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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

Answer Guide
(Answers to the questions and problems at the end of each chapter)

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 2

Answer Guide

Chapter 1 Introduction to Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing


Chapter Review
Page 7 1. Geometric Dimensioning and olerancing is a s!mbolic language used to specif! the and

size location

"

shape

"

form

"

orientation,

of features on a part.

#. $eatures toleranced with GD% reflect the between mating parts.

actual relationship

&. Geometric Dimensioning and olerancing was designed to insure the proper assembl! of mating parts " to impro'e quality " and reduce cost . (. Geometric tolerancing allows the ma)imum a'ailable the most *.

tolerance and" consequentl!"

economical

parts.

ASME Y14.5 !!"

is the current" authoritati'e reference document that specifies the proper application of GD% .

+. Plus or minus tolerancing generates a 7.

rectangular

,shaped tolerance -one.

#$%&

generates a c!lindrical,shaped tolerance -one to control an a)is.

.. /f the distance across a square tolerance -one is 0 .11* or a total of .111" what is the appro)imate distance across the diagonal2 ' .!!( or .!14 3. 4onus tolerance equals the difference between the actual mating en'elope si-e and the

ma)imum material con*ition


11. 5hile processing" a rectangular part usuall! rests against a

*atum

reference frame

consisting of three mutuall! perpendicular planes.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 3

Answer Guide

Chapter # Dimensioning and Tolerancing Fundamentals


Chapter Review
Page 1* 1. #. 6ach dimension shall ha'e a tolerance e)cept those dimensions specificall! identified as reference" ma)imum" minimum" or stoc7. Dimensioning and tolerancing must be understanding of the &. (.

complete characteristics

so there is a full of each feature. .

Dimensions shall not be sub8ect to more than one he drawing should

interpretation

*efine

the part without specif!ing methods.

manufacturing
*.

A "!+ angle applies where center lines and lines depicting features are shown on a #D orthographic drawing at right angles and no angle is specified.

+.

A ,asic "!+ angle

applies where centerlines of features in a pattern or surfaces shown at right angles on a #D orthographic drawing are located or defined b! basic dimensions and no angle is specified. All dimensions and tolerances are applicable at -.+/ 0 !+12 unless otherwise specified. 9easurements made at other temperatures ma! be ad8usted mathematicall!. All dimensions and tolerances appl! in the e)cept for non,rigid parts.

7. ..

free state con*ition


"

3.

All tolerances appl! for the

full *epth
" and

full length
unless otherwise specified.

full 3i*th *ra3ing le4el inch

of the feature

11. Dimensions and tolerances appl! onl! at the where the! are specified.

11. :nits of linear measurement are t!picall! e)pressed either in the

s!stem or the Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 4

metric
1#. $or decimal inch tolerances" a 'alues less than one inch.

s!stem.

zero

is ne'er placed before the decimal point for

1&. $or decimal inch tolerances" a dimension is specified with the same number of decimal places as its tolerance . 1(. 5hat are the two t!pes of direct tolerancing methods2

5imit *imensioning an* plus an* minus *imensioning


1*. $or decimal inch tolerances" where a unilateral tolerance is specified and either the plus or minus limit is -ero" its -ero 'alue will ha'e the same num,er of *ecimal

places
as the other limit and the appropriate

plus an* minus sign

1+. $or decimal inch tolerances" where bilateral tolerancing or limit dimensioning and tolerancing is used" both 'alues ha4e the same num,er of *ecimal places 17. Dimensional limits are used as if

an infinite num,er of zeros *egrees an* *ecimal parts *egrees, minutes, an* secon*s
.

followed the last digit after the decimal point. 1.. Angular units of measurement are specified either in

of a *egree

or

13. 5hat two dimensions are not placed on the field of the drawing2

&he "!+ angle an* a zero


#1. /f CAD;CA9 database models are used and the! do not include tolerances" tolerance 'alues ma! be e)pressed in a 1A$ pro*uct *efinition *ata set.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 5

Answer Guide

Chapter & Symbols, Terms, and Rules


Chapter Review
Page (1 1. #. &. (. 5hat t!pe of geometric tolerance has no datum features2 5hich of the form tolerances is the most common2

/orm controls

/latness

5hat t!pe of geometric tolerances indicates an angular relationship with specified datum features2 6rientation controls 5hat is the name of the s!mbol that is used to identif! ph!sical features of a part as datum features and should not be applied to centerlines" center planes" or a)es2

$atum feature sym,ol


*. +. Datum feature identif!ing letters ma! be an! letter of the alphabet e)cept2

7, 6, % 8

/f the datum feature s!mbol is placed in line with a dimension line or on a feature control frame associated with a feature of si-e" then the datum feature is what is what 7ind of feature2

A feature of size
7. <ne of the 1( geometric characteristic s!mbols alwa!s appears in the compartment of the feature control frame. .. 3. he second compartment of the feature control frame is the

first
section.

tolerance

he tolerance is preceded b! a diameter s!mbol onl! if the tolerance -one is

cylin*rical .
.

11. Datum features are arranged in order of

prece*ence or importance

11. =ead the feature control frame in $igure &,&* and write it below.

