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THE

SWEDENBORG CONCORDANCE.

A OOMPLETE ',,"ORR OF REFERENOE TO THE

THEOLOGIOAL WRI11NGS

OF

®lnnnUtI ~fnthtnhnrg.

BASED ON THE ORIGINAL LATI1V J;VRITINGS

OF THE AUTHOR.

Qtompileb, ~biteb, anb m::tan~Lateb bl! tbe

REV. JOHN FAULKNER POTTS, B.A.

VOLUME II. D TO F.

LONDON:

S W EDE N BOR G SOC 1 E T Y,

(INSTITUTED 1810)
3 20/21. BLOOMSBURY WAY. T.
Reprinted 1953
Deflle 51- } 1 Deflower
sees what the evils are which pollute and defile-c01lspur­ tions of such worda .•. in the deflnitions of certain
cant-the love. worda ...
R. 166. 'Who have not defiled their garments' (Rev. 2370. They who have llOt inhered in the philosophica.l
iii.4)=who are in truths, 8IId have not defiled-conspur­ deflnitions of words ...
cat'eru~their worship through evils of life and the 4627. Cannot be defined ...
falsities thenee. Min. 4578. See PHILOSOPHY at these refs. 4655.
626. 'These are they who have not been defiled with
women' (Rev.xiv.4)=that they have not adulterated the Deflower. Dejlorare.
truths of the Church, and defiled-c01lspurcal'eri~them Defloration. Dejlora/io.
with falsities of faith. A. 828. (On those who are in the desire to defiower
T. 3662. The evil obstruct this influx by •.. spiritual virgins; the enormity and the punishment of this
deJllemen ts . . . crime.) D.2704. De Conj.I26.
M. 319°. The lust of defioration ... has led sorne to
E. 195. See SARDIS at t~is ref. desire repeated marriages.
862. 'These are they who have not been defiled with 454. The lust of fornication is more grievous as it
women'=those who have not falsified the truths of the verges to the desire of . . . defioration. Gen. art.
Word,
S0I. On the lust of defioration. Gen.art.
Deflle. Polluere. - - . This lust is not only a lust of adultery, but is
Defllement. Pollulio. more grievous than (ordinary adulteries); for the lust of
A.4439. 'Ja,cob hoard that he had defiled Dinah his def!oX'lJotion ... cannot previously exist with anyone.
daughter' (Gen.xxxiv.5) = conjunction notlawful. .. The 5022. The wives said ... that this state commenced
defilement of marriages=con,iunction nat law.ful. from the moment of defioration ...
4460. 'Because he defiled Dinah their sister' = initia­ 5040 Defloration, without a view to marriage, is the
tion to conjunction. villainy of a robber. Gen.art.
-~. Sorne adulterers are possessed of the desire of
45°3". 'To defile the houses" and fi11 the courts with
the slain' (Ezek.ix.7)=to profane goods and truths, deflowering virgins, and thus girls . . . and after defiora­
tion they leave them, and continua11y seek for others
4504. 'Because they had defiled their sister' = because ... and this lust grows to be the chief of the delights
they had defiled-Ioedaveru~thetruth of faith, of their flesh. , . This villainy remains inrooted ... after
59549• 'Defiled garments' (Zech.iii.3)=truths defiled­ death... A woman dellowered by such . , , becomes a
conspurcatÏ$- by the falsities which are from evil. harlot, which is to be laid at the door of that robber...
E·V4ol6, As such are ~iolators of marriage, and despisers of the
female sex, and thus are spiritual robbers, it is evident
E. 1953• Thus are Knowledges from the Word polluted that the Divine N emesis pursues them.
and defiled-conspurcantur-by the loves of self and of
the \Vorld ••. 505. The lot of those who have confirmed themselves
in the persuasion that the lust of defiora.tion is not an
3881>. 'To defile the temple of holiness' (Ps.lxxix.l) evil of sin, aCter death is grievous. Gen.art.
=to profane worship.
D. 4741. See CHARLES XII. nt this ref.
Deflne. Dejinin.
Deflnition. Dejini/io. Deformity. See UGLY.
Deflnite. Dejini/us. Defraud. See under FRAUD.
A. 448 e • They deprive Spirits of a11 sense by their
definitions alld suppositions. Defunct. See DIE-dejungere.
2575'. As a thousand ... is a deflnite number , , , ~ade. See under ABROGATE.
8533. Goods . . • are datermined with every man
while he lives in the world; they are dete:nnined
(Degr~~/ Gradus.
aœording t.o the quantity and quality of the f8ith llud GrB;dilate. Graduare.

charity in his life. See under REGXON.

T. 173• They said. , . Thus do the chiefs of the A. 62. By d.egrees (man becornes regenerate).
Church detine the word person..• 1 said, Is this a 316°. Are led by degrees to Heaven.
definition of person 1 • " . You have defined person as
543. 1:0 that degree that they could bear no more ...
being that which properly subsists .. , Hence it is evident, that not onlyare there degrees (of
28. It cannot define it otherwise ... heavenly joy) . , .
52. Here wa will open the subjcct of order by a general 657. There are three degrees of intellectual things in
definition of it..• In this defuûtion ..• man; the 10WE'.st is the Scientific, the middle is t.he
132. The determined damnation. , , Rational, the highest is the Intellectual; these are so
distinct from each other as never to be confounded.
423. Charity may be dellned as ...
(Sig. by the three stories of the ark.)
D. 2369. Inhering in thcir significatioIls and deflni- 658. These three degreea , .• understanding, reason,
Degree 52 Degree
and knowledge, are also signified by the windows of the -_.. They who are in love to the Lord, 50 as to
three tiers in the Temple (1 Rings vi.); and also by the have a perception of the love, are in a higher degree of
dvers which went forth from Eden. 655 2. good and truth, and are in the Third Heaven ... and
[A.) 15553• The llilW life is received by degrees. are called Celestial Angels; but they who are in charity
, towards the neighbour, so as to havc a perception of the
1627. Decorll.tions ofsteps, described. charity, but not so much a perception of love to the
1661°. By degrees. 1871. 41452. 7186 (occurs five Lord, are in a lower degree of good and truth, and are
times). H.335· in the Second Heaven . . . and are called Spiritual
182cr~. In the highest degree. (In the sense of Angels; while they who are in charity towards the
superlative. ) neighbour merely from the affection of truth, so as not
20232. Love to the Lord is in a higher degree (than to have a perception of the charity itself, except froip
love towards the neighbour). the truth by which they are affected, are in a still lower
degree of good and truth, and are in the First Heaven
2504". Ali these are called spiritual things, which are ... and are called good Spirits. Hence it may in sorne
thus distinguished into degrees, and succeed each other measure appear how the case is with degrees; namely,
in such an order. that those things which are in a higher degree, present
3020'. The natural mind isa distinct mind from the themselves in an image in those which are in the next
rational one, and is in a lower degree ... lower one ...
_ _ 0. Into these degrees are the three Heavens
3209. The Rational is in a degree above theNatural ...
distinguished, and according to these degrees does the
3309. Scientifics are of two kinds, or of two degrees, Lord flow in with Divine good and truth, thus with
sensuous things and scientific ones. Sig. and Ex. wisdom and intelligence, and with heavenly joy and
3404. These appearances or truths are of a higher happinesa.
degree. Tr. 3699". There are lowest goods and truths, and highcst
34052. The appearances of truth which are of a higher ones, and between them there are steps as of aladder.
degree far -surpass in abundance and perfection those 37472. There are three degrees of life in man, as there
which are in a lower degree; for myriads of myriads of are three degrees of life in the Heavena. •. 1 have been
things which are distinctly perceived by those who are instructed concerning these degrees of life, that the
in a higher degree, appear as ouly a single one to those ultimate degree of life is what is called the external or
who are in a lower degree ; for lower things are nothing natura! man ... that the second degree is what is
but compounds of higher ones; as may be inferred from called the internai or rational man •.. and that the
the memories of man, the interior of which, being in a third degree of life, which is entirely unknown to man,
higher degree, far surpasses the exterior one, which is is that through which the Lord flows into the rational
in a lower degree. mind, whence he has the capacity of thinking as a man,
_ _0. The Angels of the Third Heaven are in the and whenco he has conscience, aI\d the perception of good
fourth degree above man. and truth, and, also elevation by the Lord to Himself.
3412. The appearances of truth of a lower degree. Tr. 3952. The heavenly marriage is not between good and
3646. In, a like degree and manner. truth of one and the same degree,.but between good and
- - ' . ·The souls of men are in a higher degree (than truth of a lower degree and of a higher one. Ex.
those of brutes). --'. 'The celestial man is in a higher degree (than
the spiritual).
3691. The reason it is said, the good and truth of that
degree, is that goods and truths are entirely distinct 3994·' In the Original Language, 'Iamb' is expresscd
from each other aceording to degrees; interior goods and by various words, whereby are signified the differcnt
truths are in a higher degree, and exterior ones are in a degrees of innocence.
lower degree; in a higher degree are the goods and 4121. Ali who are in goods and truths are in brother­
truths of the Rational, in a lower. one are the goods and hood; but still there are degrees according to the
truths of the Natural, and in the lowest are the sensuous quality of the goods and truths; these degrees are
goods and truths which are of the body. The interior sign1fted by 'brothers,' 'sistere,' ete.
goods and truths, or those in a higher degree, inflow 4154. The goods and truths of the internai man are
in to the exterior goods and truths, or those in a lower of threefold degrees, such as exist in the three Heavens ;
degree, and there present theIr own image ... Hence it and the goods and truths of the external man are also
is evident, that the goods and truths .•. which are in of threefold degrees, and correspond to the internai
a higher degree are entirely sep,!:ratcd from those in a ones; for there arc intermediate goods and truths
lower one, and so separated, that the interior ones, or between the Ï.!lternal and the external man ... there are
those in a higher degree, are able to come into existence goods and truths proper to the natural man ... and
indcpendently of the exterior ones, or those which are there are sensuous goods and trnths •.• These goods
in a lower degree. He who has not a distinct notion of and truths of threefold dégreea pertain to the external
degrees, cannot have a distinct notion .of intcrior and man, and correspond to so many goods and truths of the
exterior goods; nor how the case is with the soul of jnternal man ... The goods and trnths of ail the degrees
man ... or with the Heavens ... are entirely distillct from each other •.. those which
_ _3. These three Heavens are most distinct from are interior arc component, and those which are exterior
each other according to degrees ... are composite ...
Degree 53 Degree
42862. The First Heaven is also celestial and spiritual, most. The interior Rational constitutes the first degree
but not in the same degree as the former ones • . . in which are the Celestial Angels, or the Third Heaven ;
443410• (Correspondence of. the forbidden degrees in the exterior Rational constitutes the second degree, in
marriage.) which are the Spiritual Angels, or the Second Heaven;
",,6 He whA' . 'tua1 lU
. an ln. te' d egree,.
the interior N atural, constitutes the. third degree, in
44 ;)7 • u IS SpITI l'lor ,
regards intelligehce and wisdom as a mediate end. . . whtlCl~ al'Ne gtoodl SplrSltS, or the Ft~tutt Heahven j the
ex cnor a ura or ensuous cons 1 es t e lourth
. 448~3. They who are in a like degree of.good, &ore also degree, in which is man. These degrees with man are
11l a hke degree of truth . . . perfectly distinct •.. Hence if a man has lived the life
45929. Ail things of the Church, from the first degree of charity and love,. he can after death be translated
to the last. Sig. into the Third Heaven ; but, in order for him to be of
50083. (Such) hold everyone to be the neighbour, yet s~ch a character, it.~s necessary for ail the d~gre~ with
all in a different respect and degree ... whereas (such) lum to he weil tennmated, and thus by termmatlOns to
do not ailow of degrees and respect. be dis,tinct from each other. ,When this Is the case,
3 each degree is a plane, in which the good .that flows in
5 11 4. There are degrees (or steps) as of a ladder from the Lord rests and is received. Without these
between the Intcllectual. and the Sensuous; but no one d egrees as panes, 1 th e go ad '.19 no t recelVe,
' d b u t fi ows
can apprehend these. degrees,
. unless hc knows .•. . that th rough as th rough a 'sleve . •. d own t 0 th e S ensuous
the~ a~e perfectly dl~tmc~ from each other! and m fact, and there ... is turned into what is filthy.
so dlstmct, ' that
" the mtenor ones can come mto existence --. 4 S
ee B OUNDARY-te7'7n>
'na);'
10 a
t th'IS rc f•
an d su bSISt wlthout the extenor ones, but not the 2 ' • ' , •
exterior ones without the interior (51462). as f 1 6
5 4 . What IS purer and what lB grosser mayeXlst m
example, the spirit of man can subsist witllOut t~: one a~d the ~ame degree, ~cording to bO,th ~xtension
material body ... the spirit of mali bcing in an interior and compr~sslOn, and, acco~dmg to ,determmatlOns, and
degree, and the body in an exterior one. The case is also accordmg to the mserbon of thmgs homogeneous or
the same \Vith the Spirit of man after death if he is heterogeneous.
among thc blest: hc is in the ultimate de~ee there 1 • 5~362. By the 'suckling,' :little child,' and 'child,' are
when he is in the First Heaven, in the interiOi' degree slgmfied th.ree degrees of. m~ocence ... and as three
when in the Second and in the inmost when in the degrees of mnocence are slgmfied by them, sa also are
Third: when he is ir: this last, he is at the same time three degrees of love and charity ...
in a.!1 the l'est, but they are quiescent with him, almost 5605. 'We will arise, and go, and we will live, and
as the Corporeal is quiescent during sleep, only with thc not dic' =spirituallife a.ccording ta degreee. Ex.
differ~nce that thc interiors with the Angels are then in 5934". By such degrees of scientifics, man ascends to
the hlghest state of wakeful,ne~s. There also cxist with intelligence; for, through these degreee, scientifics
man the same number of dlstmct degrees as there are open the mind ...
of Heavens, besides the ultimate, which is the body with 63 10 The interiors of man are distinct according 10
its sensuous things. Hence it is evident how the case is degree~ by means of derivations' according to thesc
with the derivations from first ta las~ (which are sigui­ degrees there are also lights . .. '
lied by thc 'three shoots of the vme'), or fro1Jl the " . "
Intellectual ta the Sensuous. The life of man which is 63 1 3 . The three Heavens are no otherwlse dlstmct
from the Divine of the Lord, passes thro~gh these fr~m each other th~n according ta el~vation ta interio!'
degrees from the inmost to the ultimate, and according thmgs, thus accordmg ta degrees of hght.
ta its derivation it becomes more and more general, and 6326. There was a philosopher ... who died a fe\\'
in the ultimate most gencral; the derivations into lower years aga, with whom 1 spoke about the three degrees
degrees are only compositions, or rather conformations of life in man, saying, that man consists of mere forms
of the singlllars and particulars of the higher degrees in for the reception of life, and that one form is more
succession, with such things added from purer nature, interior than another, but that one has com~ into
and thcn from gr'osser, as may serv,e for containing existence and subsists from the other; also, that when
vessels; on the dissolution ofwhich vessels, the singulars the lower or exterior fonn is dissolved, the higher or
and particulars of the interior degreee, which had been interior one still lives.
conformed therein, return ta the degree next higher . . . 6396. Man .•. is first in truth ••. ncxt, in the good
5144. 'Three baskets'=the successives of voluntary of lifc from truth •.. then, in the good of life f~om
things ... for there are degrees (or steps) as of a ladder good ... these are the degrees (or steps) ofregeneratlOn.
from inmost things ta outermost ones ; into the inmost 6707. The quality of Christian good detennines in
there f10ws in good from the Lord, and this flows through what degree everyone is the neighbour .•.
the Ratio,nal into the interior Natur~l" and then?e into 681 9. These are the four ascending degrees of the
the exterlOr N atural or Sensuous~ d19tmctly, as It ~e~e neighbour; a society consisting of many is in a degree
by t,he steps ~f a ladder, and. m every degree It IS priaI' ta that of a. single man; our Country is in a prior
qualified accordmg to the receptlOn. 5 1 47. degree ta a society; in a still priaI' degree is the Church ;
51452. The interiors with mali are distinguished into and in a still priaI' degree is the Lord's Kingdom; but
degrees, and in ea.ch degree there are terminated things, in the highest degree is the Lord. These Wlccnding
and, by the termination, they are separated from the degrees are like the stops of a Wlder, at the top of
lower degree; thus it is from the inmost ta the outer· which is the Lord.
Degree 54 Degree
[A.] 7014°. These were.the steps of the Lord's glorifi- which are in the sensuous Corporeal, signilied by 'the
cation. things in the waters under the earth.'
7265. In this chapter it treats of the first three degrees 8945. 'Thou shalt not go up by steps unto Miuc
of vastation. Enum. altar' (Ex. xx. 23)=non-elevation to the iuterior things
. 72953. (The first, second, and third degrees of the which are celestial. .. 'To go up by steps'=to elevate
taking away and deprivation of the influx of truth and one's self to higher or to interior things.
_ _2. No one in the other life is allowed to be .eleva!ed
good.) Sig. 1

