through both fabric .rnd paper. The paper is then carefully torn away. This method is excellent on all fabrics, and gives a fresh, unmarked final result. It is almost the only method possible for lowelling and similar surfaces.

M ateria ls

The thread you mark with should suit both the characterof the fabric and the typesof lettersyou havechosen. A very common mistakeis to usetoo thick a thread, often with the idea of speed.This makesfor a clumsyresult:it is betterto choose too nnea threadthan too coarse a one.All unevemcsscs in the embroiderywill be unnecessarily eniarged if the thread is coarseand the stitcheslarge. White marking threadis madein very fine thicknesses, but not all shops supply it and correspondingly nne colouredmarking thread is probably unobtainable. However,ifyour threadis too coarse and a nnerone is unobtainable,it is alwayspossibleto draw out oneor two stnnds ofthe threadyou have,For raised satinstitchand in certaincases ordinarysatinstitch. for which the stitchesshould form a smooth,even surface, it is betterto work with threadfrom which astmndor two hasbeen removed. Veryloosely twisted threads and techniquesthat involv long, loose stitches shouldbe avoidedbecause they will not last. Sometimes differentthicknesses olthread must be used in the same monogram to obtain the best appearance. For narrow outlining work mercerised sewingthread is recommended. It is availablein a widerangeof generally fastcolours. With allcoloured fabricsor threadsit is important to make surc the dye is fast by washing a sample in the ordinaryway. 8

Once fastness is established contrasts can be made: for example, a white thread contrasts well with a coloured fabric. Hand-woven materials may be successfully marked with scraps of the spun warp thread. Coloured threads of a difierent quality and different dye from the fabric may be the same colour when first used, but wjll possibly look quite diflerent after a few washes. Unbleached lineD thread, for example, has an attractive, warm gtey colour at first, butgmdually turns quitewhite. A grey marking looks good against silver, stainlesssteeland wood. On linen fabric it is usually best to use twisted linen thread. which is available in both white and colours and is sold in good handicmft and needlework shops. Certain special colours will only be found among moulinee yarns. Single{hread cotton, often used for traditional embroidedes, with its attractive pastel tones is suitable for colgured marking. Wbite bed linen edged with lace is best marked in white. Sheets with coloured bordrs look extremely effective ifthe monogram is worked in exactly the same colour as the border. White monograms are the mosl practical on plain coloured fabrics. The dimcult problem of marking striped malerials can often be solved by appliqueing on, e.g. a broad band of white colton, and then working the monogmm on that in colour.

Embro iderv techn iques

Embroidery lcchniqucs have followed the tides of fashion in the same \fay as forms of lelters- Many of them have a long history behind them and have appeared at diffcrent periods in different materials and combinations. The technique used should be adapted to the quality and style of the article. Soirc of those described on the following pages have not genemlly been used for marking. but the illustrulions of the worked examples show how they can be epplied. Cross stitch. The diagram above shows one ofthe most commonlyuscd sritches--the diagonal cross stitch on the lelt hand side. The bottom siitch ls worked from left to right and the top stitch from right to left. All the stitches in a piece of \'r'ork should lie in the samedirection.Thethreadshouldalwaysbeattachedinthedirection of the stitching, never at right-angles. If you are working on a Ioosely-\,r'oven fabric, take carc not to pull the stitches too tight. Thc righr hand diagram shows the straight cross stitch. This can be worked in diferenl ways: the diagram shows the two stages of r method in which the whole stitch is completed at once. Straight cross slitch must be worked over an even number of threads. A

monognm which is designedto be worked straight over the threads of the fabric can also often be worked obliquely over the threads, bur then it will also stand obliquely on the fabric. The two cross . r i l c h e . c a n b e c o m b i n e d I n l e l r e r ra n d d e . i g n . . Back stitch, four-sided stitch. The stitches shown in the diagram above, back stitch (left) and four-sided stitch (cenrre and righr), can be used in conjunction with cross stitch and satin stitch for both simple and more demanding monograms. They may often be appropriately used on tablecloths and place mats in combination w i t h s o - c a l l e d ' b l a c k ' s t i t c he m b r o i d e r y .T h i s w a s o r i g i n a l i y w o r k e d in black silk on white linen. Nowadays the same technique is often used in modern interpretalions, worked in red, pink or blue thread. Brown or greyyarn is also used for markingtablecloths and napkins. Most of the monograms on this page are taken from pages 50-4 and worked in one thread of moulin6e yarn. lt is important that the thread should be nne. B in the middle ofthe nert page is worked rn two colours. ln lower case (see under B and on page 53)_these letters can be used for longer texts. as for example on presentssuch

,::.

