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SCRIBING Fitting t h e e n do r e d g e of a piece of molding ortrim s q u a r e la yg a i n sa t w a l lt h a t i s n o t p l u m bc a n b e d i f f i c u l t .T h es i m p l e t r i c ks h o w n a t r i g h tm a k e s t h et a s k s i m p l eB . u t tt h e b o a r d a g a i n stth e w a l la n d h o l da p e n c iw l i t h i t s e d g ea g a i n stth e w a l la n d i t s p o i n t c o n t a c t i ntg h e f a c eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e S.t a r t i n g at the l o w nt h e w a r r ; t o p o f t h e m o l d i n gs , l i d et h e p e n c i d t h e m a r kt h a t i s s c r i b e d o n t h e w o r k o i e cw e ill orov i d ey o uw i t ha c u t t i n g y o ut o f i t l i n et h a tw i l l e n a b l e the pieceperfectly in place. Youcan alsousea logbuilder's scribe(page 42) for this task.Scribing has n u m e r o ua sp p l i c a t i o nis n,c l u d i n h gelping to fit baseboard to an uneven floor.

Tocheck w h e t h ea r c a r p e n t e rs 's quare i s t r u e ,t a p ea s h e e t of paper d n d ,h o l d i n g to a piece of plywooa o n eo f t h e a r m so f t h e square , r a wa p e n c i a a g a i n sa t n e d g eo f t h e p a n e l d l long t h eo t h e r . h e nt u r n t h e s q u a r e a r m ,m a r k i n g a l i n ea c r o s t sh e p a p e rT over

anddraw another line, asshown at right. The twomarked lines should beparallel, lf not, thearms arenotperpendicular to each other, True thesquare asshown below.

Totruea carpenter's square, begin bymarking a straight line between theinside andoutside corners of thesquare. lf the angle formed bythesquare isgreater than 90', youwillneed to move thetwoarms closer together: Place thetip of a center punch onthelinenear thesquare's outside corner andtapit wrth a ball-peen hammer. lf theangle is less than 90', spread thearms apart bytapping onthelinenear thesquare's inside (right). corner Truing a square mayrequire several taps, but yourprogress check after each attempt.

Cent.er punch






THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by ST. REMY PRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRESIDENT PierreLdveill6 Series Editor Series Art Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers PictureEditor Writers Research Assistant Contr ibuting I IIustrators PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini Jim McRae Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, Laberge Solange H6lEneDion, Michel Gigudre ChristopherJackson Andrew Jones, Rob Lutes,David Simon Bryan Quinn RolandBergerat, GillesBeauchemin, Michel Blais,)ean-GuyDoiron, RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet, Th6rien Maryo Proulx, James NatalieWatanabe MichelleTurbide Roy Jean-Luc RobertChartier Dominique Gagn6 GaretMarkvoort ChristineM. Iacobs

Karl Marcuseis a self-employed carpenter and contractor in Montreal.He hasworked as a home renovatorin many countries and is now completing restoration ofhis centuryold home. cabinetmaking at Montreal Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced technicalschools for more than ten years. A nativeof New Zealand, he hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture Scott Sdruttner is a carpenterand home builder in Fairbanks, Alaska.A frequentcontributor to FineHomebuiWizg, he has beenbuildingstaircases andteaching aspiring carpenters for close to 20years. Editorof HomeMechankMagazine. fosephTruini is Senior A formerShopandToolsEditorof Popular Mechanic$ he has worked asa cabinetmaker, home improvementcontractor and carpenter. Finish carpentry p. cm. - (The Art of woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9s20-l 1. Finishcarpentry I. Time-LifeBooks. II. Series. THs640.Fs63 1994 694'.6-dc20 94-13533 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, please call l-800-62I-7026, or write: Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1994 Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information without prior writstorage and retrievaldevices or systems, ten permissionfrom the publisher,except that brief passages may be quoted for reviews. Firstprinting.Printedin U.S.A. Published simultaneously in Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 r

Administrator Production Manager System Coordinator Photographer Administrativ e Assist ant Proofreader Indexer

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., of a wholly ownedsubsidiary THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

President and CEO JohnM. Fahey Editor-in-chief lohn L. Papanek TIME-LIFEBOOKS President Vice-President, Directorof Marketing ExecutiveEditor Executive Art Director Iohn D. Hall Nanry K. fones RobertaConlan Ellen Robling

ConsubingEditor iohn R. Sullivan Production Manager MarleneZack

6 INTRODUCTION 12 FINISH CARPENTRYBASICS 14 Finishcarpentrytools 16 Basiccuts 20 22 23 30 33 38 40 42 46 52 56 58 59 6I 69 75 81 MOLDING Molding styles Baseboard Chair and picture rails Crown molding PANELING Panelingstyles Tongueand-groovewainscoting Framewainscoting and-panel Paneled ceilings WINDOWS Basicwindow trim styles Installingwindows Picture-frame casing Stool-and-apron casing Making a window sash A glazing bar half-lapjoint 84 DOORS 86 Anatomv of a door 8 8 Toolsand door hardware 90 Frame-and-panel doors 95 Door jambs 100 Hanginga door r07 Locksets II4 116 118 I23 I28 I32 136 STAIRS Anatomyof a staircase The stringers Treads and risers Newelposts Handrails Balusters





for a living, howmany high-quality hardwood doors but no matter custom, $ make A doorsI see. I always marvel at the craftmanshio involved: Thewaya door makfor eximpie,or how er canbringout thewoodgrainby usingquarter;wn boards, joinerymakes a joint thatwon'topenup for 100years or themortise-and-tenon the craftmanship tirat alwavs strikes me. more.But there's somethins else besides English castle or a modIt doesn't matter whether it'ia thickoakdooron a medievai In someway,all doorsare assembly with a delicate arching sash. ern stained-glass justbeyond theturn magic, usthepossibilty of mystery or theunexpected, offering oftheknob. Forstarters, I uselocalwood I buildmy doorsmuchasdoorbuilders of old worked, I know Whenthefelled arelyingin trees thathasbeen cut andmilledbywoodmen primepieces for milling.Those rough I climboverthelogsandselect fresh stacks, in that I built myself boards arelaterdroppedoff at my shop-a stonestructure I carefully mill themto reveal theirunique grainpatruralNewHampshire-where kiln that I alsoconterns. I select thefinest soecimens andthendrv themin a solar thatgives optimumstability to structed. Afterproperaging anddrying-a process hasbeen the wood-I finallybring into my shopa piece of woodthat probably it stoodasa treein theforest. touched by only a couple ofpeople since woods, strong in the andtheygrowwonderfully Cherryandoakaremy favorite andno matter how where I live.Theirgrainpatterns areinvariably spectacular, area plans, manytimesI assemble a door-typically I workfrom custom design soevery a thrillwhenI pullthernilled boards out of theplanoneis unique-thereisalways that is revealed. er andmarvel at theDattern I relyon powhandtoolsto assemble my doors, ThoughI usemanytraditional my clients come to expect: Tolerances of %' inchin door er toolsto gettheprecision pieces suchasstiles, rails, andpanels arecolnmonin my shop. Therange of styles thatpeoI amproudof whatI produce, andit'snever boring. keeps me on my toes, doingsomething plelook for in custom doorsalways always wroughtinteresting. Whether I'm workingwith a localblacksmith to fabricate some geometry of cutiron hir-rges for a Tudor-style dooror figuring out thecomplicated I never havea dull day. in a doorthat's takenmea weekto complete, ting center ovals iswhentheprocess comes to an end.These doors TheonlythingI find disagreeable I've sweated I havepouredmy heartinto, something overto make aresomething I justhateto see themgo. beautiful.

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Custont Doors, a GrontTaylor is theowner of Lamson-Taylor NewHantpshire. Taylor two-person shop in South Acworth, NorthAmerica. hasbuih cltstom doors throughout for hotrses


on Ion Eakes

It J waked in and I knewwithin two minutesthat this wasa quality-builthouse. I wasa modest split-level-no vaultedceilings, no spectacular centerpiece. In fact "outstanding." therewasnothing Eventhe trim wassimpleand unobtrusive, but a look aroundthe windowsshowed precise close miteredangles andno signof nails. It wasthe trim aroundthe bottom of the wall that saidthe most:tight corners and carefully constructed returns.Veryfewpeople botherto do that today. Tiim andmoldings part of both furnitureandhouse wereoncethemostobvious interior finishing.Thereweresimplemechanical reasons why mostof it hasdisappeared today. Thebeautyandcreativity of moldingdesigns wasan outgrowthof the needto hide constructionjoints aswell asjunctionsbetween differentmaterials. Modern materials havechanged all that.With drywallreturnson windowsand tapered corners, manymodernhouses now usetrim onlyto hidethedoorframes and the intersection between wallsand floors. Wecanbemoan the sterilized look of particleboard furnitureandbox-likehouses-or we canseethe absence of joints asliberatingmolding from its mechanical needto hide something, allowingits shape and placement to be determined solely by our esthetic desires. Makingyour own moldingsis oneof themostsatisfying ways of lettingyour creativity showin your woodworking. Althoughrouterscaneasily decorate edges and with a bit of work evenmakefull moldings, it is the tablesawoutfittedwith a threeblademoldingheadthat canreallyproduce. In my experience thekeys to success in makingmoldingor trim on a tablesawarevery simple: . Usevery sharpknives. . Usewood that is eitherflat or easily pressed flat on the table. . Usefirm hold-downs that prevent vibration. . Advance the wood just fastenoughto preventburningbut just slowlyenough "waves" to avoid on the faceof thewood. Honing your molding knivesfor that very cleancut is easier than it may seem. Nevertry sharpening the curvedend:Youwon't getall threeto match.Layeachknife flat on a very flat sharpening stoneand grind the entiresideof the knife,the same lengthof time for eachone.Youwon't makeit much thinnerbut you will honethe cuttingedge and keepall threeblades exactly the same shape and lengh.

lon Eakeshas beena cabinetmakerand customrenovator in Montreal, Canadafor more than 20 years. He is known primarily for his teachingthrough books, videos,radio, and the TV showRenovationZone.

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ScottSchuttneron the


, learned stairbuilding thewirymostof us do-fron-rbooks ancl trial ancl error. Honever, thebooks of 30years agousually coverecl such subjects rvithrudieither l-nentary abruptness or arcane terminologv. Neither approach nreanc'l satisfied I have conre to understaud that thereis r.nore to consider thantheclbviolrs fr.rnction of delivering people fromoneelevation to another. A gracefirl isoneof themostprominent staircase architecturirl features in a home anda showcirse of a u,oodworker's talents. Thecare andpatience thatgointobuilding mtry stairs beon displav for 100 years andnot easily remodeled or repaired. A staircase mustbemade rocksolid, asit will serve asrrplilyground, slide, anci racervay for cl-rilclren. A stairbuilder mustbearvirre thirtusers become physically attuned to tl-re stairs. Our legs quicklypick Lrp a rhythmfor trsetof stairs, rvhichafteroneor trvosteps allorvs r"rs to negotiate therest withouta1l-absorbing attention. \\hen faced withthese it is notsurprising conceurs, thatnor,ice carpeuters shvalvay fl'ombr-rilding ar A minormiscalculation stairway. in onestep canresult beingout of synclvith the restandevenif not discernable visually, it mayresult in a stumble for theul-rwarv. But not to ivorry.Although stairbLril<1ing requires thorough planning ancl attention to detail, in mostcases thenath is straightfbrrvard andthecarpeutry, although clr.rllerrgirrg, rreed rrot beintirnid.rtirrg. TohelpensLlre success I ahvays drirwii precisely dimensioned, side-r,iew sketch of thestairs andinclude all detaiis suchastread thickness, floorcoverir.rgs, landings, andrough framing whilepaying close attention to thefirstandlaststep since thisis where mostmistakes arelikelyto occur. And initially, I planvertical distances with refbrence to Jitishedfloor andtreadsurfaces andmakeadjustnrents fl'omthere. I also keep in mindbuilding codes thatdictate limitsfor theriseandmn, rvidthof stairs, sizes of handrails, andheadroom cleariurces to nalrea t-elv. Codes do not necessarily prescribe great stairs but theyrvillkeep,vou fi'ombuilding disastrous ones. As a stairbuilder in Alaska, I am asked to usea widevariety of materiirls combinedintonrany eclectic stvles, ranging from rustic treads irndcirrriases using split logs spruce to grand stirircirses lvith mitered nosir.rgs, volutes, trndgoosenecks. \\4ri1e no tr'vo ever lookthesame, theirconstruction fbllows thestrme processes. It'sirlnays a lot of fun andtheendresult turnsout to be usefirl for somuchnrorethturmerelv enabling people to goupstairs or down.

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ScottSclrtrtttrer is theatrtltoro.l'Bosic Stairltuildirrg trttrl otlrcrboLtks arrdorticle s bS, 71,, Thrrrttort Press. Hc livcsttrttl ope rotesItiscttttrparry,HenrtwLtod lluildersorttl \,Vootlworkitrg, itt r..airbortks, Alosko.



Crown molding (paqe 33) Windowcasing (pa4e 61)

Picture rail (paqe 3O)




Frame-andpanel door (paae 90)

Ealuster (pa4e 136)

Door trim (pa4e112)

Plinth (paqe 112)



Power miter aaw For croaecuttin4and miterinqmoldingand trim; can croagcut etock up to 5 % inchea wideand miter atock up to 3 % inchea wide. Model ahownfeaturea a 10-rnch bladeand a laeer beam for lininqup cuta

Molderlplaner Flaneaand millabaaeboard, chair rail, crown moldinq,and other typea of trim in etock up to 10 inchea wide;worka like a thickneaa planer with profiled knivea

5liding compound miter saw Makee miter, bevel,and compound cuta rn moldinq and trim. Can croaacut and bevelatock up to 12 inchea wide,and makemiter and compoundcuta in etock up toB%incheawide. Featureaan B %-inch bladet.hat rune alonq a alide and an electric brake to 6top the bbAe epinning quicklywhen the triq7er ie releaeed

Coping aaw 9mall frame aaw uaedto cut copediointe in crown moldinqand other trim with iurved profilea:modelahownfeaLureea 4%-inch throat

Although it is not as quick to useas a miter saw, the commercialmiter box shown at right is a good alternative. The jig comeswith its own handsaw and can be adjustedto make q cut at any angle between0o and 90o.For ease of use,the legscan be attachedto a plywood base,which is then clamped to a work surface.



A slidirrg corrrpoturd snwis set te to nliter a lerrgthof molding.It is a good iden niter startd, whichenables yott to work at a lo ntoLutt tlrc saworrn portnltle hcigltt. Tlrc nrodelshowrt sLtpport arrtts thnt carrbe adjustcortt.fbrtoblc featu'es ed to extctrd4 .lbelort encltsideof tlrc bladeto accorturrodate lortgworkpieces.


R i p p i no gnt h et a b l e saw l f y o ua r eu s i n g rough lumbef r o r y o u rf i n i s hc a r p e n t rp yr o l e c t s , s t a r tb y j o i n t i n g o n ef a c eo f e a c hb o a r da , n dt h e na n e d g e . Next, r i pt h e b o a r d t o w r d t hm , aking t h es e c o n d e d g ep a r a l l e l tto he jointed edge. Setthe stock facedownon the sawtableandadlust .o s i t i o n t h e b l a d eh e i g h t a b o u tZ i n c ha b o v e theworkpiece P r i p f e n c e f o r w i d t h f e e d the the o f t h e c u t ,t h e n t h e s t o c ki n t o

) tand the blade, holding i t f i r m l ya g a i n stth e f e n c e( a b o v e .S slightlt yo t h e l e f to f t h e w o r k p i e ca en ds t r a d d l t e h ef e n c e with y o u rr i g h th a n d , making certain t h a tn e i t h eh r a n dr s i n l i n e y o u rf i n g e r s guard, w i t ht h e b l a d e O . nce a p p r o a cth he blade ( C a u t i o n : p u s h guard u s ea s t i c kt o c o m p l e t e thecut. Blade partially retracted for clarity.)


Crosscufting on thetablesaw Tocutthe board t o l e n g t hh , o l di t f l u s h , n d a l i g ny o u r a g a i n stth e m i t e rg a u g ea c u t t i n gm a r kw i t ht h e b l a d e . P o s i t i ot n he r i p f e n c ew e l l a w a y f r o mt h e e n d o f t h e s t o c kt o p r e v e ntth e c u t - o f fp i e c e from jamming a g a i n stth e b l a d e a n dk i c k i n g b a c k .H o o kt h e t h u m b so f b o t hh a n d s o v e rt h e m i t e rg a u g e t o h o l dt h e s t o c k f i r m l ya g a i n stth e g a u g e a n df l a t a g a i n s t t h et a b l e , t h e nf e e dt h e b o a r d i n t ot h e blade (right).(Caution: Bladeguardpartiallyretracted for clarity.)

Making a mitercut A d j u s t h e s a wt o t h e d e s i r e d m i t e ra n g l e . Onthe model shown at left,turn the table locking handle c o u n t e r c l o c k w id se ep , ress thelocking latcha , n ds w i n g t h e t a b l el e f t o r r i g h tu n t i lt h e p o i n t e irn d i c a t ets he a p p r o p r i aa te n g l eT . u r nt h e h a n d l e clockw i s et o l o c kt h et a b l e . S e ty o u rw o r k p i e c e o n t h e t a b l ea n da l i g nt h e c u t t i n g mark with the tableslot.Themodel shown features a laser beam t o h e l py o ul i n eu p t h e cutting mark. H o l d i nt g h ew o r k p i e c fe irmly a g a i n stth e t a b l ea n d f e n c e , t u r no n t h e s a wb y s q u e e z i ntg he handle t r i g g ea r nd (/eff). b r i n gt h e s a wd o w ns l o w l y Once t h ec u t i s c o m p l e t e d r, e l e a ste h et r i g g e r a n dl i f tt h e h a n d l e u n t i lt h e b l a d e clears t h ew o r k o i e c e .


Making a b e v ec l u to n a sliding compoun sd aw Adjust the sawto the desired bevel angle. 0n the model shownl ,o o s e n the bevel c l a m pl e v e rt,i l t t h e b l a d e a s s e m bt ly o the left,andsetthe bevel to the required a n g l eT . ighten t h e c l a m pl e v e rS . e tt h e workpiec a e gains tt h ef e n c e a , l i g n i nt g he cutting l i n ew i t ht h e b l a d ea , n ds e c u r e it in place using To make t h e v i s ek n o b . t h e c u t ,g r i pt h e h a n d l e a n ds l i d e the o r w a r dS . q u e e zte blade a s s e m b lfy he t r i g g eirn t h e h a n d l eb , ring thehandle downa , n ds l i d e t h e s a wb l a d e back to (/eff). cut the workpiece

Making a compoun cd u to n sd aw a sliding compoun A d j u s t h e s a wt o t h e d e s i r e d b e v ea l nd l h o w ns m i t e ra n g l e sO . nt h e m o d e s , tart by settingthe bevelangle(above). To set t h e m i t e ra n g l e l ,o o s e n t h e t a b l el o c k i n g handle a n ds w i n g t h e t a b l et o t h e l e f to r r i g h tt o t h e d e s i r e d a n g l eS . e tt h e w o r k piece a g a i n stth ef e n c ea , l i g n i ny go u r cutside o f t h eb l a d e . t i n gl i n ej u s tt o t h ew a s t e n place using the Clamp t h e w o r k p i e cie viseknob.Make the compound cut (right) a s y o uw o u l da b e v e c l ut.



qUATITY FINISHING GTUING w00D sPEcrEs STRENGTH WORKABITITY Ash Basswood Beech Birch Cedar, Western red Gherry Cypress Douglas-fir Elm Gum, sweet red Hemlock Hickory Mahogany Maple, hard Maple, soft Oak, red white Oak, Pine, ponderosa yellow Pine, Redwood Spruce Teak Walnut Fair Poor Fair Good Poor Fair Fair Fair Good Fai Fair Good Fair Good Fair Good Good Poor Poor Fair Poor Good Good Fai Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Diff icult Good Diff icult Fair Good Good Good Fai Good Good Diff icult Good Fair Good Fair Fair Good Fair Fair Good Fair Good Good Fai Good Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Fair Good Good Poor Good Accepts stains well;requires heavy filler forpainting Accepts stains well Accepts stains well;requires thin filler forpainting Accepts well;requires stains thinfiller for painting Oilstain recommended Accepts stains well;notsuitable for painting recommended Oilstain Oilstain recommended Accepts stains well;requires heavy filler forpainting Accepts well;requires stains thinfiller for painting 0il stain recommended Accepts stains well;notsuitable for painting Accepts stains well;notsuitable for painting Accepts well;requires stains thinfiller for painting Accepts well; requires stains thinfiller for painting Accepts stains well;requires heavy filler forpainting Accepts stains well;requires heavy filler forpainting Accepts finishes well Accepts finishes well recommended 0il stain Accepts finishes well 0il stain recommended; notsuitable forpainting well;notsuitable Accepts stains forpainting




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nickingwallsand paneling, " the Greeks a.ndRoT and picture rails provide a proportlon was I mans, handywayto hangart within the design of everything out marringwalls. theybuilt. Forvisualappeal, Theadvent of themolding reliedon a their structures machine in the 19thCentury prological andharmonious made it oossible to massgression eleof architectural produce this functionaland ments,one atop the other, material.Today, decorative from plinth to cornice. Some you canbuy the mostpopuFor woodworkerswith a lot of molding to install, 2000 yearslater,furniture lar profiles of crownmolding perithefinish nailer is a handy alternativeto a hammer. makers of theGeorgian andbaseboard at virtually any a length of crown molding to the versions Here, the nailer secures od usedsmall-scale hardware store.Soecialized air, the nailer drives home ceiling.Poweredby compressed elements to decof the same millwork shoos stotk a wider small-gauge oratethe interiorsof their finishing nails without splitting the wood. rangeof profrles, and some patrons'homes. knivesso that an antiquepattern special all intewill custom-grind molding is a broadterm that encompasses Today, to makein the But moldingis alsoeasy chair canbe reproduced. suchasbaseboard, rior trim applied to wallsandceilings, 24).All you needis a tablesawwith a tilting arbor tipe shop(page of each rail,picturerail,andcrownmolding.An example Z-inchrouter-and 12.Thischap- anda moldingheador a table-mounted in a typical house interioron page is illustrated If you plan to produce a greatdealof a bit of imagination. for makingand installing these difinstructions ter presents like the one shownin molding,a shaper or a molder/planer ferent kindsof molding. purchase. Whetherit is the angulartrim of an Arts and Crafts-style thephotoat left maybea worthwhile Installing moldingcanbe a simpletaskonceyou havemashome or the formal corniceof a Victorianparlor,molding (page (page tereda fewbasic principles 26).Uselongerpieces for the role.Baseboard serves a functionalaswellasa decorative locamain roomsso that therewill be fewerjointsin these the wall is designed to covergaps between 23),for example, purpose tions.Save for inside closets andless consDicushorter oieces the same and the floor, while crown molding serves j0) prevent from ousareas of thehome. chairbacks theceiling. Chairrails(page along

planerand theshaper, a molder/planer Combining of thethickness features worksmuchlikea planer,except milk a lengthof chairrail. Themachine proknives that mqtchthedesired that it canbefined with custom-ground power and capacity to turn out custom The model shown at left has the fiIe. quicklyand accurately. chairrails,and crownmolding baseboards,



Ranch-atyle baeeboard with 4uarter-round ahoe molding (page 24)

Euilt-up baseboard (pase25)

Colonialatyle baaeboard Custom oingle-pieae baeeboard (pase 27)

Formal corniae (pase 56)

Crown molding

(pase 33)

Crown and flat molding

mop,{ lsoknownasskirt,baseplate, .C-Lboard, baseboard or iustplainbase, is the mostcommonform of molded runningtrim usedin finishcarpentry. a dual purpose: they Baseboards serve thewallto thefloorand visually anchor anygaps between those theyalsocover two surfaces. in two basic tvoes: Baseboard comes singlesingle-piece or built-up. Standard is usually 3 piece baseboard between wideandis soldin a variand 12inches it canbe made ety of moldedprofiles; with a tablesaw, router,or shaper. easily While single-piece baseboard maybe it is morelikelyto cup easier to install, than built-up molding.The simplest isbase-andform ofbuilt-uobaseboard (page 2a),whichfeatures a moldshoe thatprovides a visualtransition edshoe the wall andfloor. between is installed with a hamBaseboard mer,a nail setand finishingnails,or finishnailer(page with an air-powered nailer is a moreexpen2i). While the installation it makes sivealternative, preferable quickandclean. It is to handnailingwhenworkingwith hardwood molding, whichis moreprone to splitBaseboard moldtine than softwood. nailedir.r place afterthe ing"is typically wallshavebeenoainted and the finish Thenthe floor installed and sanded. in place. If the moldingis nailed shoe floor is to be installed afterthe baseleave a space underthebaseboard board, for the floor; usescraps ofthe flooring the sizeof the to helovou determine can gap. Ai with all molding, baseboard or painted; thisis bestdone be stained afterall themoldinghasbeencut to size, it is installed. but before

The last pieceof baseboard to be installedin a room often endsat a door Here a U-shaped, shop-nnde jig casing. the calleda preacheris usedto nreasure piecebeforeit is nailed irt place.The jig and rests agninst slips overthe baseboard the casing, allowirtgyou to mark the buseboard to lertgth witlr precision.

