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Muhammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad Campus

Calculus and Analytic y Geometry


MT 1043 Fall 2012 Dr. Rashid Ali Dr Department of Mathematics Mohammad Ali Jinnah University

1. Introduction (Grad)

The vector differential operator , called del is defined in three dimensions to be:

Note that the components are partial derivatives If a scalar function, f(x, y, z), is defined and differentiable at all points in some region, then f is a differentiable scalar field. The del vector operator, , may be applied to scalar fields and the result, f, is a vector field. It is called the gradient of f.

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1. Introduction (Grad)

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1. Introduction (Grad)

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2. Divergence (Div)

If F(x, y) is a vector field, then its divergence is written as divF(x, y) = F(r) which in 2-dimension is:
F ( x, y ) = ( i+ j) ( F1 ( x, y )i + F2 ( x, y ) j) x y F F = 1+ 2 y x

It is obtained by taking the scalar product of the vector operator and the vector field F(x, y). The divergence of a vector field F is a scalar field. Example 1: The divergence of F(x, x y) = 3x2i + 2yj is:
F ( x, y ) = F1 F2 + y x = (3x 2 ) + (2 y ) = 6 x + 2 x y
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2: Divergence (Div)

F ( x, y , z ) =

F1 F2 F3 + + x y z

Exercise 1. Calculate the divergence of the vector fields F(x, y) and G(x, x y, y z). ) (Solutions (a & b) )

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3. Curl

F3 F2 F3 F1 F2 F1 i k F ( x, y , z ) = j + z x z y x y i = x F1

The curl of a vector field, F(x, y, z), in 3-dimensions may be written curlF(x, y, z) = F(x, y, z)

j y F2

k z F3

It is obtained by taking the vector product of the vector operator applied to the vector field F(x, y, z). The curl of a vector field is a vector field.

F is sometimes called the rotation of F and written as rot F


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Curl

Example: Given the vector field F(x, y, z) = 3x2 i + 2z j x k, the curl of F is:

Quiz: Which of the following is the curl of F(x, y, z) = x i + y j + z k (a) 2 i 2 j + 2 k, (b) x i + y j + z k (c) 0 (d) i + j + k
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Class Assignment
(c)
F= xi + y j+ zk x +y +z
2 2 2

1. Calculate the curl of the following vector fields F(x, y, z) (a) F = x i y j + z k, (b) F = y3 i + xy j z k, , (d) F = x2 i + 2z j y k,

2. Let f be a scalar field and F(x, y, z) and G(x, y, z) be vector fields. What, if anything, is wrong with each of the following expressions: (a) (c)
f = x 3 4 y

(b)

F = i x2 y j z k

G = F
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Class Assignment
3. 4.

5.

6.

Find the divergence of G = 2x3i 3xy j + 3x2z k Find the divergence of r/r3 where r = |r| and r = x i + yj + zk Find the curl of F = x2i + xyz j z k at the point (2,1, 2). Show that the following vector field is irrotational, i.e. its curl is zero F = y i + (x z) j y k

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Solutions to Exercises (1-a & 1-b)

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Solution- C.A. 1-a

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Solution- C.A. 1-b

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Solution- C.A. 1-c

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Solution- C.A. 1-d

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Solution- C.A. 2-a & b

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Solution- C.A. 2-c

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Partial Derivatives

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Multiple Integrals

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Double Integrals over Rectangles:


The simplest type of planner region is a rectangle. Given a function f (x, y) defined over a rectangular region R : R : a x b, c yd subdivide R into small rectangles using a network of lines parallel to the x- & y-axes. These rectangles form a partition of R. A small rectangular piece of width x & height y has area A = xy The Riemann Sum over R can be written as: When the limit as n , (or ||P|| 0 or A 0), it is called the double integral of f over R written as

Double Integrals

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Double Integrals as Volumes


When

f (x, y) is a +ve function over a rectangular region R in the xy-plane, the double integral of over R may be interpret as the volume of the 3-dimensional solid region over the xy-plane b bounded d d below b l by b R and d above b b the by th surface f z = f (x, y) Approximating solids with rectangular boxes leads us to define the volumes of more general solids as double integrals. The volume of the solid shown here is the d bl integral double l of f (x, ( y) ) over the h base b region R.

