Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

714

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

A Fault Detection Technique for the Series-Compensated Line During Power Swing
Paresh Kumar Nayak, Ashok Kumar Pradhan, Senior Member, IEEE, and Prabodh Bajpai, Member, IEEE
AbstractA distance relaying scheme is susceptible to power swing. To avoid unintended trip operation during such conditions, a power swing blocking function is utilized in distance relays. However, if a fault occurs during power swing, the relay should detect the fault and trip as soon as possible. The detection of fault in a series-compensated line during the power swing is further complicated due to complex transients produced by series capacitor and the metaloxide varistor (MOV) protecting it. This paper proposes a negative-sequence current-based technique for detecting all types of faults during the power swing in a series-compensated line. The technique is tested for different series-compensated systems including a 9-bus 3-machine power system. Different types of faults: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and high resistance occurring during the power swing are simulated through EMTDC/PSCAD to test the algorithm. The method is compared with available techniques and found to be accurate and fast. Index TermsDigital relaying, distance protection, fault detection, power swing, series compensation.

I. INTRODUCTION

ECENT regulatory developments, increased electricity demand, and restrictions on building new transmission lines result in enhanced transmission-line loading and necessitate optimized operation of transmission networks. To fulll such requirements, the inclusion of a series capacitor in long transmission lines is increasing day by day. However, a series capacitor in a line introduces protection problems [1][5]. Power system at steady operation maintains a balance between the generation and load. System disturbances, such as line switching following the fault, generator disconnection, and switching ON/OFF large loads cause oscillations in rotor angles among generators and can result in severe power-ow swings. As a consequence, the apparent impedance seen by a distance relay may fall within its operating zone. This may be misinterpreted as a fault and the relay would trip the line unnecessarily. To ensure stability, the power-swing blocking (PSB) function is integrated with the distance relay to block it during the power swing [6]. However, if a fault occurs during the power swing,

Manuscript received January 27, 2012; revised May 21, 2012 and October 05, 2012; accepted November 26, 2012. Date of publication January 03, 2013; date of current version March 21, 2013. Paper no. TPWRD-00099-2012. The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India (e-mail: pareshkumar. nayak@gmail.com; akpradhan@ee.iitkgp.ernet.in; pbajpai@ee.iitkgp.ernet.in). Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2231886

the relay must detect the fault and operate quickly. The detection of faults in a series-compensated line during power swings is more challenging due to the generation of different frequency components in the fault signals which depend on the fault location, fault type, the level of compensation, and functioning of MOV [16]. This causes the apparent impedance seen by the relay to oscillate which imposes difculty to distinguish faults from the power swing. This paper proposes a technique for detecting faults in a series-compensated line during the power swing. There are numerous techniques available to detect fault during the power swing for transmission lines without series compensation [7][13]. A technique based on the magnitude of swing-center voltage (SCV) and its rate is proposed to distinguish faults from the power swing [7]. A method based on monitoring the voltage phase angle at the relay location is available for detecting high-impedance ground faults during the power swing [8]. A fault detector using superimposed components of current is proposed in [9]. The rate of change of resistance estimated at the relay location is used to distinguish faults from the power swing [10]. In [11], a cross-blocking scheme on the basis of the derivative of the three-phase active and reactive power is proposed to detect symmetrical faults during the power swing. A symmetrical fault detector is proposed based on the relative presence of decaying dc in the current waveforms during the power swing [12]. A method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is proposed in [13]. This method needs a large number of training patterns to be generated and has limited performance to distinguish faults from fast power swing. The evaluation and performance comparison of different power swing detectors for a series-compensated line has been studied in [14]. In [15], a fault detection technique for a series-compensated line during the power swing is proposed using negative-sequence current and is tested for an SMIB system. Techniques available to detect the fault during the power swing in uncompensated lines nd limitations in the presence of series compensation due to the nonlinear functioning of the series capacitor combination. Though power swing is a balanced phenomenon, a small value of negative-sequence component of current is observed as the conventional phasor estimation technique does not consider the signal modulation. During unbalanced faults, the negative-sequence components become signicant and due to transients in current signals in the initial period, a negative sequence component is noticed even for three-phase faults. To discriminate the faults during swing

