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These results are from Genetic polymorphisms for 17 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Jammu and Kashmir Saraswat Brahmin

population by Yadav et al. (2010). Kashmiri Brahmins have more Y-DNA haplogroup diversity and seem to have more of the markers one would expect from Near-Eastern populations (G2a-P15, J1c3-P58 etc.). Also worth pointing out both sets of Brahmins are over 10% "P-M45", which is interesting. Code: JSB n=58 C3-M217 _DE-M1 E1b1a1g-U175 F-M89 G1*-M285(xP20) G2a-P15 H*-M69(xM82) H1a-M82 H-M69 J1*-M267*(xM365,L136) J1c3-P58 J2a4-L26 8.6% L1c-M357 O3-M122 P-M45 Q1a-MEH2 Q1b-M378 R1a1a1*-M17 R1b1*-P25*(xP297) R1b1b2-M269 R2a-M124 R2a1*-L295(xL294) 5.2% 1.7% 1.9% 3.7% 3.7% 1.9% 9.3% 3.4% 3.7% 1.9% KSB n=54 1.9%

1.7% 1.7% 1.9% 16.7% 1.7% 10.3% 6.9% 48.3% 1.7% 6.9%


3.7% 1.7% 18.5% 5.6% 14.8% 1.9% 1.9% 5.6%

The R1b-M269 in the Jammu Brahmins is intriguing. Whats up with the F and DE though? No J2a-M92 (which is from Anatolia but extends to Iran and even Pakistani Balochistan). It is probably related to NW Iranian langauges movements. Jammu is just an extension of Punjab( as are Haryana, Azad Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Western Uttar Pradesh, NW Rajasthan and portion of NWFP), and these results support that imo. Like you said the Near Eastern specific lineages [J1c3-P58 (the Semtic J1), J1-M267*, G1*-M285(xP20), E1ba1gU175, and R1b1*-P25*(xP297)]. The konkan and chitapavan brahmins ( mugdha godse types ) are brahmins from ancient nagarhara which was an indo aryan city till 1000 ad and when ghazanavi destroyed the shahi dynasty , they fled from there to maharashtra.

Part -2 Source: http://genome.cshlp.org/content/11/6/994.long

The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Ychromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (approximately 600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans. Part-3 nagarhara is modern jalala bad and compare the people of Jalalabad with Konkani Brahmins and you would find the similarity though west asian features are more prominent in case of former. The research, claimed to be "the first and largest-ever genome-scale analysis of diverse Indian groups", is done by scientists from Hyderabad based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in collaboration with Harvard Medical School, Harvard School

of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, USA. A team led by David Reich of the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Lalji Singh of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad, India, has probed more than 560,000 SNPs across the genomes of 132 Indian individuals from 25 diverse ethnic and tribal groups dotted all over India.

The researchers showed that most Indian populations are genetic admixtures of two ancient, genetically divergent groups, which each contributed around 40-60% of the DNA to most present-day populations.One ancestral lineage which is genetically similar to Middle Eastern, Central Asian and European populations was higher in upper-caste individuals and speakers of Indo-European languages such as Hindi, the researchers found. The other lineage was not close to any group outside the subcontinent, and was most common in people indigenous to the Andaman Islands, a remote archipelago in the Bay of Bengal.
( Reich D., Thangaraj K., Patterson N., Price A. L. and Singh L. (2009)Reconstructing Indian population history Nature p489-494) The researchers also found that Indian populations were much more highly subdivided than European populations. But whereas European ancestry is mostly carved up by geography, Indian segregation was driven largely by caste. "There are populations that have lived in the same town and same village for thousands of years without exchanging genes," says Reich. The authors clearly demonstrate that most of the Indian populations they sampled are mixtures of two groups that they term ANI (Ancestral North Indians) and ASI (Ancestral South Indians).The degree of ANI:ASI mixture varies between 39% and 71% across India, and is evident in all caste and even tribal groups, and in both extant Indo-European and Dravidian speakers. However, greater ANI ancestry is significantly associated with IndoEuropean speakers and with traditionally 'higher' caste membership, even after controlling for language. This provides a model of how diversity within India came about. As such, its details are imperfect and will surely be contested, revised and improved; but its implications are significant. In an article titled Human migration and evolution of social groups in India. Santachiara and his team from Italy by using RFLP of mtDNA showed that people of Punjab are more closer to caucasoid than south or Andhra Pradesh people (Passarino G, Semino O, Bernini LF, Santachiara Benerecetti AS Pre-Caucasoid and (1996) Caucasoid genetic features of the Indian population, revealed by mtDNA polymorphisms. Am J Hum Genet 59:927934) Recently Bamshads group used five different set of data i.e. mtDNA HVR1 (hyper variable region 1) sequence, mtDNA RSPs, Y-chromosome STRs (Short-Tandem Repeats), Ychromosome biallelic polymorphisms, and autosomal Alu polymorphisms to support that how Indian castes are related to European populations as one moves from lower to middle to upper caste populations.

They showed that Y-chromosome STR data do not exhibit a closer affinity to Asians for each caste group. Upper castes are pretty close to Europeans than to Asians, middle castes are evenly far from the European and Asian while lower castes are closer to Asians. Ychromosome biallelic polymorphism data suggest that upper castes are more close to European than lower caste (Bamshad M., et al, (2001) Genetic evidence on the origins of indian caste populations, Genome Res 11 pp. 9941004.). Siddi are an outlying group which is closely related with west Africans (YRI). Nyshi and Ao Naga who generally speak a tibeto-burman language are closely related to East Asians while Andamani did not show any closeness with Asian or Europeans. With the help of f3 and f4 ancestry estimation they developed a model which correlates the history of Indian and non Indian groups. Lalji singh group has already shown that Onge tribe doesnt show any ancestry with population outside India within last 50,000 year but it shares some ancestry with Indian tribal population.