Door caeing Butt joint Uaedwheremoldinq meeto door caetnq: aloo oervesto jorn two len4theof flat baeeboard at an inaidecorner.The end of the moldtn7 eimplybutte aqatnet the matinq piece.
Coped joint (page 27) Joina cueLom baeeboard, ptcture and chatr raile, and cornice moldtn4'at. tnaide corner6; leea likely to open wtth aeasonal wood move' ment than miter joint, Aleo a cleanerjoinL than the miter for cornera that are noL 90'.

1carf joint )pltcea lenqtheof baeeboardand cornicemoldin4

toqether alo.n4a lonq watl

Miter joint (page 2A) Forjoinin4 moldin7at outetde cornerg:can aleojorn eome Lypeeof moldingat inoidecorjoinery hideoend qrain. nera.The




Milling theshoe ona router table portion I Make theshoe molding of the baseboard from%-inchlhick stock. lnstall anedge-forming bit inyour router andmount thetoolin a table; a round-over bitisshown at right, butany other shape canbeused. Tosupport theworkpiece, use three featherboards: Clamo twoto thefence-one on each side of thebit-anda third to thetable in line withthecutter. Shape both edges of each workpiece, feeding thestock with bothhands andf inishing thepass witha push stick. For safety, it is best to shape long boards thatareat least 4 inches wide, andthenriptheshaped edges offonthe table saw. 'l

thebase 0nthetable saw ! Relieving portion 4- fo prepare thebase of thebaseboard, shape one edge adjusting itswidth to about 2 inches, andsetthecutting height plane of a 1-by-4 or 1-by-6 asin step1. Then thestock to the at % inch. Position theripfence sothecutwillbecentered in desired thickness. Toprevent themolding from cupping and com- themrddle of theworkpiece. Use twofeatherboards to support pensate foranyirregularities in thewall, make a relief cutalong t h es t o c k a n db o t h h a n dt so f e e di t f a c eu p ,w h i l e butting it (above). theback face of thestock. Install a dado head onvour table saw. against thefence Finish thepass witha push stick.




Milling a base cap base cap-of Tomake thetoppiece-the baseboard illustrated on page thebuilt-up 22, install a decorative edging bit onyour (A router shaper. candothejobtoo,but youto employ enables larger theshaper therefore thicker stock. lt cutters-and Keep is also a more stable toolto use.) pressed against thefence and thestock thetable using thehold-downs supplied Feed onedge, withthemachine. thestock (right). To f inishthe using bothhands pass, move to theoutfeed side of thetable past Thebotandpullthestock thecutter. of built-uo baseboard is installed tomoiece way a ss i n g l e - p i em ce olding t h es a m e (page to 26I Thebase capisthennailed piece. both thewallandthebottom

Beforethe routerand shaper, the combination plane was the tool of choice for shapingmolding. This versatile hand toolfeaturesa rangeof interchangeable grooves, cuttersthat canform tongues, dadoes, ovolos,and beadflutes, reeds, ings.An adjustableedge guide ensures straight cuts while a depth stop allows the plane to trim to precisedepths.The modelshownat left, the Stanely45 Multiplane, is a venerabledesignthat insDired many imitators.



P l a n n i ntg h ei n s t a l l a t i o n The ideal sequence for installing baseboard g o a li s d e p e n do s n t h e r o o ml a y o u tY . our to make t h el o i n e r y i n c o n s p i c u ow us hen enterinp t h e r o o m a s s h o w na t l e f t . A t ; t outside d o o rc a s i n g s u , s eb u t t j o i n t s a corners u,s em i t e r sA . t inside corners u ,s e ( b e l o wo )r coped miters forf lat molding j o i n t sf o r c o n t o u r e m (page d olding 27). S t a r ta t a l o n gw a l l( A )o p p o s i t e thedoor. joints. W i t hc o p e d cutthe piece to butt a g a i n sw t a l l sD a n d E s ot h e e n dg r a i n of t h em o l d i n g along these walls w i l lb e i n v i s i b l ef r o mt h e d o o r . Installthe molding along w a l lB n e x t , t h e nw a l l s C a n dD . l f a w a l li s l o n g et rh a ny o u rs t o c k , as in E, c o n n e cttw o p i e c e s using a s c a r fj o i n t . Locate t h e j o i n ta t a w a l ls t u d .F i n i s h the (walls installatio an t t h ed o o r F a n dG ) .C u t a l lt h em o l d i n g / - i n c h l o n g etrh a nn e e d "snap" e d ;t h i sw i l la l l o w itto i n t op l a c e .
v i r ! v i , r i b

Mi1;er or.coped .lotnt

Butt joint


Nailint gh em o l d i n ig n place T o i n s t a lb l a s e - a n d - s hm oe olding at an inside c o r n e rc , u tt h et w o p i e c e s to length, mitering oneend of eachboard(page 17). M a k et h e c u t ss o t h e b a c kf a c eo f e a c h molding r e a c h ets h e c o r n e rt,h e n i n s t a l l . sing o n eo f t h e p i e c e sU a h a m m ea r n d2 i n c h( 6 d ) f i n i s h i n ng ails o ra f i n i s h nailer loaded w i t ht h e t y p eo f n a i l s e db y specif themanufacture fa r ,s t e n themolding to t h e w a l l .D r i v e t w on a i l s atevery w a l ls t u d , locatint gh e n a i l s% i n c hf r o mt h e t o p a n d bottom of the molding. Theupper nailshould reach t h e s t u d ,w h i l et h e l o w e o r n es h o u l d enterthe soleplateattached to the subfloor directly below the studs. To locate thestuds, usea stud finder(page 32). lf youareusing a h a m m e rs , e tt h e n a i lh e a d sF . i tt h e s e c ond pieceof molding in place(right) and nailit to thewallthe same way. Thensecure (d rnset), t h e s h o em o l d i n g to thebaseboar driving a n a i le v e r y 16 inches,



themolding 1 Coping contoured molding at an I To install inside corner, crosscut both ends of one piece sothat it f its snugly between the will adjoinin w ga l l sT . h em a t i n p giece joint. buttagainst itsface witha coped thisjointis a two-step operation. Cutting bymaking a 45' bevel cut onone Start th ; i sw i l lr e v e a th le e n do f t h em o l d i n g Then contour line ontheface. clamp the promolding face upona work surface, pad.Use tecting thestock witha wood a coping saw fittedwitha narrow blade to thecontour line. Hold thesaw cutalong (right), perfectly upright bitingintothe wood For a tightf it, hold ontheupstroke. the thesaw slightly over 90', undercutting joint of the slightly, sothatonly thefront board contacts thefaceof the mating piece. in thekerf, make lf theblade binds occasional release cutsintothewaste to pieces letsmall fallaway.

Installing themolding Nail thef irstpiece of molding to the (page wallasyouwould flatbaseboard 26). position Then thecoped endagainst the firstpiece to testthefit (left). Smooth oul witha round anyirregularities f ileorfine sandpaper wrapped around a dowel. Once thefit is perfect, nail thecoped molding in olace.




themiter angle 1 Determining I Tofit baseboard at anoutside corner, youwill f irstdetermine themiter angle need to cut.This step is essential if the walls do notmeet at 90'; asa result, the miter cuts willnotbe45'. (This isoften thecase in older homes.) Hold a scrap board thesame thickness asthemolding against onewallanduseitsoutside face to mark a reference line onthef loor. Then hold theboard against theadjoining wall andmake twomarks on it: One on itstop in line edge withthecorner andanother on itsfront faceperpendicular to thereference mark onthef loor(/eft).

r) Transferring theangle (- Use a trv square to extend the mark on thefaceof tf,. ,.rup board to thetop edge. Then adjust a sliding bevel to the angle formed bytheendof thislineand thecorner mark on thetopedge of the (right). board Thisis yourmiter angle. Use you thesliding bevel to adjust thesaw w i l lb eu s i n t go c u tt h em o l d i n g .



Installing themolding

di l* iiil iliiff it
Store-bought cornerpieceo joinl CuINinq a miLer ie noLNhe onlyway t o inetall baseboard

t$ rhiili ru,ll * il{rut illi$

Make t h e m i t e rc u t so n t h e p i e c e s of m o l d i na g n dc h e c k t h e f i t o f t h ej o r n t . Make a n ys l i g h t a d j u s t m e nw t si t ha c h i s e l o r s a n d p a p eT r. h e ni n s t a ltlh e p i e c e s (above w i t ha h a m m eo r r f i n i s hn a t l e r a)s (page youwouldat an insidecorner 26). R e p e atth e p r o c e sts o i n s t a ls l h o em o l d I n go r a b a s e cap.

a No u t s i d e c o r n e r o . Many Nypesof com' m e r c i a lb a e e b o a r d come with ready-made ,.-.--\.'\ \ cornerVieces featurinq lhe same profileas otraiqht s e c t i o n s .J o i n e dt o o t r a i q h L l e n q t h ow i L hb u I I j o i n t s , l h e s e

cornero oVeed up insLallaLion. ThesquaretyVe ehown hereis "proud" madeelightly of Lheolraiqht eecNions for vieual effect,


were hairrails originally used simf \, ply to preventchair backsfrom marringwallsor paneling, but theyhave recently assumed a morepurelydecorativerole.Today, they often serve asa dividerbetween decorative elements on a wall,with paneling or wallpaper usuallyinstalled between thechairrail and the floor. Chairrailsaremuchlikebaseboard, way, and areinstalledexactly the same except that theyarelocated aboutonethird of thewaybetween floor andceiling, typically3 feetoff the floor. Like baseboard, chairrailsarecommercially available in a number of orofilesand in the sizes, but theycanbeeasilymade shoofrom 1-bv-4 stock. ficture rail is a tvpeof chairrail with a roundedlip usedto hang picture frames. It is installed 6 to 8 feetoff the picturerailsoftensupport floor.Since weight,theyarescrewed considerable ratherthan nailedin place. The screw holes arethenconcealed by woodplugs. Depending on the esthetic effectyou want to achieve, you canusechairrails, picturerails,or both in conjunction (page with baseboard 23) and crown molding(page 33).

chairrailsandcrownmolding Custom patareavailable with elaborate carved ternsand scrollwork, in a widerange of modern andantiaue stvles.


thereeds 1 Milling rail I tvtat<ing one-piece molded chair involves cutting reeds typically twosteps: at right, ontheface of thestock, asshown andthenshaping theedges btep2). CUI ihereeds onyour table saw using a moldgn i v e s . i n gh e a d w i t ha s e to f r e e d i nk Install thehead andposition theripfence bycentering theworkpiece facedown thecutters andbutting thefence over theworkpiece against thestock. Secure withtwofeatherboards, oneclamped to fixed to thesaw thefence anda second table. Both featherboards should be in line w i t ht h ec u t t e r s C.l a m p a support feathboard at a 90' angle to thesecond erboard. Make thefirstpass witha cutting height a full-depth of %inch; donotmake Tomake thecut,slowly cut in onepass. feed into thecutters with theworkpiece your pressing righthand, it against therip (right). withyourlefthand Finish fence the cutwitha push stick. One ortwopasses i s u s u a l lsyu fifc i e nw t ith t h i sp a r t i c u l a r orof ile:raise thecutters nomore IhanYa inchat a timebetween oasses.



r) Shaping theedges youhave L Once milled thereeds in your chair railstock, shape theedges ona router Install table. an edge-forming bit in your router; Then an ogee bit is shown at right. mount thetoolin a table. Tosuooort the workpiece forthiscut,usethree featherboards: Clamo twofeatherboards to the fence, one oneach side of thebit,anduse thethirdopposite thebitto press thestock against thefence. Seta shallow depth of Toshape cutforthefirstpass. each edge, slowly feedtheworkpiece intothecutter (right); finish thecut witha push stick. passes Make a series of deeper untilyou profile, attain thedesired increasing the cuttind gepth %i n c h ata time.


theheight ofthechair rail 1 Determining I Use a chalk line to mark a h e i g hlti n eo nt h ew a l lf o rt h e molding. Make a mark at each end of one wall, typically 36 inchAfter esoffthefloor. measuring theheight of onemark, use a level anda long, straight board to make thesecond mark at the

same level, asthefloor may notbetrue. Drive a finishing nailinto thewall at one of themarks andhook thechalk lineonthenail head. Align theother endwiththesecond height mark andsnap thechalk line(above). Repeat fortheother walls in theroom.



r) Finding thewallstuds L neally, molding should benailed to the Todetermine their location, use wall studs. point each witha a stud finder andmark (left). pencil 16 inches Studs aretypically lf youdo nothave apart, center to center. t h ew a l l a stud f i n d e ry,o uc a nt a pa l o n g froma hollow witha hammer; a change sound to a solid sound indicates a stud.

in place themolding Q Nailing r-J Cutthechair railto len$handfasten i t t o t h ew a l l s using a hamme orr a n a i r powered with nailer. Align themolding the into line t w on a i l s each chalk a n dd r i v e a hammer, lf youareusing stud(right), setthe nailheads.


Greek architecf) ootedin classical I\ [ure, rose crownmolding to prominence during lBth-Century England, first appearing on furniture of the period.Soonafter, Georgian the flowing patterns of thismoldingalso began to adorntheceilings rooms. of drawing Today, single-piece crownmoldingcan alongthe wallsand ceilings be installed interiors, of house or it canbecombined with other elements to makebuiltup ceilingmoldings, suchas crownand-flat (page 22), or a formal cornice (page Whenchoosing 36). crownmolding, makesureit is properlyproportionedfor theroom;moldingthat is too wide will givethe effectof loweringthe ceiling. Molding3 or 4 inches in width is about right for an average-sized B-foot-high ceiling. Installingcrownmoldingis not much differentfrom nailing on baseboard or chair rails;outsidecornersaremitered andinsidecorners aremitered or coped. Simpleone-piece crown molding is nailedthroughthe flatsof the molding joists, into thewall studs, ceiling andtop plate,which restson top of the wall studs. Complex built-up crownmolding, suchasa formalcornice, needs to

befastened to furring strips. Where the joists ceiling runparallelto thewall, gluingthemolding to theceiling will often

A pair of nailsdrivenat opposuffice. into the wall will hold the siteangles moldingin place until theadhesive cures.

Because crown molding ispositionedon both the wall and ceiling,corners must "upside be miteredat compoundangles, and pieces must be held down and backward" when they are cut. The jig shown in thephoto above,however, allows the molding to be held on the chopsaw exactlyas it will appear on the wall and ceiling,requiringno repositioningbefore the cut.


molding corner ataninside 1 Coping place I Before installing crown molding, nn , ds n a p it in positioa a chalk l i n eo n thewallto mark the bottom edge of the molding C.o p e t h ee n do f o n ep i e c e to piece f it against theface of anadjoining (page asyouwouldbaseboard 27). SIarI bymitering theend, thenmake thecoped cutusing a coping saw. Inthiscase, secure positheworkpiece in a visein thesame tionit willbewhen it is installed. Hold the perpendicular coping saw to themolding throughout thecut (/efi).


Installing thecoped molding

T e s t - f i t h e c o p e de n d a g a i n s t h e

piece adjoining of molding, which should (/eff). in place Fine-tune already benailed thefit, if necessary, byfiling orsanding the coped end. Nail thecoped molding to the wallandceiling asyouwould base-and(page shoe molding 27).

themiter angle Q Determining J atanoutside corner A sw i t hb a s e b o a rtd h,ef i r s ts t e pi n installing crown molding at anoutside corneristo findthecorrect miter angle. Start bydrawing tworeference lines ontheceiling.Holding a piece of molding in place one wall and theceiling, mark one against itstopedge, extending of thelines along past Repeat fortheadjacent thecorner. line(right). wallto mark thesecond



Transferring themiter angle to a sliding bevel Draw a linefromthecorner to thepoint youmarked where thetworeference lines in step Then 3 intersect. adjust a sliding bevel sothatitshandle butts against one of thewalls withthe and theblade aligns (rghf). lineyoujustmarked ontheceiling Use thesliding bevel to setupyour saw to cutthemiters.

themolding f, lnstalling r - , 1I n s t a ltlh ec r o w n moldina g sy o u would b a s e b o am rd o l d i na gt a no u t s i d e (page corner 28). Using a f inishnailer or . hen h a m m en r ,a i lo n ep i e c e i n p l a c eT (left). position theother lt thefit is not perfect, back cutthemiters slightly with youaresatisf a utility knife. Once iedwith glueto themitered thef it, apply some piece ends andnail thesecond of molding place. prevent in To themiter fromopening, nail through themiter fromboth sides.




nailing strips 1 Installing I A formal cornice isanantique-style crown molding consisting of a box-like (installed support assembly in steps 1 and2) andthreepieces of molding (installed in step 3).Cutthefourpieces of the support assembly from%-inch pieces stock. These areinstalled thesame (page wayasbaseboard 26),withmiters at bothinside andoutside corners. Start nailer into byscrewing theceiling the joists withthepiece flush ceiling against thewall. Then screw thewallnailer to (above), thewallsluds leaving a %-inch gapbetween itstopedge andtheceiling nailer to allow forwood movement.

r') lnstalling fascia thesoffit and L Aipthefascia andsoffitpieces sothat when they areattached to theceiling and willforma wallnailers, thefourpieces box.Rout a decorative lip along thebottom jointhefascia piece, edge of thefascia and joints, soffit boards withplate thenscrew thefascia to theceiling nailer andattach (right). the soffitto thewall nailer



Installing themolding
ed g ei n % T o m a k et h e w a l l m o l d i n gr,o u ta d e c o r a t i ve w i t h i t sf l a te d g e in place i n c hs t o c k t thepiece , h e ns c r e w i n t ot h e w a l ls t u d sn e a r thescrews a g a i n stth e s o f f i t .D r i v e will be concealed top edge, where the fasteners the molding's e d g eN . ext, install n ; a i la l o n g thebottom b yt h e b e dm o l d i n g (page molding 33), a s y o uw o u l dc r o w n t h e b e dm o l d i n g c ,u t a n d g n dt h es o f f i tF . tnally nailing i t t o t h ew a l lm o l d i n a molding b e t w e etn h ef a s c i a a n dt h e c e i l i n g i n s t a ltlh e c r o w n through around t h e r o o m( p a g e s 3 3 - 3 5 ) .N a i lt h e m o l d i n g joists n t ot h e c e i l i n g i t sf l a t s e c t i o n s d,r i v i n g t h e f a s t e n e ris and the fascta(above).



{ \,'


i n g . I n 1 6 t h - C e n t u r y E u r o p e , c a l l e d s t i l e s o r m u l l i o n s , a n d
horizontal ones,called rails. graced byframe-and-panel Interiorwallshavebeen at the end of the Gothic fur"waynscottes" aremilled aroundthe The of Grooves period, centuries. wainscotingfor niture flexibility frame-andinside edges of theframe, allowpanel a wide range of design planks allows construction consisted of seasoned for panels panels freely, ing to float possibilities, the the elaborate ornamental interior of Balticoak covering from andcontracting with designs, expanding oflacobean-style walls. In Colonial America, furniture to moremodern "wainscot" photo paneling changes in humidity. in the seasonal pine the shown referred to suchas full-wall This customwainscotingcan Industries of Montreal. above, madebyPatella boards that stretched from transforma plain room into a floor to ceiling,addinga rusformal replacing flat, monotonouswalls with wide more space, wainscoting encompasses a Today, tic warmth to parlors.

although thetermmostfrequently range of wall coverings, panels halfof awall. installed onthelower describes wainscoting: tonguetypes of paneled There aretwobasic Tongue-and-groove wainand-groove andframe-and-panel. storesand a2) is available at hardware scoting(page paneling. Made interlocking lumberyards asready-to-install softwood, tonguefromstain-grade hardwood or paint-grade Butyou paneling in avariety of profiles. comes and-groove

exquisitelymoldedpanels. to crebeadapted to ceilings Paneling techniques canalso (page look for a den or study 52).In a pana sumptuous ate a framework of 2-by-4sis sheathed coffered---<eiling, eled---or inhardwood,withveneeredplywoodpanelssetintothefram provide touch. molding thefinaldecorative Crown andshoe paneled rooms In anystyle, sudaces cantransform ordinary richly retreats. into comforting

asthecrowning touchtoframe-and-panel A molded caprail is installed role,thecaprailhidesthegap wainscoting. In additionto itsdecorative range thewainscoting and thewall. Caprail designs betyveen from the chairrails. molded chamfered rail shownat left to moreelaborate simple






Kateed floaLtn4 panel

thoe moldinq

Dotl,om rail



End attle

Median ratl

DotLom ratl


thoe moldin4


*}wainscoting orrgue-and-groove conI sists of a series of interlockins boards with an optional or panels deiorative profile.It is themostbasic andpopular type of interiorpaneling. Traditionally madefrom softwood and givena clear finish, tongue-and-groove paneling can be installed from floor to ceiling to create a rustic look. It imnartsa more whenused sophisticated appearance as wainscoting andstained. While you can buy tongue-andgroove wainscoting ready-made, youcan also mill yourownfiom 1-by-4 or 1-by6 stockusinga tablesaw. Usea dado headto cut tongues in oneedge ofthe in the otheredge. boards andgrooves Switch to a molding head to milla decorativebeadin the front faceof the boardsl a selection of wainscoting profiles is displayed at right. Tongue-and-groove wainscoting is typically installed from the floor to a heightof 36 inches. Compensate for floorsby cuttingthe boards uneven a littleshort. Thatway, thetopends of the boards canall be installed at thesame level; anygaps between thebottomends andthefloorwill beconcealed by baseboard (page22). If there are nailers behindthewall-typically 2-by-4 blocking between the wall studs-and you know wheretheyare,fasten the wainscoting to them,Otherwise, anchor fi.rrring strips to thestuds(page 49)andnail thewainscoting to thefurringstrips.


Daotct onqueand-groove




Deadedtonqueand-qroove Chamfered tonqueand-groove Kounded tonqueand-qroove


Btttting the edge of a boardor panel squarely against an out-of-phmtb wall, brickwork,or a wlll with contoured ntoldingcar be a challenge. The logbuilder'sscribeshown irt the photo at right rnakes afiting the edge It easy. pirr urved steel feoturesan ad.iustnble and two levelvialsfor ncuu"ately tracing the wall profile onto thepaneling.