&he position tolerance requires that &he a)is of the controlle* feature Must lie 3ithin a cylin*rical tolerance zone .!1! in *iameter At ma)imum material con*ition 0MM12 6riente* an* locate* 3ith ,asic *imensions to a *atum reference
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 6 Answer Guide

frame esta,lishe* ,y *atum feature A an* *atum features 9 an* 1 at their ma)imum material ,oun*aries 0MM92
1#. 1&. he all around and between s!mbols are used with what control2 he all o'er s!mbol consists of two small

:rofile

concentric circles
s!mbol specifies that a group of two or more

placed at the 8oint of the leader connecting the feature control frame to the feature. 1(. he

continuous feature

interrupted features of si-e are to be considered one single feature of si-e. 1*. /f no depth or remaining thic7ness is specified" the spotface is the depth necessar! to clean up the surface of the specified diameter. 1+. he

minimum

in*epen*ency

s!mbol indicates that perfect form of a feature of

si-e at 99C or >9C is not required. 17. he

unequally *ispose* profile *atum translation actual mating en4elope

s!mbol

indicates that the profile tolerance is unilateral or unequall! disposed about the true profile. 1.. he s!mbol indicates that a datum

feature simulator is not fi)ed and is free to translate within the specified geometric tolerance. 13. he

is a similar" perfect" feature(s) counterpart of smallest si-e that can be contracted about an e)ternal feature(s) or largest si-e that can be e)panded within an internal feature(s) so that it coincides with the surface(s) at the highest points. #1. A theoreticall! e)act dimension is called2

a ,asic *imension

#1. 5hat is the theoreticall! e)act point" a)is" line" plane" or combination thereof deri'ed from the theoretical datum feature simulator called2 a *atum ##. A

*atum feature

is a feature that is identified with either a datum feature

s!mbol or a datum target s!mbol. #&. A *atum feature simulator (Ph!sical) is the ph!sical boundar! used to establish a simulated datum from a specified datum feature. #(. A

*atum reference frame

consists of three mutuall!

perpendicular intersecting datum planes. #*. 5hat is the name of a ph!sical portion of a part" such as a surface" pin" hole" tab" or slot2

A feature
#+. A regular feature of si-e is a feature that is associated with a directl! toleranced dimension Answer Guide 7 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

and ta7es one of the following forms?

a. A cylin*rical surface ,. A set of t3o oppose* parallel surfaces c. A spherical surface *. A circular element e. A set of t3o oppose* parallel elements

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 8

Answer Guide

#7. 5hat is a feature of si-e with the ma)imum amount of material within the stated limits of si-e called2 ma)imum material con*ition 0MM12 #.. 5hat is a feature of si-e with the least amount of material within the stated limits of si-e called2 least material con*ition 05M12 #3. 5hat 7ind of feature alwa!s applies at 99C;994" >9C;>94" or =$@;=942

a feature of size or a *atum feature of size


&1. he ma)imum material condition modifier specifies that the tolerance applies at the ma)imum material con*ition 0MM12 si-e of the feature.
Pertainsto Typeof Tolerance Geometric Characteristics %T$AIG+T)'%% Indi idual !eature "nl# !,AT)'%% !orm (I$(-,A$IT& (&,I)D$I(IT& Indi idual !eature or $elated !eatures *$"!I,' "! A ,I)' *rofile *$"!I,' "! A %-$!A(' Symbol

A)G-,A$IT& "rientation *'$*')DI(-,A$IT& *A$A,,',I%M $elated !eatures ,ocation

*"%ITI") (")(')T$I(IT& %&MM'T$& (I$(-,A$ $-)"-T $unout T"TA, $-)"-T

Figure 3 3! Geometric characteristic s!mbols. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design . Answer Guide

&1. 5rite the names and geometric characteristic s!mbols where indicated in $ig. &,&+.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /0

Answer Guide

Name All Around Between Number of Places Counterbore/Spotface Countersink Depth/Deep Diameter Dimension, Basic Dimension, Reference Dimension Origin

Symbol

Name Free State

Symbol

F P T
r c # 5 7 s
96500 A/

Projected Tolerance Zone Tangent Plane Radius Radius, Controlled Spherical Radius Spherical Diameter Square Statistical Tolerance Datum Target

X
2 3 4

/6000

(60)
8

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design //

Answer Guide

Arc Length

//0

Target Point

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /2

Answer Guide

Conical Taper

Slope

Figure 3 3" Geometric tolerancing s!mbols. &#. Draw the indicated geometric tolerancing s!mbols in the spaces on $igure &,&7.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /3

Answer Guide

&&.

he 99C modifier indicates that the tolerance applies at the ma)imum material condition si-e of the feature and that a ,onus tolerance is a'ailable as the si-e of the feature departs from 99C toward >9C. &(. he bonus tolerance equals the difference between the actual mating en4elope

size an* MM1


&*. he total positional tolerance equals the sum of the tolerance and the

,onus
tolerance.

geometric tolerance

&+. 5hat is the term used to indicate that a specified geometric tolerance applies at each increment of si-e of a feature within its limits of si-e2 ;/S &7. 994" >94" and =94 all appl! in a feature control frame for what 7ind of feature2