0885-8977/$31.00 2013 IEEE

NAYAK et al.: FAULT DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SERIES-COMPENSATED LINE

715

Fig. 1. Single-line diagram of the 400-kV power system.

in a series-compensated line, a cumulative sum (CUSUM) of change in the magnitude of the negative-sequence-current-based approach is proposed in this paper. The CUSUM test is being employed widely as a technique for detecting abrupt changes in various elds [18]. The performance of the algorithm is tested for numerous cases for an SMIB system and a 9-bus system simulated with EMTDC/PSCAD and found to be accurate and fast. The method is compared with available fault detection techniques. II. FAULT DETECTION CHALLENGES DURING THE POWER SWING IN SERIES-COMPENSATED LINES Series compensation imposes protection problems and are related to the level of compensation, location, and the operation of its overvoltage protection devices like MOV and air gap. The use of series capacitors in transmission lines results in various special phenomena, such as voltage/current inversion, subharmonic oscillations, and transients caused by the MOV operation during the fault period [1][5]. The detection of the fault during the power swing in an MOVprotected series-compensated line is difcult. The pattern of the fault current during such a period depends on the operation of the MOV. This imposes difculty for the existing phasor estimation techniques to distinguish faults from the power swing. During the power swing when faults occur in a series-compensated line at the far end of a line or at a power angle close to 180 or with high fault resistance, the magnitude of the fault current produced may be less than or at par with the swing current. Such a low fault current may prevent the capacitor bypassing. The presence of the series capacitor in the fault circuit results in subsynchronous oscillations which will cause variation in the estimated impedance. This also creates difculty to distinguish faults from the power swing. In order to demonstrate the fault detection issues during power swing in a series-compensated line, a test system [19] shown in Fig. 1 is considered. Both Line-1 and Line-2 are 40% compensated and the capacitors are placed at the relay end and the protection scheme of each series capacitor including an MOV as shown. The system details are provided in Appendix A. The system with the distributed line model is simulated using EMTDC/PSCAD. The power angle here refers to the angle between the voltages at buses M and N. The distance relay R for breaker B1 is considered for the study. A three-phase fault is created at the middle of Line-2 at 0.6

Fig. 2. (a) Current and (b) voltage waveforms of phase-a at the relay bus during the power swing.

Fig. 3. Current waveforms at the relay bus for a three-phase fault during the power swing at 2.542 s at locations of (a) 64 km and (b) 240 km.

s and cleared at 0.7 s by opening breakers B3 and B4. This causes a power swing condition in Line-1 and is observed by the relay R. During this condition, phase-a current and voltage waveforms are shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b), respectively. From the gure, it is clearly observed that during swing current and voltage waveforms are modulated with the swing frequency. As a result, the traditional fault detection techniques, such as the sample-to-sample or cycle-to-cycle comparison of current (or voltage) signals [20] cannot be reliable during the power swing. To study the variation in the current waveforms for faults during the power swing, a three-phase fault is created at 2.542 s for two different fault locations (64 and 240 km) from the relay bus in line-1 following the removal of line-2. The corresponding current waveforms are shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), respectively. It is clearly observed from Fig. 3(a) that in the case of the fault being close to the relay, the current level as seen from the plot is higher than the swing current which causes the MOV to operate. As a result, in most portions of the fault, the series capacitor is bypassed and no oscillation is observed in the fault current. However, in case of a fault at the far end [Fig. 3(b)], the level of fault current is lower than the swing current which does not enable MOV conduction and results in subsynchronous

716

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 4. (a) Three-phase current waveforms. (b) Current magnitude. (c) Negative- and positive-sequence current magnitude for an ag-fault during the power swing.

Fig. 5. (a) Three-phase current waveforms. (b) Current magnitude. (c) Negative- and positive-sequence current magnitude for a three-phase fault during the power swing.

oscillation in the current waveforms. These issues result in more complexity to identify the fault.