Cutting thegrooves 1 en the leading I Outline t h eg r o o v o end of one board; makethe groove widthonet h i r dt h e s t o c k t h i c k n e sa snditsdeoth a b o u l / , i n c h .I n s t a la l d a d oh e a d onyour t a b l es a w , a d j u s t i n ig t s w i d t ht o t h a to f t h e groove and the cuttingheight to the groove d e p t h .I n s t a la l n a u x i l i a rw yood fence and p a r to f t h e cuta relief n o t c hi n i t t o h o u s e d a d oh e a d w h e ny o um i l lt h e t o n g u e is n s t e n2 'A t. ,h e c r r t t i n m s arks " 'lbi" p n w i t ht h e d a d oh e a d a n d b u t tt h e f e n c e a g a i n stth e To prevent stock. the workpiece fromtipp i n gd u r i n g t h e c u t , c l a m pa s h i m m e d f e a t h e r b o atro dt h e s a wt a b l ei n l i n ew i t h t h e d a d oh e a d . Secure a s u o o o rb t oard against the featherboard for extrapressure. Prest sh e w o r k p i e ca eg a i n stth e f e n c e and the tableas youfeed it edgedownintothe dadohead(right).Complete the passwith a pushstick.Usethe same setup to cut the grooves in all the boards.



r) Cutting thetongues L Outline thetongue ontheleading endof oneboaro, usrng youcut in step1 asa guide. a groove Lower thedado head sltghtly sothetongue willnotbottom outin thegroove. Then align o n eo f t h ec u t t i n g m a r kw s i t ht h ec u t t e ra sn db u t tt h e fence against thestock; also reposition thefeatherboard. Feed theboard asyoudidforcutting thegroove, using a push stick tofinish thepass. Turn theworkpiece around and repeat thecutto (above). complete thetongue

Milling thebeads
I n s t a la l molding head f i t t e dw i t h b e a d i n g knives onyour t a b l es a w . Align theboard f a c ed o w n over o n eo f t h e k n i v e s o thebead w i l lb em i l l e d alongsid te h et o n g u eB . u t tt h e f e n c e against the board, reposition the featherboard, andclampa secro d t h e f e n c ed i r e c t l y o n df e a t h e r b o a t over t h e k n i v e sM . ake a series o f t e s tc u t s i n a s c r a p board t o d e t e r m i nt e he proper . o uc a n a l s oc u t a s l r g h t d e p t h ,t h e n m i l l t h e b e a d s( a b o v e ) Y c h a m f eirn t h eo p p o s i te ed g e w i t ha h a n dp l a n e .




Installing the boards 1 I at an outside corner Snapa chalklinearound the room(page 3I ) to markthe height of the wainscoting. Make sure t h e l i n ei s l e v e l - t h ef l o o rm a y where n o t b e . l f y o uk n o w thenailers beh i n dt h e w a l la r el o c a t e d a,l s os n a pl i n e s f o r t h e m . l f y o u d o n o t k n o ww h e r e the nailers a r e l o c a t e di,n s t a l fl u r r i n g strips (page 4 9 ) . S t a r ti n s t a l l i n g at the boards anoutside c o r n e rD . e t e r m i nte he bevel y o uw i l l n e e d forbaseangle a s y o uw o u l d board(page 28),Ihen makethe cut along To install the grooved edges of two boards. eachboard, alignthe cut edge withthe corneranddrive a nailthrough the tongue into line (left). the wallat eachnailerlocation N a i lt h e c o r n e b themitered r oarda s long furring edges aswell.lf you installed strips, nailthe wainscoting to the strips.

\\_F \
Nailer location linea


/ / q

l t

r) Installing a wall the boards along L Once the two boards areinstalled at the outsrde corner, slipthe groove of a new . a i lt h e b o a r d board in placeN t o t h ew a l l through i t st o n g u em , aking sure allthe t o p sa r el e v e lC . o n t i n ua el o n g t h e w a l lt h e s a m ew a y ,f i t t i n gg r o o v e s o v e rt o n g u e s (right)andnailing in place. the boards



o rp l u m b C h e c k i nfg Q r.,f Halfway a l o n gt h e w a l l , h o l d a c a r penter's l e v e la g a i n stth e t o n g u e of the y o u i n s t a l l etd l a s tb o a r d o check forplumb (right).lf the boardis not perfectly vertic a l , t a p e rt h e g r o o v e d e d g eo f t h e n e x t board w i t h a h a n dp l a n e s ot h a t i t w i l l b e . o n t i n ute o l u m bw h e ni t i s i n s t a l l e d C o the e n d o f t h e w a l l .T o f i t t h e l a s tb o a r d u , se a l o g - b u i l d e rs 's cribe t o t r a n s f etrh e p r o f i l e a n da n g l e o f t h e a d j o i n i nw g a l lt o t h e face of the board (page42).

P a n e l i na gn a d j o i n i nw ga l l T o i n s t a lw l a i n s c o t i na gt a n i n s i d e corner, butt the grooved edgeof a board y o ui n s t a l l eo a g a i n stth e l a s tb o a r d dn t h e (left). a d j o i n i nw g a l l ,t h e nn a i li t i n p l a c e Nailalong the grooved edges of the boards a s w e l l .W o r ky o u rw a ya r o u n d the room u n t i l a l l t hw e a i n s c o t i in sg i n s t a l l eF d i. n i s h (page the job by installing baseboard 22) and adding a cap rail (page38).


wainscoting conI rame-and-panel rails l.' sists of a frameof horizontal andvertical stiles andmullionsenclospanels. The framemembers ing raised can be joined in a number of ways, including dowel, biscuit,mortise-andjoints.This tenon,or cope-and-stick you how to cut thecopesection shows (page 47).The and-stick on the shaper (page panels canbe raised on atablesaw a8) routerbits (page 49),burt specialized (page 109) do a faster cutters andshaper job, and canshape curved and cleaner profiles well. as Thistypeof paneling canbeinstalled portion lower of a wall, like over the wainscoting, or it tongue-and-groove wall from floor to can coveran entire (page you need 4l). In eithercase, celing thedimensions of thepanto determine The components. elingand its various panels must and be sized framepieces prowallexactly, andproperly to fit each portioned sotheylookrightin theroom. suchas Besureto consider obstructions fireplaces andceildoorsandwindows, ing beams. Before cuttinganywood, makea scale drawingof the room and with different designs. experiment When installingframe-and-panel it is bestto work on one wainscoting, and installing wall at a time,preparing together. the framepieces and panels Thewainscot canthenbe gluedup and installed asa unit,or built up on thewall pieceby piece. Ifyou follow the latter youwill be ableto compensate method, asyou go along. for anymistakes

The cope-andstickjoint shownin thephoto at right is an alternativeto the easy-to-cut mortise- an d - tenon tra diti on al-

lyusedframe-and fi,)ili'*r," % "%;lT,^ touch: scoting. It alsoaddsa decorative -""'i: The router bit that cutsthe grooves for the panel and tonguesin the stilesand rails also carves of theframe. a molding along the inside edges


Kaiaedpanel with ovolo frame


Oqeebeveled panel

Develed panelraioed from frame

Kabbeted frame with moldinq




'l Cutting tongues in therails I and mullions Saw t h er a i l sm , u l l i o na sn , ds t i l e t so s f t h ef r a m e length . oj o i nt h ep i e c eo T joints, withcope-and-stick start bycutting tongues at theends of therails andmullions, asshown at left.Install a piloted coping bit in your shaper andadjust the cutting depth bybutting theendof a rail against thecutter andsetting thetopof theuppermost cutter slightly above the parallel workpiece. Position thefence to gauge themiter slotandin linewiththe edge of thebit pilot. For added stability, gauge screw a board to the miter asan extension. Feed thestock face down with thegauge, holding theedge of theworkpiece against theextension andtheend (/eff). (Although against thefence a shaper is used here, a table-mounted router can joints.) also beused to cutcope-and-stick Adjusting thesticking bit
Replace t h e c o p i n gb i t w i t h a

Miter gauqe extenaion

prloted sticking bit.Toadjust thecuttingdepth, buttthetongue at theend of a railor muntin against thebitand setoneof thegroove-cutting teethlev(below). el withthetongue Align the fence withtheedge of thebit pilot.


thegrooves Cutting profile and decorative

the stock to secure Usetwo featherboards eatha s t a n d a rfd t h e c u t s .C l a m p during the tableopposite to the shaper erboard board at a 90" angle a support bit; secure feathClamp a shaper to the featherboard. Make t h i sf e a t h e r o t h ef e n c e . e r b o a rt d the boton the bandsawby curving board tom edgeof a 2-by-4and cuttinga series C u tt h e s l o t si n t ot h e e d g e . of angled g r o o v ea s n d d e c o r a t i vp a l o n gt h e er o f i l e and a n dr a i l s , edges of thestiles inside . ake o f a l l t h e m u l l i o n sM along b o t he d g e s e a c hp a s sw i t h t h e s t o c ko u t s i d e - f a c e the against the workpiece down,pressing fence(lefil.Usea pushstickto complete tne Dass.


table ontherouter Raising a panel p a n etlo f i t w i t h i n i t sf r a m e , C u te a c h for thegrooves. on all sides % rnch adding piloted panel-raising bit in your a Install in table. Set the tool a and mount router clamp two % inch and of cut at thedepth on each fence, one to the featherboards feed the thepanel, side of thebit.Toraise down, outside-face the table board across flush against the keeprng theworkpiece your of the cutter hands clear fence and (right). cut intothe tearout, To minimize p a n e l g r a i n he f t r s t s , h a p i ntg o ft h e end p a n e l t h e s i d es. b e f o r e ofthe t w oe n d s panel grooves and in frame the Test fit the passes increasasyouneed, make asmany more than %inch depth no ingthecutting a ta t i m e .

Fanel-raieinq bit



Raising a panel onthetable saw Tosettheproper blade angle forraising a p a n eo l nt h et a b l e s a wm , ark a cutting lineonthepanel: Draw aYo-inch square at thebottom corner, thenmark a linefrom t h ef r o n t f a c eo f t h e p a n etlh r o u g t h he inside corner of thesquare to a point on thebottom edge X inch from face theback (insef). Install anauxiliary wood fence, set thepanel against it, andadjust theangle of theblade untilit aligns withthecutting just line. Raise theblade until one tooth protrudes beyond thefront face of thepanel.Make a cut in one endof theoanel and test-fit thecut in a groove. lf thepanel sits less than%inch deep, move thefence a little closer to theblade andmake another pass. Tominimize tearout, bevel theends (rrghf). f irst, of thepanel thenthesides


Installing furring strips 1 pv ae neling, I L i k et o n g u e - a n d - g r o o frame-and-pan ea l i n s c o t i nc w g anbefastened to nailers behind the wall (page 44). l f y o ud o n o tk n o w where the nailera s re y o uw i l l located o r w h e t h et rh e ye x i s t , h a v et o a n c h o t rh e p a n e l i n g to furring s t r i p sS . nap t w oc h a l kl i n e s o n t h e w a l lt o h e l py o ui n s t a ltlh e s t r i p s F . o rf r a m e - a n d p a n ew l a i n s c o t i no gn , es t r i ps h o u l d be l e v ew l i t ht h e t o p r a i l ,t y p i c a l l3 y6 i n c h e s o f f t h e f l o o r .L o c a t e t h es e c o n d c h a l kl i n e a few inches above the floor.Sawthe furringstripsfrom 1-by-3 stock; cut onefor t h e t o p r a i l a n dt w o f o r t h e b o t t o m rail. Determine the location of the studs(page 3 2 ) a n dn a i le a c hf u r r i n g s t r i pi n p l a c e (left),driuing two nailsat eachstud.



r") Installing thestiles and rails I f est-fit the parts of thewainscoting alignment marks forthemulandscribe lions rails. Bevel along thetopandbottom oneedge of theoutside corner stileasyou (page paneling would fortongue-and-groove 44).Posilion thestileat thecorner and slide a shim undernea i tt;h t h eg a p will allow forwood movement. Tack-nail the stile to thefurring strips, making sure that is plumb. Hold themating stile theboard in place to make sure t h a tt h em i t e r e d edges of thetwoareperfectly aligned. Then glue apply some to theends of thebottom railandjoinit to thestile, also setting it onshims. Join theinside corner stile to thebottom railandtack-nail it to thefurring it if necessary. Lastly, strips, adjusting screw or nail theassembly to thefurring (/eff). strips

thefirstpanel in place Q Setting r-J Once three sides of theframe have in place been installed, setthefirstpanel (right), at the outside corner making sure grooves it fitssnugly in the cut in therail glue Donotapply to thepanel andstrle. grooves; mustbefreeto move thepanel in theframe.



Installing thefirst mullion

g l u et o t h e b o t t o m Apply e n do f t h e mullion a n dt h e g r o o v e in thebottom rail, and setthe mullionin place(left).Make
s r r r e f h c n a n p l s i i s i n t h p o r n n v p s/ - r r t i n

t h e m u l l i o n 'e s d g eC . o n t i n u ie nstalling panels a n dm u l l i o n s u n t i ly o ur e a c h the s t i l ea t t h e i n s i d e c o r n e rS . l i pt h e l a s t p a n eb l e t w e etn h em u l l i o n a n dt h es t i l e .

I n s t a l l i ntg h et o pr a i l f, g l u et o t h e t o p e n d so f a l l t h e r,, Apply m u l l i o na s n df i t t h e t o p r a i l i n p o s i t i o n (right),makingsurethe top endsof the panels , ullions m a,n ds t i l e s a l lf i t s n u g l y in thegroove r n t h e t o p r a i l .A n e x t r a set of hands willmake t h e j o b e a s i e rO . nce , o uc a n i n s t a l l t h e t o p r a i l i s i n p l a c ey (page b a s e b o a rm d olding 24)and a cap r a i l ( n a s e . 3 8 )P r o c e e t d o t h e n e x tw a l l a n dw o r ky o u rw a ya r o u n d t h er o o m , using j o i n t s i n s i d e m i t e ring butt at c o r n e ra sn d outside corners.

ceilinqs, alsoknown ascofT) aneled .[- feredceilingsl of arean adaptation normally frame-and-panel techniques walls.In conjunction usedto decorate with fiame-and-panel wains coting(page ceiling canadddepthand 46),apaneled warmth to a den or study. how The illustration belowshows is installed. Startwith a paneled ceiling framework of 2-by-4s ana structural joists. chored to the ceiling Coverthe framework with I -by-ahardwood stock, box-like suchasoakor birch,thenmake facings theframework, creto fit inside ating a grid of boxes.Finally,set a panelinto each veneered plyruood box and installa frameof moldingto hold thepanelin place. (page 41), Aswith full-wallpaneling beproporthesize of thepanels should tionaltothedimensions of theroom.A in a largeroom ceilingof smallpanels can lookscluttered, whiletheopposite Determine the panel appear too heaqu. drawing of the size by makinga scale with differceilingand experimenting entdimensions. A oanelsize between 20 and]6 inches is typicalfor mediumrooms. slzeo Youcantry variations on this basic maybeIeftwhite design. Thepanelboxes for contrast or crownmoldingcanbe moldusedin placeof quarter-round ing-although this would involvecutjointsat inside Ifyou tingcoped corners. decide to usestain,it is a goodideato installing theceilapplythefinishbefore ing, for workingoverhead on a ceiling full of crevices canprovetiring.




V Dtrectionof joiete ceilinq


ftamework the2-by-4 1 Installing lines o nt h e I Snap a grid ofchalk panels. onthesize of your ceiling based fromthe center of twoooposite Start s i l lb e l a n e lw w a l l s ot h a ta n ys m a lp theedge of theceiling. located around forthewidth of Remember to account the2-by-4s asyoulayoutthechalk of the lines. Determine thedirection joists f inder, then with a stud ceiling 2-by-4s install theframework. Uselong perpendicular to the to span theceiling joists; pieces the with the chalk align with them to thejoists lines andfasten 2-by-4s to floorrng screws. Use shorter and toe-nail fit between thelong boards (above). themin place

r) Installing grid thehardwood is installframework L Once the2-bv-4 naiter the 1-byed,use a finish to mount grid(left). For added rigidity, 4 hardwood perpendicular to install thelong 1-by-4s can 2-by-4s. Although thenailing thelong makes the byhand, a finish nailer bedone go much work faster.



thefacing Q Installing r-,f Wrthrn facing each frame, install four

pieces dt o c kt h a t o f 1 - b y - 3h a r d w o o s y o uu s e df o r t h e g r i d . m a t c h et sh e w o o d rip the pieces Fora moredecorative effect, s o t h e ye x t e n d below t h e g r i db y % r n c h . F i tt h e n i e r ^ e :s t t h e c o r n e rw s r t h4 5 " bevel cuts (right), Ihen naii them to the 2-by-4framework,

Gluing thepanels in place .e l n t iy f r o mv e n e e r e dt h ec e i l i n ( T)h we i l lh o l d Once a l l t h e f a c i n gi s i n s t a l l e d c,u t p a n e l s ga b o v e adhesiv t h ep a n eu l ou (step plywoo d presinstall molding The tofit within t h ef r a m e s A .p p l y c o n s t r u c t ia od nh e s i v e theshoe 5). molding willsupply p a n ea l n dp r e s ist i n p l a c e needed fora firmsluebond. t o t h eu n d e r s i d oe feach a g a i n s t sure


molding Installing thequarter-round fi with quarter-round r-,1 Secure the panels molding i n s t a l l ea dr o u n d t h ei n s i d e ofeach joining facing Cutthe molding to len$h, box. thepieces a t t h e c o r n e rw s i t h4 5 ' m i t e r s . w i t ha f i n N a i lt h e m o l d i n g t o t h ef a c i n g ish nailer (lefil.

molding crown A Installing install \J Tof inish theceiling, crown ra . il N it m o l d i na gr o u nid t sp e r i m e t e would andwall asyou to theframework (page 26), using on a plainceiling joints corners andmiters coped at inside at outside corners.


/>, _+is

(pnge Picture-frame casing 61) I goodwindowletsallthelight of molding: consists of four pieces 1\ andbeautv in of theoutdoors casings, a head casing, and twoside out. while keeping the elements a sill casing, alljoinedat thecorners Althoughtheydo thisin manyways, with 45" miters. Stool-and-aoron winreflecting a widerange of styles, (page two casing 69)alsofeatures parts: of two basic the dowsconsist decsidecasings, andmayinclude frameand the sash. The formeris known as orativecornerblocks, much like a doorjamb,and serves (page73). rosettes purpose: It is fixedto the the same In the example shownin this whenthewindowisinstalled. studs the headcasing is butted chapter, holdsthepane of Thesash actually the sidecasings, but these against glass. in this The windowscovered jointscanalso Themost bemitered. feature thepopulardoublechapter "return" recosnizable element of stool-andA mitered isglued onto the apron hungsash. As shownon page 59, however, is thestool, aproncasing, both of belowa window sill, or stool, to hide the end they containtwo sashes, grain of the apron.Stool-and-apron is a or sill,installed at thebottom,which whichcanslide up anddown. juts out from thewindow. (page traditional method of casinga window, often Oncea windowis installed parWhilemanyhomebuilders, made to match the room'sinterior trim. remainbehveen thefiame 59),gaps ticularlythosein colderclimates, The molded casinghidesthe gaps between framingof and the surrounding andinsulation opt for theprecision the windowjambs and the wall. studsand headers. Justas sills, windows, elegant, of factory-made are stools, aprons,and casings windows canbe madein the shopwith specialof a windowto complement theexte- high-quality installed on theoutside "casedj' windowsrequirethickizedsash cutters(page 75).Since these to be or fiamed rior trim of a house, thewindowneeds is the stationary methods er stockthanmostcabinet work,a shaper usetwobasic aswell.Finishcarpenters on theinside for makine them. picture-frame oower toolof choice for thistask: andstool-and-apron.

glass-stop The in making a custom-fit windowis installingthe final step of glass in place. molding, thin strips of shaped woodthatholdthepanes saw, themolding andripped to widthon thetable Shaped on a routertable areioinedat thecorners with miters and nailedto thewindowsash. striDs




9ide caeinq



Roeett'eg !


Uaed for deco-

rative effect in atool-andaPronca,tnq; the eliminatea needfor miterin4 headcaeinq

Butted sill aaeing (page 65) A variaf,ron of pictureframe caein4in whichthe aill caoinqio buLted up a4ainet the oidecaainqe and extende beyondthem; eliminateathe needfor miterin7oide caeinqe

I lthoughfitting a windowin place Arnuy ulpp.ur to"bea daunting task, it canin factbe a straightforward operation.With thepre-hung window shown below which already includes the windowjambsattached to thesashes, allyou need is a hammeror a screwdriver anda level.Whetheryour windowsarefactory- or shop-made, theywill be installed in thesame fashion. Thejambsarenailed into theroughopening in thewall,then insulated anddressed with interiortrim. (page61)is Sometimes, ajambextension installed on theinsideto bring thewindow flushwith the interiorwall. A window shouldbe about %-inch smaller on all sides thanits roughopening. Since rough openings areseldom square, level,or plumb, this will make thewindoweasier to fit andshim,while leaving somespace aroundthewindow for insulation.Remember not to drive the shimsin too far or you mav risk bowingthewindow Test thewindbwto makesurethat it slides smoothly before nailingit in place.


A double-hungwindow ispositioned in itsroughopeningfrom theoutside. Tohelphold thewindowin placeuntil it canbeadjusted and secured from the inside, it will benailedor wedged temporarily to theframeoffurring strips aroundtheopening.

and centering thewindow 1 leveling I Position thewindow in itsrough opening(photo, above)and temporarily tack orwedge it in place. Tohelp check the window for level asyougo,clamp a carpenter's level to theunderside of thehead jamb. jambs Insert shims between theside andstuds at thetop of the rough opening.(Shims arewooden wedges usually soldin bundles at hardware stores and lumberyards.) Then, holding up onecornerof thewindow, slipa shimbetween thewindow hornandthe rough sill (left). Repeat ontheother side of thewindow. jambs Addshims between theside and thestuds at themiddle andbottom of thewindow. Use asmany shims asyou need to center thewindow in itsopening (Toinstall while keeping thewindow level. more thanone window at thesame height in a room, make a mark onthestudat a setdistance fromtheheader andshimall thewindows to themark.r



Nailing thewindow in place it is level, fasten Once thewindow nail framing. Drive a finishing to thewall jambs andshims into the through theside Cul studs at each shimlocation hbove). f lush withthewindow theshims iambs knife. using a utility

thewindow Q lnsulating r-,1Once is nailed in itsrough a window installing thecasing, opening andbefore spaces it is a good idea to f ill thehollow jambs between thewindow andthewall if you studs withinsulation-particularly fiberlivein a cold climate. You canuse glass foam insulation or a low-expanding here. Fiberglass works wellfor asshown gaps, between the large such asthespace jambandtheheader head orthespace Foam insulation is between thetwosills. forthinner spaces, butuseit sparideal thejambs ingly; toomuch of it may cause to bowinward.


.|) four icture-frame casing comprises L pieces mitered at45o that of molding frame a window in much the same wayasa pictureis framed. Commercial in a picture-frame casing is available numberof profiles. It canalso bemilled on a tablesiw fittedwith a moldinehead procedures to pr6du.. usingthe same baseboard, or anyothchairrail,custom endpaper). er molding(back In orderto nailpicture-frame casing in place, the front edges of thewindow jambsneed to beflushwith theinterior wall. If the jambsare set more than Z inch backfrom the drywall,you will needto build and installa iambextenwillhide the sion(below). Asthecasing the extension, thejoineryused to attach pieces extension together canbeassimpleasa butt joint.

A shop-made gaugeis usedto mark out the narrow portion of the window jambs that will not be covered portion of with casing. This exposed thejambs-anywhere from'/' to',4n "reveal." It inch wide-is called the the visual effectof both enhances the casing and makesit easier to page 63. install. To make thejig, see


theextension 1 Assembling to make a frame thatwillfit theinside faces of thewindow I Measure thedistance between thefront edges of thejamb and size pieces witha slight reveal. You wall. Then ripyour extension stock to thiswidth from jambs caninstallthe extension theinside jamb. intoa unit(above). wood asthewindow Cutthepieces to onebyone, or nailor screw them together thesame thickness


r) lnstalling theextension in place as Z Fasten thelamb extension (page youdidto install thewindow 59). Position over thejamb, using theextension (righil.fhen thatit is level shims to ensure to thewall studs through nail theextension in nt h ee m p t y t h es h i m sA . d di n s u l a t i o theextension. spaces around

Marking thereveal
l f t h el a m be x t e n s i oi n sslightlp yroud o f t h e i n t e r i ow r all,

plane lf it is setback from thewall, usea rasp or a it down. (above, left)Iocutthedrywall down untilit is flush with shaver into willnot theextension. Avoid cutting anypart ofthewallthat Next, mark around thejamb becovered bythecasing. thereveal

A.d j u s t a c o m b i n a t i os nq u a r e to thedesired ortheextension t/zdrrd5As inch.Then,starting at the reveal-typically between j a m b ,b u t tt h e s q u a r e 'h a g a i n stth e i n s i d e f a c eo f head sa n d l e t h ej a m b . W i t ha p e n c ifl l u s ha g a i n s tt h e b l a d es , lide t h eh a n d l e jamb line (above, right). downthe to markthe reveal




A REVEAT GAUGE jig at rightmakes Theshop-made it easy to mark the jambs. reveal forcasing around window Tomake the gauge, piece plywood cut a square of %-inch or hardwood, thensaw a different-sized rabbet in each of the fouredges. Each rabbet width should correspond to a typical reveal width-inthiscase, %inch, %e inch, % inch, and%o inch. Mark thewidths oneach side. yourreveals youwill Donotmake toowide, otherwise have to drive the nails near theedge of thecasing, jamb, which willrisk splitting it. For a %-inch a reveal gauge, of % inchis about right. To use thereveal butt theappropriate rabbet against thejambandslideit (page down thejambwitha pencil 61).