A *atum feature of size


&.. 5hat is the single worst,case boundar! generated b! the collecti'e effects of the >9C limit of si-e" the specified geometric tolerance" and the si-e tolerance called2

;esultant 1on*ition
(3. 5hat is the theoreticall! e)act location of a feature of si-e established b! basic dimensions called2 &rue position (1. 5hat is the theoreticall! e)act profile of a feature established b! basic dimensions called2

&rue profile
(1. :sing the drawing in $ig. &,&." complete able &,&. (#. :sing the drawing in $ig. &,&." complete able &,(.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /4

Answer Guide

.515-.540

Hole

.495-.500

Pin

C
1.000

1.000

1.000

Figure 3 3# =efer to this drawing for questions (& through (..

Internal Feature $%ole&


'ctual (ating )nvelope 99C .*1* .*#1 .*#* .*&1 .*&* >9C .*(1 ((C *onus Geometric Tolerance Total +ositional Tolerance

.515 .515 .515 .515 .515 .515

.!!! .!!5 .!1! .!15 .! ! .! 5

.!1! .!1! .!1! .!1! .!1! .!1!

.!1! .!15 .! ! .! 5 .!<! .!<5 %ole .515 .54! .!1! MM1 A


/5

Table 3 3 otal positional tolerance for Aoles

(&. ((. (*. (+. (7.

5hat is the 99C2 5hat is the >9C2 5hat is the geometric tolerance2 5hat material condition modifier is specified2 5hat datum feature(s) control(s) perpendicularit!2

+in .5!! .4"5 .!!5 MM1 A


Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

(..

5hat datum feature(s) control(s) location2

9%1

9%1

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /6

Answer Guide

),ternal Feature $+in&


'ctual Feature Si-e 99C .*11 .(33 .(3. .(37 .(3+ >9C .(3* (3. ((C *onus Geometric Tolerance Total +ositional Tolerance

.5!! .5!! .5!! .5!! .5!! .5!!

.!!! .!!1 .!! .!!< .!!4 .!!5

.!!5 .!!5 .!!5 .!!5 .!!5 .!!5

.!!5 .!!.!!( .!!. .!!" .!1!

Table 3 . otal positional tolerance for Pins he 4irtual condition of a feature of si-e specified with a 99C modifier is a constant boundar! generated b! the collecti'e effects of the considered featureBs 99C limit of si-e and the specified geometric tolerance.

*1. 5here onl! a tolerance of si-e is specified" the limits of si-e of an indi'idual feature prescribe the e)tent to which 'ariations in its geometric /orm, as well as si-e" are allowed. his statement is the essence of ;ule =1 *1. he form tolerance increases as the actual si-e of the feature departs from toward

MM1
.

5M1
or

*#. /f features on a drawing are shown coa)ial" or s!mmetrical to each other and not controlled for

location

orientation

" the drawing is incomplete.

*&. /f there is no orientation control specified for a rectangle on a drawing" the perpendicularit! is controlled" not b! the si-e tolerance " but b! the

title ,loc> angularity tolerance


*(. =ule C# states that si-es and

tolerance.

;/S ;M9

automaticall! applies" to indi'idual tolerances of feature of to datum features of si-e. .

**. 6ach tolerance of orientation or position and datum reference specified for screw threads applies to the a)is of the thread deri'ed from the pitch *iameter *+. 6ach geometric tolerance or datum reference specified for gears and splines must designate the specific feature at which each applies such as

MA?6; $7A, :7&1@ $7A, or M7A6; $7A

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /7

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page (+

A Figure 3 30 9aterial condition s!mbols? problem 1.

1. =ead the complete tolerance in each feature control frame in $ig. &,&3" and write them below (datum feature A is a feature of si-e). A. &he position tolerance requires that

&he a)is of the controlle* feature Must lie 3ithin a cylin*rical tolerance zone .!!5 in *iameter At regar*less of feature size 0;/S2 6riente* an* locate* 3ith ,asic *imensions to *atum feature A at regar*less of material ,oun*ary 0;M92
4.

&he position tolerance requires that &he a)is of the controlle* feature Must lie 3ithin a cylin*rical tolerance zone .!!5 in *iameter At ma)imum material con*ition 0MM12 6riente* an* locate* 3ith ,asic *imensions to *atum feature A at ma)imum material ,oun*ary 0MM92

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /8

Answer Guide

A 2X 1.375-1.390

B D C E

C 2.000-2.020 1.000 A

1.000

4.000 6.000-6.020

B F H

Figure 3 .1 Definitions? problem #. #. Place each letter of the items on the drawing in $ig. &,(1 ne)t to the most correct term below.

1 A

$eature 99C

# /

4asic Dimension Datum $eature

7 $

$eature control frame rue Position

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /.