higher into Heaven than to the degree of good ln whlCh


7378. In this chapter it treats of the third and the
fourth degree of the vastation of tliose who are in he is ...
__6. It is said 'to go up by steps,' because, in the
falsities, and who infest the upright in the other life.
Ex. World of Spirits, elevation to interior things ... appears
as an ascent by steps; hence it \Vas that Jacob in his
75°2. The degrees of the vastation of those who were sleep saw Angels ascending to the Lord by the steps of
infesting, were punishments.
a ladder; therefore, too, in the 'IYord, 'steps' = an
77Ia°. Hence it is that there are degrees of devasta- ascent to higher, that is, to interior things, as in Ezek.
tion, until at last they are cast into Hell, which is the x1.6,22,26,3I,34; and in Amos; 'The Lord Jehovih
last of the degrees of vastation. Zebaoth builds His steps in the heavens' (ix.6).
7795. 'Prodigies' =so many degrees of their vastation 92862• The successive steps of deliverauce from dam-
... The reason there are so many degrees ... nation are circumstanced as are the successive steps of
8443 2• Truth Divine is not of one degree, but of re6 eneration. Sig. and Ex.
many; truth Divine in the first degree and aIso in the 9336. 'By little and Little 1 will drive them out from
second is that which immediately proceeds from the before thee'=the removal (of evils and falsities) by
Lord, and is above the angelic understanding; truth degrees according to order. Ex.
Divine in the third degree is such as there is in the
9435. The degrees of ascent from the people to the
Third Heaven ... truth Divine in the fourth degree is
Lord are thus described.
such as there is in the Second Heaven ... truth Divine _ _2. There are like degrees of ascent from the
in the fifth degree is such as there is in the First world to Heaven with those who are being regenerated
Heaven ... and truth Divine in the sixth degree is by the Lord ...
such as there is with man, accommodated to his per-
ception '; thus is the sense of the letter of the Wordo 9489. 'A cubit and a half the height thereof'=what
is full as to degrees. 'Height' = degrees as to good and
8603 Ëi • The passings over from one to another in as to truth.
successive order are also called degrees. _ _ 0. The reason 'height' =degrees as to good and
864i. Truth in the first degree is represented by thence as to truth, is also because what is high=what
'Moses'; and the truths thence derived in sucessive is internaI, and good is perfect according to degrees
order, by 'the princes of thousands,' 'of hundreds,' 'of towards interior things.
fifties,' and 'of tens. '
9594. The reason there are three Heavens, is that
8643. When the son-in-Iaw represents truth, the there are three degrees of life with man ... the inmost
father-in-Iaw represents good, in a higher degree ... degree of his life is for the inmost Heaven; the middle
8707· ''IYay' is predicated of the understanding of degree of life is for the middle Heaven; and the ultimate
tl1lth; here, in an interior degree, because ... one is for the ultimate Heaven •..
_ _2. These degrees of life with man are opened
8712. 'Princes of thousands'=the primary things
which are in the first degree under truth immediately succcssively; the first degree by a life according to
from the Divine ... (these) are in a more digniJied degree what is fair and just; the second degree by a life
than they who are over few; here, therefore (it means) according to the truths of faith from the Word and
those who were in the first degree, for they who were according to the goods of charity towards the neighbour
in a lower degree \Vere princes of hundreds, of fifties, therefrom; and the third degree according to the good
and of tens. of mutuallove and the good of love to the Lord; these
are the means by which are suecessively opened these
87 13. Primary things in the second degree. Sig.
three degrees of life with man, thus the three Heavens
87 14. Intermediates between those truths from good with him. But in proportiou as man recedes from the
which are in the second degree, and those which are in good of life, and accedes to l'lviI of life, these degrees are
the third. Sig. 1
closed .•.
87 15. 'Tens' also=many things, but in a less degree. 96596. Truths leading to good and from good to truths
8872. These things are such as are in the sensuous are signified by 'the porch,' and by 'the steps' (Ezek.xl).
Corporeal, as is evident from the successive degrees of 9773. 'The height five cubits'=degrees of good and
the light which is of the Intellectual in man; in the truth also as much as is sufficient. 'Height' = degrees
first degree with man are those things which are in as to' good; and as it is predicatell of the ultimate
spiritual light, signified by 'the things in the heavens Heaven, it also=degrees as to truth, for that Heaven
above;' in the second degree are those things which are is in the good and truth of faith.
in natural light, signified by 'the things in the earth _ _0. Distances from the inmost are degreetl of good
beneath ; , and in the third degree are those things and truth from the Lord.
Degree 55 Degree
98Z5. As the Spiritual Kingdom is distinguished into _ _4. He who does not acqUÎle a perception of these
three degrees, into the inmost, middIe, and external, degrees, cao know nothing whatever of the differences
'the robe'=that which is in the middIe of this Kingdom. between the Heavens, and between the interior and the
The reason this Kingdom is distinguished into three exterlor faculties of man, thus between the soul and the
degrees, is that the inmost there communicates with body; he is alao utterly unable to apprehend what the
the Celestial, and the external with the N atural, and internal sense of the Word is, and its difference from
therefore the middIe draws equally from both. For the external sense; and not even the difference between
anything to be perfect, it must be distinguished into the SpiIitual World and the natural world; being, in
three degrees; such is the case \Vith Heaven, and with fact, not able to understand what and whence are corre·
the goods and truths there. 'That there are three spondences and represcntatives, and scarcely what influx
Heavens is known, thus there are three degrees is. Sensuous men do not apprehend these differences ;
of goods and truths there. Each Heaven, too, is for they make increase and decrease according to these
distinguished into three degrees; for the inmost of it degrees continuous, thus they make these degrees like
communicates immediatcly with the higher one, the the degrees of length and breadth, wherefore they stand
external with the lower one, and therefore the middle outside, far from intelligence. H.383• J.(Post.)309.
with both; hence its perfection. The case is the same
H. 31°. The spiritual natural and celestial natural
with the interiors of man, which, in general, arc distin­
Angels are distinct from each other, yet constitute only
guished into three degrees, namely, into the Celestial,
onc Heaven, because they are in one degree.
the Spiritual, and the Natural. In like manner, each
of these is distinguished into its own three degrees; for 33. There are three degrees of the interiors with every·
the man who is in the good of faith and of love to the one, both Angel and SpiIit, and aIso with man; they with
Lord, is a Heaven in the lcast form corresponding to whom the third degree is open, are in the inmost
the Grand one. Such, also, is the case with all things Heaven; they with whom the second, or only the first
of nature; that the Natural of lllan is distinguished in to is open, are in the middle or in the ultimate Heaven:
three degrees,' see 4570... The reason it is so, is that the intcriors are opened by the reception of Divine good
everywhere there are end, cause, and effect ... andnence and Divine truth. (See THIRD HEAVEN at this ref.)
itis that' three' =what is completefrom beginning toend. (q). There are as many degrees of life in man as thcre
are Heavens, and they are opened after death according
9940. These are the degrees of the influx and the to bis life. Refs.
reception of the Divine; but every degree contains
innumerable things, which are distinct from those which 34. As, with the Angels of the inmost Heaven, the
are in every other degree; and the innumerable things interiors are opened into the thiId degree, their perfec­
tion vastly surpasses that of the Angela in the middle
therein are the arcana of Heaven, few of which faU
Heaven, whose interiors are opened into the second
within the human understanding ... The arcana of
degree •.•
permission are few relatively to those of the higher
degrees, which are the things which take place from 38. He who does not know how the case is with
leave, from good-pleasure, and from will. Divine order as to degrees, cannot apprehend in what
way the Heavens are distinct from each other, nor, in
1013z12. T.hese three degrees of innocence are signified fact, what the internaI and the external man are ...
by 'a bullock,' 'a l'am,' and 'a lamb' ... There are two kinds of degrees, there are continuous
10181. 'Two cubits the height thereof'=the degrees degrees, and there are degrees not continllous; con­
of good and truth, and their conjunction.•• 'Height'= tinuous degrees are circumstanced as are the degrees of
thc degrees of good and thence of truth. By degrees the decrease of light from the flame down to darkness,
of height are meant degrees from interiors to exteriors, or as the degrees of the dcerease of sight from those
or from inmosts to outermosts. things which are in light to those which are in shade,
__2. There are two kinds of degrees, degrees in or as the degrees of purity of the atmosphere from the
length and breadth, and degrees as to height and bottom of it to the top; it is distances that determine
depth; the latter degrees differ very greatly from the these degrees. Whereas degrees not continuous, but
former ones; the degrees of length and breadth are discrete, are discriminated as are the prior and the
those which succeed each other from the middle to the posterior, as the cause and the effect, and as the thing
circumferences; but the degrees of height proceed from producing and the thing produced. He who investigates
interiors to exteriors; the former degrees, namely, those the matter, will see that in each and 0.11 things in the
of length and breadth, are degrees which continually universal world, whatsoever they may be, there are
decrease from the middle towarda the circumferences, as such degrees of production and of composition; that is
light decreases from the flame ... Whereas the degrees to say, that from one lis formed] a second, and from the
of height, which proceed from inmosts to outermosts, or second a third, and so on.
from highests to lowests, are not con tinuous, bu t discrete ; 39. With every Angel, and also with every man,
they are ciIcumstanced as are the inmost things of a there is an inmost or highest degree, or an inmost or
sclld relatively to its exteriors .•. These degrees are highest something, into which the Divine of the Lord
di8Criminated~ thus are distinct, as the thing producing first or proximatcly inflows, a.nd from which it disposes
and the thing produced. The things wh1ch are in an the l'est of the interiors which succeed each other accord­
interior degree, are more perfect than those \vhich are ing to the degrees of order. • . By this inmost or
in an exterior degree, and there is 'no likeness between highest man is man, and is distinguished from the brute
them, except through correspondences ... animaIs, for tRey have it not., Rence it is, that man,
Degree 56 Degree
differently from animais, alf to all the interiors of his 280. The Heavens are distinguished aceording to
mind and disposition can be elevated by tbe Lord to innocence; they wbo are in the First Heaven arc in
Himself, can believe in Him, be affected with love to innocence of the first or ultimate degree; they who are
Him, and thu8 see Him, and can also receive intelligence in the Second Heaven are in innocence of the second or
and wisdom, and speak from rea.son; bence, too, it is, middle degree; and they who are in the Third Heaven
that he lives to eternity. J.25~. arc in innocence of the third or inmost degree.
[H.] 104. See CORRESPONDENCE" at tbis ref. 288'. The Angels of the Third Heaven are in the
120. The Lord as a Sun does not flow in immediately third or illmost "degree of peace, because they are in the
i"nto the Heavens, but the ardour of His love is tempered third or inmost degree of innocence; and the Angels of
on tbe way by means of degrees; the temperings appear the lower Heavens arc in a lcss degree of pca.çe, beca.use
as radiant belts round the sun. they are in a lesa degree of "innocence.
146. The distance betweell, the Sun and the Moon 349. Whatever a man acquires" in the "orld, remains
there, is thirty degrees; consequently, tlJ.e distance and is carried with him after death, ",hen, also, it is
hetween the [two sets of] quarters is tbe same. E.4224. increased and becomes full, but within the degree of his
208. In every Angel tbere are three degrees of life, affection and desire of truth and its good ...
as there are three degrees of Heaven; with those who 410. Hence it is evident, not only that there are
are in the inmost Heaven, tbe third or inmost degree is degrees of the joys of Heaven, but also that the inmost
open, and the second and first are closed; witb those of one hardly approaches the ultimate or middle of
wbo -are in the middle Heaven, tbe second degree is another.
open, and tbe first and tbird are closed; and with those
4682. There are thrlle degrees of life with every man ;
wbo are in tbe ultimate Heaven, the first degree is open,
the Rational is opened to the first degree by civil truths ;
and the second and third are closed. As soon, tberefore,
to the second degree by moral truths; and to tbe third
as an Angel of tbe Tbird Heaven looks down into a
degree by spiritual truths. The Rational, h()\vever, is
Society of the Second, and speaks with anyone tbere,
not formed and opened by these truths merely by man's
his tbird degree is closed, and tben he is bereaved of bis
knowing them, but"by his living according to them ...
wisdom, because bis wisdom resides in bis tbii:d degree,
When truths are mere servants (to selfish ends) they do
and be has none in tbe second or first. Sig.
not enter into man, and open any degree of his life,
211. In tbe inmost Heaven (the form of Heaven) is even the first •.. Man, tberefore, becomes rational to
the most perfect of all; in tbe middle Heaven it is also the third degree by the spiritual love of the good and
p~rfcct, but in a lower degree; and in the ultimate
truth which are of Heaven and the Church; to the
Heaven in a stilliower one; and the form of one Heaven second degree by the love of what is sincere and right;
subsists from that of anotber Heaven tbrough influx and to the first degree by the love of ",hat is just and
from tbe Lord. But tbe nature of communication by fair.
influx is not eomprebended, unless the nature of degrees
of beigbt is knowII, and wbat tbe difference" is between S. 62• Hence it fol1ows, that the Divine which proceeds
these degrees and tbe degrees of lengtb and bread~h. from the Lord to its ultimates, descends through three
degrees, and is named the Celestial, the Spiritual, and
267. Witb every Angel tbere are three degrees of
the Ratural. The Divine wbich descends from the Lord
life, wbicb correspond to tbe three Heavens; those witb
to men, descends through tbese three degrees, and when
",born tbe first degree is open are in tbe First Heaven;
it has descended,.it contains tbese three degrees within
those witb whom tbe second degree is open are in the
Sccond Heaven; and those with whom tbe tbird degree it: everything Divine is of this character; therefore,
when it is in its ultimate degrée, it is in its fulnesa.
is open are in tbe Tbird Heaven; a.ccording to tbese
Such is the W ordo
degrees is the wisdom of tbe Angels il! tbe Heavens.•.
The reason tbere are sucb great differenccs (in their 7. The difference between these "degrees cannot be
wisdom), is tbat tb066 tbings whicb arc in a higber known unless correspondence is known; for these
degree are singulars, and those wbicb -are in a lower degrees are en tirely distinct from each other, as are the
degree are generals ..• end, the cause, and the effect; or as the prior, the
_ _2. The sensuous Corporeals of man are in the posteriori and the postreme; but they make one through
lowest degree. correspondences.
270. Tbe wisdom of the Angels of tbe Tbird Heaven 68. In every man from creation therc are three degrees
is incomprehensible, even to those wbo arc in the of life, celestial, spiritual, and natural; bu t man is in
ultima.te Heaven; the reason is, tbat the interiors of the natural so long as he is in tho world, and so far in
the Angels of tho Tbird Heaven are open to the third the spiritual as he is in genuine truths, and so far in
degree, whereas those of tbe Angels of tbe First Heaven the celestial as he is in a life according to them; but
are only open to tbe first degree ... As the interiors of still he does not come into the spiritual itself or the
the Angels of the Tbird Heaven are open to tbe third celestial itself until aCter death. T.239.
degree, Divine trlltbs are as it were inscribed on them, W. 65. The uses of all things which are created
for the interiOl'S of the third degree are more in the form ascend through degrees from ultimates to man, and
of Heaven tban those of tho second and the first degree, through man to God the Creator. Gen.art...• Ulti.
and the form of Heaven is from Divine truth ..• mates are all things of the minerai kingdom •.• Mediates
271. Love to the Lord opens the interiors of the mind are ail things of the vegetable kingdom ... Primes are
to the third degree ... all things of the animal kingdom . •. 170•.
Degree 5i Degree
66. There are three degrees of ascent in the natura.! tainants of heat and light, it follows that there are as
world, and thore are three degrees of a.scent in the many degrees of atmospheres as there are degrees of
Spiritual World... The. more perfect animais are recipi­ heat and light, and aIso that there are as many as there
ents of the three degrees of life of the natural world; are degrees of love and wisdom •..
the lesS perfect are recipiellts of the life of two degrees 184. Degrees are of a twofold kind, degrees of heigh t
of that world; and the imperfect ones are recipients of and degrees of breadth. Gen.art.
one of its degrees. But man alone is a reeipicnt of the 1 - - . The knowledge of degrees is like a key for
life, not onJy oHhe three degrees of the natura.! world, opening the causes of things ... Without this know­
but also of the three degrees of the Spiritual World. ledge, scareely anything of Cause ean be known ..• The
Rence it is, that, unlike any animal, man can be elcvated interior things which are not open to view can in no
above nature; can think analytically and rationally. •. way he discovered unless degrees are known. Fol'
But these six degrees ... will be treated of .. , exterior things pass ta interior ones, and through these
67. How man ascends from the ultimate degree ta to inmost ones, through degrees; not through con­
the first. Re is born into the ultimate degree of the tinuous degrees, but through discrete degrees. The
natural world; he is then elevated by knowledges into graduai lessenings or decreasings from grosser to finer,
the second degree; and as he perfects his understanding or from denser to rarer, are caUed continuous degrees;
by knowledges, he is elevated into the third degree, and or rather [they arc] as the graduaI additions and increas­
then becomes rational. The three degrees of ascent in ings from fin el' to grosser, or from 1'&rer ta denser;
the Sp~itual World are in him above the three natural exa.ctly as it is with [the gradations] of light to shade,
degrees, but they do not appea.r until he puts off the or of heat to cold.
ea.rthly body. When he puts this off, the first spiritual - - , But discrete degrees are entirely different ; they
degree is opened to him, afterwards the second, and at are as things prior, posterior, and postreme; 01' as end,
last the third; but only with those who become AngeIs cause, and effect. These degrees are called discrete,
of the Third Heaven ... Those become Angels of the because the prior is by itself, the posterior is by itself,
Second and the Ultimate Heaven, with whom the second and the postreme is by itself; jet taken together they
and the ultimate degree can be opened. Each spiritual make one. The atmospheres ... from the sun to the
degree is opened with man accordulg to the reception earth ... are discrete in such degrees; and are as
of the Divine love and the Divine wisdom from the simples, as congregates of these, and again as congregates
Lord; they who receive something thereof come into of these, which taken together are caUed a composite.
the first or ultimate spiritual degree; they who receive These degrees are discrète because they come into exist­
more, into the second or middle spiritual degree; elJ.ce distinctly, and they are meant by the degrees of
and they who receive much, into the third 01' highest height; whereas the former degrees are continuous,
degree. But they who receive nothing thereof remain beoause they increase cOlltinuously, and are meant by
in the natural degrees, and from the spiritual degrees the degrees of breadth.
draw only this, that they are able ·to think and thencc 185. Ea.ch and ail things which come into existence
to speak, and to will and thence to act, but not intelli­ in the Spiritual World and in the natural world come
gent1.y. into existencc conjointly from disorete degrees and at
712. Instead of height (the spiritual man) thinks of the same time from continuous degrees, that is, from
the degmes (of good and truth). degrees of height and from degrees of breadth. That
94. The decreasing (of sin p"tu 1 h t d l' ht)' dimension which consists of discrete degrees is ca11ed
effected through degmes . a ea.an 19 !Sh'h
elg t, an dh
t at Wl'h ' f ' d
lIC conslsts 0 contmuous egrees IS
.
. , called breadth: their position relatively to the sight of
104· The Sun ... appears ~bove the lands on whlCh the eye does not alter the designation. Without a
the Angels dwell, at an elevatlOn of about 45 d.egrees • .• knowledge of these degrees, nothing can be known
179. There are degrees of love and wisdom, and thence about the differences between the three Heavens, nor
degmes of heat and light, also degrees of atmospheres. about the differences between the love and wisdom of
Gen.art. the Angels there, nor about the differences between the
- - . That there are degrees of love and wisdom may heat and light in which theyare, nor about the differ­
bc cvident from the Angels of the three Heavens . .. ences between the atmospheres which environ and hold
The degrees of love and wisdom distinguish and separate together. Further, without a knowledge of these
them • . • degrees, nothing can be known about the differences
ISo. That there exist degrees of love.and wisdom may between the interior fa.culties of the mind in men, thus
1