Installing thehead casing 1 I Todetermrne thelength of thehead casing, measure thedistance between the jambs window andaddtwice thereveal to your measurement. Miter both ends of the head casrng at 45' sothatthedistance beyour tween theheels of themiters equals result. Then, aligning thebottom edge of thecasing withthereveal line, fasten the head casing in place witha hammer orfin(/eff). ishnailer Space a pair of nails every 6 inches, driving oneinto thejamb and the other directly above it through thewalland into theheader.



r-) Installing theside casing of thesidecasI Delermine the lensth pieces ends asyoudid and miter ttieir ing pieces in place; Set the thehead casing. joint poorly, the miter fits correct if either page Once starting on 66. fit asdescribed youaresatisf a litiedwiththefit, spread glue miters the contacting tle on twoof in of side casing andposition onepiece place. top, nail the casing Starting at the to thejambandwallstuds frghf).Donot for now; near thebottom drive anynails youmayneed thecasing slightly to adjust fortheother Repeat to fit thesillcasing. side casing.

thesillcasing Q Installing the r-,1 Measure thegapbetween andcutthesrllcasing side casings to it maybe necessary to f it. Again, (page a 66). Spread f ix the miters position glue the little onthemiters, s i l lc a s i n g a,n dn a i li t t o t h ej a m b finThen andtherough sill (below). place. casings in ishnailing theside



Cross-nailing themiters
T o c o m p l e tte h e i n s t a l l a t i od nr,i v e a
n:il inin tho pdoo nf tho cido eecino np:r

the top so that the nailpenetrates the head casing(right).Repeat at the remaining t h r e ec o r n e r o s f t h e c a s i n gT . h r ss t e pw i l l h e l pe n s u r t eh a tt h ej o i n t s d o n o to p e n with m seasona l ovement.


lnstalling a butted sill casing Y o uc a ns i m p l i f y theinstallatio on f pict u r e - f r a mc ea s i n g b y u s i n gb u t t j o i n t sa t the bottom, instead o f m i t e r sA . sshown intheillustratro an t l e f t ,m o d iife dp i c t u r e frame i n v o l v em s i t e rj o i n t s casing at the t o p , b u t y o uc a nc u t t h e b o t t o m e n d so f t h e s i d ec a s i n s sorrare T h e nc r o s s c u t b o t he n d s o f t h e s i l lc a s i n g to span a little beyond the sidepieces. Fordecorative e f f e c ty , o uc a n c u t a s h a l l o w m i t e ra t each e n do f t h e s i l lc a s i n g T .h e n simply b u t t i t st h i c k e r e d g eu p a g a i n stth e s i d e c a s i n ga sn dn a i li t i n p l a c e .




Cfosing a gap al theheel jointbyadjustgap fix in a miter You can a ingthecutting angle onthepower miter saw. Butinstead of resetting thesaw's angle, it issimpler to change theangle of theworkpiece onthefence. Toclose a gap at theheel of themiter, setthecasingagainst thefence withthetoeof the miter slightly beyond thefence. extending (lnthiscase, fence hasbeen anauxiliary fence line attached to theregular to help upthecut.) Then slipa thinwedge between t h ec a s i n a g n dt h ef e n c e 1 or2 inches fromtheendof theboard. Now make the bythedotted linein the cut (represented illustration Test-fit thelointand at left). moving repeat thecut,if necessary, the fromtheend wedge % inchfarther away of thecasins.

atthetoe Closing a gap place Toclose a gapat thetoeof a miter, 5 or 6 inches from theendof thewedge t h ec u t .A ss h o w n t h ec a s i n a g n dm a k e the heel of at right, thesawwillshorten Test-f it thejointandrepeat, the miter. if necessary, moving thewedge % inch closer to the board end.



a miter Back-cutting (inset),Iry jointisopen length thesoluitsentire along lf a miter remove some onpage 66. lf thejoiniisstillopen, trons described You cando of oneof thepieces. edge stock fromthetheback with miter saw thecorrective cutsonthepower thisbyrepeating

it slightly above under thecasing to raise shimplaced a second witha sharp utility themiter or byback-cutting thesaw table, (above). You canalso body cutting away fromyour knife, always asshown below. use a block olane.

a miter Back-planing plane, in a vise sothe thecasing a block secure a using Toback-cutmiter plane parallelto an angle Holding the at work surface. roughly the miter is (abovd. light cuts miter, make a series of edge of the to theback



T r i m m i np gr o u d casing A m i t e rl o i n tm a yf i t w e l l ,b u t o n eo f t h e pieces , r raised mating m a yb e p r o u d o l f t h e o t h e rT slightly above t h e l e v eo . o , e n t l yp a r ed o w n remedy t h e p r o b l e mg t h e p r o u dp i e c e w i t h a c h i s e l( a b o v e ) . A v o i ds a n d i n gw , h i c hw i l l l e a v e a poor surfacf eo r f i n i s h i n o gr p a i n t i n g a,n d w h i c hi s m u c hm o r e diff i c u l tt o d o o n molded c a s i n gT . oavoid d a m a g i ntg he profile y,o uc a n of intricatm e olding i n s t a la l s h r mb e h i n d t h ep i e c e t h a ti s te o chiseling r e c e s s ea ds a n a l t e r n a t i v piece. the proud

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An auxiliarytable for the powermiter saw An auxiliary trable makes it mucheasier to lineuV otraight and bevel culs, Use '/o-tnch for Lhe table Vlywood and secure tt,in Vlace wiLh double-f ace d Nap e, l'/ake Ehree kerfsacroooNhe auxiliary Lable: one90" anqle cuLand a 45" cut To on eilhereide. ueelhe Lable, aliqn Nhe cultinq mark on yourworK?tece luot to Lhewaste sideof the aVVrokerf and priatre maKe the cut.



"traditional" window A lsoknownas is A casing, casing stool-and-apron more difficult to makeand installthan its use picture-frame However, casing. different moldof thebutt joint allows for contrasting ings to be combined effect. Thestoolis cut to fit thewindow "horns" that extend with two opening typicallyby the beyondthe sidecasing, amountthat the stoolprotrudes same Thiscanbe from theface of thecasing. anywhere between luto'l inch,depending on the profile of the moldingyou sellstoolcaps areusing.Lumberyards window installation, for assembly-line makeyour own stool but you caneasily the window usinga router.To balance pasttheside also extends thehead casing include Thehead casing canalso casings. (page rosettes 73), decorative

with afinish nailer.Cut tofit isfastened to thewall studs A window sill,or stool, pastthewindow thestool horns thatextend thewindowopening frame. features


thehorns 1 Marking for cutThese will beyourlines thestool of thestool andcut it to length. wallmeets I Shape theoutside edge hbove). Extend bothhornlines to edges of the horns. window sill. tingthe inside Mark of both thestool andtherough thecenter s ne a c h witha try square. of thestool o f t h ew i n d o w h e r t eh e thefrontedge T h e nm . ark t h ep o i n t o side



r) Marking and installing thestool your Z- to finisf' marking cutting lines forthehorns, adjust gapbetween a compass to thewidest thefront edge of therough silland thedrywall. Holding thestool against with thewall the p c e n t em r arks aligned s,e tt h ec o m p a s so i n t a t t h ee d g e of (above, thewallandscribe a lineforeach horn /eff). Todeteryouneed mine how much stock to trimfrom theinside edge of thestool, keep thesame compass setting andmark a line along point thelengh ofthestool, running thecompass along thefront edge of therough right), sill (above, Cutoutthehorns aswellas thewaste strip from theinside edge of thestool. Then nail the jambs stoolto thestuds. lf thewindow areflush withthewall, (step install theside casing 4).Otherwise, mount a modif ied jambextension (step 3).

jamb a modified extension Q Installing r-,, Build a modified iamb extension (page piece. 61) withnobotfom Fit jambs theextension over window the (right) and shimit in place, making sure t h a ti t i s c e n t e r ei d n t h eo p e n ing,square, andlevel. Then narl the extension to theiambs.



casing lnstalling theside around theiamb Mark thereveal

(page62) to matchthe reveal extension s i l l .T h e n t h e s t o o la n d r o u g h between , awing c u t t h e s i d ec a s i n g t so l e n g t hs , n s t a ltl h e s i d ec a s b o t he n d ss q u a r e I casingsas youwouldfor picture-frame ing (page65), nailingthem into the winthe Space dowjamband studs(above). apart. nails 6 to 8 inches

Installing thehead casing R r - , 1C u t t h e h e a dc a s i n gt o t h e s a m e it ontheside length a st h e s t o o l c , enter p i e c e sa , n d n a i li t i n p l a c e( / e f f ) . casing Drive t h e n a i l si n t ob o t ht h e h e a dj a m b 6 to 8 inches. header every andthe rough



Installing theapron andreturns 4i a r ei n \ , f O n c et h e s t o o la n d c a s i n g p l a c ec , o m p l e tt e h ew i n d o w byinstalling theapron beneath thestool. S t a r tb y m e a s u r i ntg h ed i s t a n c e b e t w e etn h eo u t s i d ee d g e s o f t h es i d ec a s i n ga sn dc u tt h e apron t o y o u rm e a s u r eld e n g t hs , awing 45' bevels a t b o t he n d so f t h e a p r o nT .o , l u eo n m a t c h i n g concea t lh e e n dg r a i n g end pieces, known as returns. Make them r i t e rs a wb y c u t t i n g o nt h e p o w e m a 45' b e v eiln a p i e c e ofscrap moldinw g i t ht h e profile same a s t h e a p r o nt,h e nc u t t i n g off a narrow wedge of stockat the end of (above, the piece left).Nailthe apron into the rough sill andthe wall studs(aboye, rieht).lhensluethe retrrrns to the ends
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a drilling iig 1 Making (page fortherosettes 58) I Size blanks sothatthey areslightly wider than the willalign andtheir outside edges casing, You withtheends of thestool. canalso make theblanks thicker than thecasing. Tocuttherosettes onthedrilloress. jigto secure theblanks. make a drilling plywood base Center a blank on a %-inch andbuttstop blocks of thesame thickness around three sides of theblank and Screw down two screw themto thebase. more ashold-downs at a angle to blocks formed bythestop blocks, thecorners Mark thecenter of thejig andsetit on Install a brad-point thedrillpress table. bit,align thejig's centerpoint directly under thebit (lett), andclamp thejig to t h et a b l e .

r) Securing theblank to thejig L lnstall a rosette cutterin thedrillpress followset themachine's drilling speed and Place ingthemanufacturer's instructions. jigandlock it in place inthedrilling a blank do l d - d o w bn lock b yc l a m p i n agn o t c h eh overiI tight).



t) Cuttins therosettes <' r.J Turn onthedrillandlower thequill until thecutter lightly contacts the wood. Continue cutting until therosette profile (above). has thedesired Install therosettes withtheendgrain onthe topandbottom after nailing theside (page casings in place 71);thencutthe head casing to fit between therosettes.

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A ohop-maderooette auf,ler Youcan cuL roaeltee by modifying a drill preoofly cuf,ler wilh a beadinq from a Lableeawe moldinq head,Noich lhe fly cutblade ler arm l,o accommodaNe bhe beadinq blade,locatin4 LhecuLler aboutl inchfrom the endof the arm. Makesure il fits securely in lhe notch so it cannoL ohilAdurinquee.Dorea holethrouqhtrh ae r m a n d u s ea b o l L , washer, and nu|lo faslen the blade in place,iIo flal f ace loward






Pairedwith a shop-mademortising jig, a router cuts a mortise in one of the stilesof a window sash.Thejig ensures that the mortiseis centered on the edgeof the stock.A matching mortisewill be cut in the end of the adjoining rail and a spline will reinforcethejoint betweenthe two pieces.

theiob 1 Planning I Thewindow sash shown above consists of twovertical s t i l e st,w oh o r i z o n tra ali l sa , m e d i ar na i l ,a n dt w om u l l i o n s s r ec o n n e c t e v e r t i c a l lT yh . ep i e c ea t h a td i v i d e t h es a s h bd y joints cope-and-stick cutona shaper. Thejoints between the your stiles andrails arereinforced bysplines. Tosize stock, make thestiles equal to theheight of theopening forthesash. For theraillength, take thewidth of theopening andsubtract twice thestile width. Then addtwice thedepth of thecoping (step youwillmake cuts 2),lf, forexample, thewidth of the window o p e n i nig s3 2 i n c h e s , es t i l e a th s r e3 %i n c h ew s ide, andthedepth of thecoping cutsis % inch, railshould each be 26 inches long. You make canalso thebottom railwider than pieces theother to accommodate handles. To determine the length of each mullion, take theheight of theopening andsubtract thewidth of thethree rails. Then addfourtimes thedepth of thecoping cuts.Divide thetotalbytwo.



)tickin7 cutter eet

r) Making thecoping cuts L es shown fortherails above at left,theloinery andstiles Thecoping is done by matching cutters on theshaper. cutter s. he isused o nt h ee n d s o f a l lr a i l s a n dm u l l i o nT s t i c k i nc gu t t e rs h a n ets h ei n s i d e edses o f t h es a s h nieces T.o s e tt h e l lh es t i c k i nc h e i g ho t f t h ec o p i n c g u t t e rf,i r s ti n s t a t gu t t e irn theshaper andadjust its height sothetopof thecutter is levp i e c e s e tf a c e e l w i t ho n eo f t h es a s h down o n t h et a b l e . Make a cut (step 5) in a testpiece thesame thickness asthe

T h e ni n s t a l t lhe coping s a s hs t o c k . c u t t e ra n d r u b b e a r i n g on t h e s h a p ea r n d b u t t t h e c u t e n d o f t h e t e s t p i e c ea g a i n stth e . o rt h e c o p i n g c u t t e rt o s e t i t s h e i g h t F c u t s ,p o s i t i o n thefence slightly behind t h er u bb e a r i n g a n d b u i l da c o p i n g lig(page 9 0 ) . U s et h e i i s t o f e e d b o t he n d so f t h e r a i l si n t o t h e c u t t e r ( a b o v er,i g h t ) , I oc o p et h e e n d o f t h e m e d i a n r a i la n d m u l y o u n e e do n t h e lionss , hape a w i d ep i e c e a n dr i p t h e w i d t h s
iehlp carnr/<tan ?)

R i p p i ntg h em e d i a n r a i la n dm u l l i o n s Q r - , 1 O n c ey o u h a v em a d et h e c o p i n g cuts forthe median rail o n t w o w i d eb o a r d s p,o s i t i otn a n dm u l l i o n s h e t a b l es a wr i p f e n c ef o r c u t t i n g rail-typicalthemedian l y o n e - t h i rt d h e w i d t ho f t h e s t i l e s F . eed witha pushstick the boardintothe blade ( r g h f )R . epositio tn h e f e n c ef o r t h e m u l l i o n sa n d c u t t h e mf r o mt h e o t h e rb o a r d rnesameway.



Setting upthesticking cutter

Once a l lt h e r a i l s a n dm u l l i o na s r eD r e -

pared, remove thecoping cutter andrub bearing from theshaper andinstall a stickingcutter set.Theoneshown features a straight cutter, which should bethesame width asthetongue leftbythecoping cuts. This setup w i l ls h a p te h ei n s i d e d g e of pieces allthesash andcutrabbets to support theglass. Buttone of therails against thebrtto settheheight of thesticking cutter (left); the tip at the top of the cutter should bealigned with thelip,orquirk, at thetopof thecoped end.

Making thesticking cuts f, l-,l To make thesticking cuts,adjust the shaper's fence to T h e nm , ake t h es t i c k i nc gu t si n t h e i n s i d e d g e o s f t h er a i l s make a f u l l c u t i n t h ee d g e o f t h es t o c kt;h ec u t t e s r h o u l d andstiles, feeding thestock at a steady rale(above) anduse justtouch point thewidest of theworkpiece. Also install com- a p u s h stick tofinish t h ec u t s . Repea th t i sp r o c e s fs o rt h e mercial hold-downs ontheshaoer's fence andtable to secure m e d i ar n a i la n dm u l l i o n bsu tt h i st i m es h a p i nb go t h edges t h es t o c k during t h ec u t sa n dp r e v e n kti c k b a ca kn dc h a t t e r . o f t h eo i e c e .



joints Strengthening thecorner

the stiles Reinforce the jointsbetween r a i l sw i t h s p l i n e s . a n dt h e t o p a n d b o i t o m o rt h e s p l i n e s in S t a r tb y r o u t i n g m o r t i s efs a n dt h e i n s i d e edges t h e e n d so f t h e r a i l s 7 5 ) .T h es p l i n e should o f t h e s t i l e s( p a g e f i t t h e m o r t i s es sn u g l y a n db e s h o r t etrh a n morthe combined depthof the two mating sr o ma t i s e sY . o uc a nc u t a l l t h e s p l i n e f sinple h o a r dT o d o t h e i o bo n t h e t a b l e saw,screw a wooden extension to the miter g a u g eE . n s u rte h a ta l l t h es p l i n ew s i l lb e bymarking a reference t h e s a m el e n g t h l i n eo n t h e e x t e n s i o A n. lign t h e e n do f t h e against board withthe lineandholditsedge For the extension to cut eachspline(/eff). maximum strength c,u t t h es p l i n e s ot h e i r grain w i l lr u n i n t h es a m e d i r e c t i oa nst h e g r a i no f t h e r a i l s .

Keference lrne

Keference line

totherails 7, Gluins - themullions in twosteps. Start bygluing therails and / Glue uptheframe (sfep add the stiles 8). mullions together, asshown above, then joints pieces, reference lines across the marking Test-fit the y o ua l i g n duringlue-up. ts ohelp t h ep a r t s w i t ht h em u l l i o n

g l u et o t h e c o n t a c t i ns gu r f a c e s F o rt h e r a i l s a n dm u l l i o n s a,p p l y a n d i n s t a la l b a rc l a m pt o A . s s e m b lte he pieces of theboards ratlsGbove); usewood to thetop and bottom secure the mullions the stock oadsto orotect



Gluing thestiles to therails Inser tt h es p l i n ei s n t h er a i l s a n da p p l g y lue t o t h ej o i n t s

g l u e i n t h e m o r t i s ea between t h e r a i l sa n d s t i l e s S . pread sn d o n t ot h e s p l i n e sT , u r nt h e w i n d o w over a n ds e c u r e t h e s t i l e si n ( a b o v eA ) .l i g na c l a m pw i t he a c hr a i l , place w i t h b a rc l a m p s e n s u r i nt gh a tt h e e n d so f t h e s t i l e s a r ef l u s hw i t ht h e e d g e s of

pads therails. Use wood to protect thestock. Assoon asthe clamps aretight, check theassembly forsquare bymeasuring thesash from corner to corner in both directions. The twodiagpressure onals should beequal. lf not,readjust theclamping slightly until thesash is square.


glass-stop molding 1 Making I Glass-sto m po l d i n g w i l l h o l dt h e g l a s s a g a i n stth e r a b b e t s in thewindow sash. To prepare the molding witha router, i n s t a la l decorativ m eo l d i n g b i t i n t h et o o l a n dm o u n ti t i n a t a b l e . Shape b o t he d g e s o f a w i d eb o a r d l o n ge n o u g h t o y i e l da l l y o uw i l l n e e d t, h e nr i p t h e themolding molding s t r i p sf r o mt h e s t o c k .U s et h r e e featherboard s s u p p o rt h e w o r k p i e c e to d u r i n gt h e c u t : t w oc l a m p e d t o t h ef e n c e o n e r t h es r i d eo f t h e b i t a n do n ec l a m p e d to the table.Feed the boardintothe cutter while k e e p i nig t f l u s ha g a i n stth e f e n c e : finish thepass w i t ha p u s hs t i c k .R e p e a t to shapethe other edge(left).Cut the m o l d i no g f f t h e b o a r do n t h e t a b l es a w , t h e n s a w r t t o l e n g t hm , aking 45' miter c u t sa t t h e e n d o f e a c ho i e c e .



r) Installing theglass andthemolding I S e tt h e s a s ha n d s l a s so n a w o r k in posisurface t, h e np l a c e themolding 6 inches, t i o n . B o r ea p i l o th o l ee v e r y n a i l i n t oe a c hh o l e , i n s e ra t finishing T o u s ea b r a dd r i v e r , a n d d r i v ei t h o m e . adjust the jawsagainst as shown above, the t h e s a s ha n dt h e n a i l ,t h e nt r g h t e n nut.Holding t h e s a s hs t e a d y , locking soueeze the iawsto setthe nail.

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lnotallingthemoldingwibh a hammer Lo nailqlaee-eNop moldinq in lf you are uoinq a hammer a piece of cardboard place, prolec|the qlaooby placin4 here. as shown on it ae youdriveeachnail,


' ' Tlrcglnzingbar half-tnpjoint showrrat right fornrs a stronger joint for corutecting bortdthnn the cope-and-stick the nuillion and rnedianrail of a divided window snsh. Thepieces, calledglazingbars,are by ntitered half-laps. Rabbets are cut along the backedges of the .ioined barsto nccontmodnte the glass and glass-stop ntolding.The endsof joints. the bnrsarejoined to the roils and stiles with cope-and-stick


Molding theglazing bars I T h e l o r n ti s m a d ei n t h r e es t a g e sS : t a r tb y c u t t i n g the propep r rofile i n t ot h e g l a z i n g bars, asshown a b o v en ; ext, cut rabbets i n t ot h e o p p o s i t e s i d eo f t h e b a r st o h o l dt h e g l a s s and molding s t r i p s( s t e p2 ) ; f i n a l l y ,p r o d u c e the mitered half-lap (steps 3 t o 5 ) . F o rt h e f i r s t s t a g e , i n s t a l la p i l o t e dr o u n d - o v e r b i t i n a r o u t e rm , o u n t h e t o o li n a t a b l e . a n d a l i g nt h e f e n c e w i t h t h e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n g T . h es t o c k should b e w i d ee n o u g h s ot h a t m a k i n g a pass o n e a c hs i d eo f t h e b a rw i l l l e a v e a %i n c h - w i dle i p b e t w e etn h e c u t s .S u p p o rtth e w o r k p i e cd eu r i n g


t h e o p e r a t i ow n i t ht h r e ef e a t h e r b o a r d sl:a m p C o n et o t h e t a b l e opoosite t h e b i t a n d t w o t o t h e f e n c eo n e a c hs i d eo f t h e c u t t e r .( l n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , efeatherboao rd th ntheoutfeed s i d eo f t h e f e n c eh a sb e e nr e m o v e f d o r c l a r i t y .F ) eed t h e b a r i n t ot h e b i t u n t i ly o u rf i n g e r s a p p r o a c th hecutter, t h e n u s et h e n e x t piece a s a p u s hs t i c ko r m o v e t o t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e t a b l e a n d p u l l t h e w o r k p i e cte hrough t h e c u t . R e p e atth e p a s so n . r e p a ra t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e b a r ( a b o v e ) P e n e x t r ab a rt o h e l p s e t u o t h e c u t i n s t e o3 .



r) Cutting panes rabbets fortheglass wider thanthe table saw slightly I lnstall a dado head onyour arecut remaining after therabbets rabbets. Thetongue desired fence Install a wooden auxiliary at least %inch. should measure of the thickness depth on it-the combined andmark therabbet glass fence the theauxiliary over strip, Position and themolding fence is clear of thecutters. thatthemetal dado head, ensuring it forms head until andslowly crank upthedado Turn onthesaw andmark the Iine. Turn offthesaw a relief cutto themarked bar.Butt endof theglazing width of therabbets ontheleading head, then blade of thedado against theouter oneof themarks position featherboards thebar.Use three thefence flush against board to a support theworkpiece asin step1, adding to support provide pressure clamped to thetable. forthefeatherboard extra (Again side of ontheoutfeed in thisillustration, thefeatherboard Feed thebars byhand hasbeen removed forclarity.) thefence (left) the thenuse fingers approach thefeatherboards, unlilyour Complete thecutonthefinal next workpiece to finish thepass. of thetable. it from theoutfeed stde workpiece bypulling