Answer Guide

Chapter ( Datums
Chapter Review
Page +( 1. #. &. (. *. +. 7. .. 3. Datums are theoreticall! perfect

points, a)es, lines, an* planes

Datums establish the origin from which the location or geometric characteristic of features of a part are established. Datums e)ist within a structure of three mutuall! perpendicular intersecting datum planes 7nown as a *atum reference frame . Datums are assumed to e)ist in and be simulated b! the

processing equipment

A part is oriented and immobili-ed relati'e to the three mutuall! perpendicular intersecting datum planes of the datum reference frame in a selected order of prece*ence . he primar! datum feature contacts the datum reference frame with a minimum of three points of contact that are not in a straight line. Datum features are specified in order of precedence as the! appear from left to right in the

feature control frame


Datum feature letters need not be in

. alpha,etical
order.

5hen selecting datum features" the designer should consider features that are?

11. 11.

/unctional surfaces Mating surfaces ;ea*ily accessi,le surfaces Surfaces that allo3 repeata,le measurements he primar! datum feature controls the orientation of the part
. he datum feature s!mbol is used to identif! of a part as datum features.

. . . .

physical features centerlines, center planes, or .

1#. Datum feature s!mbols shall not be applied to

a)es

1&. <ne method of tolerancing datum features at an angle to the datum reference frame is to place a datum feature s!mbol on the incline* surface and control Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 20 Answer Guide

that surface with an angularit! tolerance and a basic angle. 1(. A c!lindrical datum feature is alwa!s associated with two meeting at right angles at its datum a)is. 1*. he two 7inds of features specified as datum features are?

theoretical planes

:lane flat surfaces /eatures of size


1+. Datum features of si-es ma! appl! at

;M9, MM9 or 5M9


with the datum features. .

17. 5here datum features of si-es are specified at =94" the processing equipment must ma7e

physical contact constant ,oun*ary

1.. 5here features of si-es are specified at 994" the si-e of the processing equipment has a

2 X .510-.530
60/0
M

A<

6.000-6.020
60/0
M

Figure . 20 Datum feature of si-e? questions 13 through #(. 13. #1" he two,hole pattern is perpendicular to what datum feature2 he two,hole pattern is located to what datum feature2

$atum feature A B-.!<!


Answer Guide

$atum feature 9

#1. /f inspected with a gage" what is the datum feature 4 diameter of the gage2 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 2/

##. /f inspected with a gage" what is the diameter of the # pins on the gage2

B.5!!

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 22

Answer Guide

#&. /f datum feature 4 had been specified at =$@" e)plain how the gage would be different.

$atum feature 9 3oul* ha4e to ha4e a 4aria,le *iameter such as a chuc> to ma>e physical contact 3ith the outsi*e *iameter.
#(. /f datum feature 4 had been specified as the primar! datum feature at =$@" e)plain how the gage would be different.

$atum feature 9 3oul* not only ha4e to ,e a 4aria,le *iameter, such as a chuc>, to ma>e physical contact 3ith the outsi*e *iameter, ,ut the outsi*e *iameter, *atum feature 9, 3oul* align 3ith the gage as 3ell.
#*. /f a datum feature s!mbol is in line with a dimension line" the datum feature is the

feature of size *atum reference letters


and appropriate

measured b! the dimension.

#+. 5here more than one datum feature is used to establish a single datum" the

mo*ifiers

are separated b! a dash and specified in one compartment of the feature control frame. #7. 5here c!linders are specified as datum features" the entire surface of the feature is considered to be the *atum feature #.. /f onl! a part of a feature is required to be the datum feature" a #3. Datum targets ma! be used to immobili-e parts with une4en .

hea4y chain line or irregular surfaces. tooling

is drawn ad8acent to the surface profile and dimensioned with basic dimensions.

&1. <nce datum targets are specified" costl! manufacturing and inspection is required to process the part.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 23

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page ++

A B
1.997-2.000 4 X 1.010-1.030
.010
M

(+) (+)

(+) See below

4.000

.010

BA

.010

AB

.010

AB

Figure . 31 Datum features at 994 and =94? problem 1. 1. Complete the feature control frames with datum features and material condition s!mbols to reflect the drawing in $ig. (,#1.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 24

Answer Guide

4 X .760-.790
.010
M

ABC

or

.010

AD

3.500

1.500

C
1.500

2.500

1.500

3.000

A B 1.000-1.030
.060
M

A BC

or

.060

A BC

D
Figure . 32 @pecif!ing datum features and datum feature s!mbols? problem #. #. Pro'ide the appropriate datum feature s!mbols and datum features in the feature control frames on the drawing in $ig. (,#1. 0&3o solutions suggeste*.2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 25

Answer Guide

4 X .514-.590
.014
M

AB

3.945 2.500

.500.515
6000 .004
M

A<

4.200-4.230
.020
M

Figure . 33 @pecif!ing datum features and datum feature s!mbols? problem &. &. @pecif! the appropriate datum feature s!mbols and datum features in the datum e)ercise in $ig. (,##. 06ne solution. E)plore other possi,ilities.2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 26

Answer Guide

4 X .514-.590
.014
M

AB

3.945 2.500

.500.515
6000 .004
M

A<

4.200-4.230
.020
M

Figure . 33 @pecif!ing datum features and datum feature s!mbols? problem (. (. <n $ig. (,##" draw and dimension the gage used to inspect the part in problem &.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 27

Answer Guide

Chapter * Form
Chapter Review
Page .# 1. #. &. $orm tolerances are independent of all Do

other features

. appl! to form tolerances. .