Techniques for two-sided embroidery. Marking should alwals be d o n e v e r y n c a l l y . s o t h a t e v e nt h e ' w r o n g ' s i d e l o o k s n i c c . Q u i t e a number of the leltcrs of the alphabet keep their shape urlranged on thc back. By tracing the inilial on a piece of transparent paper Jou can test wheiher the \etler will \ook the same on the back. Thc illusrration on the Left shows the same lctters on the'right' and'wrong'side. ln somecases c o m b i n e d l e t t e r sc a n a l s o b e r e a d in lhe correct direction on both sides (see I E on page l,l). A few cxamples of suhable stitches are shown in the diagrams. A narrow salin stilch will have more body if worked ovel a few trammed threads. Stem stitcb and in some casesherringbone stitch becomes bdck stitch on the wrong side. This can bc worked o\rcr rvith a whlpping thread or otherwise dccorated. Seeexamplesabove. Herringbone stitch can also be worked so that lhc back becomes satinstilch. ll

Raised satin stitch. Raised satin stitch recall! the chefactenstrc sevenieerrrhcentury relicf embroidery. oltcn magnificcnil)' executedin gold and sil\'cr thrcad. A t t h e m i d d l e o f r h e n i n e l e e n t hc c n t u r y c o i t o n v a r n c a m e i n t o g e n e r . r lu s e a n d w i t h t h i s t h c d c l i c a t e eighieenlh century lincn thrcad embfoiderv evolved i n i o . r h e a v i e r r e l i e f e m b r o i d e r v .T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e so-calledtuohie dnglar. v,ith satin slitch and raised r r r n . r i r L h \ r n . e t h e n . 3 e n e" r ' " _ d . r e c _ ( r d l i o r h a su s e dt h e s et c c h n i q u e s f o r n r a r k i n g .B u t y o u h a v e pfobabl], olien noticed how the material tcars away . r t t h c s i d co f h e a v y r . r i s e d s a t i n s t i t c ha n d a t t h c d c c p impressions l e f l o n m a n g l e d a r r i c l e s .T h e s o - c a l l e d 'fil1ing i n ' r a i s e d s a t i n s i i t c h i s c o n s e q u e n t l yu s e d sparingly n o w a d a y s .l n i h i s t e c h n i q u ec v e n t h c t h i n Iines o f l h e l c l t c r s a r c r v o r k e db y o v e f c a s r i n g at nghl angles r o t h e u n d e r l y n r g f i l l i n g . R a i s e ds a t i n s t i t c h 'whippcd ihen. like o u t l i n c s t i t c h e s .i s r e a l h o n l y suitable f o r m a t e r i a l ss u c h a s d l i l l , b i r d s e y e w e a v e a n dd a m a s k . O r d i n a | v s a t i ns t i t c h a n d s l e m s t i t c ha r c not suitable o n t h e s es e l f p a t t c c d l a b r i c s . Satin stitch. Satin stitch is suilable for work on lirm. s m o o t hs u f l a c e s I .t ! r , a s t h c l n o s l u s u a ls u f a c e - f i l l i n g s t i l c h i n t h c c i g h t e e n t hc e n t u f y w h i t e e m b r o i d e i c s a n d o c c u r sb o l h a s a s i r n i g h t s a r i n s l i t c h , w i l h t h c stilches a l r i g h t a n g l e st o t h c o u t l i n e . a n d a l s o l v i t h

t h e s t i t c h e ss l a n l i n g i n o r d e r t o f o l l o w t h c s h a p eo f the pattem belter. lt is important to make sure that the stitches all slant the sameway. The outlines round satin stitch will be more raised and more even if you first work round the outline in back stitch or stem stitch. Another way ofmaking satin stitch more even at the edge is to work round it aftcrwards in a fine outline stitch. In many letters the satin stilch may be allowed to merge graduallv into stem stirch. Outline stitches. Of the outline stitches ,a.,+ riil(l] (see page 18) ^nd stem stitch (see pagc 19) are rhe simplest. Rich embroidcries wirh Renaissance rypc omamentation and letters worked in red and black silk in lincs of stem stitch only go back as far as the sixteenth century. Thc stitch can beworkedboth right handcd and left handed. A broader line is sirnply achieved by working several rows ofstcm stitch close against each other. F'or ncatnessbegin and end each row of stem stitoh with a smaller stilch. 'l:lthippd outlinc' sritch is a rclief stitch. lr originatcs from the outline stitchingin sixtcenlh.rnd seventeenth century applique work. In the rich and skilfully execuled eighteenth century white embroideries a 'whipped outline' sritch was used for ourlining the pierced or lilled grounds charactcristic ofthe period. li

It is suitable for work on closely woven fabrics, out enough asit stands weaves particularlypatterned The stitchconto makethe monogmmconspicuous and conoutlinestitches sistsofvarious overstitched The thinnestis worked difers in thickness. sequently over over back stitch or stemstitchand the coarsest chain stitch.The whippingis donefrom right to left 'whipping' lies exceptover stem stitch, for which the lo theslemstitch. direction in the opposite

They in combinationwith other techniques. stitches very firmly to the fabric so asnot shouldbe fastened 'stalk' and on articlesto be to be left hanglngon a washedfiequently they are better replaced by small 'laztdaisy' stitches. A kind ofoutline stitch,in which small twisted chain stitchesform the knots, is also known as knot stitch.