Making themiter cuts Adiust a crosscut blade. head andinstall Remove thedado to the a wooden extension angle to 45" andattach theblade glazing gauge. bar height, hold theextra Tosettheblade miter you 2 is flush against sothetongue cut in step onthesaw table thelowshould belevelwith The topof theblade theextension. height theblade a testcutandadjust erside of thelip.Make justscores mark the Then the lip (inset). untrl thecutting edge points, the of thebars; at theirwidest miter cutson bothsides

thecut,hold width asthestock. Tomake Vsshould bethesame gauge extension and flat against the miter tongue of the bar the against with the blade. Butt a stop block one of the marks align forsubsequent it to theextension andclamp theendof thestock feed theglazing to the extension and the workpiece cuts. Clamp place. Rotate the holding it firmly in into blade while bar the piece V. Repeat other side of the make the same cut on the and sideof thebar(above). theprocess to cuttheV ontheopposite



Cleaning uptheV-cuts 0 n c ea l l t h em i t e r c u t sh a v e been made, usea narrow chisel to pare away thewaste. Thewidth of thechannel at the bottom of theV should equal thewidth of thelip.Holding thechisel bevel side up, (left)untilthe bottom pare away thewaste of theV issmooth andflat.Work carefullv to avoid tearout.

thehalf-laps f, Gutting dado head in your table it to r,l Reinstallthe saw andadjust thewidth ofthebar's lip.Setthecutting height to one-half the stock thickness. You willbecutting in thebottom a half-lap of glazing one bar, thenmaking an identical cut in thetopof the

piece. mating Setupthecutbyaligning themiddle of theV-cut with thedado head, while holding thebar flush against themiter gauge extension. Keep theworkpiece flatonthesaw table and (above). flushagainst theexiension asyoucutthehalf-laps


i'i i

;" .1,i , ;' , r l , l



environmentof an interior door is lessharsh,a lifetimeof usestill demands carein construction. of the time. It will swingeasily, Oncea door is selected or built, thud, and closewith a satisfying it still must be hung. In many Its sryle in its opening. restsquarely ways, hanginga door is the most its and weightwill complement demanding chore of thefinishcarBut like a smiling surroundings. penter. Techniques varywidely, but face, a well-built,well-hung,and comprises several thejob typically well-framed door meetsfriends each of which must distinctsteps, with an unspoken, and strangers with careful attention to betackled welcome. but warm-hearted will detail.Normally,a carpenter For all its workadaynature,a frame the rough openingfor a A length of head casingisfixed over a door areno door and its surroundings door,whichshouldequal thewidth and setagainsta rosettecorner block.Framing Thedoor,frame,and simple things. of an of the door plusthe thickness a door with decorativemolding serves trim mustbe both sturdyand decthe sidefambsand an additional imDortantesthetic the orative.This chapterreveals function in a room. just 1-inch space for shimsthat are anatomyof a door and shows the jambs.Door jambs(page 90,youwill see usedto plumb and straighten in use. Starting on page a fewof themanysryles doorjambsshould a 95)aremadefrom %-inchstock;exterior and populardesigns, how to build one of the most elegant Oncethejamb is plumb andlevelin task, but be l- to l%-inchthick. a dooris a challenging frame-and-panel door.Building Next,the door is installed it is nailedin place. the opening, the result-a door that is uniquelysuitedto its settings-is into the door edge and the hinge with butt hinges mortised mostgratifring accomplishments. one of woodworking's arescrewed 100).For veryhearydoors,thehinges uses. jamb (page both interiorand exterior Doors,of course, serve placed upon through the jamb into a wall framing membercalledthe Exteriordoorshavegreatstructuraldemands the casing, or door trim, is installed trimmer stud.Finally, in heatand humidity insideand outthem;the differences the roughopening andact asa gusset, 112) to conceal sidealonerequirethat an exteriordoor be built of heavier (page phase of thedoor-hangtyingthejambto thetrimmer.Each be suited to its material thanan interiordoor,that its design is shownin detailin this chapter. quality. ing process Whilethe use,and that thejoinerybe of thehighest

properdoor,like a proper gounnoticed most may chair,

to theedge A leafof a brass butt hingeisfastened door. Once theotherhalfis of aframe-and-panel screwed to thedoorjamb, thedoorcanbehung. together. A pin will holdthehingeleaves

dividedinto f) oorscanbe broadly LJ nvo groups: exterior and interior. While their styles may be similar,the construction differs. Exterior doorsare tlpically 1% inches thick and B0inches high,although in olderhomes doorsare often 82 to 84 inches high. The width varies with location. Frontdoors areusually36inches wide.Backdoorsandother entry doorscanbe asnarrowas32 inches. Interiordoorsrange from 24 to 36inches wideandaretlpically 80incheshigh andl% inches thick. Most doorsin North Americaare eitherframe-and-panel, solid-core, or hollow-core. In frame-and-panel doors, a framework rails,andmullions of stiles, supports solidwoodpanels thatfloatin grooves milledin the insideedges of the joints framework. Mortise-and-tenon are commonlyusedto assemble the joints are framework. Cope-and-stick another option,but theymustbe reinforced with splines to withstand stress. Solid-core doorsconsist of a plvwood veneer gluedovera particleboirdcore. Hollow-core doorshavea lightweight interior,usually cardboard. As shown on page 87,there aremanydoorstyles to from. choose Hanginga door involves building and installinga jamb to fit the rough opening. Roughopenings aretlpically framedby king studson each sidewith
Cripple eLud Kinq stud

a trimmer studattached insidethe king A header studs. rests on the trimmers and constitutes the top of the rough opening. Whenyou build your jamb, allow Z inch of clearance between the jamb and the header and trimmersto allowfor shimming. Theanatomybelow shows a typicalroughdoor opening and a door with the jamb,and the casing installed on oneside.

Head jamb

Eloaked corner Caaingpiecea butt aqainet corner blocka Mitered casing Cornera joined with miterjointa


Trimmer eLud

tsutted caaing )ide caeinq butta aqainat head piece


"comSimple orcomplex, thecasing visually pletes" gaps a door, covering between the jamb andthewall. lt also blocks drafts and protects therough opening andjambfrom damage. Three common designs areshown above. Asa rule,molded casing should be joined at thecorners withmiters or butted plinth against blocks. Flatcasing canbe joined joints. witheither buttor miter





Frenah )uitable for indoorand outdoor uae

9olid-core 9uitable for indoorand outdoor

Frame-and-panel Suitablefor indooraid outdoor uae

o o

o o

o o

o o

o o o


Olasa-a nd- wood-pa neled Onlvauttablefor outdoor uae Victorian screen Onlvauitablefor outdoor uae

o oo

o o

o o

o o

o o

Board-and-batten Suttablefor tndoorand outdoor uae

Rosette cutter Usedin conjunction with a drill preee to cut roaettee: availablewith a wideselection of cuttera to create variouapatterna Port'able eleatric planer Foweredby a 3- to lO-amp motor, rotary cuttei turns at 12,OOO to 23,OOOrpm to planeeurfacea: can be aei to cit bevelafrom 15"in one direction to 40'in the other Lock-face template Adjuotable template used for routin4 lock mor1iaea; automatically oelf-centerinq, the ji7 comeawith a tem/ate quidefor a router

Doorjamb jig Uaedfor inatallinadoor jamba. )toak ia faatened to vertical leaeand adiuatable head rail of ji1; ji7 ia then inaerted in rou1hdoor openin7and tacked to walla

Butt gauge A metal template struck with a hammer or mallet to acore hinqe outlinea;available in vanoua aizea for atandard hinaea Hinge-mortiaing jig Adjuatable templatejiq clampe to doors and doorjambe to

Hingemoriiaing eyetem Adjuatable templatee and raila used for routinq door hin4emortiaee:adjueto for two- or three-hinqeoetupe and for 3-by-5 to 4-by-4 hinqea

Adjuatable vettiaal viee 5prin4-loadedjawe hold doora edae-upfor mortiainq or planin1;may be uaed freeatandin4 or attached to floor or bench. Holdeup to 2-inch-thickatock

Plumb bob Fear-ahapedwei4ht euapended on a cord to checkwhethera framing memberia perfectly vertical, or plumb


Entry Ioakeet Featurea bellhandlea and a Keyea entry lock

Flair handle

Door entry handle Two-piece door enLry aet: eeparate lock cytinder provtdee additional Available in a eecurtLy. widerangeof atylee

9pring-activated door etop Uaed to prevenLscreen doora from are ecrewed opentna Loofar: brackeLs l.o door and door caoin7

Privaay lockaet Orbit-etyle handlewith privacylock

Glaee handles Typicallyuaed wiLh Frenchdooro

to door La|ch ptaLeie ocrewed jamb, allowinq door to be lockedahut

Butt.hin6e ta sl,andarddoore:wetqhL htn7e l;yptcally uaedfor hanqtn4 Kectan7ular plain-bearinq
aupported by Lhe htnqe knucklea.Heavterdoore ehould be hunq on commercial ball-bearinq hinqee. Vartoue Ltp Lypea are available;ehown from left to ri4ht are ball, eteeple, button, and Lwo decoraLivedeet4ne. )ee pa4e 1OZfor a char| of aLandard htnge otzea.



A shaperis itrvoluable doors. .for makingli"ame-and-panel Fitted with cope-and-stick cttter sets, it will preparethe stiles "floating" and rnilsfor assentbly, ctrttinggrooves panels lbr the that lill theframe and carvinga decorotive moldingalong the insitleedges of theJionte at the sametinte. Then,ecluipped with n panel-raising bit, the shapercanfornt bevels on the ponel edges, asshown in thephoto at right. The largeshopnurde clantpedto theshaper's featherboard fenceprotectsthe user Jront the cutter nnd holdsthepanelJlat on the table. Step-by-step instructions for building a six-panelFederalstyledoor nreprovided belowand on thefollowingpages.


Making cope c u t so nt h er a i l s 1 I As shown on page86, a six-panel doorfeatures two stiles, a top andbottom rail,twomedian rails, andthreemullions. Cutyour s t o c kt o s i z e , t h e ni n s t a la l coping c u t t e rs e t a n dg u a r d onthe jigshown shaper T . o f e e dt h e r a i l s b , u i l dt h ec o p i n g i n t h ej n s e t . Thejig consists of a plywood base, a miterbarscrewed to the underside of the base, a 2-by-4 support board fastened flushwith the backedgeof the base, and a plywood backup board screwed t o t h e s u p p o rb t o a r dT . o preven tt e a r o uo t nt h e r a i l st ,h e b a c k u p board should support theworkpiece forthefull widthof cut.Screw

two toggle clamps to the support board. Next,markthe tongue l o c a t i oo n n o n eo f t h e r a i l s c , e n t e r eo dn t h e e d g e of theboard. P o s i t i otn h e j i g o n t h e s h a p etra b l e s , e tt h e o n eo f t h e r a i l s on t h e j i g a n da d j u s t h e c u t t e r h e i g htto a l i g n t h ec u t t e r w i t ht h e tongue mark. T h e nc l a m p t h e r a i lt o t h e 1 i g a gh e b o a r d , lignint e n dw i t ht h e e n do f t h e b a c k u p board s ot h e c u t t e r w i l ls h a p e t h ee n t i r e edgeN . o wm a k e t h ec u t , p u s h i n g t h ej i g a c r o s t sh e table.Repeat the cut on the otherend of the rail (above), then make t h e c u t so n b o t he n d s o f t h e r e m a i n i nre ails a n dm u l l i o n s .



Adjusting thestickcutter L Once a l l t h e c o p ec u t sa r em a d e , replace the copecutterwiththe matching s t i c kc u t t e r s e t .T h i ss e t u p w i l ls h a p e the

^^r -^;r^ pdops nf ihp c,tilpq, m r l. l.;t^ ..r .u^|^ ), oilu Ic|)


Hei7htadjuotment wheel

w i t ha d e c o r a t i p cutting vr eoifl ew h i l e grooves thetongues and to accommodate panels. Toset herght, butt the thecutting rails endof oneof thecoped against the stick cutter, thenadjust theheight of the is level with spindle sothegroove cutter thetongue ontherail(/eff).

Making the stickcuts Q r../ Adjustthe fenceto shape Also the entireedgeof the stock. i n s t a lc l ommercia olr s h o p - m a dh eo l d - d o w n os nt h ef e n c e and s h a p etra b l et o s e c u r e t h es t o c k through t h e c u t sa n d p r e v e n t

kickback rails S.h a p e b o t he d g e s of themedian a n dm u l l i o n s , feeding the stockacross the tablewith both hands(above), but shape onlythe inside edges of the stiles andtop andbottom rails.


Routing mortises inthestiles and rails Reinforce thejoints between thestiles andrails withsplines. Todetermine theirlocations, test-assemble thestrles andrails andmark thecenter of thejoints between Take them. the assembly apart andsecure a stile edge-up ona work surface. guide Use a router fittedwitha mortising bit anda template to cutmortises forthesplines. Toguide thetool, build thejig plywood shown above, made froma piece of %-inch witha slot jawsscrewed in the middle andtwo2-by-4 to the bottom of thetemolate Theslotshould to straddle thestile. bethesize

youwish of thegroove to cut plus thediameter of thetemplate guide youwillattach to therouter. Clamp thejig to thestile, thensetthecutting depth to cuta 1%-inch-deep mortise in the stile. Turn ontherouter andmake thecut,guiding thetemplate guide along the insrde edges of thejig slot(above, left). Repeat thecutat theother endof thestile, at both ends of the other stile, andat thecenter of median rails. Next, secure the grooves rails endup androut in their ends way thesame (above, right).

thejoint f, Test-fitting r.,f Once all thegrooves arecut,make splines thatf it themortises andareshorterthanthecombined depth of twomortisgrain es.The of thesplines runin should thesame direction astherails. Test fit one (righil.fhe glue-up of thejoints before jointshould fit together smoothly without binding lf . t h ef i t i s t o ot i g h t , t r i mt h e spline andtest-fit thejointagain. Finally, make reference marks on alltherails and youassemble stiles to help themproperly (page glue-up during 94).



Raising thepanels yousize Tohelp thepanels, assemble t h ed o o r s t i l e sm , ulliona s, n dr a i l s and measure theopenings. Add%inch to each dimensio to na l l o w f o rt h e%i n c h along theedge of thepanel thatwillfit into the your grooves. Cutthepanels to size; stock should benothicker than thestock used forthestiles andrails. lnstall a oanel-raisi n gb i ta n dm a t c h i n rg u bb e a r i ni g nt h e withthe shaper, andadjust thefence even height rubbearing. Then adjust thecutter willpensotheraised edges of thepanels etrate thegrooves by %inchwhen the panel is cuton both sides. Clamp a wide featherboard to theshaper fence to shield youfrom thecutter andhold thepanel flat panel a b l eF . eed each o n t h es h a p etr y o u rl e f t face-ui p n t ot h ec u t t e ru , sing hand to keep theworkpiece flush against (righil. fo prevent shape thefence tearout, l nds firsta , n dt h e nt h es i d e s . t h ep a n ee l a sb e e n Once o n es i d e o f t h e p a n eh shaped, turn it end-for-end andrepeat on theother edge. Then turnthepanel over andreoeat theseries of cuts.

thefit ofthepanels I Testing youhave / Once shaped thefirstpanel, fit it intooneof thegrooves in a stile(/eff,). Thepieces fit together should snugly, with thepanel extending %inchinto thegroove. lf not,adjust thecutting height, repeat you thecutsandtestthefit again. Once aresatisfied withthefit, raise theremainingpanels.



Assembling thedoor Lay of thedoor close outallthepieces thedoor at hand sothatyoucanassemble quickly to set.Start before theglue begins a stile edge-up building thedoor bysetting glue Apply in themortises in onthefloor. rails aswell ason thestile anditsadjoining Donotspread anygluein the thesplines. panel grooves. in thestile Insert thesplines in place. the mortises and fit therails Use youmade reference marks earlier to help youassemble properly, thepieces Tapthe lightly witha mallet to topends of therails panels Now, seat between close thejoints. andrails. Continue in thisfashthestiles grooves gg lue i n t h es p l i n e ion, applyin thepieces andonthesplines andfitting (left)until is assembled. in place thedoor

Clamping thedoor one Lay fourbarclamps onthefloor, foreach rail.Caref ullylaytheassembled sothebars oftheclamps door ontheclamps your withtherails. To protect arealigned place pads wood the length of the stock, jaws andthedoor door between theclamp justenough Tighten to edges. theclamps Then clamp thedoor from close thejoints. lf youdo topto bottom along themullions. enough to span nothave a clamp thatis long positioning them use twoclamps, thedoor, each other contact sothattheirtailstops Use shorter near the middle of the door. pads fromthese wood to protect the door jaws. Install three more clamps across clamp of thedoor, aligning thebars thetopface rail. Finish with andmiddle thetop,bottom, glue until squeezes tightening alltheclamps outof the joinlstight).Thenusea trysquare of thedoor are to check thatthecorners f, gr e s s u rie square a;d l u stth ec l a m p i np usea necessary. Once thegluehasdried, paint anyremaining adhescraper to remove sand and sive. When thegluehascured, finish thedoor.


If you will be hangingseveral doors,a commercial doorjamb jig couldprove to be a worthwhileptn'chase. Itsframework of ntetal legs and rails will keepa jantb squareond hold it in positionin the rough openingwhile you setit leveland plumb, and fastenit to the trimmer stud.


B u i l d i ntg h ei a m b I Selecs t t r a i g h t - g r a i nZ edi n c h - t h i c k stock f o r y o u rj a m b .R i pt h e s t o c k a sw i d e a s t h e t h i c k n e so sf t h e w a l l , t h e nc u t t h e s i d ea n d h e a dj a m b st o l e n g t h M . ake the s i d ej a m b s slightly l o n g etrh a nt h e h e i g h t of the doorso theyextend roughly fromthe j a m bt o floor to theheader T . r i mt h e h e a d t h e w i d t ho f t h e d o o ro l u s% ' i n c ht o a l l o w %zinch of clearance on the door'slatch s i d ea n d X ui n c ho n i t s h i n g e edge. lf you joints w i l l u s ed a d o t o j o i nt h e h e a d and s i d ej a m b s , asshown a t l e f t ,a d d t h e d e p t ho f t h e d a d o e s t o t h e l e n g t ho f t h e j a m b .O n c e y o uh a v e head c u tt h e d a d o e s , j a m b i n t oo n eo f f i t t h e e n do f t h e h e a d t h e s i d ej a m b sa n d s c r e w the pieces t o g e t h e rR . e p e afto r t h e o t h e rs i d ej a m b . F i n a l l yc , u t a s p a c e ro , r spreadet ro , the w i d t ho f t h e j a m b ' s opening T.h i sb o a r d w i l l b e s e to n t h e f l o o rb e t w e e n theside to keep t h e a s s e m b ls yq u a r e asit rs lambs beins installed. 'l


r) Setting thejamb I tacXabracing board diagonally across of the door opening to each topcorner jamb flush with keep theedges of the the walls. Position thejambin theopening, butting it against thebraces, andplace floor thespreader onthe between theside jambs. jambs Tapshims between theside jamb head at bothends of the to center theassembly in theopening; insert the shims in pairs fromopposite sides of the (Shims jamb. aretapered wedges of wood soldin small bundles at thatareusually hardware andlumberyards.) Then stores level to check the head usea carpenter's jamb (left)and forlevel theassembly shift if necessary. In the process, one slightly jambs of theside may beraised offthe floor. lf so,measure thegapandtrimthe jamb opposite side bythesame amount. Reposition thejambin theopening, centerjambs ingandleveling it again. Both side willnow beonthefloor. Nail thejamb to opening through theshims into therough thetrimmer studs. Set thenailheads.

forplumb Q Checking thesidejambs between r,l Tapshims andthewallat both ends of thesoreader. forplumb. Tosetup Then check thejamb t h ep l u m b bob, mark t h ec e n t eo r ft h e jambat oneedge, your head thentransfer f inishmark to thespreader. Tack a small jamb ingnailinto theedge of thehead so b o bc o r d w i l lh a n g directly t h ep l u m b mark. Susoend thebob below thecenter from thenailsothepoint of thebobhangs justabove the spreader. Taptheshims in or outto align the beside thespreader mark under thebob. Drive center directly jambs ng ails h es i d e finishin t h r o u gt h jambs andthe shims to secure theside at thebottom of theopening.



jambs Squaring theside lnsert three additional oairs of shims jamb, positioning behind each side them plate locations. at thehinge andlock strike Theshims should bewedged in tightly. jambs Although theside areplumb, they fromtopto bottom. maybeslightly bowed press Toensure thejambs arestraight, a straightedge against thejambto f latten it (right). asyounailthrough theshims ln thiscase, straight 1-by-4 stock is used; a level will also 6-foot-long carpenter's work fine.

theshims f, Trimming r-,10nceyouhave shimmed thejamb, cuttheshims offflush with thewallusing a utility knife. Hold theendof theshim (left)unlil andsliceacross it repeatedly piece thewaste canbebroken offeasily.



outthedoorstops 1 Laying I Doorstoos canbeinstalled after thedoor is in place at left,once the or,asshown j a m bi s i n s t a l l e M e rt h e d .a r k a guidelin fo witha combination square anda doorstops pencil. Adjust square to the thecombination andbuttthehandle thickness of thedoor of the latch against thedoor-opening edge jamb. hold Starting at thetopof thejamb, thepencil against theendof theruler and runthesquare down thejamb to mark the jamb, line(left). Before marking the hinge inch to allow clearance forthehinges ?dd'Aa andprevent thedoor frombinding when it is closed.

r') Preparing thedoorstops I You canuse either flatormolded stock Thepieces forthedoorstops. canbejoined miters, at thecorners withbuttjoints, or joints. flatstock is coped Inthisexample, joined joints being withmiter cutona chop youcanalso saw; use a miter boxandcut Adjust the pieces witha handsaw. thesaw fora 45"cutandbuttthefirstpiece against thefence. Clamp a guide board to thesaw thestock flush against the table to secure fence the cut (right). Miter both andmake of the head-jamb doorstop andthe ends lf you topendof theside-jamb doorstops. molded make the areusing stock, sure when flatedge will buttagainst thedoor it is closed.



Installing the head-jamb doorstop Q r-,f Onceall the doorstops arecut, install themon the jamb.Start withthe head-jamb doorstop. Alignthe edgeof the piece with t h e l i n e sm a r k e d o n t h e s i d ej a m b s and nails(right). tack it in placewith f inishing M a k es u r et h e m i t e r e d e n d sa r ef a c i n g f l u s h ,a sy o u d o w n .D o n o t d r i v e the nails mayhave to reposition the doorstops once t h e d o o ri s i n s t a l l e d T.h eh e a d - j a mp bi e c e will beslightly askew becauso ef the Xuinchoffsetbetween the two suidelines on t h e s i d el a m b s .

Installing thelock-jamb doorstop

A l i g nt h e d o o r s t ow p i t ht h e g u i d e l i n e

onthejamb, buttits mitered endagainst t h ee n do f t h eh e a d - j a m db oorsto ap nd (left). tackthepiece in place Make sure jointistight. themiter Donotinstall the hinge-jam s tb op untiy l o uh a v e c u tm o r tises f o rt h eh i n g ea sn dh u n g t h ed o o r (page 100).


paresaway the waste A chisel from a hinge mortisein a doorjamb. By usinga chiselthat is the same width as the mortise,you can tap the chiselwith a mallet to score a series of cutsacross lhe morlise and around its outline. Thenpush the chiselbevel-side up to shear off the wastewood and clean up the bottom of the cavity.