III. PROPOSED FAULT DETECTION TECHNIQUE The power swing is a balanced phenomenon [12], but a small percentage of negative-sequence components of current is found due to signal modulation and the related phasor computation technique. For unbalanced faults during the power swing, a signicant amount of negative-sequence current is observed. In case of a three-phase fault during the power swing, negative-sequence current is observed at the initial period of the fault due to transients in the current signals and in the subsequent period due to the presence of modulated frequency components by the power swing. To observe the variation of during swing and fault, an ag-fault with a fault resistance of 0.1 and a three-phase fault are created at 3.51 s during the power swing at a distance of 64 km from relay R toward bus N of Fig. 1, and the corresponding results are provided in Figs. 4 and 5, respectively. In case of the ag-fault, phase-a current only exceeds the swing current as a result MOV of only phase-a operates. For the three-phase fault, MOVs of all three phases conduct. Figs. 4(c) and 5(c) clearly show the low value of that is present during the power swing. From Fig. 4(c), it is evident that during the ag-fault, becomes signicant and oscillates due to modulating frequency components in the fault signals. From Fig. 5(c), it is observed that during the three-phase fault,

varies rapidly at the inception of the fault due to the initial transient and following that, it has a low value due to signal modulation by the swing. It is evident from the previous discussion that negative-sequence current is available in the computation process during the swing. But with a small amount of remaining during the swing condition, a change in the magnitude of the negative-sequence current -based technique suits the purpose. With a suitable threshold, the cumulative sum of the -based technique is selected in this paper for the fault detection during swing. CUSUM is a versatile technique used for abrupt change detection in various elds [18]. It is to be noted that the CUSUM-based approach is applied for transmission-line fault detection using sampled values of the current signal [20] and has limitations due to uneven variation in sample-to-sample magnitude difference of current during power swing. In this paper, CUSUM is applied to obtain a good index for fault detection during the power swing where a change in negative-sequence current is being used as the input signal. The computation steps for the method are provided (1) where is the negative-sequence current; and and are the phase currents. A derived signal is obtained as and ;

(2) For , the proposed CUSUM test is expressed as (3)

NAYAK et al.: FAULT DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SERIES-COMPENSATED LINE

717

where the index represents the test statistics and is the drift parameter in it. A fault is registered if

(4) where h is a constant and should be ideally zero. In (3), provides the low-pass ltering effect and inuences the performance of the detector. When , the value increases by a factor of the difference between and . With further current samples available, the CUSUM process provides an easy way to decide on the fault situation by applying (4). After each fault detection index, is reset to zero. For only the swing situation, will be zero as . For the technique that is based on the negative-sequence component for the single-pole tripping condition, the method will also not be affected. The selection of and h is important for determining the performance of the algorithm. It is already demonstrated that though the power swing is a balanced phenomenon, a small amount of negative-sequence component of current is observed in the phasor extraction process which increases slowly with an increase of swing cycle slip frequency. In the proposed CUSUM-based fault detection technique, the value of is set to make 0 during swing (both stable and unstable) which nally helps to maintain the fault detector index 0. In this paper, the setting of 0.05 serves the purpose for a power swing with a slip frequency of 10 Hz. The slip frequency for a typical power system is within 7 Hz [19]. The value of h is set such that the algorithm can maintain the balance between dependability versus security and speed versus accuracy requirements of the relaying scheme. In this paper, the value of h is set at 0.5, considering all extreme fault situations during the power swing, for example, high resistance faults occurring at the far end of the line when is close to 180 (the change in magnitude of fault current is low; dependability issue) as well as nonfault situations such as load change and capacitor switching (security issue) such that the proposed technique can distinguish faults from other events correctly. The proposed method is based on the CUSUM approach and, therefore, a distinctly much higher index value is obtained during the fault. IV. RESULTS The algorithm for fault detection is tested for different conditions including balanced and unbalanced faults, high resistance faults, close-in faults, and single pole-open condition during the power swing. Using EMTDC/PSCAD with distributed parameter line model data was generated. The inputs to the relay are fed from the secondary of a current transformer with a turns ratio of 1000:5. The nonlinear CT model is considered in the simulations. A least-square technique with decaying dc component also in the model is used to estimate the fundamental component. For each phasor computation, a window of one-cycle data samples was considered. The data-sampling rate was maintained at 1 kHz for the 50-Hz power system. Sequence components were estimated considering phase-a as reference. The convention used in this paper is such that the output of the algorithm should be 1 for fault and 0 for the no-fault situation.