Tambow stitch, Tambour stitch looks like chain stitchbut is workeddiferently. It getsits namefrom workedoutlini 'trtch. the French word tambout (drtttr.'), and. refers to the easily Chainsti!.his another centurymarkings.Workedin commonin eighteenth fact that it is worked on fine fabric stretched over a it is suitablefor ornate frame. The thread is held in the left handasin ordinary fine thread in small stitches letter folms. It is also used, like stem stitch, for crochet, but it is held ,ndemeath the fabtia, ^nd the tramming, loopsare drawn up with a crochethook and worked which was technique into a chain.This is a medieval Coucrig is usedfi$tly as an outline stitch,whm a in the eighteenthand nineteenth fashionable very single or double thread is laid on the fabric and centuris.lt is excellentfor towelling and similar in the sameor a fastened down with small stitches where chaiflstitchis normallyrecommended. 'filling' with surfaces it is usedas a differentcolour,secondly Tambour stitch is quicker to do and unlike chain its long trammd threads oversewn with small the to undo,if oneshouldwishto change stitchis easy slrrcnes. monogram.On the wrong sidethe stitch looks like back stitch, which can easilybe madeattractrveby Knot stirch is a rlief techniqueusually worked by overstitching. round of times number a certain thread winding the the needle. ln the eighteenthcentury white emlook Split stitch.This canalsoin somecircumstances In broideriestheseknots covercd whole surfaces. the right lies on of the thread Most stitch. like chain modem monogmmsknots are used as decorative l6

side ofthe fabric. The slitch takes its name from the l-ac1that one pierces the working th.ead with the needle on making the stitch. Split stitch is used both as an outline stitch and for filling as a sort of'shaded' sUrcn. Shadow stitch. Shadow stitch is on ofthe eighteenth century techniques. It is worked on thin fabric with a fine thread (sewing cotton is quite suitable) in rhe colour ofthe fabdc. On the right side the work makes outlines rcsembling back sti tch, but m ost of the thread lies onthe back as a lilling. It consequently appears as a shadow against rhe thin fabric. The lilling also means thal the monogram is raised against the

executedwith great skill in silk- lt takes its name from the fact that it was usually worked in a number of dillerent shades of silk, which gave a softly blended colour efect. In modern monograms it is worked in one colour only. On articles to be washed frequently lhe stitches should not be too long nor lie too loosely on the surf-ace ofthe fabric. The embroidery techniques described will be made clearer by the following diagrams and photographs of worked monograms, all enlarged for the sake of clarity. A certain number oftechniques, and possible variations not mentioned above are also shown_The diagrams often show the embroidery executed in two colours. This is for the sake of clarity and does not necessarily mean that the work needs contrasting The most important thing for a good result is, however, accuracy in execution. On loosely woven fabrics free style embroidery will be most successful if the work is stretched in a frame. Do not use too coarse needles. If the thread is coarse, use pointed tapestry needles, otherwise ordinary sewing needles. Do not leave the thread lying in long, loose loops on the back. Work with reasonably long lenglhs of thread and lasten ofcarefully.

Buttonhole stitch. One of the commonest lechniques v]Jsed in broderie a glaise. It used to be employed frequently with filling and as an edging to the work. Double buttonhole stitch is most suitable fur monograms. lt gives much the same effect as satin stitch outlined with stem stitch. Feather stitch is an easy stitch, closely allied to buttonholc stitch. Shaddstitch. This occu$ in one or two varrauons. It is a medieval technique which reached its highest peak in the eighteenth century, during which it was

Back sritchand

whipped back strrch

Laced back slitch

stitch Pekincse

W h i p p c d s r e m s tr r ch

Sten stitch worked to righl and left and rariation ol lazy daisy stilch

C a b l ec h a i n s l i l c h

Tambour stitchcrochclcd ihrough ihe fabric

Chrin stilch

W h i p p e d c h a r ns l i t c h

Varialion of !vhipped chain stilc!