be still more evident from the love and wisdom of the nothing about theïr state as to reformation and regene­
Angels relatively to the love and wisdom of men'. . . ration; nor about the differences between the exterior
r8r. As there arc degrees of love and wisdom, there facuities, which. are of the body, with ?oth Angels and
are also degrees of (spiritual) heat and light mon; and nothmg at ail about the dlfference between
d . . . ". the Spiritual and the Natural, consequently nothing
r82. Th~ egrees of spll'ltual heat cannot .b? desor;bed about correspondence; nay, nothing about any differ­
from expenence ••. but the degrees of spll'ltual hght ence of life between men and beasts nor about the
can be desc:i~ed ... From the degrees of light the difference between the more perfcct and' the more imper­
degrees ~f spn?tual heat even can be comprehendcd ; for fect beasts; nor about the differences among the forms
they are m a hke degree • . • of the vegetable kingdom, and among the matters of the
r83. As the atmospheres are the receptacles and con­ minerai kingdom. From which it may be evident, that
Degree 58 Degree
they who are ignorant of these degrees, cannot see together by the like degrees. It is the same in a11
causes from any judgment ... things of the vegetablc and in aU things of the mineraI
[W.] 186, In order to comprehend still better what dis­ kingdom. In woods ~here are combinations of filaments
crete degrees are, what their nature is, aud how they differ in a threefold order; in metals and in stones there are
from continuous degrees, let the angelic Heavens serve conglobations of parts also in a threefold order. Hence
for an example. There are three Heavens, and they are 'is evident the nature of discrete degrees, namely, that
distinct by degrees of height ... They do not communi­ the second is from the first, and the third from the
cate with each other except through influx ... But cach second, the third being called the composite; and that
Heaven by itself is not distinct by degrees of height, each degree is discrete from the others.
but by degrees of breadth ... It is the same with men; 191. The case is the sa.me with the organic substances
the interiors of their minds are distinguished into the which are the receptacles ..• of the thoughts and affec­
same number of degrees as the angelic Heavens, and tions in the brains; with the atmûspheres; with heat
one of thcir degrees is above another; wherefore the and light; and with love and wisdom. For the atmo·
interiors of men belonging to their minds are distin­ spheres are receptacles of heat and light; and heat and
guished by discrete degrees or degrees of height. Hence light are receptacles of love and wisdom. Wherefore, as
it is that a man may be in the lowest degree, he may there are degrees of the atmospheres, there are also like
be in the higher, and also in the highest one, according degrees of heat and light, and like ones of love and
to the degree of his wisdom; and that when he is only wisdom •..
in the lowest degree, the higher degree is closed ,; and 192. That these degrees are homogeneous, that is, of
that it is opened as he receivcs wisdom from the Lord. the same nature, is evident from what has just been
With man, too; as in Heaven, there aro continuous said. The motor fibres of the muscles, least, larger, and
degrees, or degrees of breadth. largest, are homogeneous. The nervous fibres, least,
i87. He' who does not know anything of discrete larger, and largest, are homogeneous. The, filaments of
degrees •.• cannot know anything of the state of man woods .•. the parts of stones and metals ••. the
as to his reformation and regeneration, which take place organic substances which are the receptacles ... of the
through the reception of love and wisdom from the thoughts and affections ... the atmospheres .•. the
Lord, and the consequent opening of the interior'degrees degrees of heat and light in series, according to the
pf the mind in the1r order. Nor can he knowanything degrees of the atm08pheres .•. and hence also the
of the influx through the Heavens from the Lord, nor degreea of love and wisdom, are homogeneous. Things
anything of the order into which he is created. For if which ... are heterogeneous do not agrec with the
anyone tbinks of these tbings, not from discrete degrees homogeneous, thus cannot present discrete degrees
. . . but from contii1UouS degrees ... he cannot see together with them, but only with their own ..•
anything about them except from effects ... 194. Each degree is distinct from the others through
188. 1 am not aware whether anything has been coverings of its own, and aH the degrees together are
hitherto known about discrete degrees .•. but only distinct by means of a general covering. The general
about continuous degrees; yet not anything of Cause covering communicates with the interior and with the
in its truth can become known without a knowlOOge of inmost things in their order. Henee comes the con­
degreea of both kinds. junction of aU, and unanimous action.
1&9. The degrees of height are homogeneous, and the 195. The first degree is the ail in aU things of the
one is from the other in succession, as are the end, the subsequent degreea. Gen.art. The reason is, that the
cause, and the effect. Gen. art. degreea of each subject and of each tbing are homo­
- - . As the degreea of breadth, or continuous ones, geneous; aud they are homogeneous because produced
are as thosc from ligh't to shade, from heat to cold, from the first degree. For the formation of these
from hard to soft, from dense to rare, from gross to degreesis such, that the first, by confasciclliations or
fine, and so forth; and these degreea are known from conglobations .•. produces the second, and through it
sensuous and ocular experience; but not so the degrees ! the third; and discretes each from the other by a cover­