Fig. 6. Performance during the line-to-ground fault.

During the power swing when is close to 180 , the currents and voltages reach their maximum and minimum, respectively. If a fault occurs at that instant, the change in current and voltage signals will be insignicant. As a result, the detection of faults during close to 180 is a much difcult issue. In order to test the algorithm at critical conditions, all faults are created at a fault inception time of 2.542 s which corresponds to and a slip frequency of 4 Hz. As mentioned in Section II, faults occurring far away from the series capacitor produce current magnitude less than the swing current when MOV does not operate. At this condition, the presence of series capacitor in the circuit during the fault period results in subsynchronous oscillations which complicate the fault detection process. In order to test the proposed technique for far-end faults, all faults are created at 240 km from the capacitor toward bus which corresponds to 75% of the line length. A. Line-to-Ground Fault in the Series-Compensated Line The algorithm is tested for a line-to-ground fault of ag-type with a fault resistance of 0.1 initiated at 2.542 s 175 at a distance of 240 km from the relay location, and the results are shown in Fig. 6. With the fault being unbalanced, the observed during the fault is signicant and oscillating in nature due to signal modulation. The index , which decides the output of the algorithm, is zero before the inception of the fault and after that its value grows. The output 1 clearly shows that the fault is detected after 5 ms of fault initiation. B. Line-to-Ground Fault With High Fault Resistance The detection of high-resistance ground faults during the power swing with a large value of prefault current (i.e., near is a difcult issue as the change in current is not signicant. To test the technique, a line-to-ground fault of an ag-type with fault resistance 100 is initiated at 2.542 s during the power swing at a distance of 240 km from the relay location, and the results are shown in Fig. 7. It is clearly observed that the presence of high fault path resistance reduces compared to case-A during the fault, but the pattern of current is unaltered. The index grows but with a little less of a rate than case-A. Since the proposed method is a CUSUM-based approach, the output 1 shows correct fault detection after 8 ms of fault initiation.

718

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 7. Performance during the line-to-ground fault with fault resistance 100 .

Fig. 9. Performance during the close-in fault.

not an issue. To test the algorithm, a three-phase fault is created at 2.542 s at a distance of 1 km behind the series capacitor, and the results are provided in Fig. 9. The observation on in the present fault case is similar to that of case-C. The observation on index clearly shows that during the power swing, its value is zero and it grows quickly to a high value after the inception of the fault. The output of 1 is consistent, and fault detection is possible within 2 ms. E. Fault Detection During Single-Pole Tripping During the single-pole tripping condition, power swing may occur depending on the system condition. If the impedance locus enters into one of the operating zones of distance elements at that time, the relay must be blocked from tripping. However, if a fault occurs during such a period in another phase(s), it should be identied and be unblocked. To test the proposed technique, initially phase-a of Line-1 is out of service following an ag-fault occurring during normal operation. The removal of phase-a introduced swing into the system. A line-to-ground fault of bg-type with a fault resistance 100 is created at 2.4 s at a distance of 160 km from the relay location toward bus N during swing. It is noticed in Fig. 10 that remains constant during the power swing caused by the opening of phase-a. As a result, the index showing zero during the power swing caused by single-pole tripping on phase-a, grows after the inception of a bg-fault during the swing period. The output 1 is correct for this case, and the fault detection is possible after 7-ms fault inception. F. Application to the Multimachine 9-Bus System To test the ability of the proposed method for a multimachine power system with series compensation WSCC 3-machine, a 9-bus conguration [21], shown in Fig. 11, is considered for the study where a modication has been incorporated by providing 40% compensation at the beginning of line 78. The protection scheme of the series capacitor simulated in this case consists of an MOV. The system details are given in Appendix B. The distance relay R1 for breaker B1 is considered for the study. A three-phase fault is created in line 57 at 0.6 s. The fault is cleared at 0.9 s by opening breaker B3 and B4. The removal of the line causes a swing condition for relay R1. The phase-a current and voltage waveforms at relay R1 during the power swing are shown in Fig. 12(a) and (b), respectively. Different

Fig. 8. Performance during the three-phase fault.