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Double Integrals as Volumes


This is because: As n increases, the Riemann sum approximations approach the total volume of the solid shown

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Fubinis Theorem for Calculating Double Integrals

Where A(x) is the cross-sectional area at x. For each value of x, we may calculate A(x) as the integral

Which is the area under the curve z = 4 x y in the plane of cross-section at x. In calculating
A(x), x is held fixed and the integration takes place w.r.t y.
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Fubinis Theorem for Calculating Double Integrals


Combining Equations (1) and (2), we see that the volume of the entire solid is

The expression on the right is called an iterated or repeated integral,


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Fubinis Theorem for Calculating Double Integrals


What would have happened if we had calculated the volume by slicing with planes perpendicular to the y-axis

To obtain the cross-sectional area A(y), we hold y fixed and integrate with respect to x.
The volume of the entire solid is therefore:

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Fubinis Theorem (First Form)

Example:

C.A. 1- Repeat calculations by reversing the order of integration (Sol.)


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Double Integrals

Double Integrals over Bounded Nonrectangular Regions: A rectangular grid


partitioning a bounded nonrectangular region into rectangular cells (see fig.). As before we have the Riemann sum:

Its limiting value as n is the double integral of f (x, y) over the region R.
The Additivity Property for rectangular regions holds for regions bounded by continuous curves. (see fig.)
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Double Integrals as Volume


If f (x, y) is positive and continuous over R we define the volume of the solid region between R and the surface z =f (x,y) to be Rf (x,y) dA, as before. (see fig)

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Double Integrals

Let R be the region bounded above and below by the curves y = g1(x) & y = g2(x) and on the sides by the lines x = a & x = b, we can again calculate the volume by the method of slicing: i e 1st calculate the cross-sectional i.e. area A(x) and then integrate this area from x=a to x=b. The area of the vertical slice shown is:

and d get the h volume l as the h iterated i d integrals

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Similarly if R is the region bounded curves x = h1(y) & x = h2(y) and the lines y = c & y = d, then the volume calculated by the method of slicing is given by the iterated integrals

Double Integrals

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Fubinis Theorem (Stronger Form)

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Example 2

Find the volume of the prism whose base is the triangle in the xyplane bounded by the x-axis and the lines y = x & x = 1 and whose top lies in the plane: z = f (x, x y) = 3 x y Sol.

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Evaluate Where R is the triangle in the xy-plane bounded by the x-axis the line y = x and the line x = 1. The region of integration is shown in Fig. Fig (Solution) If we reverse the order of integration, weve to calculate:
It cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions (there is no simple antiderivative).

Example 3

There is no general rule for predicting which order of integration will be the good one. If the order you first choose doesnt work, try the other. Sometimes neither order will work, & then use numerical approximations.
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Finding Limits of Integration

2. Find the y-limits of integration. Imagine a vertical ti l line li L cutting tti through th h R in i the th direction of increasing y. Mark the y-values where L enters & leaves. These are the y-limits of integration and are usually functions of x (instead of constants).
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Finding Limits of Integration


3. Find the x-limits of integration. Choose xlimits that include all the vertical lines through R. The integral shown here is

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Finding Limits of Integration


To evaluate the same double integral as an iterated integral with the order of integration reversed, use horizontal lines instead of vertical lines in Steps 2 and 3. The integral is

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Example 4:

Sketch the region of integration for the integral

& write i an equivalent i l integral i l with i h the h order d of f integration i i reversed.


Sol. The region of integration is given by the inequalities x2 y 2x and 0 x 2. It is therefore the region bounded by the curves y = x2 and y = x between x = 0 & x = 2.

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Example 4 (cont.):

C.A. 2. Solve these integrals. Solution (a) S l ti (b) H.A. Solution HA

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Properties of Double Integrals

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Home Assignment

Exercise 15.1: Q.1 to Q.10 Q.13, Q.16, Q.17, Q.19 Q.22, Q.24, Q.26, Q.30

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Sol. C.A. 1

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For any x between 0 and 1, y may vary from y=0 to y = x (fig. b) Hence,

Sol. Example 2:

When the order of integration is reversed (Fig. c) the integral for the volume is:

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Sol. Example 3:

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Sol. C.A. 2 (a):

2 2x 0 x2 x (4x + 2)dydx = [4xy + 2 y]2 dx x2 2

= [(4x(2x) + 2(2x)) (4x( x 2 ) + 2( x 2 ))]dx


0

0 2

= (4 x 3 + 6 x 2 + 4 x)dx
0

x4 x3 x2 = 4 + 6 + 4 4 3 2 0 = (16 + 16 + 8) (0 + 0 + 0) = 8
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Cylindrical Coordinates

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Example
1 1. 2. 3.

Describe r = a, in space (R3) = o, z = zo Constant-coordinate equations in cylindrical coordinates yield cylinders and planes.

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Example

Express x2 + (y 1)2 = 1 in cylindrical coordinates.

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Spherical Coordinates

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Spherical Coordinates

Constant-coordinate equations in spherical coordinates yield spheres, single cones, and halfplanes.

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Converting Cartesian to Spherical

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Converting Cartesian to Spherical

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