of height or discrete degrees ; the latter will be.especiaUy 1 ing drawn around it. Hence it is evident, that the first
treated of in this Part; for without Knowledge of these . degree is the principal and the solely regnant in thc
degrees ,causes cannot be seen... Hence it is, that 1 subsequent degrees ...
although end, cause, and effect proceed by discrete 196. ft is said that degrees are such in regard to each
degrees, little, if anything, is known in the world about other, but the meaning is that the substances are such
these degrees . . . in their degrees. Speaking by degrees is abstract
190. A11 things . • . of whicb trinal dimcnsion is speaking, which is universaI, and therefore applicable
predicated, or wmch are caHOO composite, consist of to every subject or thing which is in degrees of this
degreea of height. For example . • . every muscle kind.
consists of least fibres, and these compounded fascicu­ 199. AU perfections increase and asccnd with degrees,
larly present the larger fibres wbich are caUcd motor and according to them. Gen.art.
fibres, and from bundles of these there cornes forth the - - . Of (degreea of height) it is said that they ascend
composite which is called a muscle. It is the sarne with or descend, for they are of height; whereas of (degreea
the nerves ... It is the same in a11 tbe other combinations of breadth) it is said that they increase or decrease, for
... ~hich constitute the organs and viscera; for these they are of breadth. The latter degrees differ so',much
are compositions of fibres and vessels variously put from the former, that they have nothing in cornmon;
Degree 59 Degree

whercfore they must be pcrceived distinctly, and by no in every seed and in every fruit, and also in every met&!
means be confounded. aud stone ... The inmost, middle, and outermost things
200. The reason why ail perfections increase and of the parts are in these degrees, for they are successive
ascend with degrees and according to them, is that all compositions ..• from simples ...
predicatcs follow their subjects ... 208. In short, there are such degrees in every ultimate,
__o. The forms which are not at the same time thus in every effect. Ex.
forces, are also perfect according to degrees. --". There are the like degrees in each and ail
201. We shall speak here ... of the perfections of things of the Wordo
life, of forces, and of forms, which ascend or descend 209. The ultimate degree is the complex, the contain·
accol'ding to degrees of height, because these degrees ant, and the basis of the prior degrees. Gen.art.
are not known in the world..• As these degrees stand - - . Thli doctrine of degrees ... has an extension,
out conspicuously in the Spiritual World, for the whole not only to natural things, but also to civil, moral, and
of that World from highest to Jowest is distinctly dis· spiritual things, and to each and ail things thereof. Ex.
creted into them, from that World the Knowledge of 211. Ali things civil, moral, and spiritual advance
these degrees can be drawn; and afterwards conclusions through degrees in like. manner as do natural things,
may be drawn thercfrom respecting the perfections of not only through 'continuous degrees, but also through
the forces and the forms which are in like degreea in the discrete degrees ; and the progressions of discrete degreca
natural world. are circumstanced as are the progressions of ends to
202. In the Spiritual World there are three Heavens causes, and of causes to effects ..•
a.rranged according to degrees of.height ... The de~ees
212. That the ultimate degree is the comptex, the
of their perfections are such, that the Angels of the
containant, and the basis of the prior degreea, is mani.
lowest Heaven cannot ascend to the first threshold of
festly evident from the progression of ends and causes to
the perfections of the Angels of the middle Heaven, nor
effects. Ex.
these to the first threshold of the perfections of the
Angels of the highest Heaven... The reason is, that 214. In a series of like degrees (to love, wisdom, and
they are consociated aecording to discrete degrees, and use) are affection, thought, and action... In a series of
not according to continuous degrees. Ex. like degreesare charity, faith, and good work ..• In a
series of like degrees are also will, understanding, and
203. These perfections do not appear to any man so
exercise •.•
long as he lives in the world, because he is then in the
lowest degree; and the higher degreea cannot be known 217. The degrees of height in their ultimate are in
from the lowest degree, but they are Known after death. full1ess and in power. Gen. art.
Thc man then COlles into that degree which corresponds 218. Those ascending and descending degrees, which
with his love and wisdom •.. There is then an elevation are also called prior and posterior oncs,' also degrees of
of ail things of his mind, not in a simple ratio, but in a height, and discrete ones, are in their power in their
triplicate ratio. In the latter ratio are the degrees of ultimate. Ex.
height; in the former are the degrees of breadth. But - - . As motion is the ultimate degree of endeavour,
none ascend into these degrees except those who in the it thereby exerts its power. Endeavour, force, and
world have been in trutlls, and have applied. thern to motion are no othermse conjoined than according to
life. degrees of height, the conjunction of which .is not by
20$. In successive order, the first degree makes the continuity, for they are discrete, but by correspo~dences.
highest, and the third the lowest; but in simultaneous Ex.
order, the first degree makes the inmost, and the third 219. The interior things which belong to the will and
the outermost. Gen.art. understanding make the first degree ; the interior things
~~2. When the degrees of height are in successive which belong to the body the second; and the whole
order, they may ùe compared to a coluDln divided into body, which is their complex, makes the third degree.
thl'ce steps, by means of which ascent and descent are 220. Such is the evolution and the putting forth 01
made. Des.
the degrees iI!to power •..
-'_ 3 . But sim'ultaneous order, which consists of the
221. There are three senses in the "\Vord according to
like degrees, has another appearance ... They lie as in
a solid consisting of these three degrees; in the middle the three degrees. . . As these senses are in the Word
of which are the most subtle parts, round about are the accol'ding to the degrees of height .••
parts less subtle, and in thc outermost things, which 222. There are degrees of both kinds in the greatest
constitute the circuit, are the parts compounded of these, and the least of ail things that are created. Gen.art...
aud thcl1ce grosser. It is likc that columl1 .•. subsid· The greatest and the least of ail things consist of discrete
ing into a plane ... and of continuous degrees, or of thosc of height and of
207. In every ultimate there are discrete degrees breadth . .. 310".
in simu!taneous order. The motor fibres iu every 223. (The Angels say that) there is nothing so small
muscle, the fibres in every nerve, and the fibres and which has not in it degrees of both kinds; for instance,
little vesscls in every viscus and organ, are in such an there is not the least thing in any auimal •.. plant ...
order. Inmostly in them are the most simple things, or minerai ... in the ether and in the air, that has not
which are the most pcrfect; the outermost is the com· in it these degrees; and as the ether .and the air are
posite of these. There is a. like order of these degreea receptacles of hoat and light, there is not the least of
Degree 60 Degree
hent and light; and as spiritual heat and spirituallight degrees of love and wisdom in which are the Angels of
are receptacles of love and wisdom, there is not the least the Second and the Third Hcavcns; for ... as to the
of these, in which there are not degreeB of both kinds. interior things of his mind, man is Heaven in the least
(The AngeIs also say) that the least of affection, and the form; therefore. there are from creation as many degre~s
least of thought, nar, the least of an idea of thought, of height with man as there are Heavens. Man, too, IS
eonsists of degrees of both kinds; and that a least an image and likeness of God; wherefore these tlll'ee
which does not consist of these degrees is nothing; for degrees are inscribed on man, because theyare in . , .
it has no form, thus no quality, and no state which can the Lord.
be changed and varied ... The Angels confirm this by 232. With the Angels, these three degrees are namell
the truth, that the Infinite things in God the Creator celestial, spiritual, and natural; and with them the
... are distinctly one; and that there are infinite things celestial degree is the degree of love, the spirit.ual
in His infinite things; and that in the infinitely Infinite degree is the degree of wisdom, and the natural deg-.ee
things there are degreeB of both kinds, which also in is the degree of uses. The reason why these degrees
Him are distinctly one; and as these things are in Him, are so named, is that the Heavens are distinguished into
-and 11,11 things have been created by HinI ... it follows two Kingdoms, named the Celestial and the Spiritual
that there is not the least fini te thing in which there Kingdoms, to which is added a third Kingdom, in
are not such degreeB. The reason these degrees are which are men in the world, anù \"hich is the Natural
equally in the least things and in the greatest, is that Kingdom ...
the Divine in the greatest and in the least things is the
same. 224, Ex. 233. In the Lord from eternity, before the assnmpti?n
of the Ruman in the world, there were the two pl'lor
[W.] 225. The greatest things in which there are degreeB degrees actual1y, and the thinl degree in potency, snch
of both kinds, are the universe- .•• the natural warld as they 'also are with the Angels; but after the assump­
... the Spiritual World ..• each empire •.. each king­ tion of the Ruman in the World, He superinduced also
dom, in thcir complex; also, al! the Civil, the Moral, the third degree, whieh is called natural; and He ther~­
and the Spiritual thereof, in their complex; the whole by became a Man like a man in the world, with thls
animal kingdom, the whole vegetable kingdom, and the difference however, that this degree, like the prior ones,
whole minerai kingdom, each in its coniplex; and al! is in Rim Infinite and uncreate, while in Augel and man
the atmospheres of each world taken together, and oJso these degrees are finite and created... Before the
their hents apd lights. In like manner things less assumption of the Ruman, the Divine influx into the
gcncral, as man in his complex; every anima.I in its natural degree was mediate through the angelic Renvens,
complex; every tree and every shrub in its complex; but after the assumption, Immediate from Himself.
also every metal and every stone in theirs. The forms
234,Ex.
of these things are similar in this respect, tha.t they
235. These are the general statements concerning the
eonsist of degreeB of both kinds.•• The singula.rs and
threefold ascent of the degrees of height... There are
the most singular things of a.1l these a.re like the general
such degrees in each and all things of love, and thence
and the most genera.! things in this, tha.t they &re forms
such degrees in each and al! things of wisdom, and,
of both kinds of degrees.
from these there are such degrees in each and 11,11 things
226. On accoun t of the greatest and the least things of uses; b:lt in the Lord 11,11 these degrees are infinite,
being forros of both kinds of degreeB, there is a. connec­ and in Angel and man finite.
tion of them from primes to ultimates .•• The reason 236 . These threc degrees of height are in evcry man
why there is not any least thing in any form, or among
from birth, and they can be snccessivcly opened; and,
auy forms, whieh is the same (a.s any other), is that
as they are opened, the man is in the Lord, and the
there are the like degrees in the greatest things, and
Lord in him. Gen.art.
th~ greatest things consist of the le~t. As there are - - . So long as these degrees remained hidden, no
such degrees in the greatest things, and aceording to degrees could be known but continuous degrecs; anù
those degrees perpetuaI differenees from top to bottom, when only these degrees are known, it may be believed
and from the centre to the circumferenees, it fol!ows that love and wisdom with man increase only by con­
that there do not exist &ny less or least things thereof, tinuity. But it is to be known, that with every man
in which there are the like degrees, that are the sa.me.
1 from birth there are three degreeB of height, or discrete
230. There are Uuee Infinite and Ililcreated degrees ones one above or within another; and that each degree
in the Lord, and there are three finite and created degrees of h~ight ..• has also degreeB of breadth .. , according
in man. Gen.art... The reason there are three infinite to which it increases by continuity; for there are degreeB
and uncreatcd degreeB of height in the Lord, is that the of both kinds in the greatest and in thc least of al!
Lord is love itself and wisdom itself . . . and therefore things ... as no degree of. one kind can possibly exist
is use itself ... These thyee constitute the three degreeB without degreeB of thc other kind.
of height in the subjects of life. These three are as the 237. These tlnee degrees of height are named natural,
first end, the mediate end w hich is called the cause, anù spiritual, and celestial. .. WhEm man is born ho first
the ultimate end which is called the effect. That the cornes into the natnral degree, and this increascs with
end, the cause, and the effeet constitute three degrees him by continuity, according to knowledges and acconl­
of height, has been shown above. ing to the unclcrstanding thereby acquireù, up to the
231. That there are these three degreeB in man, may highest of the understanding which is called the Rational;
be evident from the elevation of his mind even to the but still he does not thereby open the second degree
Degree 61 Degree