C. Three-Phase Fault in the Series-Compensated Line The power swing and three-phase faults are balanced in nature. It is difcult to distinguish three-phase faults during the power swing. A three-phase fault created at 2.542 s during the power swing at a distance of 240 km from the relay location in line-1 is used to test the algorithm. The index and the output are shown in Fig. 8. For such fault situations, the magnitude of fault current is less than that of the swing current and it is oscillatory in nature which causes difculty in distinguishing three-phase faults from the power swing. In the initial period of a three-phase fault due to the transient in the current signals, computed will not be zero. The index as the cumulative sum of , remains high following the transient also. As observed from the plot, the index computed is high after the inception of the fault and is zero before it. The output 1 in the plot clearly shows that the fault can be detected after 6 ms of fault inception. D. Performance During the Close-In Fault Three-phase close-in faults apparently bypass the capacitor due to the MOV operation. This may lead to voltage collapse at the relay bus. Due to the subsidence transients in the coupling capacitor voltage transformer (CCVT), the fault detectors based on voltage phasors, for example, the rate of change of impedance or the rate of change of swing-center voltage will be affected. In the proposed technique as the current signal is used to detect fault during the power swing, such a close-in fault is

NAYAK et al.: FAULT DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SERIES-COMPENSATED LINE

719

Fig. 10. Performance during single-pole tripping.

Fig. 13. Performance during the line-to-ground fault.

Fig. 14. Performance during the double-line-to-ground fault.

Fig. 11. Single-line diagram of the modied WSCC 9-bus system.

Fig. 12. (a) Current and (b) voltage waveforms of phase-a at the relay bus during the power swing.

faults are simulated on line 78 to test the algorithm. The results of only two representative test cases are included below. 1) Case-1: Line-to-Ground Fault: An ag-fault with a fault resistance of 0.1 is created during the power swing on line 78 at a distance of 160 km from the relay location at 2.3 s. From the result in Fig. 13, the growth of in the present fault case is similar to that of case-A of the SMIB system. The index increases to a higher value at the inception of the fault and

the technique is able to detect the fault within half-a-cycle of its inception. 2) Case-2: Double Line-to-Ground Fault: The performance of the algorithm for a double-line-to-ground fault of abg-type with a ground fault resistance of 0.1 is created at 2.3 s on line 78 during the power swing at a distance of 160 km from the relay location as shown in Fig. 14. It is observed from Fig. 14 that the growth of is slightly faster than that of the ag-fault explained in Case-I which causes the index to grow quickly after faul inception. The output 1 shows that such a fault can be detected after 5 ms of fault inception. The output is also consistent. Apart from critical fault conditions as demonstrated before, the proposed technique has also been tested for faults at different fault inception time, fault locations, and different prefault loadings in the presence and absence of series compensation in the line during the power swing. The performance of the proposed algorithm is found to be accurate for all of these conditions. It is also found that the algorithm is unaffected for the operation of air gap of the series capacitor for certain faults during the power swing. The performance of the proposed technique for nonfault situations such as load change, capacitor switching, and signals containing noise are also evaluated and found to be satisfactory. V. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE PROPOSED TECHNIQUE There are several techniques available to detect the fault during the power swing and applied to uncompensated lines

720

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Fig. 15. Current Ia, R, SCV, Isup and Index (g) for an ag-fault during the power swing.

Fig. 16. Current Ia, R, SCV, Isup and Index (g) for a three-phase fault during the power swing.

only. Three important techniques: tracking apparent resistance (R), tracking the swing center voltage (SCV), and the superimposed components of current are considered for comparison with the proposed method. For the study in a series-compensated line, the results of two fault cases for the 9-bus system will be presented.