Chiseling outthehinge mortises There arenof irmrules for locating door hinges, buton an 80-inch interior door, positioned they aretypically 7 inches from thetopand11 inches from thebottom ofthe door. lf youchoose to usea thirdhinge, locate it midway between theother two. Mark nf t h eh i n g eo t h el o c a t i oo snt h e j a m ba , llowin hinge fg o r% i n c h ofclearjamb. ance between thedoor andthehead You canusea router anda shoo-made i g t o c u tt h eh i n g e t e m p l a tj e mortises (page l0l), or a commercial hinge mortis(page ingsystem 102).Todothejob by youcanusea buttgauge hand, to score thehinge mortise outlines onthejamb. Aligning thegauge stops sets thedevice place automatica in lly d i r e c t lo yv e t rh e bottom hinge mark. Now strike itsface w i t ha h a m m e r .eoea R t outline to the remaining mortises onthejamb. Then use a chisel to cutthemortise, asshown in thephoto above.




jig a router template 1 Making I Toroutouthinse mortises on a door jamb,use jig shown thetemplate at left w i t hy o u r router , straigh a bt i t ,a n da guide. Make template thejig fromtwo pieces plywood; of %-inch thetemplate should bewideenough to support the router. Outline thehinge leaf onthetemplate andcut it out,compensating forthe guide template andadding thethickness of thefence. Fasten thefence to thetem' plate, countersinking thescrews.

r') Routing themortises I ltlarV,the hinge locations onthedoor jamb(page 100)andclamp thejig to the jamb, withone of the aligning thecutout marks. Buttthejig fence against thedoorA d j u stth e o p e n i ne gd g e o f t h ej a m b . router's deothof cut to the combined thickness of thetemplate andthehinge holding leaf. Then turnontherouter and, it firmly in bothhands, cutthemortise, plate keeping thebase flatonthejig and guide flush against theedges thetemplate (righil. Move therouter in of thecutout of small clockwise circles untilthebottom is smooth. Reposition thejig themortise mortise thesame way. androut thesecond youareusing lf thehinges arerectangular, witha square thecorners of themortises chisel; forhinges withradiused corners, themortises canbeleftrounded.




Routing themortises Hinge mortises on a door canbecut by hand(page 100),or routed withtheaid a shop-made 101)ora commercial lig(page mortising system, such astheoneshown at left.Thesystem canalso beused to rout jamb. themortises onthedoor Although thedoor shown willbehung withonly two hinges, thejig features three adjustable mortise templates connected withmetal r a i l sI.n t h i si n s t a n cte h,ec e n t eh ringe template isonly being used to hold thejig together. Assemble thejig following the manufacturer's instructions, then secure thedoor edge-up witha pair of vertical vis(page esor shop-made doorbucks 104). Mark thehinge mortises onthedoor edge andsetupthejig,aligning thetemplates your over marks. Adjust thesize of the templates foryour hinges, making sure to guide youwill compensate forthetemplate use withyour router. Tack thejig in place (inset). provided withtheduplex nails Install a %-inch straight bitanda template guide in therouter, turnit on,andcuteach m o r t i sb eyr u n n i ntg h eg u i d e along the (left). inside edges of thetemplates Square thecorners of themortises witha chisel.

To makesurea door opensand closes free\, w i t h o u tb i n d i n go n thejamb, its latch edge shouldbe beveled slightly toward the side that contactsthe doorstops. A portableplaner,like the oneshownin thephoto at right, can be setto the desiredbevelangle, enablingyouto prepare severaldoorsquickly.




pilot forthehinge screws 1 Drilling holes I Once a l l t h em o r t i s e as r ec u t i n t h e j a m ba n dt h ed o o rp na c h , o s i t i oe hinge leafin place. Mark thescrew holes with a pilot hole at each locaanawl. thenbore youhold making thedrill Iion(above), sure asvertical asoossible.


DOOR THICKNESS 1%" lYB" 1%'1Tr" Door width Upto 32" More than32" 32' - 36', 36'-48' More than48" Upto 43" More than43"
Hinge height 3Y2' 4' 4 ' ,- 4 y 2 ' , 5u 5" (Heavy-duty) 6u 5" (Heavy-duty) 6" (Heavy duty)

1%" More than

youchoose Thechart above will help hinges of appropriate height foryour Todetermine correct hinge width(thecombined width of thetwo door. gapbetween leaves andthepin), firstsubtract thebackset-the theedge face-from thethickness of thedoor, thenmultiof thehinge andthedoor plytheresult The typical backset is %inch. The calculation fora bytwo. forexample, would x 2 = 3". Hinge sizes 1%-inch{hick door, be:(I%' - y4') in height first,thenwidth. areexpressed



DOOR BUCKS Door bucks serve asan inexoensive alternative to commercial vertical vises for securing a door on edge for p l a n i no gr c u t t i n g hinge mortises. The one shown in theillustration can quickly beassembled fromplywood provided Thedimensions scraps. will suitmost doors. To make thejig,startbycutting plythejaws andfeetfrom%-inch plywood, andthebase from%-inch wood. Screw thefeetto the underside flush withitsends. Then of thebase f ix thejaws to the base, driving the fromunderneath. screws Countersink Besure all yourfasteners. theedges leave of thejawsalign; a l%-inch soace between themsothebuck will hold anydoor of standard thickness. Door bucks areusually used in pairs to secure a dooredge up.Set thebucks onthefloor a fewfeetapart, thenslrde thedoor between thejaws. Thebase willbuckle slightly under the pulling weight of thedoor, thejaws together to gripthedoor andholdit in place(right, bottom).




Mounting thehinge leaves Remove thepins from thehinges and separate the leaves. Position oneleafin themortise in thedoor edge andscrew it (right). in place Besure to drive thescrew heads f lush withthe hinge leaf . Fasten theother leafto thejamb.Repeat at the remaining mortises.

Hanging thedoor Once allthehinges areinstalled, it is timeto hang thedoor temporarily. This will youto check enable itsfit andbevel the door edge, asshown in step 5. Working with a helper, if possible, liftthedoor intopositionsothe hinge leaves onthedoor and jambengage. lf youhave to work alone, hold thedoor upright andslide a fewshims under itsbottom edge. Bracing thedoor on jointhetophinge theshims, leaves togethpivot er.Then thedoor to jointhebottom pinpartially hinge leaves. Slipeach hinge (left) in place Io lockthe leaves together.



Markingthe bevel / -T Doors require typically a 3' to 5" bevproperly. el on the latch edge to close Stand on the doorstoo sideof the door a n dp u l li t s h u t . l f t h ej a m b w a ss i z e d properly, thefront edge of thedoor willhit preventing theedge of thejamb, thedoor from closing fully. Tomark thebevel, hold thedoor against thejamb anduse a pencilto scribe a line down theface of the door where it meets thesideiamb(left).

Beveling thedoor edge f, power planer r./ Youcanusea portable to bevel the edge of the door(page 102),buI plane willalso a lack work well, Remove the from door theopening andsecure it latchedge up.Transfer the bevel mark on the face of thedoor to theend.Then, starting guide at one end, theplane along thedoor (right), edge walking next to thepiece until youreach theother end.Hold thetoolat thesame angle asthemarked bevel angle. youhave Continue until cuttotheline, then rehang Thedoor thedoor. should contact youclose thelatch-jamb stop when it. Now (page install the lock-jamb doorstop 99), it against butting thedoor andtheheadjambstop. Check thef inalf it of thedoor; gaps there should beslight between the door andthejamb. You canuse thethickness of a dimeanda nickel to measure jamb gaps. these Pass a dime along thelock to check fortheX-inchmargin between the hrnge and nickel the door. Use a to lamb measure therequired %,-inch space at the topandalong lf necessary, theother side. remove thedoor again andplane down any where spots thegapis insuff icient.


With the latch assembly fastenedto the edgeof the door, the doorknobsarefitted plate will then in place.The knob cover be screwedto the assemblvto comolete the lo cks et installation.



\-v -

t a '



thelockset 1 Positioning I Locksets usually come witha template formarking theholes youwillneed to drillforthelatch assembly anddoorknobs. Start marking the height of the knobs by onthedoor-typically 36 your inches offthefloor. Then tape thetemplate over mark. Use

(above, point anawlto mark thedoorknob ontheface of thedoor leftl-eilher 23/e or 2%inches fromthedoor edge, depending onthemodel of lockset-then thecenterpoint forthelatch assem(above, right). blyhole onthedoor edge



r ) D r i l l i nt g f o rt h ed o o r k n o b s h eh o l e L l n s t a la l h o l es a wi n y o u re l e c t r i c drill, r e f e r r i nt g f o r o thetemplate thecorrect d i a m e t e rT . h e h o l es a ws h o w n at right pilotbit. Setthe pointof features a center t h e p i l o tb i t i n t h e a w l m a r ky o um a d ei n s t e o1 . t h e nb o r ei n t ot h e d o o ru n t i lt h e pilotbit emerges fromthe otherside.Keep lo ar t h e d r i l lp e r p e n d i c u t t h ed o o r througho u t .N o wm o v e t o t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e d o o r ,i n s e rtth ec e n t e p r i l o tb i t i n t h es m a l l you pierced opening through the door, and c o m p l e tte h eh o l e . D r i l l i nt g h e h o l ei n t w o w i l la v o i d steps splinterin og f t h ew o o d .

r . - f R e p l a ct e h e h o l es a ww i t h a s p a d e
hit. eo:in rpfpr tn thp tpmnletp fnr ihp

Boring thelatch assembly hole J <'

appropriat b e it diameter S . e tt h e t i p o f the bit in the awlmarkandbore the hole, la k e e p i n tg h e d r i l lp e r p e n d i c u t or the (below). you dooredge Fora narrow door, c a n c l a m pw o o db l o c k s o nt h ef a c e s of t h ed o o r oneach s i d eo f t h e h o l e to preventthe wood fromsplitting. Stopdrilling w h e ny o u r e a c h thehandle hole. Some l o c k s e tr se q u i r e t h i s h o l et o b e d r i l l e d beyond t h e e n d o f t h e d o o r k n oh bo l e forclearance.



thelatch assembly faceplate ,{ 0utlining -T plate Slide thelatch assembly into the y o ud r i l l e d hole i n t h ee d g e o f t h ed o o r a n ds e tt h ef a c e p l a t fe lush agains th te door edge. Holding thefaceplate square to thedoor edge, trace itsoutline witha pencil(right).

thelatch assembly f, Installing you r.,f Use a chisel to cuta shallow mortise within theoutline marked in step 4. Start byscoring theoutline of themortise, (/eff)to thenpare outthewaste a depth equal to thethickness of thelatch assembly faceplate. Using thechisel withthebevel youcontrol facing down willhelp thedepth of themortise. Stop periodically andtest-f it thefaceplate in themortise. Continue untilthe faceplate sitsin themortise flush withthedoor edge, thenmark thescrew holes withanawl. Drill a oilot hole at each mark. Finally, slide thelatch assembly in thehole and screw the (above). faceplate to thedooredge




theheight of 4i Marking jamb hole onthedoor \J thelatch firstfitto thedoor, Fasten thedoorknobs assembly, asshown tingthem to thelatch themtogether on page 107,thenscrew plates. Close thedoor through theircover partially is resting against the sothelatch jamb. Outlining thehole of thelatch edge for the latchon thelambis a two-step first, Mark theheight of thehole operation: 7). asshown at left,thenthewidth(step lines o nt h ej a m b Use a p e n c itlo m a r k of the latch along thetop andboitom (left) square to transfer and a combination of theiamb. themarks across theface

hole ofthelatch thewidth I Marking tapeto determine / Usea measuring onthedoor edge of thelatch thelocation (righil.f ransfer yourmeasurement to the jamb, f rg o mt h e l a t c h - j a m b measurin vertica l il n e s o nt h e a n dm a r k doorsto o youmarked in thatintersect those lamb of willform theoutline step 6. Thelines clearance hole. thelatch



Cutting thelatch clearance hole

Youcan usean electric drillfittedwith

a spade bitor,asshown at right, a chisel to form the latch clearance hole. Theexact i s n o tc r r t i c as size o f t h eh o l e l, ince the plate w i l lc o v em strike r oso t f i t , b u ti t must accommoda telatch th when the is closed. door Touse a chisel, f irstscore theoutline of themortise, thenclear out (ilghil,fesltitthelatch periodthewaste ically byclosing thedoor.

( , ( /

1trike plate ton0ue

plate Installing thestrike plate Align t h es t r i k e o v et r h el a t c h

h o l ea n d m a r ki t s o u t l i n e w i t ha p e n c i l ( l e f t ) .f h e n c h i s e la m o r t i s e w i t h i nt h e plate outline t o a d e p t he q u a t l o t h es t r i k e thickness 0.n c et h e p l a t ei s f l u s hw i t ht h e j a m b ,h o l di t i n p o s i t i o a n n d m a r kt h e screw holes w i t ha n a w l .B o r e a p i l o th o l e at eachmarkand screw the strikeplateto t h e j a m b .T o c h e c k t h e i n s t a l l a t i oc nl,o s e t h ed o o rT , h ef a c eo f t h e d o o rs h o u l d rest f l u s ha g a i n stth e d o o r s t o p s l f. t h e d o o r ,o u c a n a d j u s t d o e sn o t c l o s ep r o p e r l yy plate t h ef i t b y b e n d i n g t h es t r i k e tongue s l i g h t l iy n o ro u t .



thereveal 1 Marking around a door, installing casing I Before give yourself enough to remove thedoor overlaps normally room to work. Casing jamb portron leaving edge, a of the only portion part is This exposed of it exposed. jambs On%-inchlhick known asthereveal. be% should likethose shown, thereveal thecasing willclear inch. Make sure to %u use a shopTomark thereveal, thehinges. (page gauge 63)or a combimade reveal tt to With thesquare, adlust nation square. the reveal width. Then, butting thedesired thetopofthehinge square's handle against jamb, theendof the hold a pencil against andthepencil andrunthesquare blade to mark the down thejambto thef loor (left). ontheothRepeat theprocess reueal jamb. jamb andacross thehead erside

theplinths O Installing and slightly thicker I Cut twoplinths youplan and to use, wider than thecasing youplanto higher thanthe baseboard T h ep l i n t h showa nt i n s t a lo l n t h ew a l l . 1 i n c h t h i s c t k o c k a nd i s c u t f r o m right Align the beveled on one corner. beveled line and withthereveal edge of theplinth jamb with a hamit the wall and fasten to T h ep l i n t h n a i l eg run. m e ro r a f i n i s h f loor. lf f lush on the finished should rest yet installed, set has not been theflooring plinth piece during flooring under the of a cleartherequired installation to provide plinth the install the on Repeat to ance. other iamb.



thehead casing Q Installing r.,l Cutthe head casing sothat it will extend slightly beyond bothside-jamb Align thecasing withthereveal casings. jamb l i n eo nt h eh e a d a n dn a i li t t o t h e wall and jamb(right).

Installing theside casings C u tt h es i d ec a s i n gts o fit snugly between theplinths andhead casing. Set in position, its one of thepieces aligning withthereveal lineonthe janb (left), edge andnailit in place. Repeat to install the second side casing. Now setallthenails.


risersclosethe verticalsDaces n a simplelevel, a run of between the treads(page123). stairsis nothing more The is anchored at the staircase from one than a conveyance posts newel top and bottom by Functionalfloor to another. (page (page 128); the balusters ly, a well-built staircase seems posts 1j6), or vertical between or desself-effacing-climbed the steps andthehandral (page without thought or cended 132), are doweledor dovea attention.But esthetically, into the treads andnailed tailed may capturemuch staircase joinery handrail. to the Precise and attention. poorlydesigned Because and ampleuseof finewoodshelpa accidents executed stairs are roughcarstaircase transcend jig consisting waiting to happen,building of a 1-by-4clamped to a carpenpentryand riseinto the cateA simple governmanyaspects codes of ter's square is used to mark therise-and-run-the gory of fine woodworking. qnd their construction. For examstringer. width of thetreads risers-on a staircase Theelaborate stairways often ple, handrailsshould not be with grandentrance associated posts, inches treads. In someareas, wide stairs morethan 34 above the goosenecked newel halls,featuring curvedhandrails, also carry stipulations a handrailon both sides. Codes era.Crafts- musthave and risers belongto a bygone andspiralingtreads is usually the minimum. governing headroom; 6 feet8 inches menwho specialize in this tlpe of work arc ararcbreed.But your embarkwith localbuildingcodebefore on page Besureto check staircase,like theoneshown even a simple straight-run 116, canbecome the focalpoint of a home-and a challeng- ing on a staircase. principleof staircase 17/. -nch A basic design is theso-called This chapter will projectfor anywoodworker. ing but feasible job width of onetreadand heightof oneristo installation. rule.Thecombined done,from design showyou how to getthe Forthetypicalstair, thiscanmean arebuilt in muchthesame er shouldequallT'/'inches. or complex, all staircases Simple and a riserheightof 7 %inches, a treadwidth of 10inches way:from the ground up. All you needis an openingin the users, somevariaon the needs of the stair's featured in this but depending floor above anda solidfloor below Thestaircase floors, tion is allowable. a landingabouthalfiuay between chapter alsofeatures mentions in ScottSchuttner into thewall framing As professional stairbuilder whichshould be madeandincorporated is important. his introductoryessay on page10,consistency aredesigned. beforethe stairs in a staircase mustbethe same width andall the thetreads-rest on notched All thetreads Thesteps ofthe staircase--called (page118).Astaircase height.Even a slightdeviation-while not easof risers the same boardscalledstringers or carriages by the eye-will not go unnoticedby the perwill usually need threestringers, ily discernable typicalwidth,about36inches, called sonusingthe stairs. one on eachsidewith a third in the middle.Boards

A staircasecan be as simple as a straight run of stepsthqt lead into a cellqr or as elaborateas the structure shown at left, with hardwood and a gracefulcurved handrail. treadsand risers,turned balusters,


Floating handrail lnetalled on wall aide of ataircaae; may be required by buildinqcode. Attached to wallby metal brack' eta acrewedinto walletude. Handrail Frta atop balueters:bottom is qroovedor doweled to accepL
lnna nf balttafera

Baluster lneLalled between handrailand treade on eide of starrcaae away from wall. Twobaluetero are neededfor each tread; ueuallyequidielenqth tant. Typtcal is 31 to 39 inchea.

Cloaed at'ringer or 2-by-12that Ueually a 2-by-1O eug0ort6 the enda of the treada anidrreere alonq a wall;off,en mortiaed to accommodatethe treada, risera, and wedgee.

Tread code;ueuallya 1tzed accordinqLo local buildin4 minimumof 1 '/aincheathick and 36 incheelong. Treadwidth (unit run) and riaer heiqht (unit tnchea.)upported at riee)ahould equal17% each end and at the middlebv a atrinaer.

Riser Cloaeaverttcal epace betweentwo treadg; uoually no widerthan 7% rnch' ea. End fit6 into mortiae tn cloaedatrtnqer;other end is beveledto fit fluah aqainet openaLrln4er,

Tread noainq Koundededqe of tread overhanqarreer below.

Fit into morttee in cloeedetrinqer to aecure tread or riaer; ueually made of hardwood.

Center atringer Uaually a 2-by-1O or 2-by-12that providea additional eupport to etaire wider than on about.SOinchea: narrower ataira, two atrinqereare uaually adequate,

Open atringer Ueually a 2-W-1Oor 2-by-12that eupporto Lheenda of the Lreadeand riEerE away from a wall;the edqee f,hat buLt to a4ainotthe rieera are ofren beveled concealf,heend qrain ofthe rieere. Kicker Tart of houseframin7aervinqto anchor bottom enda of strinqere; etrin4ere are notched to fit around kicker.



Dovetailjoint Anqledpin at bottom of baluaterfite into aocket cut in Lread; coveredby reLurn noeinq. Daluaterecan alao be doweledinto treada.

Return noeing End of tread over' hanginqopenatrrn4er; a aeparate pieceqlued and nailed Lo tread end to concealbaluater dovetailaand end 7rain of tread.



Determining thekeydimensions start bymeasuring Tocalculate thelength of thestringers, f loor fromthef inished below thetotal rise-thedistance your gb o v e T.h e n divide loor o r l a n d t na t o t h ef i n i s h efd willbe number sothattheresult measurement bya whole riseis lf, forexample, thetotal between 7 and8 inches. by 14 equals 7% dividing thismeasurement 105 inches, 14 7%-inch-high risers. Thestaircase would have inches. to determine thetotalrunof thestairs, Next, use thisresult multiplied bytheunit isthetotal number of treads which in ourexamole would have thesame run.Thestaircase 14. Since Ihe I7% inchrule number of treads asrisers, (17% less s tde dictate ts h a tt h et r e a dw s i l lb e 1 0 i n c h ew 14treads h e i g h to ,r7%)t , h et o t a lr u ne q u a l s t h er i s e r Once theyouknow by 10 inches, or 140inches. multiplied the Pythagorean rise andthetotalrun,youcanuse thetotal calculator to calculate the length theorem anda pocket form Therise, run, andstringer of a staircase of thestringers. (A)andthetotal withthetotalrise a right-angled triangle sides andthestringer asthelongest run(B)astheshorter (C). ThePythagorean formula states side, or hypotenuse sides added together equals of theshorter thatthesquares (A2+82=C'z). ln thiscase, of the hypotenuse thesquare (105x 105= 11,025) and thetotal run thetotal rise square 30,625). ( 1 4 0x 1 4 0= 1 9 , 6 0 0a ) n dc o m b i nt e h er e s u l t(s atthe eo o t o f t h i sf i g u r e toarrive Then take t h es q u a r r le t h i se x a m p l 1 e7 , 5i n c h e s . stringe r ngth-in

Total Riee = A (meaeuredfrom finishedfloor below to finiahedfloor above) Total Run = E (Numberof treada multiplied by unit run) Total length of atringer = C


tl- h. stringers, alsoknownas carI riages, pieces that arelhe diagonal Theprinsupport thetreads andrisers. ciplebehindsizing andnotching themis have known a simple onethatcarpenters for centuries: Forstairs to beascended or descended comfortably and safely, an ratiomustbemaintained exact between users theriseandtherun-the distance moveup or downandthedistance they moveforward.This is oftenexoressed "17 asthe Z-inchrule":Thesumofeach rise-and-run ecuall7 Z inches. should (See I 17.) calculations on page Stringers canbeeitheropenor closed. An openstringer is simplya boardwith notches cut to support the treads and risers; it is usually used on the sideof a staircase awayfrom the wall.A closed strhserhouses theends of thetreads and riseri,oftenwith mortises; thewall-side hasa closed ofa stairway usually stringer,

Most of the notching of the centerstringer can be donewith a circularsaw,but usea crosscLtt thejob. Make sureyou hold saw to complete the saw verticallyasyou cut into the corners.