which is called the spiritual one; this is opened by the _ _e, Man is able to receive wisdom up to the third
love of uses from intellectual things, that is to say, by degree, but not love, unless he shuns evils as sins, and
the spiritual love of uses, which love is love towards the looks to the Lord ••.
neighbour. This degree is in like manner able to 245. The nature of the influx of light into the three
increase by a continuous degree up to its summit, and degrees of life which are of the mind with man, shall
it increases by means of the Knowledges of truth and now be told. The forms which are the receptacles of
good, that is, by means of spiritual truths. Yet the heat and light, or of love and wisdom, with him, and
third degree, which is called the celestial one, is not which are in a threefold order, or are of three degrees,
opened even by these truths, but it ois opened by means are from birth transparent, and transmit spiritual light
of the celestial love of use, which love is love to the as crystalline glass transmits naturallight. Hence it ia
Lord, and love to the Lord is nothing else than commit­ that as to wiadom man can be raised up to the third
ting to life the precepts of the W ord ... These three degree. Yet these forms are not opened until spiritual
degrees are thus successively opened with man. heat conjoins itself with spiritual light •.. By thia
238. So long as a man lives in the world, he does not conjunction these transparent forms are opened accord·
knowanything about the opening of these degrees in ing to the degrees.
himself. The reason is, that he is then in the natural
246. Wben a man shuns evils from the Lord, the love
degree, which is the ultimate, and from it he at that
of evil and its heat is removed, and the love of good and
time thinks, wills, speaks, and acts; and the spiritual
its heat lS introduced in its place, by which a higher
degrae, which is the interior one, does not communicate
degree is opened. For the Lord f10ws in from above,
with the natural degree by continuity, but by corre­
and opens it ...
spondences, and communication by correspondences is
not felt. "\Vhen, however, a man puts off the natural 247. By the infiux of spirituallight into aIl the three
degree, which is the case when he dies, he then cornes degrees of the mind, man is distinguished from beasts,
into that degree whieh has been opened with him in and •.. is able to think analytically .••
the world; into the spiritual one he with whom the 248. If the higher degree, which is the spiritual one,
spiritual degree has been opened, into the celestial one is not opened with man, he becomea natural and sen­
he with whom the celestial degree has been opened. suous. Gen. art. It was shown that there are three
He who comes into the spiritual degree after death, no degrees of the human min d, which are called uatural,
longer thinks, wills, speaks, and sets naturally; but spiritual, and celestial ; and that these degrees can be
spiritually; and he who cornes into the celestial degree, successively opened with him: also, that the natural
thinks, wills, speaks, and aets according to his own degree is first opened, and afterwards; if he shuna evils
degree. And as communication between the three as sins, and looks to the Lord, the spiritual degree is
degrees exists only by correspondences, the differences opened, and at last the celestial degree. As these
of love, of wisdom, and of use as to these degrees are degrees are successively opened according to the man's
such, that they have nothing in common byanyeon­ liie, it follows that the two higher degrees may also not
tinuity between thernselves. be opened, and that the man then remains in the natural
239. As there exist with man three degrees of love degree, which is the ultimate one. 260'.
and wisdom and thence of use, it follows that there also _ _e, It is not known that t'he natural man becomes
exist with him three degrees of will and understanding spiritual by the opening of any higher degree with
and thence of conclusion, and thus of determination to him •..
use ... In a word, the mind of man ... is of three 252. The quality of the naturaI man with whom the
degrees, so that man has a natural mind, a spiritual spiritual degree is opened. Gen.art. The natural man
mind, and a celestial mind ... is a full man when the spiritual degree is opened with
~3. See COMMAND-praecipere, at this ref. him ... The natural man with whom the spiritual
240e. The Lord's abode with man is nearer, as by degree is opened does not know that he thinks and acts
means of these fseulties a man opens the higher degrees ; from his spiritual man ... N either does the naturaI man
for by the opening of thesehe cornes iuto the higher whose spiritual degree is opened know that by his
degrees of love and wisdom, thus nearer to the Lord. spiritual man he is in Heaven ... Moreover, the natural
Hence it is evident, that as these degrees are opened, man with whom the spüitual degree is opened does not
so is the man in the Lord, and the Lord in him. know that his spiritual mind is filled by the Lord with
241. The three degrees of height are as the end, the thousands of the arcana of wisdom and with thousands
cause, and the effect, and according to these degrees of the delights of love ... The reason why the natural
there succeed love, wisdom, and use. man does not know these things, is that communication
242. Spiritual light infiows with man through three between the natural man and the spiritual man is
degrees, but not spiritual heat, except in so far as man effected by correspondences . . .
shuns evils as sins, and looks to the Lord. Gen. art. 253. The quality of the natural man with whom the
- - . There are three degrees of light and three spiritual degree is not opened, but still is Ilot closed up.
degrees of heat, that is, three degrees of wisdom and Gen. art. The spiritual degree is not opened, but still
three degrees of love, and these degrees have been is not closed up, with those who have led some life of
formed with man in order that he may be a receptacle charity, and yet have known but little genuine truth.
of the Divine love and the Divine wisdom, thus of the The reason is, that this degree is opened by the con­
Lord. junction of love and wisdom, or of heat with light ...
Degree 62 Degree
Loye (alone, therefol'e,) does not avail to open that 1 that one degree is above another, and that the natural
degree, but only keeps it in the potency of being degree, whieh is the ultimate one, is a kind of general
opencd ; which is meant by its not being closed up . .. covering to the two higher degrees; and then, as the
[W.253]2. Good through truths opens the spiritual natural degree is elevated to a degree of higher [light),
degree . . . so the higher from within acts into the exterior Natnral,
- - . The lot after death of those with whom the and iIluminates it. The illumination is indeed effected
spiritual degree is not opened, and still not closed up, from within by the light of the higher degreee, but this
is that as they are still natural and not spiritual, they Iight is reeeived by the natural degree which envelops
are in the lowest parts of Heaven '. .. or they are in the and surrounds them, by eontinuity, therefore more
boundaries in sorne higher Heaven, where they are as it lucidly and purely according to the height of the ascent ;
\Vere in the light of evening . . • that is to say, the natural degree is enlightened from
254. The quality of the natural man \Vith whom the witbfn ,from the ~ight of thc highe~ ~egre~, discreteJ.y,
Spin"tua1 degree'IS en tire1y e1ose d up. Gen.a. rt The but ml Itself'
contmuously.
. h Henee Itd IS. eVldent that
. so
spiritual degree is closed up with those who are in evils ong as man hves m t e world, an ~s the~eby I~ the
'0
as t 0 1Ile, an d s t'II
1 more WI'th th ose W h 0 from evilsare natural degree, ., he cannot be elevated Into w18dom
, .Itself
in falsitics ... So the substances or forms of the spiritual s~ch as eXlSts wlth the Ang~ls, but ~n~y mto, hlgher
d egree \VI'th man's.h rm ' k f vil d tl ' 0 la't' hght up to the Angels, and mto recClvmg enlighten.
rom e san lelr la 1168, t f th' r ht
beeause these are heterogeneous; for,' as the spiritual men rom en' Ig ...
degree is in the form of Heaven, it admits ~othing but 257'. But still the man with whom the spiritual
"oods and the truths whieh are from good;' these arc degree has been opened, cornes into that wisdom when
homogeneous to it. . . he dies, and he can also come into it by a laying asleep
_ _2. This degree is eontracted, and by contraction of t~e sensations of the body ...
elosed up, with those espeeially who in the world are in 258. Every man is born into thc faculty of understand.
the love of ruling from self-love, because this love is ing truths even to that inm08t degree in which are the
opposed to love to the Lord. It is also closed up with Angels of the Third Heaven; for the human understand.
those who from the love of the world are in the mad ing, rising up by eontinuity around the two highel'
eupidity of possessing the goods of others, but not to degreee, receives the light'ofthe wisdom ofthose degrees
such a degree. The reason why these loves close the ... Henee it is, that man can become rational according
spiritual degree, is that they are the origins of evils. to this elevation; if he is elevated to the third degree,
The contraction or closing up of this degree is like the he becomes rational from the third degree; if he is
rctorsion of a spire into the opposite direction; whieh is elevated to the second degree, he becomes rational from
the reason why, after this degree has been closed up, it the second degree; and if he is not elevated, he is
refleets the light of Hcaven . . . rational in the first degree. If is said that he beeomes
_ _3. With these persons, not only is the spiritual rational from these degrees, because the natural degree
degree itself el08ed up, but also the higher region of is the general receptacle of their light.
the natural degree, which is called the Rational; until __ 2. Hence it is, that if a man's love is not elevated
at last the lowest region of the natural degree, which is at the same time into the spiritual degree, he is still not
called the Sensuous, alone stands open. . . rational save in the ultimatc degree. Hence it is
255. The difference '(between the life of a merely ~vident, that man's Rational is in appearance as of three
natural man and that of a beast) is that man has tlnee egrees ...
degrees of the mind, that is, three degreeB of the uncler- 260. As the natural mind is the covering and contain·

standing and of the will, and these degreeB can be ant of the higher degreeB of the human mind, it is

successively opened j and, as they are transparent, man reactive! and if the hig.her degrees are no~ opened" it

can bc raised as to his understanding into the Iight of acts agamst them, but If theyarc opened, It acts wlth

Heaven ... But beasts have not the two higher degreeB, them. Gen.art.

but only the natural degrees, which, without thc higher , -_. As the natural mind is i~ ~he ulti~ate degree,

degrees are in no faculty of thinking about any subjcet ; It envelops and encloses the spiritual mllld and the

civil m~ral or spiritual. And as their natural degrees celestial mind, which, as to degreeB, are higher than it.

are ~ot ca;able of being opened, and thenec of being , __ 2. (In respect to the reaction of the natural

raised into higher light, they cannot think in successive mind) it is the same \Vith every ultimate degree of

order, but in simnltaneous order, which is not thinking degrees of height ...

P·3 24· 269". The malignity of evil-inereases aecording to the


25 6. Regarded in itself, the natural degree of the degree of the closing up of the natural mind .•.
hnman mimi is continuons, but by cOl'l'cspondenee with 274. The natural mind, which is a form or image of
thc two higher degrees, while it is elevated, it appears Hell, descends by three degrees. Gen.art. In the
as if it were discrete. Gen.art. gl'eatest and in the least things there are degrees of two
- - . Bnt the enlightenment of the natural mind kinds ... and such also is the case \Vith the natural
ùoes not ascellll by diserete degreeB, but it increases by mind in its greatest and in its least things: degrees of
a eontinuous degree, aud, as it inereases, so that mind height are here meant. From its two faculties, whieh
is enlightened from within by the light of the two are called rationality and freedom, the natural mind is
higher degrees. How this takes place, can be compre- in sueh astate, that it can ascend through three degreee,
hended from a perception of the degrees of height, in and it ean descend through three degrees .•. when it
Degree 63 Degree

ascends, the lower d2grees which tend to Hell are are aIl things of the memory ... which present the
closed, and when it dcscends, the higher degrees which third degree.
tend to Heaven are closed: the reason is, that they are 278. Each degree is encompassed by a covering, and
in reaction. These three degrees, higher and lower, are is thereby distinguished from another degree; where­
neither opened nor closed in man in early iLfancy; for fore those things which belong -to the first degree are
he is then in ignorance of good and truth, and of evil not known by the second degree; nor are the things
and falsity; but as he commits himself to the one or the which belong to this degree knownby the third. For
other, so are the degrees opened or closed on the one example: The love of the will, which is the first degree
side or on the other. When they are opened towards of the mind, is not known in the wisdom of the under­
HeIl, the reigning love ..• oQtains the highest place, standing, which is the second degree of the mind,
the thought of falsity from that love ... obtains the except by a certain delight in the ,thought of a thing.
second place, and the conclusion of the love through the Tlle first degree, which, as was said, is the love of the
thought . . . 0 btains the lowest place. It is the same will, is not known in the knowledge of the memory,
here as with the degrees of height before treated of, except by a certain pleasantness in knowing aud speaking.
namely, that they are in order as the end, the cause, and
295°. Hence it is evident, that the N atural and the
the cffect ... The descent of these degrees is towards
Spiritual differ according to degrees of height •..
the body; hence, in the descent they become grosser,
and become material and corporeal. If truths from the 297. Love, wisdom, and use follow in order nccording
Word in the sccond degree are taken to it ta form it, to degrees of height, and the ultiroate degree is the
these truths are falsified from the first degree, which is complex, the containant, and the basis of the prior
the love of evil ..• degrees.
300. The one only substance, which is the Sun,
275. The three degrees of the natural mind, which is
procecding by means of atmospheres according to con·
a form and image of HeIl, are opposite to the three
tinuous degrees, or those of breadth, and at the same
degrees of the spiritual mind, which is a form and
time according to discrete degrees, or those of hcight,
image of Heaven. Gen.art. There are three degrees of
presents the varieties of aIl things in the created
the mind, which are called natural, spiritual, and
universe.
eelestial; and the human mind consisting of these .
degrees looks toward Heaven, and bends itself round ~02. The~'e ~re three atmospheres m ~ach world ...
thither ... Hence it may be seen, that when the whlC~ are dlstmct ~rom each ot~er acc?rdmg to degrees
natural mind looks downwards and bends itself round of hmght, and wInch decrease m thmr downward pro­
towards Hell it consists in like 'manner of three degrees gression according to degrees of breadth... From this
and that each degree of it is opposite to a degree of th; origin of substances and matters, it follows, that these
mind which is a Heaven. . . (For) there are three substances and matters are also of three degrees.
Heavens, and these are distinct according to degrees of 313. The first forms of the mineraI kingdom are the
height; and there are three HeIls, and these also are substances and matters of which earths consist, in their
distinct according to degrees of height, that is, of depth least things; the second forms are congregates of these
... It is the same with the natural mind, which is in •.. the third forms arise from plants fallen to dust, and
the form of Hell . . . from the remains of animaIs, and from the coutinual
_ _3. Love to the Lord, and thence love towards the evaporations and exhalatious of these, which mix with
neighbour, make the inmost degree in the Heavens; earths, and form their soil. These forms of the three
but the love of self and the love of the world make the degrees of the mineraI kingdom ...
inmost d~gree in the Hells: wisd~m and inteIl~gence 345. The Spiritual flows down from its Sun through
from thelr own loves make the mlddle degree m the three degrees down to the ultimates of nature and
Heavens; but folly and insanity ... from their own these degrees are called celestial spiritual and natural .
loves make the middle .degree in the HeIls: and the and these degrees are in man fr~m creatio'n and thenc;
conclusions from their own two degrees, which are from birth; and they are opened accordin~ to his life.
either ~tore~ up in th~ memory as knowledges, ~r are If the celestial degree is opened, which is the highest
determllled mto acts III the body, make the ultlmate and inmost one, the man .becomes celestial; if the
degree in the Heaven~; an~ the conclusions from their spiritual degree is opened, which is the middle one, he
own two degrees, whwh mther become k~IOwledges, or becomes spiritual; and if only the natural degree is
become acts, make the. outermost degree III the Hells. opened, which is the lowest and outermost one, the man
(Shown from experience.) becomes natural.
277. AIl things which are of the three degrees of the 3462• AIl animaIs, great and smaIl, draw their origin
natural mind, are included in the works which are done from the Spiritual in the ultimate degree, which is
by acts of the body. Gen.art. called the natural one; man alone from aIl the degrees,
- - . There are forces of the motor fibres of the whole which are three, and are called celestial, spiritllal, and
body in concurrence, and there are aIl the things of the ; natu;al.. As ev~ry degre? of h~ig~t ... de?reases by
mind which excite and determine these forces which 'contllllllty from ItS perfectIOn to lts ImperfectIOn ... so
are of three degrees ... And as there are aIl things of i do. animaIs:: r But still, as.th~y live only from the
the mind, there are aIl things of the will ..• which ,ulhmate spmtual degree, WhlCh lS called natural, they

make the first degree; there are aIl things of the under- cannot look elsewhere than to the earth •..

standing •• : which make the second degree; and there 414- See LOVE at this ref.