B. Three-Phase Fault A three-phase fault is created at 2.3 s on lines 78 during the power swing at a distance of 240 km from the relay location for comparison purposes. Fig. 16(b) and (c) shows oscillations in the values of R and SCV during the fault. These values will denitely delay the fault detection process by the available techniques. Low values of , as observed in Fig. 16(d), will also delay the fault detection process by the superimposed components of the current method. On the other hand, the rapid growth of index of the proposed method from zero to a high value after the inception of the fault helps to detect the symmetrical fault also during the power swing in a series-compensated line quickly. The two cases clearly show the potential of the proposed method in detecting fault during the power swing for a series-compensated line. VI. CONCLUSION A novel fault detection technique for the series-compensated line during the power swing is presented in this paper. It uses a cumulative sum of change in the magnitude of negative-sequence current to detect faults. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested for balanced and unbalanced faults for different series-compensated systems. Conditions, such as high-resistance fault, close-in fault, and fault during single-pole tripping are considered to test the algorithm. The proposed method, as a current-based technique, is not affected by issues like close-in fault. The method is compared with

A. Line-to-Ground Fault With High Fault Resistance To evaluate the comparative assessment of the proposed method with the available techniques, an ag-fault with fault resistance 100 is created during the power swing on line 78 at a distance of 64 km from the relay bus at 2.3 s, and the corresponding results are provided in Fig. 15. From Fig. 15(b) and (c), it is clearly observed that the R and SCV values, which should be closed to zero throughout the fault [8], [11], have obtained a higher value due to the fault resistance. This imposes difculty to set threshold values to discriminate faults from the power swing. These observations clearly show that methods based on tracking R and SCV will nd limitation to detect asymmetrical faults during the power swing in a series-compensated line. The slow rise of superimposed components of current during the fault will obviously delay the fault detection process which is evident from Fig. 15(d). The index by the proposed method increases fast from zero to a high value after the inception of fault which is observed in Fig. 15(e). This shows the relative ability of the proposed method to detect the fault during the power swing in a series-compensated line.

NAYAK et al.: FAULT DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SERIES-COMPENSATED LINE

721

available techniques and it is found that the method is accurate and fast in detecting faults during the power swing in a series-compensated line. APPENDIX A System data for SMIB: Generator: 600 MVA, 22 kV, 50 Hz, inertia constant 4.4 MW/MVA. 1.81 p.u., 0.3 p.u., 0.23 p.u., 8 s, 0.03 s, 1.76 p.u., 0.25 p.u., 0.03 s., 0.003 p.u., Potier reactance 0.15 p.u. Transformer: 600 MVA, 22/400 kV, 50 Hz, , 0.163 p.u., 0.33 p.u., 0.0 p.u., 0.00177 p.u. Transmission lines: Length 320 km. Positive sequence impedance . Zero sequence impedance . Positive 487.723 . Zero sequence capacitive reactance 419.34 . APPENDIX B System data for 3-machine 9-bus conguration: Generators Gen-1: 600 MVA, 22 kV, 50 Hz; Gen-2: 465 MVA, 22 kV, 50 Hz; Gen-3: 310 MVA, 22 kV, 50 Hz. Transformers T1: 600 MVA, 22/400 kV, 50 Hz, ; T2: 465 MVA, 22/400 kV, 50 Hz, ; T3: 310 MVA, 22/400 kV, 50 Hz, . Transmission lines: Length of line 78 320 km., line 89 400 km., line 7-5 310 km., line 5-4 350 km, line 6-4 350 km., line 69 300 km. Loads Load A 300 MW 100 MVAr. Load B 200 MW 75 MVAr. Load C 150 MW 75 MVAr. The other parameters considered for generators, transformers, and transmission lines are the same as that provided for SMIB in Appendix A. REFERENCES
[1] R. J. Marttila, Performance of distance relay mho elements on MOVprotected series-compensated lines, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 11671178, Jul. 1992. [2] H. J. Alture, J. B. Mooney, and G. E. Alexander, Advances in series compensated line protection, 2008. [Online]. Available: www.selinc. com/20081022, TP6340-01 [3] A. Newbould and I. A. Taylor, Series compensated line protection: System modeling and relay testing, in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Develop. Power Protect., 1989, pp. 182186.