Marking thecenter stringer t I Once determined theunitrise vouhave andunitrunof your stairs andcalculated prepare length, thestringer thestringers. Cutthem to length from2-by-12 stock. you Start bylaying outthecenter stringer; willuseit asa template to mark theothers. Setoneboard facedown on a work surface. Tolayouttherise-and-run, attach twocommercial stair buttons to a caroenpositioning ter's square, onefortherise fortherun.lf you and theother donothave jig shown stair buttons, use theshop-made page on 115. Then, starting about 12 inchesfrom one endof theboard, hold thestair buttons against oneedge of thestock and mark thef irstunitrise-and-run along the inside edge of thearms of thesquare with a pencil. Slide thesquare along andrepeat (/efil, ensuring thatthenext unitrise-andrunstarts where exactly thefirstoneends. you marking reach Continue until theoppositeendof theboard. Once all thesteos aremarked, addcutting lines at 90' for thetopandbottom of thestringer. Also mark t h en o t c h e th s a tw i l lf i t a r o u ntd he kicker at thestaircase bottom andthe ledger board at thetop. 'l



Cutting thecenter stringer

f a c eu p Clamp t h e s t r i n g eb r oard across a p a i ro f s a w h o r s e as n dc u t a l o n g yourmarked linesusing a circular saw(left). youreach repoWhen theends of the board, Do sitionit on the sawhorses as necessary. n o tt r y t o c u t r i g h t o t h ec o r n e ro sf c u t t i n g f i ,n i s h lines w i t ht h ec i r c u l a sra w . Instead (photo, page11&. the cutswitha handsaw

Laying outthe openstringer Q r - J S e tt h e o p e ns t r i n g e b r oard o n a w o r ks u r f a c e a n d l a yt h e a g a pb e t w e e t nh e e d g e s cut-out center s t r i n g eo r n it, leaving stock. Mark of thetwoboards e q u a lt o t h e w i d t ho f y o u rr i s e r s t r i n g eo r n t h e o p e ns t r i n g eb roard. t h e r u ne d g e s o f t h ec e n t e r T n m a r kt h e r i s ee d p e s o f t h e s t r i n p e rt.a k ea n i e c eo f r i s e r its stock a n ds e t i t o n e n d o n t h e o p e ns t r i n g eb r o a r db , utting

M f a c ea g a i n so t n eo f t h e r i s e - e d g e os f t h ec e n t e r stringer . ark f r o mt h e e d g eo f t h e o p e ns t r i n g e r a l i n ea l o n g theriser board (above). Repeat board to the run-edge of the centerstringer at T a l l t h e o t h e rr i s e - e d g e os f thecenter stringer . h i ss e c o n d set of cutting lines w i l l c o m p e n s afto er t h e b e v ey l o uw i l l n e e d to s a wi n t h e r i s e - e d g e os f t h e o p e ns t r i n g e r .



thewedges for theclosed stringer f, Making .-,1Before y o uc a n o u t l i n e t h e m o r t i s e isn t h e c l o s e d stringer, y o uh a v e sh a tw i l l s u p p o rtth e t r e a d s to make t h e w e d g et and risers in the mortises. Cutting theopen stringer Use%-inch{hick hardwood for the wedges youcutthecenter Cutouttheopen stringer theway stringer, andcut themon yourtablesaw.Screw a board to the mitergauge y o um a r k e d f o l l o w i nt gh e c u t t i n gl i n e s i n s t e p3 , F o rt h e b e v e l a s a n e x t e n s i oa nn dc l a m oa s t o ob l o c k t o t h e e x t e n s i oa nb o u t c u t s ,s e c u r e t h e s t r i n g es r t o c ke n d u p i n a b e n c hv r s e . At the % i n c hf r o mt h e b l a d e A . ngle t h e m i t e rg a u g e s o t h a t y o uw i l l outside corner o f e a c hs t e p ,u s ea c o m b i n a t i os nq u a r e a n da cut wedget sh a t w i l l t a p e rf r o ma b o u l ' / u i n c ht h i c kt o a b o u t% p e n c it l o m a r ka l i n ea I a 4 5 " a n g l e a c r o st sh e r u n - e d go ef t h e i n c ht h i c k .H o l d i n y g o u rw e d g e stock f l u s ha g a i n st th e m i t e r gauge s t r i n g e rT . h e ne x t e n d t h e l i n ea t a 9 0 " a n g l e d o w nt h e i n s i d e e x t e n s i os no t h a t i t s g r a i ni s p a r a l l etlo t h e b l a d e , cut (above), the wedges (above). faceof the stringer. Usea crosscut sawto cut the bevel Turn the boardoveraftereachpass.You w h e ny o u r e a c h the bottom o f t h e r i s ee d g e . R e m o v e m a yn e e d to make a f e wt e s tc u t sa n da d j u s t h e m i t e rg a u g e stopping witha horizonta clu t . B e v etl h e o t h e rr i s e - e d s e os f angleuntilthe wedges arethe rightsize.(Caution: Bladeguard thewaste the sameway. removed for clarity.) the openstringer

Marking themortises ontheclosed stringer 4l in the closed stringer musttake \,f The mortises intoaccount the treads, the risers, andthe wedges Since t h et r e a d s a r eh o u s e d i n t h ec l o s e d stringer, yourstringer startby marking a clearance linealong s t o c ka b o u t2 i n c h e s below thetopedge. Then, outline thecenter s t r i n g eo r ntheclosed stringer b o a r da , llowing enough space s o t h a t w h e nt h e treadmortise is cut it will not project beyond the c l e a r a n cle i n e .P o s i t i oa n piece o f t r e a ds t o c k on e n do n t h e b o a r d f l u s hw i t h t h e c e n t e r stringer outline a n dm a r ki t so u t l i n e location. ateach tread position Repeat witha piece of riser Finally, stock. a wedge f l u s hw i t h e a c ht r e a da n d r i s e r outline and markits outline(left).Makesureto position t h e t h i n e n do f t h e w e d g e a t t h e j o i n tb e t w e e t n he treadand riser. Extend all vourlines to the bottom
cdoc nf fhp cfrinopr



jigs stringer mortising Making the closed I s t r i n g ew r ith sn t h e c l o s e d / l t i s e a s i e stto r o u tt h e m o r t i s e t j ilg sa r ea v a i l a b lfe o rt h i s commercia t h e h e l po f a 1 i g A . lthough y o uc a ne a s i l y o n ej i g f o rt h e m o r t i s e s b u i l dy o u ro w n .M a k e task, under t h e m ,a n da s e p a r a t e housing t h et r e a d s a n dt h e w e d g e s jig forthe risers thetreadbehind t h e m .M a k e a n dt h e w e d g e s i g f i r s t .S t a r tb y s e c u r i n t h e s t r i n g efra c eu p o n a g m o r t i s i njg gl e a t s l %a l o n gi t s e d g e s I . n s t a la a n d p o s i t i o n i nc w o r ks u r f a c e a n d a l i g nt h e b i t w i t h o n ee d g e i n c hs t r a i g hb t i t i n y o u rr o u t e r a board a s a n e d g eg u i d et o t h e c l e a t s o f a t r e a do u t l i n e S . crew p a r a l l etlo t h e t r e a d s s o t h a t i t s e d g ei s f l u s ha g a i n stth e r o u t e r

e d g eg u i d ep a r a l l etlo t h e R e p e aw t i t ha s e c o n d b a s ep l a t e . t h e f r o n te d g e so ,r . rnce o p p o s i t e d g eo f t h e t r e a do u t l i n e S nosings o,f t h e t r e a d s a r er o u n d e dy, o uw i l l n e e da r o u n d e d . djust a comt h e f r o n to f t h e t r e a dm o r t i s eA e d g eg u i d ea l o n g pass bit and base to the distance between the edgeof the router plateT . h e n ,h o l d i n g of the t h e c o m p a sp s o i n ta t t h e c e n t e r to C . u tt h e t h i r dg u i d e t r e a dn o s i n gd , r a wa n a r co n t h e s t r i n g e r , awing a n a r ce q u a lt o t h e t r e a d fit betweet nh e e d g eg u i d e ss b a s ep l a t eo u t o f o n ee n d ,t h e ns c r e w nosing a n dt h e r o u t e r it in place(above).

intheclosed stringer Routing themortises

jig over i s s m o o t hR . e p e afto r t h e of thecavity oneof the tread-and-wedgep i n gw h e nt h e b o t t o m Alignthe tread-mortising . lunge ortises M . ake the riser-mortising r e m a i n i ntg r e a d - a n d - w e dm ge therouteb r i t i n t ot h e o u t l i n ea s n d c l a m pi t i n p l a c e P jigthesame p l a t ea g a i n stth e e d g e guides e d g eg u i d e , since the w a y ,o m i t t i n g therounded t o r o u tt h e the base stockr , iding of therisers a r es o r i a r e T. h e nr o u tt h e r i s e r - a n d i n s m a l lc l o c k w i sc ei r c l e s f r o n te d s e s . ove therouter edges o f t h e m o r t i s eM (above) mortises. f r o mt h e m o r t i s e s,t o p - wedge waste to remove the remaining



Installing theclosed stringer Once all themortises in theclosed youcaninstall stringer have been routed, thestringers. Staft withtheclosed stringer. Hold it f lush against thewallandfasten it to thewall, driving screws intoevery wallstud. Use screws thatarelong enough to reach thestuds, making sure to drive thefasteners below thetread mortises (righ).fhis way, thescrew heads will not b ev i s i b l e .

theopen n Installing I \-,t andcenter stringers Butttheopen stringer against theheadboard andmark a lineonthe headboard along thetopedge of the notch in the stringer. CUI a 2-by-4 to thewidth of your staircase. Align theboard withthemarked Irne ontheheadboard anduselagscrews to attach it to the header. Check witha carpenter's level to make sure the board is level asyoufasten it in place. The2-by4 willserve astheledger board to support thetopof theopen andcenter stringers. Repeat to position andinstall the kicker at the bottom of thestringers. Once the ledger board andkicker arein place, set theopen stringer in position andfasten it to thetwoboards, driving screws at an angle through thestringer. Repeat to install (left). the centerslringer



andriser Anatomy ofa tread areoften in prefabricated wood stairs andrisers Although thetreads joined withscrews, classic stairbuilding together and simply butted joinery is at right. Tread stock techniques, asshown uses sturdier pre-milled; lf youare to do is cutto length. allyouneed available thickif you lumber, cutthem1%inches making treads fromrough To prepare thickfor hardwood. softwoods andIYoinches areusing of each along theback edge forassembly, cut a rabbet thetreads in theriser resulting lipwillfit intoa groove 124);the one(page near thefront in thetread's underside Then rout a groove above. For therisers, cutthegroove theriser below. edge to accommodate thelip in thetread face near thebottom to accommodate in thefront ontheopen stringer thatwillfit against thebevel below. Bevel theend (page andglued andrisers areassembled 120).0nce thetreads glue Glue and blocks to reinforce thejoints. cuttriangular together, joint,locating at theback of each tread-riser nailtwoorthree blocks molding for Finally, make a length of cove near thestringers. them jointandglue andnailit to thefront of thejoint. each tread-riser molding is strictly decorative. Thecove


Rounding over thefront edges ofthetreads your youneed to shape the I Once treads arecutto length, thatoverhangs theriser front edge of each one to form thenosing piloted round-over bitin your router and lnstall a%-inch below. w i t ht h eb i t ' sp i l o t . lign t h ef e n c e m o u ntth et o o li n a t a b l eA one oneach twofeatherboards to thefence, bearing andclamp


depth, feed Starting witha shallow cutting side of thecutter. pressing against the across thetable, thefront edge thetread passes oneach face, fence bearing. Make several andthepilot of cutby%inch each timeuntil theedges increasing thedepth (above). arerounded over




r) Cutting the rabbets at the L nac?ofthetreads Make the joinery cuts in the treads on your t a b l es a w .I n s t a la l d a d ob l a d e a , djusting i t s w i d t ht o s l i g h t l y more t h a n % i n c h .S e t lip in the t h e d e p t ho f c u t s o t h e r e s u l t i n g tread w i l lf i t s n u g l y i n t h eg r o o v e i n t h er i s page 123). Then attach er (seeanatomy, fence an auxiliary to the sawandcut a reliel notchin it. Usetwofeatherboards to brace thetreads, clamping oneto thefence above t h e d a d oh e a d a n da n o t h e tr o t h et a b l ei n l i n ew i t ht h e b l a d e sP . o s i t i otn h ef e n c e f o ra c u t t i n g w i d t ho f % i n c ha n df e e dt h e t r e a da c r o s s t h e t a b l e ,h o l d i n g the back edgeflushagainst the fence(/efl).(Caution: Bladeguardremoved for clarity).

Cutting thegrooves in thetreads Q r.,l Once all therabbets arecut in thetreads, readjust thedado head to a width of % inch-thethickness of theriser stock. Set thecutting depth at %inchandreposition thefence to locate thegroove llo inchfromthetread nosing. Again, use twofeath-

e r b o a r dts o brace t h e t r e a d sr,e p o s i t i o n i n th ge o n eo n t h e s a w t a b l ea s n e c e s s a rF ye . ed t h e t r e a di n t ot h e d a d oh e a d , keeping : lade the nosing f l u s h a g a i n s t h e f e n c e( a b o v e )(.C a u t i o nB guardremoved for clarity).



treads forreturn nosing / Preparingthe T Tohide theend srain ofthetreads at theopen-string.r.nJ, cuta piece of stock from tread, leaving a bevel theendof each (page withthereturn nosing thatwillmate is applied 139)Ihat once thestairs are assembled andthebalusters areinstalled. Clamo a tread astride sawhorses asshown. your Tooutline line cut,mark a straight on fromthe thetooof thetread1%inches open-stringer end. Then mark another line at a 45'angle starting from thefront corner Use a crossandintersecting thefirstline. withthe cutsaw to make thecuts, starting (right). Repeat fortheother bevel treads.


lnstalling thebottom riser I Prepare a riser withnogroove in its front face andsetit in position withthe beveled endflush against theopen stringer andthestraight endseated in themortise in theclosed stringer. Use finishing nails to fasten theriser to theooen andcenter stringers. Drive a wedge intotheclosed stringer mortise behind theriser to secure (/eft). it in place 'l



r) Assembling theremaining L teadsand risers riser is in place, the Once thebottom remaining treads andrisers areassemlf youare bled andinstalled in pairs. using dovetails to jointhebalusters to in the thetreads, firstcutthesockets (page joina tread treads 127).To and gluein therabbet spread at the a riser, andin thegroove in back of thetread together. theriser andfit theboards Then, holding thetread andriser ona work surface asshown, drive a screw of every 3 or4 inches through theback Ihe riser(left).

risers Installing thetreads and

have O n c ea l l t h e t r e a d s a n dr i s e r s

n, s t a ltlh e m o n ea t a been a s s e m b l ei d at the bottom of thestairs. timestarting glue in thegroove in theunderside Apply the lastriser of thetread andfit it over f inishing nails to fasten the rnstalled. Use Then riser totheopen andcenter stringers. andcenter screw thetread to both theopen holes so Counterbore thescrew stringer. heads with thatyoucancover thescrew plugs. wood Tapa wedge intotheclosed each tread andbehind every stringer under riser(right). Youmayhave to cut some of to f it adjoining ones in thewedges short glue place. nail two orthree blocks to Glue and or int oe feach t r e a d - r i sje t h eu n d e r s i d (nape 12.3): locate the blocks near the g,l u e t h ec o v e s t r i n g e rF s i.n a l l y a n dn a i l nails. m o l d i nig n place a n ds e ta l ly o u r
\ F v b v 1 1 v , ,




Cutting dovetail sockets (page Mark the position of the balusters on each tread 138) before assembling thetreads andrisers. Then clamp thetread endup in a vise. Use a dovetail square anda pencil to outline the sockets ontheendof thetread at each baluster location mark (above, lefil.fhemarks should becentered within theoutlines. Extend thesocket outlines withstraight lines across thetopface of thetread abouI3/o inch in from theendof thetread. Mark a line

ontheedge of thetread forthedepth of cut.Cutthesockets with a router fitted witha dovetail bit,or use a chisel anda mallet. In either case, clamp thetread face upto a work surface. Tocut thesockets byhand, score theoutlines with thechisel anda wooden mallet, holding thechisel vertically withthebevel facing the (above, waste. Thenpare away thewaste in thin layers right), pushing thechisel into theendgrain withthebevel facing up.

Drilling mortises lf your balusters willbemortised into the youcandrilltheholes treads, after the treads andrisers areassembled. ln this case, thereturn nosings willhave already (page been fastened to thetreads 139). Turn a tenon onthe bottom ends of the (page balusters 137), andmark theirposi(page tjons onthetreads 138). Fitanelectricdrill witha spade bit.Holding thedrill perfectly straight, bore a holeat each (left), penetrating baluster location mark thetread slightly deeper than thelength of thebaluster tenon. Locate theholes so thatthebalusters willbealiened withthe center of the newel oosts


posts the newel anchor Q tructurally, rJ handrail andbalusters of a stairway. asimportantdecBut theycanalsoserve Newels can be very orativeelements. with boxedencloelaborate structures metalsupportrods surrounding sures or simplepieces woodencaps andcarved And as stock. of solidor glued-upa-by-a shown below, wood newelscan be chamfered or tapered, turnedon a lathe, possible for each. with manyvariations However complexor straightforward post of a newel theirdesign, thestrength it is attached from how solidly derives to thestairs. postat thetop of a staircase Thenewel is calledthelandingnewel; theoneat the newel. is known as the starting bottom

129, thejoinery attachAsshown onpage isdifferent from ingeach one to thestairs Asageneral rule, thatused forbalusters. 4 feet newels should beabout starting from5 to 6 long. Landing newels range length feetin length. Theprecise of a at newel depends on howit is fastened A newel thatisbolted to the thebottom. floorframing will need to belonger.


) (
Insteadof a conventionalsinglenewel post,the staircase a shown aboveuses seriesof severalbalustersarranged in a tight circleto servethe samevisual purposeand to anchorthe handrail at the bqseof the stairs.



Stop tapered



Landing newel Notched to fit aqatnat firat riaer and tread of atair aboveIandrn4.

) (
Dowel post Making a newel ona lathe piece Prepare a 4Joot-long of 4-by-4 stock andmount it onyour lathe. lf your machine tsead prece, willnotaccommodate such a long you willneed to saw theblank in two. The point to cutthe blank is justbelow best at thetop. thesquare section, or pommel, Then mount thesection below thepommel onthelathe. For thedesign shown above, use a skew chisel to def inetheoommel at gouge it. Use of thepost, making a V-cut directly above a roughing thebottom from andturnit intoa to cutaway thebulkof thewaste therest of theblank gouge Switch to a skew chisel orspindle to turnthebeads anda spincylinder. (above). forthecoves For all these cuts,keep thebevel of thecutting dlegouge at all times while bracing theblade onthetoolrest. toolrubbing onthestock part isturned, mount the pommel at thetoponthe Once thebottom of thepost end. Torejoin thetwosections lathe andmake a rounded bevel cutat its bottom in thelathe andbore a dowel hole of thepost, install a Jacobs chuck tailstock p i e c eC . u ta 6 - i n c h lengto hf a b o u3 t i n c h eis nto t h ea d j o i n i n eg nds ofeach glue Press dowel, apply intotheholes, andinsert thedowel. thetwosections (inset) post way. together andclamp. Turn theother newel thesame

Starting newel Ertenda to floor at bottom of ataira; notched to ftt around open-etrrnqer end of boLtom rreerand Lread.Couldbe made lonqerto exLend throuqh subfloor and be bolted to floor jotet for added aupport.



Using a router and a power mitel saw Define thesquare sections at thetopand post bottom of the newel lines bymarking across all foursides of theblank. Tocut thedecorative chamfers along thecorners of thepost, clamp theblank to a work surface andusea router fitted witha oiloted chamfering bit.Stop thecuts at your marked lines. Once all fourcorners areshaped, chamfer thetop of the poston a power miter saw. Settheblank onthesaw table andadjust theblade to a 45" angle. Cut offa small wedge rotate of wood, theblank by90'on thetable andrepeat thebevel cut.Repeat twice more to f inish chamferingthetopof the post(left).


newel thestarting 1 Preparing I Position newel thestarting onthecorner of thebottom tread sothatthemiddle of the oostis in linewiththedovetail sockets forthebalusters. or mortises Use a pencilto mark cutting lines on the bottom of the post so it will buttagainst theriser andopen stringer. Extend thelines uptheinside faces of thepost. Todetermine where to stop these cutssothatthepost rests onthefloor, measure fromthetopof thebottom tread to thefloor andtransferyourmeasurement to thepost, marking lines cutting on its inside faces. Cutintothepost along lines witha handsaw, these stopping thecuts lines. atthefirstsetof cutting Make theremainingcutsonyour table saw. Tosetupthesaw, setthepost onthe saw table andraise theblade to thehorizontal cutting line. Then youmade, align thefront endof theblade withthehandsaw cuts butta board against theendof thepost andclamp it to therip fence asa stopblock. Finally, align thevertical cutting lineon theendof thepost withtheblade andbuttthefence against the stock. Feed thepost withbothhands, running it against thefence untilit contacts thestopblock. Rotate the post 90", reposition thefence, if necessary, andrepeat thecut (right). Use a chisel piece anda mallet to detach thewaste from thepost. Test-fit the post onthetread; to ensure it overhangs both tread andriser by youwillhave thesame amount, to trimthetread nosing. Thiscut guard is shown in step3 (page l3l). (Caution: Blade removed for clarity.)



r') Preparing newel thelanding way newel is prepared thesame asthestartL m" landing it will longer, since ingnewel, except thatit is 6 to 8 inches youwill forsupport. Asa result, extend to theopen stringer youmade thecut-out need to make oneadditional cut.Measure themeasurement bythe in thestarting newel andlengthen Mark cutting lines in length between thetwoposts. difference newel neweland notch it asyoudidthestarting onthelanding

(page will bethesame 130).Besure thetopsof the newels Now, measure height when theposts areinstalled. thegap it, andtransbetween thelanding andthetread directly above ferthemeasurement to theface of thepost thatwillextend to (above). A decoraCutthe newel witha handsaw. the landing of the post willgiveit a lighter, more tivebevel onthe bottom finished appearance.

posts Installing thenewel Thenewels will befastened to the stringers withlagbolts, driven intoadjoinholdingsides of theposts. Witha helper ingeach newel in position on thestairs, work fromthe inside of thestarrcase to twolagbolts through thestringer drive andintothe oosi.


canbe themostcomplex ,{ handrail f\ anddecorative element of a sfaircase. But it alsooerformsthe more pedestrian-butvital-task of guiding the people who climb and descend the Whethera handrailis aselabostairs. rateasa curvedassembly madefrom laminated stripsof wood,or assimple asthe straight example featured in this section, mostbuilding codes govern several aspects of its construction. For exampli,a handrailis usually required on any staircase with threeor more treads. It is typically screwed or bolted to the newelpostsand attached to the topsof thebalusters. A rail shouldalso typicallynot encroach morethan 3 Z inches into the minimum width of the staircase. Mostcodes recuire stairs wider than 44 inches to havea handrailon both sides. A handrailalonsa wall is calleda floatinqhandrail-iso-called it is suspended because above thetreads, attached to the wall above them (page 135). railsandhardware Commercial for floating generally handrails satisfy build1n8 COOeS.

This section will showyou how to makeand installa handrail alongthe open-stringer side of a staircase aswellas how to mount a floatinshandrail. The designs shown belowcanbemadeon a shaper or routertableusing 2-by-3stock. Thegroove along thebottomof therail is cut on the tablesawand houses the topsofthe balusters.

The handrail shownat right culminatesin a spiral-shaped form, known as a volute, at thefoot of the stairs.





theprofile 1 Routing router and in your topprofile a bitwiththedesired I Install bit is a round-over In this example, mount thetoolin a table. pilot the To support bit bearing. thefence withthe Align shown. in line to thetable a featherboard it,clamp handrail asyou shape the so that the featherboard a shimunder withthebit.Place

pressure Feed therail of thestock. isapplied near themiddle edge of the andshape theother down, thenturnit around upside profile, thebit.Inthis replace left).To form theside Iopbbove, Feed therailacrossthe handrail bit is used. a specialized case, right). side up (above, thistimeright in twopasses again, table

groove inthehandrail thebaluster Cutting sa , wa th et o pe n d s o f t h e b a l u s t e rs T oa c c o m m o d a te n.s t a l l g r o o vd eo w n 's n d e r s i dIe o f t h eh a n d r a i lu t h em i d d l e eo ; uw i l ll i k e l y it a sp o s s i b ly ga sw i d e a dado b l a d ea ,djustin of thegroove. to cut thefull width more thanonepass need thegroove %inch, thenmark height to aboul Adjust thecutting The width of the endof thestock. of theleadine in thecenter

Clamp groove of thebalusters. beequal to thethickness should withthedado table in line featherboard to thesaw a shimmed blade, butt marks withtheinside head. Align one of thegroove stock into the and feed the the handrail rip fence against the (above). repeat the cut around and Turn the handrail cut.




Cutting thehandrail to lengh youhave position I Once shaped thehandrail, it onthe posts treads, butting an edge against the newel at thetop andbottom of thestairs. Holding therailin place, mark points lines across itsedge at both where it meets thenewels. youselect Depending onthemethod to attach thehandrail (below), post youcanmake to the starting newel the rail youmayneed slightly longer, since to mortise thebottom endof therailinto thepost. Then adjust a sliding bevel so p l t h er a i la n di t sb l a d e t h a ti t sh a n d l ie s aralle to i sf l u s h (right). on the landing newel Use the bevel's setting to set your proper up saw to the angle for cutting thehandrail, thencuttherailto length. 'l




Kailbolt and nuT.