Degree 64 Degree
[W.] 4222. The reason love purified by wisdom becomes enter the celestial degree of wisdom, because this degree
spiritual and celestial, is that man has three degrees of is not continued from the spiritual one by continuity, but
life, which are called natural, spiritual, and celestial. , . is conjoined with it by correspondences ...
and man can be elevated from one degree to another. __e. The Lord alone opens the spiritual degree and
4242. Just as naturallove Càn ascend through degrees; the celestial degree, and with those only who are wise
and becolile spiritual and celestial, so also it can descend from Him ...
through dègrees, and become sensuous and corporeal .•. 36. They represcnt wisdom to th.emselves as a palace
4322• Thera was seen as it were a least image of a ... the ascent to which is by twclve steps .. , The
brain ... which in the upper gibbous part was a twelve stepR to the palace of wisdom signuy goods
compages of contiguous globules or spherules, and each conjoined with truths, and truths conjoined with goods.
spherule was compacted of others still more minute, and 37. Similar thillgs to those which have been said about
each of these in like manner of others most minute: thus the degrees of life and of wisdom according to conjunc­
it was of three degrees. tion with the Lord, may also he said about the degrees
_ _4. The Angels said, that the two internai degrees, of happiness; for happinesses .•. ascend as the higher
which were in the order and form of Heaven, were degrees of· the mind are opened with man, which are
recentacles of love and wisdom from the Lord; and that calicd the spiritual and the celestial ones; and, after his
the ·exterior degree, which was in opposition, contrary life in the world, these degrees increase to eternity.
to the order and form of Heaven, was the receptacle of
75. The human mind is of three degrees ... where­
infernal love and insanity ..• and from this fall there
fore man ean he elevated from natural knowledge into
is no recovery, unless the higher degrees are opened.
spiritual intelligence, and thenceinto celestial wisdom .. ,
p, 32. Man is such from creation, that, through
degrees, he can be more and more closely conjoined 1662• There are three degrees of light in the Spiritual
with the Lord. Ex. World; celestial light, spiritual light, and spiritual
~. In every man from creation and thence birth
naturallight ...
there are thrce discrete degrees .•. and man comes into 167. The light in Hell also is of three degrees. Des.
tho first degree, which is callad natural, when he is
32410. The reason the like does not take place with
born, and he can augmeiIt this degree with himself by
many in the worId, is that they love the first degree of
continuity even until he becomes rational; and he
their life, which is calied natu.ral ... and, regarded in
comes into the second degree, which is calied spiritual,
itself, the natural degree of life loves nothing but self
if he lives according to the spirituallaws of order, which
and the world, for it coheres with the sense of the body
are Divine truths; and he can also come into the third
... ; whereas the spiritual degree of life regarded in
degree, which is callOO celestial, if he lives according to
itself loves the Lord and Hcaven, and also self and the
the celestial laws of order, which are Divine goods.
worId, but God and Heaven .as higher ...
These degrees are opened with a man by the Lord
according to his life in the 'l'orld, actually; but not 334- Every Angel is perfected in wisdom to eternity;
perceptibly and sensibly until after his departure out of but each according to the degree of the affection of good
the \Vorld; and as they are openOO and afterwards and truth in which he was when he left the worId: it is
perfected, the man is more and more closely conjomed this degree which is perfectOO to eternity; what is out­
with the Lord. side this'degree is outside the Angel •.. Sig.
_ _3. But still an Angel cannot attain, or even touch,
R. 492. As there are (the Divine Celestial, the Divine
the first degree of the Lord's love and wisdom ... Spïritual, and the Divine -Natural) in the Lord, there
34. As there are three degrees of life with man from are also these three in the angelic Hcaven ... Hence,
ercation and thence from birth ... there are especialJy too, in every man, as he is .created to the image of God,
three degreeà of wisdom with him ; these are the degrees there are these three degrees; and, as they are opened,
which are opened with man according to conjunction; he becomes an Angel of either the Third, the Second, or
they are openedaccording to love ..• But of the ascent the Ultirnate Heaven ...
<If lo"ve o.ccording to degrees, man has only an obscure 675 e; Lo, there were steps before our eyes, by which
perception; the ascent of wisdom, however, is clearly we ascended . . .
perceived with those who know and see what wisdom is.
'fhe reason why the degrees of wisdom are perceived, is 7442. The reason there are in the Church, external,
that love enters through affections into the perceptions internaI, and inmost things, is that, like Heaven, the
and thoughts ... Lord's Church is distinguished into three degrees ; in the
__2. But there are three degrees of wisdom, the ultimate degree are they who are in its external things,
natural, the spiritual, and the celestial. Man is in the in the second degree are they who are in its internaI
natural degree of wisdom while he live~ in the world. things, and in the third degree are they who are in its
This degree may then be perfected with hin1 to its highcst inmost things. (These three degrees of the Church arc
point, and still it cannot enter the spiritual degree, signified respective1y by 'the called,' 'the chosen,' and
because this degree is not continued from the natural 'the faithful' (Rev. xviLI4).
degree by continui~, but is conjoined with it by 7742. There are three degrees of wisdom and love, and
correspondences. ACter dcath, man is in the spiritual thence three degrees of truth and good ; the first degree
degree of wisdom ; and this degree is also such that it is called celestial, the second spiritual, and the third
may be perfected to the highest point, but still it cannot natural; these àegrees arc with every man from birth ;
Degree 65 Degree
and thcy are a1so in genera1 in Heaven and in the distinguish things prior aad posterior are to be cal1...d
Cburch; whicb is thc r6&8on why tbere are three degrees ofheigbt, also discrète degrees; but the degrees
Heavens ... entirely distinct from each other according by whicb things greater and less are distinguisbed from
to tbese degrees; in like manner the Lord's Chul'Ch each otber, are to be ca11ed degrees of breadth, and also
on earth . . . continuous degrees. Degrees of height ... are 1ike the
M. 763. Steps of a1abaster. R.875'. generations and compositions of onc.thing from another;
5 , . . as for examp1e, oi some nerve from Its fibres, and of any
137· (The Sun s altitude there lS 45 degrees.) fibre from its fibrils; or of some piece of woOd, stone, or
185'. Tbe reason is, that the interna1 things of man, metal from its parts, and of any part from its particles.
by which are meant the things of his mind or spirit, are But degrees of breadth •.. are 1ike the increments and
elevated in a higher degree above the external things; decrements of the sarne degree of height with respect to
and in those tbings which are in a higher degree, a breadth, length, height, and depth; as of greater and
thousand things take place in the same instant in which less volumes of water, air, or ether; and as of large and
one takes place in externa1 ones. sma11 masses of wood, stone, or metal. Each and a11
1883• See REGION at tbis ref. things in the Spiritual and natural worlds, are by
. " creation in degrees of this twofold kind. The who1e
44 2 • It lS Bald that the dehgbts are natural, sensuous, 'al k' d . . th d gre- . l d
l bccause t h e N atural lS. d" . h d . amm mg orn ... IS m ese e - m genera an
an d corporea, • , ISbugUls e roto,III par't"lCU l ar ; 50 lik' eWlSe are th e wh0 le' vege....
·'ble k'mg-
tbree degrees; ID the hlghest degree are those natural d d th hl' 1 k' gd d '1 th
. l ' 1.. • • • d'Il om an e w 0 e mmera III om; an a so e
meu. wh 0 f rom rabona Slg"t . see IDsamtles, an. sb are a t mospb ' expanse f rom th e sun d own t 0 th e carth .
el'lC
carl'led away by the delights thereof. : . ; ID a 10wer There are tberefore three atmospheres diserete1y distiilct
degree are the natura1 men who . see and Judge only from accordi ng to d egrees 0f h elg . ht'm b 0 th th e S prrl
"tual an d
the senses of tbe bo~y .. '.; m the lowest de~e are thc the natural worlds ... And as the atmospheres descend
natura1 men. who wlthout . Judgment
. are carrled away by f'rom th' ..
CIl' orlgJns accord'mg t 0 th ese d v".-__,
- and'are
the a11ul'lDg heats of . tbelr bodies.
.. . . th e con....man
•• ' t s 0f l'19ht and h eat ... 1't 10r 11
ows th' at
478. On adulterles, and therr kmds and degrees. therc are three degrees of 1ight and of heat: and as tbe
Gen.art. light in tbe Spùitua1 World is in its essence wisdom,
485. There are four degrees of adulteries ... Gen. and the heat tbere is in its essence love ... it fo11ows
art. These degrees are not kinds, but enter into each also that there are three degrees of wisdom and three
kind . , . degrees of love, coIlSequently three degrees of life; for
486. Adu1teries of the first degree are adulteries of they are grad~a~d by those things through,which they
ignorance ... Gen.art. pass. Hence It lS that there are three an:gelic Heavens :
, ' a highest .•. where are Ange1s of the hlghest degree ;
488. Adultel'les of the second degree are adu1tel'les of amidd1e one .•. wbere are Angels of the midd1e degree ;
lust ... Gen.art. and an u1timate one ... where are Angels of tbe ulti·
490. Adu1teries of the third degree are adu1teries of mate degree. These Heavens are also distinguished
the reason . . . Gen. art. according to the degreeB of wisdom. and love. Ex.
49 2 • Adulteries of the fourth degree are adu1teries of 1 _ _6. As the angelic Heavens are distinguished into
the will ... Gen.art. ' three degrees, 50 90180 is the human mind ..•
494. Adulteries of the third and fourth degrees are - - . ~ence it is evident that ail spiritual influx to a
. accord'mg t 0 th e quan' t't
eVI'ls 0f sm d l't f th e Dlan and mto a man descends
1 y an qua 1 y 0 . ,from the
. Lord through
understanding and will in thern ••. Gen,art. 1:
these ~hrec degrees, and that lS recelved by .the ~an
accordmg to tbe degree of wlSdom and love m wblOh
496. There are three degrees of the natural man; in he is;
the first are they who loye the wo~ld only ... these are __7. The Knowledge of these degrees is, at the
properly meant by the na~ural; ID the second degree present day, of the greatest utility; for, in consequence
are they who love the dehghts of the sen~s on1y .." of not knowing them, many Persons remainand c1ing
these are properly meant by the sensuous; m the thrrd in the 10west degree in wbieh are the senses of their
degree are they who love themse1ves only ••. these are body... '
properly mcant by the corporeal. Ex. 17. Ends are ill the first degree, causes in the second,
5326. There are three degrees of life, and thence three and effects in the third. Gen.art.
Heavens; and the human mind is distinguished into __3. As 9011 things in the Spiritual World, and a11
th se degr~. The .Angel8 $&id, Did not they not know things in the natura.1 world, proceed according to these
7
tbls before! 1 replied, tha.t they k~ew about degrees degrees ... it is evident tha.t intelligence proper1y con·
between gr~ater a.nd 1e~, but nothlDg about degrees sists in Knowing and distinguishing them, a.nd in seeing
between pl'lor and postenor. them in tbeir order. By means of tbese degrees, a1so,
1. 16. There are three degrees in the Spiritual World, every man is Known as to his quality, when his love is
and three degrees in the natura1 world heretofore UD- Known ...
known, according to which al1 iIiflux takes place. Gen. T. 3z8. Between the three degreee of height then: is
art. By the investigation of causes from effects, it is a progression to infinity, in that the first degree, whlOh
discovered that there ste two kiuds of degreeB; one in is ca11ed natura1, cannot be perfected and elevated to the
which thillgs are prior and posterior, and another in perfection of the second degree, which is c~ed s?iritual,
wbich they arc greater and les6. The degrees which nor this to tbe perfection of the third, whlOh Ë called
VOL. II.
Degree 66 Degree
celestial ... This may be illustrated by the atmospheres, elevated to a degree higher and higher, and may also be
of which there are three degrees ..• let down to a degree lower and lower ; but in proportion
[T. ] 33. One thing has been formed from another, and as it is elevated into the higher degrees, it is elevated
thence have beeÏJ. maûe degrees, three in the Spiritual into wisdom •.• and in proportion as it is elevated
World, and three corresponding to them in the natural thither, it is man; but in proportion as it is let down
world, and as many in the quiescent things of which the into the lower degrees, it is in the delusive light of Hell,
terraq\leous globe consists ••• It is by means of thesc and is not man, but a beast.
degrees that ail posterior things are receptacles of prior 75·. In ea.ch world there are throo degrees, which are
things, and these of things still prior, and thus, in order, ca.lled degrees of height, and' thence three regions
recepta.cles of the primitives of which the Sun of thc according to which the angelic Hea.vens are ordained,
angelic Heaven consists, and thus that finite things are and aceording to which human minds also are
recepta.eles of the infinite . ordained .•.
34. The human:mind is formed inta three regions, 763• As there were three (atmospheres created), and
according ta throo degrees: in the first degree it is thence three degrees of them, three Heavens were made;
celestial ... ; in the second degree it is spiritual •.. ; one for the Angels who are in the highest degree of love
and in the third degree it is natural .•. If man and wisdom, another for the Angels who are in the secbnd
prepares the way or opens tbe door up ta the highest or degree, and a third for the Angels who are in the lowest
celestial degree, he becomes truly ail image of God, and degree. . . '
aCter death he becomes an Angel of the highcst Heaven ; 2142. There are degrees of purity,' according ta which
but if •.• only to the middle 01' spiritUal degree, man both these kinds of order take place.
does indeed become an image of God, but not in that
perfection, and artel' death he becomes an Angel of the 4102. It is evident that there are genera and species,
middle Heaven ; but if ..• only to the lowest or natural and also degrees, of love towards the neigh bour.
degree, then if man a.cknowledges God and worships 498. There are three degrees of life with man; the
Him with a.ctual piety, he becomes an image of God in soul, the mind, and the sensuous body J everything that
the lowest degree, and artel' death he becomes an Angel is in a higher degree, is in perfection above that which
of the lowest Heaven. But ••. if man closes up the is in a lower degree.
highest natural degree, which corresponds to the highest 608. There are three Heavens, which are distinct from
celestial one, he becomes as to love like a beast of the each other according to the three degrees of love and
earth ; if he closes up the middle natural degree, which wisdom; and man is in communion with Angela from
corresponds to the middle spiritual one, he becomes as these three Heavens a.ccording to his regeneration; and
to love like a fox, and as ta the sight of the understand­ as this is so, the human mind i.s distinguished into three
ing like a bird of evenin'g; and if he closes up also the degrees or regions according to the Heavens••• These
lowest natural degree as to its spiritual part, he becomes
three degrees, according to which the Hea.vens are dis·
as to love like a wild beast, and as to the understanding
tinguished ..• are like the head, body, and foot in
of truth like a fish. E.1I45 IO.
man .•.
- _•. The reception of the Divine life in the highest
degree, (may be compared) to the influx of light into a 609. These three degrees are as gold, silver, and
diamond; the reception of the life in the seeond degree, coppel' are in relative nobility, with which metals they
to tho influx of light into a crystal; and the reception are also compared in Nebuchadnezzar's statue. These
of the life in the lowest degree, to the influx of light three degrees are also distinguished from ea.ch other as
into glass, or inta a transparent membrane: but if this are the ruby, the sapphire, and the agate, in relative
degree as to its spiritual part be entirely closed up, purity and goodness; and aIso as an olive·tree, a vine,
which is done when God is denied and Satan worshipped, and a fig-tree; and so on.
the reception of life from God may be compared to the Ad. 633. The second kind of order exists between
influx of light into opaque things •.• : those things which come' forth in one degree simul­
42. There are three degrees of love and wisdom, and taneously, and is therefore called simultaneous order.
thence three degrees of life, and the human mind is D. 1526. The Angels of the third degree are able to
formed as it were into regions according to these degrees;
be in this sphere [without injury].
life in the highest region is in the highest degree, in the
second region, in a lower degree, and in the ultim!1ote 314. It was conceded ta them ta feel heavenly joy to
region, in the lowestdegree... The ultimateregion, where their inmOBt degree . . •
life is in the lowest degree, is opened from infancy to 835. In ea.ch degree thera are three Heavens; the
youth, and this is done by means of knowledges; the Spiritual, that of pea.ce, and that of innocence; no one
second region, where life is in a higher degree, from i.s admitted into the inmo~t Hea,-en of the higher degree,
youth ta adolescence, and this is done hy means of unless he has been in the more internaI one.
thoughts from knowledges; and the 1ighest region, 1828. Wherefore, there are three degrees of life with­
where life is in the 'highest degree, from adolescence to in man, as there are three degrees of life in the Heavens
early manhood and onwards, and this is done by mea.ns ... which are distinguished into the interior one, which
of perceptions of truths, both moral and spiritual. is of the natural mind ; the more interior one, which is
69. The human mind is distinguished into three of the inteliectual mind; and the inmoat oné, which
degrees, like the angelic Heaven, and therefore it can be corresponds to the Third Heaven.
Degree 67 Degree