Chain stiich over

Open chaln sritch { lth s t i t c h c sr n g r o u p s

B u L l o nh o l c s t r r c h

Doublc bullonholc slrtch

Two rows of buttonholc stitchwith chain

Slerting buuonhole strtch

tsuttonhole stitch

Smrll chrln strtchcs as knots. or double chain sirtch

C o u c h i n ga n d (noLs

Darning over !tar Jhrpcd lhreads

Small freestvlcstilchcs as ofnamenrinside oulline \titch

K n o l t e d s t i t c h .f l o w e r i n b u t t o n h o l es t i t c h

Knotted stitch and variation on twisted chain stilch

FIy sritch

Feather stitch

Chained feather slitch

Straighr sarinstitch. outlincsin running

Satin stitch ovcrseu n in back slilch

Satinsrilch and back stitch

sritch wirh Sarin stcn slitchoullines

satin stiich slal1ting to right a.d to left

Satin stitch

Raised satin stitch. stem stitch or back stitch filliDg

Raisedsatinstitch. split stitchor chainstirch iilling

Raised satin sthch running stitch

Looped holes

C l o s e dh e r f n r g b o n cs t ' t c h $i1h stemstiich oulhnc

S h a d o w s l r t c h( a s c d g i n gi b r c l o s e d hefingbone slitch)

Appljque work with

Trammccl threads overscivn with stemstitch

T r a m m e d t h r c a d so v e r s c w n with snlall back stitch

.,t,

.,

D a r n i n gs t c h

Double darning stitchon ! h r e a d sl n i d c r o s s w i s e

S h a d e ds t r t c hw i t h o u l r hippedslcm stilch

S h a d e ds t i r c hw i t h stemstitchoutline

Splil stitch in outlines and filled sufaces

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If you wish to make a thin letter. trace the black line, otherwise trace the grey surface. suitable stitches are whipped outline stitch. stem sritch,

AE=,KffiGEHI Hm
satin stitch, back stitch, chain stitch. two rows ofwhipped outline stitch, outline slitch filled with decorative stitches.

JK L
61

M can have sloping or vertical sides. Stem stitch wit}l buttonhole stitch (M) and chain stitch (N), whipped outline stitch, feather slitch, satln

l'ffi$*if-ffi

Ifthe round letters ofthe alphabet appear too large, they can be made oval (see bottorr rowl.

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which can alsobe turnedupsidedown Belowand right, variationson mirror monograms ideographs. resembling simple monograms

KT NI O RAIG B M H(CQM t\E@6 l\\ @ f d R fN,t OF/ffi lc lgr$l)KDC 0 PQR f''l IJKt\A \,1 FGU AEeDE E7 90 123456 xJ Y4AAO s - t iv_
64

ABEDEFGI KL VY A/\\,]OPQRS-[I.-J

AB IM FFG !-I iJKLI\fl N! III OPO RSTLI] VWAYI :ffmc = m += EEffi ffi tu; re ffi *f 0 "=1= ffi "l* illl ffi |[l,Xll& W. | ff" | I

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buttonholc slitch chain slitch' Letlers suitablc lor sheets. table cloths and towcls. They can be worked in outline or fillcd as shown. DoubLc

slanted satin stitch. raised satin stitch. satin stitch. stem stitch, salin stitch. shadow stitch or split siitch.

s^ vv

EFG

HilJKL

OPORST
Ltterscan either be filled in or left open.

o #

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Bultonhole stilch, stem stitch, satin stitch with oulline. iealhcr stitch. filling wirh small stitches.satir stilch.

ffi%H

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rN TD FX I-A TF TF F{ It-Ii:T

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6 8 ,

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The central lines of the letters are worked in stem stilch or narrow whipped outline stitch and the leaves .lazy as small daisyl or chain stitches.

V# V'h*V*-

M V

. 1 ,& , V d o VV"df V

V V

The leaves can be filled wilh two or threc stitches lengthwise. A simpler version of the alphabet can be worked in 1lv stitch.

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AZ

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or whipped oulline stilch may nlso be used These lerters arc most easily worked in outline stitch along the black lines. Slem slitch. chain stitch.

(
sutir, "tit"h .uir"a .udn stitch along the swellings marked in grey is morc dimcult and will takc longer'

The middle row shows a few examples of how these sinuous lette$ can occasionally be linked togcthcr in a natural way. Avoid obscure inter-

twinings. It is better to put the letters side by side on the same level.

ffiaceandrvorkalongtheb1acklineSismorcdemlnding'Thisa]phdbclis$orkedinslant1ngsatln

lititch*ithallth"stilchesslantingthesameway'Itisbesttowork|hesatinstitchovefstcmstiichoui]jnes'

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way as the letters on pagc 72. The remaining figures and the The alphabel above and the figures on the left hand side are worked in the s21me

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alphabets below are worked in a thin thread in very narrow and even $'hippcd outline slitch

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Aboutthe author: Elsie Svennas is a well-known ofstitchery authority on all aspects and embroidery.Sheis the author the of many books on the subject, latest being PATCHCRAFT in the Reinhold Craft Paperbnck Series.

VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD COMPANY NEW YORK CINCINNATILONDON MELBOURNE

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