[4] D. Novosel, A. G. Phadke, M. M. Saha, and S. Lindahl, Problems and solutions for microprocessor protection of series compensated lines, in Proc. Conf. Develop. Power Syst. Protect., 1997, pp. 1823. [5] D. Novosel, B. Bachmann, D. Hart, Y. Hu, and M. M. Saha, Algorithms for locating faults on series compensated lines using neural network and deterministic methods, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 17281735, Oct. 1996. [6] IEEE Power System Relaying Committee of the IEEE Power Eng. Soc., Power Swing and Out-of-Step Considerations on Transmission Line. Rep. PSRC WG D6, Jul. 2005. [Online]. Available: http://www. pes-psrc.org [7] G. Benmouyal, D. Hou, and D. Tziouvaras, Zero-setting power-swing blocking protection, presented at the the 31st Annual Western Protective Relay Conf., Spokane, WA, Oct. 2004. [8] A. Mechraoui and D. W. P. Thomas, A new principle for high resistance earth fault detection during fast power swings for distance protection, IEEE Trans. Power. Del., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 14521457, Oct. 1997. [9] A. P. Apostolov, D. Tholomier, and S. H. Richards, Superimposed components based sub-cycle protection of transmission lines, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Power Syst. Conf. Expo,, Oct. 2004, vol. 1, pp. 592597. [10] Z. D. Gao and G. B. Wang, A new power swing block in distance protection based on a microcomputer-principle and performance analysis, in Proc. Int. Conf. Adv. Power Syst. Control, Oper. Manage., Hong Kong, China, Nov. 1991, vol. 2, pp. 843847. [11] X. Lin, Y. Gao, and P. Liu, A novel scheme to identify symmetrical faults occurring during power swings, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 7378, Jan. 2008. [12] S. Lotfard, J. Faiz, and M. Kezunovic, Detection of symmetrical faults by distance relays during power swings, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 8187, Jan. 2010. [13] H. K. Zadeh and Z. Li, A novel power swing blocking scheme using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 78, pp. 11381146, 2008. [14] A. Esmaeilian, A. Ghaderi, M. Tasdighi, and A. Rouhani, Evaluation and performance comparison of power swing detection algorithms in presence of series compensation on transmission lines, in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Environment Elect. Eng., May 811, 2011, pp. 18421848. [15] P. K. Nayak, A. K. Pradhan, and P. Bajpai, Detecting fault during power swing for a series compensated line, presented at the Int. Conf. Energy, Autom., Signal, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, Dec. 2830, 2011. [16] A. Y. Abdelaziz, A. M. Ibrahim, M. M. Mansour, and H. E. Talaat, Modern approaches for protection of series compensated transmission lines, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 75, pp. 8598, 2005. [17] T. S. Sidhu and M. Khederzadeh, Series compensated line protection enhancement by modied pilot relaying schemes, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 11911198, Jul. 2006. [18] F. Gustafsson, Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection. New York: Wiley, 2000. [19] S. M. Brahma, Distance relay with out-of-step blocking function using wavelet transform, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 13601366, Jul. 2007. [20] S. R. Mohanty, A. K. Pradhan, and A. Routray, A cumulative sum-based fault detector for power system relaying application, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 7986, Jan. 2008. [21] P. W. Sauer and M. A. Pai, Power System Dynamics and Stability. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998.

Paresh Kumar Nayak received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, India, in 2000, the M.Sc. degree in engineering from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, in 2003, and is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. He was an Engineer at Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore, India, in 2004 and was a Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Engineering, KIIT University, Odisha, India, from 2005 to 2009. His current research interest is power system relaying.

722

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 2, APRIL 2013

Ashok Kumar Pradhan (M94SM10) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, India, in 2001. Currently, he is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, since 2002, where he is a Professor. His research interests includes power system relaying and monitoring.

Prabodh Bajpai (M07) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, India. Currently, he is Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at IIT, Kharagpur, India. His research interests include power system restructuring, renewable energy systems, solar photovoltaic applications, and power system optimization.