2191. That in the interior Heaven there are degrees Il 555 1• These degrees are entirely distinct from cach
of Angels. other ..•
~-. There are three Heavens ••. which arc dis­
E. 14116. To ail the forbidden degrees (Lev.xx. 11-21)
tinguished from each other as to degrees.•• But these correspond such spheres (of whoredom), with a difference
degrees are in genera!. In each Heaven also there exist according to the application of truths to falsities, and
degrees of happinesses, in fact, as 1 suppose, three, according to the conjunction of falsities with evils ...
which however are not so circumstanced in relation to
each other as are the degrees of the Heavens in genera!. 2537 • 'The six steps' (1 Kinga x. 19)=3011 things from
From the degrees in the body it may be allowable to prinles ta ultimates. .
suppose that there are three. Ex. 10
275 • 'The stops which Jehovah builds in the
- - . Hearing, ocular sight, and the sight of imagina­ heavens' (Amos ix.6)=interior truths, which are called
tion, differ from each other by degrees, yet al! relate to spiritual ones.
natural things •..
3143. 'Lamb'=innocenoe of the inmost degme ...
2947. On the four degrees of faith. (Scientific faith, 'Kid '=innocenoe of the second degree ... 'Calf'=
intellectual faith, persuasion, and the persuasion which innocence of the ultimate degree.•. Innocence of the
is conjoined with perception.) inmost degree is such as is in the Third Heaven ...
Innocence of the second degree is such as is in the
46273. The interior [degrees] of man, which do not
Second Heaven •.. Innocence of the u1timate degree is
die, thus succeed each other: the Sensuous, the N atural,
such as is in the First Heaven.
the Spiritual Natural: these are of the external man.
_ _G. 'Lambs, rams, and he-goats'=thethreedegrees
Afterwards come the Celestial Spiritual, the Celestial,
of the good of innocence; the BaIlle as 'Iambs, rams,
and the Inmost which wants a name, because it receives
and calves' (See A. 10042. 101 32.) _ 8 .
immediately the good and truth which proceed from the
Lord: these are of the internai man. The medium 3423. There are three Heavens, and each Heaven is dis­
between the internaI and the external man is called the tinguished into three degrees ; in like manner the Angels
Spiritual Celestia!. Ex. who are in them; wherefore, in each Heaven there are
higher, middle, and lower ones. These three degrees of
4734. Evil Spirits dwell in caves ••• to which you the u!timate Heaven are meant by 'those who are in
descend by stops. Heaven,' 'those who are in the earth,' and 'those who
5547. On Hcaven in general, and on its degrees. are in the sea.'
- - . There are Heavens above Heavens .•. There 375 2• The Third Heaven is in inmost goods, or those
are seven degrees of them .•• the interna! ones are of the third degree; the Second Heaven is in lower
distinguished into tluee, and the external ones into goods and truths, or those of the second degree; and
three, and between the internaI and the external ones the First Heaven is in ultimate goods and tlUths, or
there exist intermediate ones which are called tho those of the first degree. Ultimate goods and truths,
celestial spiritual ones: hence it is that there are seven or those of the first degree, are such as are contained
degrees. in the sense of the letter of the Word •••
5548. The first degree . . . is of the Lord alonej and 4009. 'Steps' (Eztk,xxxviü.2o)=the tlUths thence
may be called the very habitation of the Lord in Heaven, derived.
for what goes on there an Angel does not know •.• The 436. (With those in the Third Heaven) the three
second degree among the internai ones, is that which degrees of life are opened; the inmost is where love ta
does indeed come to their perception, but as the internai the Lord l'osides, the middle where truths from that
of man to his externa!. The third degree is that in good, and the u!timate where the good of life.
which are those Angels, and is where they have their
peroeption; their human is there, and their soul is in 449 2• There are with man three degrees of life; in·
most, middle, and ultimate; the inmost degree is that
the second one.
in which are they who are in the Third Heaven, the
5549. The Angels in the Spiritual Heaven are not in middle degree is that in which are they who are in the
internais, but in externals; this external is also tripar­ Second Heaven, and the ultimate degree is that in
tite •.. The external which accedes to the sensuous which are they who are in the First Heaven ; wherefore,
extCl.'llal in the world is quiescen t; in the middle they they who are in the inmost degree are called celestial,
live as to thought and perception; the internai is to they who are in the middle one are called spiritual, and
them as a sou!. They indeed have the internaI which is they who are in u!timate Heaven are c80lled either
a.bove, but it is closed up. Communication is effected spiritual natural or celestial natura!. The conjunction
with them through the Celestial Spiritual Heaven, across of these in the u1timate Heaven is signified by
the Celestial one. Hence it is tha.t the spiritual Angels 'Benjamin.'
are in the internai Natura!. 538. Truths there appear as of w80ter.•• The reason
5550. Hence it is evident, that there are three degrees is, that there are three degrees of man's life, as there
{)f Heavens, that is, of Angols in the Heavens. The are three Heavens; they with whom the third degree
S80me number of degrees exist with men in the world has beon opened are as it were in a pure ethereal atmo­
who are Angels; but at that time they do not know sphere ... ; they, however, in whom only the second
what is going on in their internais; these are opened degree has been opened, are as it were in an aerial
80fter death. 1
atmosphere ••. ; but they in whom only the first degree
Degree 68 Degree
has been opened, are as it were in a watery atmoaphere, 7148. (The Solifidians) have excogitated degrees,
thin and pure. which they calI the progressions of faith alone. Enum.
[E..] 5632. There are three degrees of lUe with every 787 4,Enum.
man; inmost, middle, and ultimate; and man becomes 739'. With men there are three degrees of lUe; in·
more perfect, that is, wiser, in the proportion that he most, middle, and ultimate; and these degrees are
becomes more interior . . • successively opened with a man, as he becomes wise.
625~. See MIND at this ref. Every man is born utterly sensuoUB ••• He afterwards
627~. In its descent, Divine truth proceeds according becomes interiorly sensuous; but in proportion as he
to degrees from the highest or inmost to the lowest or procures natural lumen by means of visual experience,
ultimate; Divine truth in the highest degree is such as knowledges, and especially by means of the uses of
is the Divine which proximately proceeds from the Lord, morallüe, the man becomes interiorly natural: this is
thlls such as is the Divine truth above the Heavens; the first or ultimate degree of man's life. .. He then
being infinite, this cannot come to the perception 0 any imbibes the Knowledges of spiritual gaod and truth •••
Angel., Divine trnth of the, first degree, however, is and thUB founds the Church in hinlself; but still, U he
that whieh rcaches the perception of the Angela of the does not advance further, he remains natural; but U he
Third Heaven, and is called Divine truth celestïal ; from doos advance further, that is, if he lives &CCOl'ding to
this is the wisdom of these Angela. Divine truth of the these Knowledges from the Ward, he opens \Vith himself
second degree is that which reaches the perception of an interior dégree, and becomes spiritual, yet not more
the Angela of the Second Heaven, and makes their than as he is affected with truths, understands them,
wisdom and intelligence, bcing called Divine truth wills them, and does them, .. The reason why the
1. sJf' al Divine truth of the ,third degree ie that interior degree cannot be otherwise opened, is that the
which reaches the perception of the Angels of the First evils and falsities which are in the natural man keep it
Heaven, and makes their, intelligence and knowledge, closed; for the spiritual degree, or the spiritual mind,
aIl;d.is called Divine truth(celestialllld spiri atural. contracts itaelf at eru and the falsity of evil, as a fibril
DIVIne truth of the fourth degree is that which reaches of the body at a sting .. , But when homogeneous things,

- the perception of the men of the Church who are living


in the world, and makes their intelligence and know­
ledge ; lhis is called Divine truth naturaL The ultimate
of this is caUed Divine truth sensuous. These Divine
truths are in oraeriÏ11lÎ8Word according to their
which are Divine truths from the Word that derive their
essence from good, approach this mind, it opens itaelf;
, yet the opening takes place only by the reception of the
good of love which flowl' in through Heaven from the
Lord, and by the conjunction thereof with the tnlths
degrees,;, and Divine truth in the ultimate degree or in which the man has committed to memory; this takes
the ullimate of order is such as is the Divine truth in place only by means of a life according to the Divine
the sense of the letter of the Word for little children truths in the Word, , • Hence it is evident how the
and the extremely simple who are senSUOllS. Sig. second or middle degree is opened.
62 94 • Height= both truth and good as to degrees:
_ _4. The third or inmost degree is opened with

the degrees of truth and of good are such as are truth


those who at once apply Divine trnths to life, and do
and good interiorly ••• and extoriorly. not first reason about them from the memory, alld
706 18. 'The degrees of Ahaz' (Is. xxxviii, 8) = the time; thereby get them into doubt: this degree is caUed
here, up to the Lord's Advent. .. The whole time of the celestial. As these three degrees of lüe exist with every
duration of the Jewish Church was represented by 'the m&I!, 1:JI~t are variously' opened, there are three Heavens ;
degreea of Ahaz;' its beginning by the first degree, in the Third Heaven are they with whom the third degnle
which is when the sun is rising, and its end by the last
has been opened; in the Second Heaven are they with
degree at sunset.
whom only the second degree has been opened ; and in the
First Heavenare theywith whom theintoriornatural man,
7084• The reason why (the Heavens which are under
which is also called the rational man, has been opened •• ,
the Lord as a Moon) are interior ones, middle ones and
exterior ones, is that the Natural is distinguished' into 7461s. Three degrees of hatred are here described (by
three degreee, in the same way as the Spiritual' the 'being angry,' 'caIling rab' and 'fool') .. , AIl these
exterior Natural communicates with the world' the degrees are degrees of hatred against the good of charity
interior with Heaven, and the middle conjoins .• : .•. ; and threedegreesofpunishmentarosignified by 'the
7 Io'JSJ. The marriage of the understanding of truth and 1 judgment,' 'the counciI,' and 'the Gehenna of fire' ..•
gaod with the affection of truth and good is in general 76817. For there are degrees of Divine truth, as there
from a triple origin, and thence in a triple degree· in are degrees of its reception by tho Angela in the three
the highest degree is the marriage of thoso who' are Heavens and in the Church•.• But 'the seed of Abra­
called celestial, in a lower one is the marriage among ham, Isaac, and Jacob,' here mean ail who are of the
those who are spiritual, and in the lowest one among Lord's Church, in every degree.
thos.o wh~ are natural; for thel'e are as mlllY degrees of 8326. There are three degrees of life with man; the
the mterJors of man; hence there are three Heavens third degree is that in which are the Angels of the
_ _33. The goods of Heaven and of the Church 'a'r~
Third Heaven; the second degree is that in which are
of three degrees; the gooù of the inmost degree ••• is the Angels of the Second Hea.ven; and the first degree
called tho good of celestial love; the good cf Il lower is th3.t in which are the Angels of the First Heaven.
degree . , . is called the good of spiritual lov'J; and the There is alSJ a lowest degree, whieh is corporeeJ and
good of the lowest degree , , • is caUed natural good. material, and which exista with man while ,he lives in
Degree 69 Degree
the world. These degrees are opened with man accord­ 11442 • In proportion as he is not wise, he stands still
ing to the reception of Divine truth in his life. • . ; in the fir3t degree, which is to love himself and the
and as love and the life of man make one, it follows that world •..
there are as many degrees of love as there are of life. 1145. There are three degrees of life in man, which,
Enum. regarded in their order, are called celestial, spiritual,
_ _7. They who are in the third degree of love and and natural; in the same order there are mentioned in
thence of wisdom, .live in an atmosphere as it were this verse such things as signify goods and truths accord·
purely ethereal; they who are in the second degree of ing to degreea.
love and thence of intelligelWe, live in an atmosphere as 1147. The Natural of man is a trine; rational,
it were purely aerial; and they who are in the first natural, and sensuous; the Rational is the highest
degree of love and thence of knowledge, live in an there, the Sensuous is the lowest there, and the N atural
atmosphere as it were purely aqueoUs ; and as the purity is the intermediat~ ... Men who think, judge, and
of their life is in a like degreewith their love, it is conclude weIl from reason,· are rational .•• They who
evident that they who are in the Third Heaven •.• are sensuous think from material things and in them
cannot be approached by those who are in the Second •.. And as there exist theso two degrees, there aIso
and First ••• exists an intermediate, which is ca11ed natural ••• The
8462. 'Egypt'=the natural understanding of the same are also Known in the Spiritual World, for there
W Grd, 'Asshur' the rational' understanding, 'Israel' exist the S&me number of degrees of natural men in the
the spiritual understanding, and 'Ephraim' the under· ultimate Heaven .••
standing itself of the Word in the Church. But these II 70. Wisdom is in the third degree, intelligence in
three degrees of understanding; natural, rational, and the second one, and knowledge in the first or ultimate
spiritual, must be one, in order for man from enlighten. one. Sig.
ment to see and perceive the genuine truths of the 1185. Affections are oftwo kinds, spiritual and celestial
Word ... • •. but are of three degrees; inmost, middle, and outer­
II252. No idea of the life which is God can be had, most; inmost, such as are in the inmost Heaven;
unless there is aIso procured an idea of the degrees middle, such as are in the middle Heaven; and outer­
through which life descends from inmosts to ultimates. most, such as are in ultimato Hea.ven.
There is an inmost degree of life, and there is an 1201 4 • The souls of beasts are not spiritual in that
ultimate degree of life, and there are intermediate degree in which the souls of men are, but ~:.e ..§liritual
degrees of life: the distinction is as between things prior in a 10weLdegree, for there are degrees of spiritual
and posterior; for a posterior degree comes fortn from a thiugs; and affections of a lower degree, although,'
prior one, and so on; and the difference is as between regsrded from their origin, they are spiritual, are· still
things less and more general; for that which is of a to be ca11ed natural: they are so to oecalled beca.use
prior degree is less general, and that which is of a they are like the affections of the natural m,an. There
posterior one is more so. Such degrees of life are in are in man three degrees of natural affections, and the
every man from creation, and are opened according to same in beasts; in the lowest degree are insect!iJ of
the reception of life from the Lord; in some there is various kinds, in a higher one are the flying thiiilW of 1
opened the last degree but one, in some the middle one, heaven, and in a still higher one are ·the bea.st9Ot the
and in some the inmost one. The men in whom the earth, which have been crea.ted from the beginning. J