*atum features size tolerance, rule =1

he form of indi'idual features of si-e is automaticall! controlled b! the

(. A form tolerance ma! be specified as a refinement where

the size tolerance . . flatness of a me*ian plane

*oes not a*equately control the form of a feature


*. All form tolerances are surface controls e)cept for

an* straightness of a me*ian line


+. Do

cylin*rical tolerance zones

or

material con*ition mo*ifiers

are appropriate for surface controls. 7. $latness of a surface or deri'ed median plane is a condition where all line elements of that surface are in one plane .. $or flatness" in a 'iew where the surface to be controlled appears as a a feature control frame is attached to the surface with a 3. he feature control frame controlling flatness contains a and a . " . .

line lea*er or e)tension line flatness sym,ol planes

numerical tolerance size tolerance

11. he surface being controlled for flatness must lie between t3o parallel separated b! the flatness tolerance. /n addition" the feature must fall within the 11. 1#. he flatness tolerance -one does not need to be he feature of si-e ma! not e)ceed the

parallel

to an! other surface.

,oun*ary of perfect form at MM1

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 28

Answer Guide

1.000-1.020
Figure 4 2. @pecif!ing flatness? question 1&. 1&. @pecif! the flatness of the top surface of the part in $ig. *,1( within .11+ in a feature control frame. 1(. Draw a feature control frame with an o'erall flatness of .11* and a unit flatness of .111 per square inch.

60/0 600/= /6000

or

60/0 600/=9/6000

1*. 5hen 'erif!ing flatness" the feature of si-e is first measured to 'erif! that it falls within the

limits of size
1+. he surface is ad8usted with 8ac7screws to remo'e an!

parallelism

error.

17. $latness 'erification is achie'ed b! measuring the surface in all directions with a

*ial in*icator
1.. @traightness is a condition where an element of a

surface, or *eri4e* me*ian


is a straight line.

line,
13. /n a 'iew where the line elements to be controlled appear as a a feature control frame is attached to the surface with a #1. @traightness tolerance is a refinement of the and must be less than the 'ctual +art Si-e 1.1#1 1.11. 1.11+ 1.11( 1.111 1.11*

line lea*er or e)tension line

" " .

size tolerance, rule =1 size tolerance


Controlled by

Straightness Tolerance

.!!! .!! .!!4 .!!4 .!!4 .!!4

;ule =1 Straightness &olerance


Answer Guide 2.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

1.111 Table 4 ! Euestion #1

.!!4

#1. Complete able *,+ specif!ing the straightness tolerance and what controls it for the drawing in $ig. *,+. ##. he measurement of surface 'ariation for straightness is performed similar to the measurement for

flatness
#&. 6ach line element is

in*epen*ent

of e'er! other line element. . "

#(. 5here a feature control frame with a straightness tolerance is associated with a si-e dimension" the straightness tolerance applies to the me*ian line #*. 5hile each actual local si-e of the feature must fall within the size the feature controlled with straightness of a median line ma! e)ceed the

tolerance

,oun*ary of perfect form ;ule =1

at ma)imum material condition. .

#+. A straightness control of a median line will allow the feature to 'iolate #7. /f specified at 99C" the total straightness tolerance of a median line equals the tolerance in the feature control frame plus an! ,onus tolerance . Cylindrical Feature $Straightness o/ a (edian 5ine& Feature Si-e 1.1#1 99C 1.11* 1.111 1.11* 1.111 >9C

.!!.!!.!!.!!.!!-

.!!.!11 .!1.! 1 .! -

Table 4 " @traightness of a median line at =$@ and 99C? question #.. #.. Complete able *,7 specif!ing the appropriate tolerances for the si-es gi'en. #3. @traightness 'erification of a feature of si-e specified at 99C can be achie'ed b!

placing the part in a full form functional gage


&1. @traightness 'erification of a feature of si-e specified at cannot be achie'ed b! placing the part in a full form functional gage.

;/S
Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 30

&1. 5hen 'erif!ing circularit!" the feature of si-e is first measured to 'erif! that it falls within the limits of size and ;ule =1 . &#. Circularit! can be accuratel! inspected on a

circularity inspection machine

. .

&&. C!lindricit! is a condition of the surface of a c!linder where all points of the surface are

equi*istant from the a)is


&(. he c!lindricit! tolerance consists of two the

coa)ial cylin*ers

in which

ra*ial *istance between them is equal to the tolerance specified in the feature control frame .
&*. C!lindricit! is a

composite form tolerance that simultaneousl! controls circularity, straightness of a surface, an* taper of c!lindrical features.
$eature $eature of @i-e of @i-e

1. $or these controls" datums do not appl! #. $or these controls" rule C1 applies &. hese are surface controls (. hese controls ma! be specified with a leader *. hese are refinements of the si-e tolerance +. hese tolerances 'iolate rule C1 7. hese controls appl! to features of si-e .. hese controls are associated with the dimension 3. hese controls ma! e)ceed the si-e tolerance 11. he F s!mbol ma! be used 11. he 99C (circle 9) s!mbol ma! be used Table 4 # @ummar! of form controls? Euestion &+.