Choosing anattachment method There areseveral ways of fastening a handrail to thenewel posts; three methods areshown above. Most finish carpenters rely on oneof twooptions forthestarting newel. Thetraditional method involves using a railbolt. A clearance hole forthe boltisdrilled into thebottom endof therailanda oilot hole is bored in thenewel; anaccess hole is also drilled into thebottom face partway of therail.Theboltis thendriven intothenewel and thehandrail is slipped over theprotruding endof thebolt. A special nutistheninserted through theaccess hole andonto

thebolt, andtightened using plug a small screwdriver. A wood is glued in theaccess hole to conceal thebolt. Thesecond method involves cutting a mortise in thenewel fortheendof therail.Therailis fittedin themortise andscrewed to the newel. Thebest option at the landing newel involves simply butting theendof therailagainst thepost andscrewing it in place. Inthiscase, since thescrews aredriven intothetopface oftherail, theholes arecounterbored andtheheads arecovered withplugs. Screws areshown in thestep thatfollows.



to thenewels thehandrail Q Attaching posts to newel r-,1Tofasten a handrail and withscrews, hold therailin position therailand hole though drilla clearance hole into theposts. At thetopof a pilot holes and thestairs, drillcounterbored through thetopfaceof drive thescrews with thescrew heads therail.Conceal plugs. from At thebottom, work the wood the underside of therailandcountersink (/eff), screws


thehandrail Attaching (page t lo t h e o t h e rh a n d r a t l handrai a l g a i n stth e w a l lp a r a l l e in the f l o a t i n g handrail 133), omitting thegroove Make thefloating wall brackon it. Screw commercial to thesame len$h asthehandrail and markthe stud locations andcutthehandrail underside, left) atlhe stud location of the rail (above, above etsto the underside Themodel shown side of thestaircase. ontheopen-stringer code.Reposiat intervals specified by yourlocalbuilding asa tactile reminder to thevisually marks thatserves features a return h o l e sb , o r ep i l o t l n t h e w a l l ,m a r kt h e s c r e w of thestairs. t i o nt h e h a n d r a io arearriving at thetopor bottom rmpaired thatthey right). position the holesintothe wall,and fastenthe rail in place(above, ofthestair. Then along thewallside Locate thestuds


posts andhandrails, balusT ikenewel I: terscanbe madein a widevariety ofdesigns. Fourpopular styles areillustratedat right.Althoughbalusters can beboughtready-made, theycanbefashionedeasily in theshop. On thefollowing pageareinstructions for turning balusters on a latheandmakingtapered balusters on a jointer. Asshown in theillustration on page 138,not all the balusters arecut to the same length. Thebaluster at thebackof each treadis longerthanthe oneat the front,owingto theslope of thehandrail. The square sectionat the top of the balusters-if thereis one-is typically the same lengthon all of them,but not that at the bottom.Most balusters are cut to thelength of thegapbetween the handrail andtreads, addingabout%inch for the tenonor dovetail you will useto attach thebalusters to thetreads. Balusterswith roundedtou sections should be longerto accommodate the tenon thatfits into thehandrail mortise.









Turning balusters onthe lathe a n d m a r ko f f t h e s q u a r e Mount a b a l u s t eb rl a n k o n y o u rl a t h e Define t h e s es e c t i o n s asyou sections at the top andbottom. ( p a g e p o s t s 1 2 9 ) ,t h e nu s ea r o u g h i n g o u g e didforthe newel r etween thesquare areas t o t u r n t h e b l a n kr n t oa c y l i n d e b ( a b o v el,e f t ) .T u r na n yo t h e rd e s i g n e l e m e n t ss , u c ha s b e a d s gouge a spindle a n da s k e w c h i s e lW . hen o r c o v e su , sing

r e l a t i v e lty hinsections s,u p p o rtth e b l a n kw i t h y o u r turning t h a t t e r( a b o v er.i g h t ) .l f y o u a r e u s i n g l e f t h a n dt o p r e v e nc tenons t o j o i nt h e b a l u s t e r ts o t h e t r e a d st,u r na % - i n c h - l o n g t o o l .T h e t e n o na t t h e b o t t o m o f e a c hb a l u s t eu r sing a parting m a t c h m o r t i s e s d i a m e t eo rf t h et e n o n s h o u l d the cut inihe (page treads 127). Making a tapered baluster Move the guard out of the wayfor this operation off a n da d j u st h ej o i n t efro r a %i n c hc u t . M a r k of t h es q u a r e s e c t i o na st t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m a n ds e tt h e b l a n k onyour e a c hb a l u s t eb rlank j o i n t e ra , l i g n i n tg h e m a r kf o r t h e t o p s q u a r e section withthe frontedge of the outfeed table. Butt a woodblockagainst the end of the stock a n dc l a m pi t t o t h e o u t f e e d t a b l ea s a s t o p . R e p e aw t i t ht h e o t h e rm a r kt o c l a m pa s t o p table. T o m a k et h e f i r s t block to theinfeed p a s sb , u t tt h e e n d o f t h e b l a n ka g a i n stth e infeed o n t ot h e s t o pb l o c k a n dl o w etrh e b l a n k k n i v e sk,e e p i n r gt f l u s ha g a i n s tt h ef e n c eF . eed y o u rl e f t w i t h a p u s hs t i c k ,u s i n g theblank eg a i n stth e f e n c e h a n dt o p r e s s t h ew o r k p i e ca u n t i li t c o n t a c t t sh e o u t f e e d s t o pb l o c k , then lift it off.Make o n ep a s s o n e a c hs i d eo f t h e b l a n kt , h e ni n c r e a ste h ec u t t i n g d e p t hb y % i n c ha n dr e o e atth e D r o c e s os n a l l f o u rs i d e s . Continue in , creasrn th ge c u t t i n g d e p t hu n t i l y o uo b t a i n taper. thedesired




Planning theoperation ea n y I B u i l d i ncg o d ed s o n o tp r o v i d m guidelines governing rigid baluster installation, butmost codes require them to be nomore than 6 inches apart. Asshown at right, stairs typically feature twobalusters pertread; forvisual balance, space them a n e q u ad l i s t a n ca ep a r tT . h ef r o n t one just positioned oneach istypically tread behind thenosing. Theback baluster is thenpositioned halfway between thefront baluste arn dt h ef r o n tb a l u s t e ornt h e tread above. 'l

r) Cutting dovetails onthebalusters L For balusters posithatwillbedovetailed into thetreads, tiona baluster upagainst theendof thetread andoutline the youcut in it onthebottom socket of thebaluster. Then secure thebaluster in a vise andcutthedovetail using a dovetail saw (above). Use thef inished baluster asa template to outline the remaining orres.

balusters to lengh Q Cutting \,, Fitthebottom of thebaluster intoitstread and,holding it perfectly upright against thehandrail, mark a lineon it along theunderside of therail(above). Mark a second lineabove thefirst,offset fromit bythedepth of thegroove in therail. Saw thebalusters to length along thissecond marked line.



the balusters in place ,{ Fastening T O n c ea l l t h e b a l u s t e ra sr ec u r r o l e n g t hi,n s t a ltlh e mo n ea t a t i m e .P o s i t i o n t h e b a l u s t eb r etweet nh e t r e a da n d t h e h a n d r a ia l ,n dd r i l lt w op i l o th o l e s f o rf i n i s h nails through t h e t o p e n do f t h e b a l u s t e r i n t ot h e u n d e r s i d o e f t h e r a i l .G l u e thebottom of the baluster to the tread.lf youare using dovetails a,l s od r i v ea n a i lt h r o u g h the dovetail and intothe tread; for tenoned b a l u s t e rt sh , e a d h e s i vie sadequate T.h e n a d d g l u et o t h e t o p e n d o f t h e b a l u s t e r , l ,n dn a i li t r n b u t t i t a g a i n stth e h a n d - r a ia place(right). To hidethe gapsin the handr a i lg r o o v e between baiusters c,u t w o o d strips a b o u t% i n c ht h i c k ,c a l l e d fillets. Glue a n d n a i lt h e mi n p l a c e .

upthejob f, Finishing r-,f Once all the balusters arein place, complete thestaircase byinstalling return nosings to cover theendgrain of thetreads ontheopen-stringer side. Make thenosings byripping them fromrounded-over tread stock; thewidth of the pieces should be t h es a m e a st h eo v e r h a n og f t h et r e a d (page nosings fromthe risers 125).Saw thereturn nosings to extend to theopen stringer, mitering theends to match the youcutonthetreads. miter Glue andnail thenosings in place andsetthenails. To grain conceal theend of thereturn nosings, s i t ho n e4 5 " a n g l e c u te n dp i e c ew and (left). glue them to thenosings Hold the e n dp i e c e is n place w i t hm a s k i ntg ape until t h ea d h e s r v ce ures.


A-B.C Apron: In stool-and-apron window casing, a horizontal pieceof window trim installedbeneaththe stool. Baluster: A vertical post mounted betweenthe handrail and treads oppositethe wall sideof a staircase. Baseboard:Decorativetrim installed around the perimeter of a room at the baseof the walls. Bead:A convexprofile, usually semicircular. Bedmolding: A type of crown molding featuring reversed curves;often usedaspart of a formal cornice. Bevelcut Sawingat an anglefrom faceto facethrough the thicknessor along the length of a workpiece. Built-up baseboard:A type of baseboard built up from severalelements, suchasbase-and-shoe baseboard. Cap rait A molded rail installedat the top of wainscoting. Casing:Decorativetrim usedto frame a window or door. Chair rait Decorativetrim installed on walls, usuallyabout 3 feet above the floor. Tiaditionally servedto prevent chair backsfrom damagingwalls. Closed stringer: A 2-by-10 or 2-by12 that is mortised to acceptand support the endsofthe treadsand risersof a stairway;usually adjacent to a wall. Seeopenstringer. Compound cut: A cut through a board at anglesother than 90" relative to the faceand edgeof stock. Cope-and-stickjoinery: A method ofjoining stilesand rails in frameand-paneldoors and windows. Cut with a router or shaper, the joint features mating tonguesand grooves and a decorativemolding along the inside edges of the boards. Copedjoint: A method ofjoining two pieces of molding at an inside corner.The end ofone board is cut so that it fits preciselyagainstthe contoured faceof the mating board. Countersinking: Drilling a hole that enables a screwheadto lie flush with or slightly below the surface. Cove molding: Trim featuring a profile. concaYe Crosscufi Sawingacross the grain of a workpiece. Crown molding: Decorative trim installedaround the perimeter of a room at the top of the walls;also known ascornicemolding. D-E-F-G-H-I Dado: A rectangularchannelcut into a workpiece. Double-hung window: A type of window consistingof two sashes that slideverticallywithin a jamb. End grain: The arrangementand direction of the wood fibersrunning across the endsofa board. Formal cornice: An elaboratetype of crown molding built up from a box-like soffit-and-fascia assembly decorated with strips of crown and bed molding. Frame-and-panel door: A door consistingof panelscontained within a framework of stiles,rails, and mullions. Furring strip: A narrow strip of wood nailed to wall studsto support molding or wainscoting. Glass-stop molding: Decorative strips of wood usedto hold a pane of glassin a window sash. Glazingbarhalf-lap joint A method ofjoining the rails and mullions of a window sashwith mitered half-laps. Glueblock In stairbuilding, a triangular pieceof wood glued and nailed under the joint of a tread and riser to reinforcethe ioint betweenthem. Gooseneclc A nearlyvertical piece of railing connectinga handrail to the upper newelpost of a staircase. Half-blind dovetait A joinery method involving interlocking pins and sockets; commonly usedto ioin balustersto treads. Hinge jamb: The sideof a door jamb adjoining the hinge sideof the door. l-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q famb extension:A wooden frame installedon awindow jamb to bring it flush with the interior wall. Joist A horizontalsupport for a floor. Kicker: A2-by-4 attachedto the subfloorto anchorthe stringers at the bottom of a staircase. Kingstud: Avertical framing member adjoining the rough opening for a door. Ledgerboard: A2-by-4 attachedto the headboard at the top ofa staircase to support the stringers.


LeveLHorizontal; parallelto the plumb. floor or ceiling. See Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece;seebevelcut. Moldinghead: A solid metal wheel installedon the arbor of a table saw or radial arm sawfor forming moldings;holds three identical knives. Mortise-and-tenon joint: A joinery techniquein which a projecting tenon on one board fits into mortise in another. Mortise: A hole cut into a pieceof wood to receivea tenon. Mullion: A vertical member between two rails of a frame. Nailer: A 2-by-4 installedhorizontallybetween wall studsto support wall paneling. Newel post A wooden post fastened to the handrail and treadsat the top and bottom ofa staircase. Open stringer: A 2-by-10 or 2-by12 that is notched to support the endsofthe treadsand risersofa stairway;usuallyawayfrom a wall. Seeclosed stringer. Picture rai} Decorativetrim installed on walls, usuallyabout 6 feet above the floor, for hangingpicture frames. Pilot hols A hole bored into a workpieceto prevent splitting when a screwis driven; usuallymade slightly smallerthan the threadedsection of the screw. Pilot bearing: A free-spinningmetal collar on a piloted router bit that follows the edgeof the workpiece or a template to keep the cutting depth uniform.

Plinth: A decorative wood block installedbetweenthe sidecasingof a door and the floor. Plumb: Vertical;perpendicularto the floor and ceiling. Seelevel. Preacher:A U-shapedjig usedto mark the length of a pieceof molding that butts againstdoor trim or a plinth. R-S Rabbet A step-likecut in the edge or end of a board; usuallyforms part of a joint. Rait The horizontal member of a frame-and-panelassembly; see stile. Return nosing: A pieceof tread stock nailed and glued to the openstringer end ofa tread to concealthe end grain ofthe tread and the bottom endsof the balusters. Reveal The gap betweenthe inside faceof awindow or door jamb and the inside edgeof the trim installed on it. Rip cufi A sawcut that follows the grain of a workpiece. Rise The vertical distancebetween two adjoining stepson a staircase; alsocalledunit-rise. Seerun. Riser:A board that closes the vertical space betweenstair treads. Rosette:A decorative wood block installedat the upper cornersof window or door casing. Rough opening: The wall opening into which awindow or door iamb is installed.

Run: The horizontal spanofeach stepof a staircase; alsoknown as unit-run. Seerise. Scarfjoint A methodofjoining two lengthsof molding end to end by bevelingboth pieces. Soleplate: A horizontal framing member installedon the subfloor to support the wall studs. Stair button: A commercialjig attachedto a carpentert squareto lay out the rise-and-runof a staircase on the stringers;usuallyused rn parrs. Stile: The vertical member of a frame-and-panelassembly. Seerail. Stool The horizontal component of stool-and-aproncasingthat juts out and forms the sill of the finishedwindow. Wall stud: A vertical member forming walls and supporting the framework of a building.

Top plate: A horizontal framing member installedalong the top of the wall studs. Tread: Forms a stepof a staircase. Treadnosing: The rounded front edgeofa stairtread. Volute: A spiral sectionof a staircase handrail, usually ending at the newelpost. Wainscoting: Wall panelingthat coversthe lower part of a wall.


in italicsindicate an Pagereferences illustration of subjectmatter. Page references in bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject. Ceilings: Paneled,52-55 Chair rails, 12,30-32 Coffered ceilings,52-55 Combinationplanes,25 Compound cuts, 18 Coping saws,15 IZ Crosscutting, Crown moldings, 12, 30,33-35 Formal cornices,36-37 Doors,7, 13,85-86 Beveling, 102,106 Binding,102,106 Casings, 85,86, 112-113 Doorstops,98-99 Exterior,85,86 Frame-and-panel, 90-94 Hanging,85,86, 105-106 Hardware,89 locksets, 107-111 Hinges, 103,105 butt hinges, 84 mortises,100-102 sizes,103 Interior,85,86 lambs,95-97 102 hinge mortises,100Styles,86,87 E-F-G.H-I Eakes, Jon,8-9 Finish nailers,14,21 Frame-and-panel construction: Ceilings,52-55 Doors,90-94 Wainscoting, 39, 40, 41, 46-51 Glassstop moldings, 79-80 Glazingbar half-lapjoints, 8l-83 Handrails,132-133 Floatinghandrails,135 Installation,134-135 Hardware: Doors,89 locksets, 107111 SeealsoHinges Hinges: Doors, 89 butt hinges,84,89 mortises,88,100-102 sizes,103

Balusters, 136 Chamfering,l3T Installation, 138-139 Tiead preparation, 127 Twning,I3T Baseboards, 12,23 Base-and-sh oe,24 Built-up,25 Installation,26 insidecorners,26-27 outside corners,2B-29 store-boughtcorner pieces (ShopTip),29 foinery, 2i,26-29 Bevelcuts, 18 Doors,102,106 Build It Yourself: Doors door bucks,104 Windows revealgauges, 53 Butted sill casings,65 Cap rails, 38 aper Carpenter'ssqtares,front endp ap er Trr;'eing, endp front Casings: Doors,85,86,112-113 Windows, 12 butted sill, 65 correcting poor-fitting miters, 66-68 picture-frame, 58,61-65 57, 58,69-72 stool-and-apron, temporary braceto hold window aprons(Shop Tip),72

|igs: Doors door bucks,104 hinge-mortisingjigs, 88 jamb jigs, 88,95 Moldings preachers,23 Stairs rise-and-run,I 15 calculating Windows auxiliary tablesfor power miter saws,68 mortising jigs for routers, 75 revealgauges, 63 |oinery: Baseboards, 23,26-29 Paneling cope-and-stickjoints, 46, 47-48 -groove, 43 tongue-and Windows,76,78 glazngbar half-lap joints, 8l-83 Log-builder's scribes,42 Lumber.SeeWoods M-N-O-P-Q Miter boxes,15 Miter cuts, 17 Baseboards inside corners,26 outside corners,28


Crown moldings, 34-35 Windows correcting,6G6T Moldings, 8,12,2I-22 Cap rails, 38 Chair rails,30-32 Crown moldings, 30, 33-35 formal cornices,36-37 Fitting scribing, /ro nt endp aper Glass-stop moldings, 56,79-80 installing the molding with a hammer (ShopTip), 80 Milling, backendpaper Picture rails, 30 Rosettes, 58,73-74 shop-maderosettecutters (ShopTip),74 See alsoBaseboards; Casings Mortises: Door hinges,100-102 Nails: Finishing, backendpaper Newel posts,128-129 Chamfering,130 Handrail attachments, 134-135 Installation, 130-I 3 1 Twning,l29 Paneling,12 Cap rails, 38 Ceilings,52-55 Frame-and-panelwainscoting, 39,40,41,46 cope-and-stickframes,47-48 installation, 49-51 raising the panels,48-49 Tongue-and-groove, 39, 40, 42-43 installation, 44-45 Panels: Raised,46,93 Patchingcompounds,backendpaper Picture-framecasings, 58,61-65 Picture rails, 12,30

Portableelectric planers,88 Powermiter saws,l5 6B

Railings. See Balusters;Handrails; Newel posts Ripping, 16 Rosettes, 58,73-74 Shop-maderosettecutters (ShopTip),74 Routers: Mortising jigs, 75 Thbles, 14 Router tables, 14 Schuttner, Scott,l0-1 1 Scribing,/ront endpaper, 42 -14 Shapers, ShopTips: Moldings,29 Windows,68,72,74,80 Sliding compound miter saws,15, 16,18 Stairs, lI, 12-13,114-II5 Anatomy,116-117 Rise-and-runcalculation,1 15,117 Risers,125-126 Stringers installation, 122 length calculation, 117 making, 118-121 Tieads balusters, 127 installation,126 making, 123-125 See alsoBalusters;Handrails; Newel posts Stool-and-apron casings, 57, 58, 69-72 Thblesaws,14, 16-17 Taylor, Grant,6-7 Tongue-andgroovewainscoting, 39,40, 42-45

Tools: Carpenter'ssquarcs, fr ont endpaper Combination planes,25 Coping saws,15 Finish naifers, 14,21 Log-builder's scribes,42 Miter boxes,15 Molder/planers,15,20 Portableelectric planers, 88 Powermiter saws,15, 68 Routers mortising jigs, 25 tables,14 Shapers, 14 Sliding compound miter saws, 15,16,18 Thblesaws,14, 16-17 Vertical vises,88

Vertical vises,88 Wainscoting. See Paneling Windows,12,57 Casings, 12 butted sill, 65 picture-frame, 58,61-65 stool-and-apron, 57, 58,69-72 temporary braceto hold window aprons(ShopTip), 72 Double-hung,59-60 Glass-stopmoldings, 56,79-80 installing the molding with a hammer (ShopTip), 80 Glazingbar half-lapjoints, 8l-83 lambs,61-62 Rosettes, 58,73-74 shop-maderosettecutters (ShopTip), 74 Sashes,75-79 Wood, 19 Patchingcompounds, back endpaper


Theeditors wishto thank thefollowing

MachineCo.,Inc.,Wilton, NH |et Equipmentand Tools,Auburn,WA; Tool TrendLtd.,Concord,Ont.;Williamsand Hussey MOLDING AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, M,L; JetEquipmentand Tools,Auburn, WA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Blair McDougall, PA; and Tools Co., Scranton, Co., Ltd., Vancouver,BC; SandvikSaws Brome Lake,Que.;RichardsEngineering Works, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Tools,Division of the Stanley Sears, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,Ii; Stanle-y Ltd., Montreal, Que;Williams and HusseyMachineCo., Inc., Wilton, NH Concord,Ont.; Walter Tomalty Enterprises PANELING Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter Co., Ltd., Norcross,GA; JetEquipmentand Tools,Auburn, WA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; RichardsEngineering Works, New Britain, CT; Tools,Division of the Stanley Vancouver,BC; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que.;Stanley Machine Co., Inc., Wilton, NH Tool Tiend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Williams and Hussey DOORS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Troy,-Ml/WainbeeLtd., Montreal, Que.;GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. De-Sta-Co, Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; JetEquipmentand Tools,Auburn, WA; Ont.; Sears, Roebuck CT; RecordTools Inc., Pickering, LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Putnam Products,Old Saybrook, Works, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. Tools,Division of the Stanley and Co., Chicago,IL; Stanley WINDOWS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter9able, Guelph,Ont.; Troy,-Ml/WainbeeLtd., Montreal, Que.;GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. De-Sta-Co, Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; fet Equipmentand Tools,Auburn, WA; Marvin Windows and Doors Inc., Toronto, Ont.; U.K./BusyBeeMachine Tools, Blair McDougall,Brome Lake,Que.;RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; RobertSor\ Ltd., Sheffield, Works, New Britain, CT; Tools,Division of the Stanley Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Stanley Concord,Ont.; Sears, Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY STAIRS Inc., Montreal, Que.; AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Colonial Elegance Ont.; GreatNeck Saw Delta InternationalMaihinerylPorter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Mfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; Tools, Ltd., Toronto, Ont.; Stanley Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Skil Canada, SandvikSaws and Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears, and Equipment,Division of the Ivy Group, Inc., Works, New Britain, CT; ThoroughbredSawhorses Division of the Stanley IN; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY Valparaiso, of this book: alsoassisted in thepreparation Thefollowingpersons Monette Lorraine Dor6, Graphor Consultation,Genevidve

Machineo,n"r,..Ltil1l:":fftHl:""?*:ttt"tt Delta International

Ltd., Norcross, GA; werroolsu.s.A.

Cover RobertChartier 6,7 Alan Briere 8,9 Marie LouiseDeruaz 10,11 Mason Charles 30 CourtesyOrnamentalMouldings 39 CourtesyPatellaIndustries,Inc. 114CourtesyBoiseries Raymond,Inc. Raymond,Inc. 128CourtesyBoiseries 132Charles Mason


MIttING ELABORATE MOLDINGS You canuse a combination of router bits, shaper cutters, or molding head knives to millan impressive array of molding designs ona workpiece-for a fraction of thecostof a specialtv cutter or a length of custom-milled ogee curve cutter mounted onthe molding, A decorative molding bitand table sawcancreate crown molding core boxbit,forexample, cantrans- (below, right). form a board intoa chair railmolding (below, left).A bead cutter andan


TYPE Wood filler
CHARACTERISTICS Solventor water-based; depending on type,can be tintedwith stainor purchased pre{inted Waxand resin-based; available in a variety of colors. S h e l l a ca - n dr e s i n - b a s ea dv ;a i l a b l e in a variety of colors. Setsquickly to form a hardsurface Sawdust mixedwith binder, such a s g l u eo r s h e l l a cc ; a nb e t i n t e d with stain USES gouges, Fillinglargeholes, cracks and dents Filling s m a l lh o l e ss , cratches and cracks Filling scratches, dentsand gouges gaps Fillingnanowcracks, a n ds m a l lh o l e s

COMPATIBITITIES Compatible withmost finishes; apply either before or after stain May be incompatible withlacquer; apply a f t ef ri n i s h i n g May b ei n c o m p a t i b wlie th alcoholor lacquer-based finishes; apply either before or after finishing Compatible withmost finishes

Wax stick Shellac stick

Shop-made filler

"Penny" Rating: Until thedevelopment of cutnails at the TENGTH beginning of the19th Century, nails were forged individual"penny" "PENNY'' ly by hand. The system now associated withthe size of nails reflected theircost based onthegreater metal RATII{G INCHES content of larger nails. The system isstillcommonly used, 2d butit is more confusing thanhelpful. For sizes upto 10d, 3d I% youcancalculate a nail's actual length bydividing thepenny- +o ty, size by4 andadding %inch. For example, a 6d nailis 2 5d I% (6 divided = 2 inches;. inches long by4 plus Y, inch 6d DIAMETER (Gauge number)


16% 15% I5 15


I2 10