inmost degree is opened, after dcath beeome AngeIs of 1202 4 • Knowledge belonga to wisdom, and affection
the .Third Heaven; they in whom the middle degree is to love in the degree which is called natural.
opened, after death become Angels of the Second --~. The spiritual mind is such, that it can view
Heaven; but they in whom the last degree but onEl is and love truths and goods in every degree, both con­
opened, after death become Angels of the Ultimate jointly with the natural mind, and abstracted1y from
Heaven. These degrees are called degrees of man's life,. it ••.
but they are degre811 of bis wisdom and of his love, 12102. For there are degrees of spiritual things, and
because they are opened according to the reception of each degree is distinct from another, and a prior or
wisdom and love, thus of life from the Lord. Such higher degree is more perfect than a posterior or lower
degrees of life also exist in every organ, viscus, and one .•. For there are degrees of heat, which in Heaven
member of the body, and act as one with the degrees of is love, and according to these degrees the AngeIs have
life in the brains by iPflux; the skins, cartilages, and wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge.
bones constitute the ultimate of their degree. The _ '. The sarne number of degrees aIso exist below
reason there are such degrees in man, is that there are the Reavens, that is, in nature, which are lower degrees
such degrees of the life which proceeds from the Lord; of spiritual things; as may be evident from the natural
but in the Lord they are life, whereas in man they are mind of nian, and from his rationality and sensuousness ;
recipients of life. But ••• in the Lord there are degrees rational men are in its first degree, sensuous men in its
still higher, and aH, both highest and ultimate, are ultimate one, and some in the middle one; and aIl thr.
life; for the Lord teaches that Re is the Life, and· aIso thought and affection of the natural mind is spiritual.
that He has.flesh and bones. - - . These three forces, which are the force of acting,
1127'. Life itself with him is man, both sensuous and the force of creating, and the force of forming, are in thc
natural, and rational, spiritual, and celestial; so are Spiritual in every degree thereof, but with a difference
called the degreea of life. of perfection •..
Degree 70 Degree
. [E.] 1212. 'Small and great'::ali who are in truths like manner harmonies alllong themselves, and beautieB
and goods, in every degree. among themselves; for they succeed each other by a
12242. In every man there are tillee degrees of life ; continuollS degree from the most perfect harmonyand
a lowest one which he has in common with beasts, and beauty to the least of harmony and beauty. These
two higher ones \vhich he has notin common \Vith them·; degrees are of the cause itself in itself and of the effect
by these t\Vo higher degrees man is man; they are· itself in itself; they are distinguished from the former
closed \Vith the evil, but opened with the good: but kind of degrees, (for) if these are (degrees) of thc cause
these degrees are not closed with the evil against the and the effect themsclves as related to each other, con·
light of Heaven, which is the wiBdom that proceeds tinuons degrees are called degrees ofwhat is purer and
from the Lord as a Sun, but thcyare closed against its grosser. An idea of these degrees may be especially
heat, which is the love that proceeds simultancously obtained from light and shade ..•
thence. This is why even an evil man possesses the 310. Few have heretofore had any idea of degrees,
faculty of understanding ... except an idea of a continuons degree, which is from
Ath. 177. The Divine proceeding before the Advent purer to grosser •.. from which·it flows that there ie
of the Lord, is described by circles and by degrees ... only one degree, and that the natural degree and the
The degrees are'· successive ... Wherefore, while there spiritual degree are distinct from each othor only as
is reception in every degree, they correspond with each what is pure and what is gross •.• when yet they differ
other, and they thus as it were transfer to each other; according to discrete degrees.
but when in the ultimate degree there was no longer a 3 Il. There are ••. six: discrete degrees; two in the
reception of the Divine ... the Divine proceeding could Natural Kingdom, two in the Spiritual Kingdom, and
not be cxtended thither. two in the Celestial Kingdom; but these are degrees in
178. All things have been so created ..• that the which are man and Angel as to thoughts, affections,
love which is of good, or the good which is of affection and thence \visdom; thus are they degrees. Bclow
and love, i.nduces on itselfwhat is human in every single these six degrees of life there follow like degrees, and
degree from first to last. •. That there is such a nature material ones down ta the ultimate; and above these
in each single degree .•. is because that which proceeds six: degrees there ascend infinite degrees up to the
from thc Lord proceeds from every single thing of His Divine itself; for the Divine itself cannot flow in with
body, interior and exterior. any Angel or man from itself except through discrete
degrees ..• It would be as if the sun of this world .•.
J.(Post.} 104- The vision suddenly descended as by were not to flow in immediately through the atmospheres
steps.
according to distinct discrete degrees.
303. On degrees. (A short treatise.)
312. From these three atmospheres 8011 the corporeal
305. In each Kingdom there are two degrees; in the and material things of the Earth are held together,
Natural one two, in the Spiritual one two, in thc which are compounded in relatio)j. to these three degrees.
Celestial one two; thus in the throo Kingdoms there
are six: degrees. De Verbo Il. There are three Heavens, one below
another, and the world under them; in the highest
306. Ail these degrees are discrete, or discontinuous, Heaven thcre is angelie wisdom in the highest degree,
and are calied degrees of height. which is called celestial wisdom; in the middle Heaven
307. Discrete degrees are circumstanced as are thought there is angelic wisdom in the middle degree, which is
and speech, or as are affection and gesture, or as are the called spiritual wisdom; in the ultimate Heaven there
affection of the mind and the expression of the face; is angelic wisdom in the ultimate degree, which is
also, in the material world, as are the ether and the air; ca11ed spiritual and celestial natural; and in the world
as a nerve and the fibres of which the nerve is composed. ••• there is wisdom in the lowest degree, which is calied
All compositions in the universal natural and Spiritual nMl!I'al. All these degrees of wisdom are in the Word
Worlds are of this character, and consist in their order ... but in simultaneouB order.
of two or three of this manner of degrees, These degrees D. Love iio. The substances and matters in man are
are called prior and posterior ones, higher and lower ones, adapted to the reception of life in its own order and in
nterior and exterior ones ; and in general are circllm· its own degree.
stanced as are the cause and the effect, or as the substance xi. That there are degrees of affections and of uses.
and the substantiate ••• or as the beginning and the - - . There are continuous degrees and discrete
derivative ..• degrees: the latter and the former exist in every fOrIn
308. There are 80180 continuous or coherent degreee; in both the Spiritual World and the natural world.
every diserete degree has a continuous degree; the con· Ali are acquainted with continuous degrees, but few
tinuollS degree of each discrete degree is circumstanced with discrete degrees, and they who are not acquainted
as light decreasing to shade and finally to the darkness with the latter, grope as in darknese when investigating
of night; and is al80 as rational thought, whieh is in the causes of things..• Continuous degrees, which 8011
light, decreMing to sensuous thought, and finally to as are acquainted with, are as degrees from light to shade,
it were corporeal thought, which is in dense shade from heat to cold, from rarity to density ; there is such a
according to the descent towards the body. In such a degree of light, heat, wisdom, and love in every Society
decreasing continuons degree is the human mind ... In of Heaven. Ex.
a like degree, but lower, are man's sight, hearing, sme11, _ _2. But discrete degrees are entirely different:
taste, and touch ; and so are his speech and song ... In these do not proceed on a surface towards the siq.es
Degree 71 Deign
around, but from highest to lowest, wherefore they 301'0 the order and form of Heaven, but the mass of the
called ùescending degrees; they are discrete lI.'l are lowest degree as to situation and flux was in the order
efficient causes and their effects, which again become and form of Heil ..• This pollution of the natura! is
efficient down to the ultimate effect; and they are lI.'l a not wiped away, unless the interior degrees are
produeing force to the forces produced, whieh again 1 opened .••
become producing forces down to the lll.'lt foree pro-I - - . These degrees are called higher, alt.hough they
duced ; in a word, they are degrees of the fonnation of 1 are interior; the rea.Bon is that there is a successive and
one thing from another, thus from the first or highest also a simultaneous order of degrees ...
to the ultimate or lowest, where formation stands still; - - . As there are three degrees in man, there are
whereforo, things prior and things posterior •.• are three degr~s .of Heavens ... According to degI'6es
these degrees. ' in~ucœssive order, these appear one above another;
- - . Ail creation hll.'l been effected by means of these and according to degrees in simultaneous order, one
degrees, and ail production is effected by means of them, within another.
and, ail composition in the world of nature in like - - . As in his first origin man is such a habitation of
manner; for if you unfold any compound thing, you the Lord .•. and at that time these three degrees are
will see that one thing therein is from another, even to opened •••
the outennost, which is the general of aIL _ _8. So manyare the degrees of life with man; but
_ _8. The three angelic Heavens are distinguished with beasts there are not the two higher degrees, but
from each other by such degrees, wherefore one is above only the. lowest one •••
another. The interiors of man, which belong to his iv2• Hereby are opened to man the two higher
mind, are also distinguished from each other by such degrees of his lifo, which have been the habitations of
degrees. ln like manner the light which is wisdom, the Lord in his formation; and the lowest degree, which
and the heat which is love, in the Heavens of the Angols has been inverted and bent backwards, is thus reformed.
and in the interiors of men. tn like manner the light
itself which proceeds from the Lord lI.'l a Sun, and also v2• See BRAIN at this ref.
the hoat itself, which also proceeds thence ... ln like viii2• The reason why man then cornes into angelic
manner wisdom; for, in the Spiritual World, light and wisdom, is that the higher degrees of the life of his
wisdom are in an equal degree of perfection. Similar, mind are opened; for every man has three degrees of
thèrefore, are the degrees of affections; and, as there life: the lowest is natural, in this is man in the world ;
are degrees of affections, there are also degrees of uses, the second degree IS spiritual, in this is every Angel in
for uses are the subjects of affections. the lower Heavens; the third degree is celestial, in
_ _e. ln every forro, both spiritual and natural, which is every Angel in the higher Heavens; and man
there are degrees both discrete and continuous; with· is an Angel in proportion as the two higher degrees are
out discrete degrees, there is nothing interior in a form opened with him by wisdom from the Lord and by love
to constitute its cause or soul; and without continuous te) Him. Yet in the world he does not know that these
degrees there is no extension or appearance of it. degrees are opened, unti! he is separated from the 6rst
degree which is natural, ",hich is effected by the death
xiiie. Every lell.'lt one of the degrees in man, from its
of the body.
use is a man. Ex. \
xii. 42• Between natural and spiritual things there is
%X2• ln the creation of the universe, the Lord has
prepared for Himself all means from primes to ultimates, no ratio, ye.~ there _i~~Ilju.JlÇtj~.mJ;hro\lgh corr~§P.2.Ild.\,
ences .•• So are a higher degree and a lower one in 1
by means of which He may produce uses in every
degree ... rerBtion to each other.
52. These spiritual atmospheres are augmcnted in
D. Wis. il (The will and understanding) are fonns
density through discrete degrees.
within forms, lI.'lcending to the third degree. Des.
Ang. Idea. The first procooding ",as continued down
iü. 4. The receptacles are distinguished with man
to ultimates through discrete degrees, exactly as an end
into throo degrees, one within another, and the two is through causes into effects, or as the thing producing
higher ones are habitations of the Lord, but not the
and the thing produced in a continuaI series.
10west. Gen.art.
- - . This primitive brain in the upper gibbons part Inv. 14. The human mind is of three degrees, which
was a compages of contiguous globules or spherules, each are celestial, spiritual, and natural: in the first degree
spherule being conglomerated of similar but minuter is the soul, in the second is the spirit 01' mind, in the
ones; and each of theso again of most minute ones ... third is the body. It is the sarne whether you say that
Such is the pcimiti've of man as it hll.'l been shown me; the mind of mau is of three degrees or that man him-
·of which the 6rst or low~t degree Wll.'l the compages tirst self is ••• The celestial degree, in which is thc soul or
described, the second or middle degree was the compages inmost man, is spccifically of love; the spiritual degree,
next described, and the third or highest degree 'l'as the in which is the mind 01' spirit, which is the middle man,
compages thirdl,y described; thus one was within is specifically of wisdom from love; the third degree,
another. 1 was told that in each spherule there arc in which is the body, which is the ultimate man, is the
ineffable contextures, more and more wonderftù accord· containant of both ; without the latter, the two prior
ing to the degrees . . . degrees do not subsist. Ex.
_ _2. lt 'l'as fm'ther shown •.• that, as to situation
.and flux, the mass of the two interior degrees was in Deign. See WORTHy-diglltlS•

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