6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6

&+. <n able *,." place an G under the control that agrees with the statement. &7. /reeCstate 4ariation is a term used to describe the distortion of a part after the remo'al of forces applied during the manufacturing process .

&.. 5here a form or location tolerance is specified for a feature in the free state" the free,state s!mbol is placed inside the feature control frame following the

tolerance an* any mo*ifiers


&3. A minimum of four measurements to insure the accurac! of an a'erage diameter. (1. he restrained condition should simulate Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 3/

. must be ta7en

actual assem,ly con*itions

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page .*

"$

1.000

3.000
6>>> ? @ 60/0 A)G,'% ? @ /A

Figure 4 24 $latness? problem 1. 1. @pecif! a flatness control of .11* for the top surface of the part in $ig. *,1*.

0Either a lea*er or an e)tension line can ,e use*2


#. 4elow" draw a feature control frame with a unit flatness of .11& per square inch and an o'erall flatness of .11*.

.015 .003/ 1.000

or

.015 .003/1.000

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 32

Answer Guide

.005

1.010 .010

Actual *art Measurements

1.018 .004

Figure 4 2! $latness? problem &. &. /s the part in $ig. *,1+ an acceptable part H wh! or wh! not2

Ao, this part is not accepta,le. 7t is 1.!1. thic> an* ,o3e* .!!4, a total of 1.! . &he part e)cee*s the 1.! ! ,oun*ary of perfect form

.495-.500
.002

8.00

Figure 4 2" @traightness of a surface? problem (. (. @pecif! straightness of a surface of .11# on the c!linder in the drawing in $ig. *,17. Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 33

0Either a lea*er or an e)tension line can ,e *irecte* to the part surface.2


.495-.500
.010
M

8.00

Figure 4 2# @traightness of a median line? problem *. *. <n the c!linder in $ig. *,1." specif! straightness of a median line of .111 at 99C.

.004

1.500 .010

Actual *art Measurements

1.508

Circularity Measurement .003

0&he feature control frame must ,e associate* 3ith the *imension.2


Figure 4 20 Circularit!? problems +. +. /s the part in $ig. *,13 an acceptable part H wh! or wh! not2

Dn*etermine*, further inspection is necessary to reEect this part. 7f


Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 34 Answer Guide

the outer *iameter of the circularity tolerance zone is 3ithin 1.5!., the MM1 of the cylin*er, it is a goo* part. &he cylin*er may not e)cee* the ,oun*ary of perfect form at ma)imum material con*ition.

Figure 4 31 Circularit! and c!lindricit!? problems 7 and .. 7. .. @pecif! a circularit! tolerance of .11# on the cone in the drawing in $ig. *,#1. @pecif! a c!lindricit! tolerance of .111* on the c!linder in the drawing in $ig. *,#1.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 35

Answer Guide

Chapter + 7rientation
Chapter Review
Page 3. 1. <rientation is the general term used to describe the relationship between features. #. &. (. *. +. <rientation controls include

angular

perpen*icularity, parallelism, angularity, *atum features


.

an* in some cases, profile


All orientation controls must ha'e /n a 'iew where the surface to be controlled appears as a line" the perpendicularit! feature control frame is attached to the surface with a lea*er or e)tension line . he datum feature is identified with a

*atum feature sym,ol

A surface being controlled with a perpendicularity tolerance must lie between

t3o parallel planes perpen*icular


7. .. 3.

separated b! the perpendicularit!

tolerance specified in the feature control frame. he tolerance -one must also be to the datum plane.

A angent Plane s!mbol" circle " in the feature control frame specifies that the tolerance applies to the precision plane contacting the high points of the surface. 5here controlling the perpendicularit! of a feature of si-e" the feature control frame is associated with the size *imension of the feature being controlled. /f the tolerance in the feature control frame applies to a feature of si-e and no material condition s!mbol is specified" ;/S automaticall! applies.

11. /f the tolerance applies at 99C then a possible

,onus

tolerance e)ists.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 36

Answer Guide

3.00

4.00

2.00

A .XX = .01 ANGLES = 1

Figure ! 2. @pecif!ing perpendicularit! of a plane surface? question 11. 11. @uppl! the appropriate geometric tolerance on the drawing in $ig. +,1( to control the &.11, inch 'ertical surface of the part perpendicular to the bottom surface within .11*.

0Either a lea*er or an e)tension line may ,e use*.2

1.000-1.010

2.00

A
Figure ! 24 @pecif!ing perpendicularit! of a feature of si-e? question 1#. 1#. @uppl! the appropriate geometric tolerance on the drawing in $igure +,1* to control the 1.11,inch diameter 'ertical pin perpendicular to the bottom surface of the plate within .11* Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design Answer Guide 37

at =$@.

Figure ! 2! Perpendicularit! specified at 99C? question 1&. 1&. /f the pin in $igure +,1* were actuall! produced at a diameter of 1.11( and toleranced with the feature control frame in $igure +,1+" what would the total perpendicularit! tolerance be2

.!!.
1(. he feature control frame for parallelism of a surface must at least contain

a parallelism sym,ol, a numerical tolerance, an* at least one *atum feature


1*. Parallelism tolerance of a flat surface is a refinement of the si-e tolerance and must be less than the

size tolerance
1+. A surface being controlled with a parallelism tolerance must lie between

t3o parallel planes parallel


17. he controlled surface ma! not e)ceed the

separated b! the

parallelism tolerance specified in the feature control frame. he tolerance -one must also be to the datum plane.

,oun*ary of perfect form at


.

ma)imum material con*ition


1.. 5here applied to a flat surface" parallelism is the onl! orientation control that requires perfect orientation (Parallelism is a 1I angle.) at MM1

.010 A

2.00 1.00 1.00 7.00


.XX = .01 ANGLES = 1

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 38

Answer Guide

Figure ! 2" @pecif!ing parallelism? question 13. 13. @uppl! the appropriate geometric tolerance on the drawing to control the top surface of the part in $ig. +,17 parallel to the bottom surface within .111.

0Either a lea*er or an e)tension line can ,e use*2


#1. 5hen controlling the parallelism of a feature of si-e" the feature control frame is associated with the size *imension of the feature being controlled. #1. /f the feature of si-e is a c!linder" the numerical tolerance is usuall! preceded b! a ##.

he numerical tolerance for angularit! of a surface is specified as a linear dimension because it generates a uniform Cshaped tolerance -one.

#&. A plus or minus angularit! tolerance is not used because it generates a

nonuniform, fan

,shaped tolerance -one.

#(. 5hen controlling the angularit! of a feature of si-e" the feature control frame is associated with the size *imension of the feature being controlled. #*. /f the diameter s!mbol precedes the numerical tolerance" the a)is is controlled with a

cylin*rical tolerance
#+. As an alternati'e practice" the angularit! s!mbol ma! be used to control

-one.

parallel an* perpen*icular relationships


+lane Sur/aces

.
',es 8 Ctr9 +lanes

Datum features are required Controls flatness if flatness is not specified Circle modifier can appl! olerance specified with a leader or e)tension line olerance associated with a dimension 9aterial condition modifiers appl! A 'irtual condition applies Table ! 3 <rientation? question #7

6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6

6 6 6 6

6 6 6

6 6 6

6 6 6

#7. 9ar7 an 6 in the bo) that indicates the control applies to the statement at the left in able +,#.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 3.

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page 111

.010 A B

.010

B
3.00

4.00

2.00

A
.XX = .01 ANGLES = 1

Figure ! 2# Perpendicularit! of a plane surface? problem 1. 1. @pecif! the &.11,inch surface of the part in $ig. +,1. perpendicular to the bottom and bac7 surfaces within a tolerance of .111. Draw and dimension the tolerance -one.
.998-1.000
60/5 M A

1.015

Gage

1.50

A
.XX = .01 ANGLES = 1

Figure ! 20 Perpendicularit! of a pin to a plane surface? problem #. #. @pecif! the F1.11,inch pin perpendicular to the top surface of the plate in $ig.+,13 within a tolerance of .11* at 99C. <n the drawing" s7etch and dimension a gage used to inspect this Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 40

part.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 4/

Answer Guide

.004 A

.004

1.00

2.00 1.00 4.00 A


.XX = .01 ANGLES = 1
Figure ! 31 Parallelism of a plane surface? problem &. &. @pecif! the top surface of the part in $ig. +,#1 parallel to the bottom surface within a tolerance of .11(. Draw and dimension the tolerance -one.

2.00

.003 A

.003

20 2.75 1.00 6.00

A
Figure ! 32 Angularit! of a plane surface? problem (. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 42

.XX = .01 ANGLES = 1

Answer Guide

(.

/n $ig. +,#1" specif! the top surface of the part to be at an angle of #1I to the bottom surface within a tolerance of .11&. Draw and dimension the tolerance -one.

.980-.990
60/0 M A

1.015-1.030
.015 M B

MM1 #eometric &olerance Girtual 1on*ition

.""! F.!1! 1.!!!

1.!1 5 .!1 5 1.!! !

Figure ! 33 <rientation? problem *. *. Complete the feature control frames in $ig. +,## so that the two parts will alwa!s assemble" datum features A % 4 will meet" and the part can be produced using the most cost effecti'e design. he pin is machined in a lathe and the hole is drilled.

0&here are se4eral possi,le solutions to this pro,lem. &he 4irtual con*itions shoul* ,e equal to insure assem,ly an* to pro4i*e ma)imum tolerance. &ypically, for this metho* of manufacturing, more tolerance is gi4en to the hole.2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 43

Answer Guide

Chapter 7 +osition, General


Chapter Review
Page 1#* 1. Position is a composite tolerance that controls both the

location an*
of feature of si-es at the same time.

the orientation
#.

he tolerance of position ma! be 'iewed in either of two wa!s?

A theoretical tolerance zone located at true position of the toleranced feature


within which the center point" a)is" or center plane of the feature ma! 'ar! from true position.

A 4irtual con*ition ,oun*ary of the toleranced feature" when specified at 99C


or >9C and located at true position" which ma! not be 'iolated b! its surface or surfaces of the considered feature.

&. (. *. +.

A feature of si-e has four geometric characteristics that must be controlled. hese characteristics are size, form, orientation, an* location

@ince the position tolerance onl! controls feature of si-es such as pins" holes" tabs" and slots" the feature control frame is alwa!s associated with a size *imension . he location of true position" the theoreticall! perfect location of an a)is" is specified with ,asic *imensions from the datum features indicated. <nce the feature control frame is assigned" an imaginar! is defined and located about true position.

tolerance zone
. J . .

7. ..

Datum features are identified with Datum features A" 4" and C identif! a"

*atum feature sym,ols *atum reference frame processing

consequentl!" the! describe how the part is to be held for 3. 11.

o inspect a hole" the largest pin gage to fit inside the hole is used to simulate the

actual mating en4elope


he measurement from the surface plate to the top of the pin gage minus half of the diameter of the pin gage equals the distance from

*atum feature 9 to the actual a)is of the hole

11. /f no material condition s!mbol is specified in the feature control frame" the ;/S Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design Answer Guide 44

modifier automaticall! applies to the tolerance of the feature. 1#. 5hen the ma)imum material condition s!mbol is specified to modif! the tolerance of a feature of si-e" the following two requirements appl!? he specified tolerance applies

at ma)imum material con*ition of the

feature.
As the si-e of the feature departs from ma)imum material condition toward least material

a ,onus tolerance is achie4e* in the e)act amount of such *eparture


condition" 1&. he difference between the actual mating en'elope si-e and 99C is the

,onus
. .

tolerance
1(. he bonus plus the geometric tolerance equals

the total positional tolerance

.510 .550
Figure " 31 Geometric tolerance? questions 1* through 1.. 1*. /f the tolerance in $ig. 7,#1 is for a pin .*#* in diameter" what is the total tolerance2

. .5-! .

!<5
1+. 5hat would be the si-e of the hole in a functional gage to inspect the pin abo'e2 17. /f the tolerance in $ig. 7,#1 is for a hole .*(1 in diameter" what is the total tolerance2

!4!
1.. 5hat would be the si-e of the pin on a functional gage to inspect the hole abo'e2

.5!!

13. 5here a datum feature of si-e is toleranced with a geometric tolerance and is referenced in a feature control frame at 994" the resulting ma)imum material boundar! for the datum feature is equal to its ma)imum material con*ition or #1.

4irtual con*ition 3ith respect to the prece*ing *atum feature 4irtual

he worst,case inner and outer boundaries of a feature of si-e are its

con*ition an* resultant con*ition

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 45

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page 1#7

1.010-1.025
.060 M A B C .O1O M A

3.500
C

1.500

1.500 2.500 1.500

3.000 4 X .510-.525
.010 M A D M B

Figure " 32 Design a gage to inspect for shift tolerance? problem 1. 1. <n a gage designed to control the (,hole pattern in $ig. 7,#1" what si-e pin must be produced to inspect the center hole (datum feature D)2 B1.!!! <n the same gage" what is the diameter of the four pins locating the hole pattern2

B.5!!

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 46

Answer Guide

Pin .9981.000
.004
M

Hole 1.0001.006
.004
M

A BC

A BC

.998-1.004
.000
M

96..6B/6006
A BC .000
M

A BC

Figure " 33 Kero positional tolerance con'ersion? problem #. #. Con'ert the tolerance in $ig. 7,## to the -ero positional tolerances for the pin and the hole. Kero tolerance is not used when the tolerance applies at bonus tolerance is a'ailable as in a tolerance specified for

;/S " or when no threa*s or press fit pins

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 47

Answer Guide

2.500 .020

2.000 .020
.020
L

AB L

4.059 .003

Figure " 33 A hole specified at >9C? problem &. &. Calculate the minimum wall thic7ness between the inside diameter and datum feature 4 in $ig. 7,#&.

$atum feature 9 H 5M1 7. $. H 5M1 &olerance H 5M1

B .4.! B .! ! B .! ! .44! !.

&he 3all thic>ness equals half of the *ifferences in *iameters or . 01alculating *iameters an* *i4ing the final *iameter ,y errors.2

minimizes

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 48

Answer Guide

.998-1.000
.004 M A B C

1.000-1.006
.004 M A B C

1.000

B
1.500 3.000 6.00

.XX = .01 ANGLES = 1


Figure " 3. 4oundar! conditions? problem (. (. $irst calculate the 'irtual conditions and resultant conditions for the pin and hole. hen calculate the ma)imum and minimum distances for dimensions G and L in $ig. 7,#(. he :irtual Condition of the %75).

he :irtual Condition of the +I;.

G1p I MM1 F #eo. &ol. G1p I 1.!!! F .!!4 I 1.!!4 G1pJ I .5!
Resultant Condition of the +I;.

G1h I MM1 #eo. &ol. G1h I 1.!!! .!!4 I .""G1hJ I.4".


Resultant Condition of the %75).

;1p I 5M1 #eo. &ol. 9onus ;1p I."". .!!4 .!! I ."" ;1pJ I .4"KMa) I $ist. ;1pJ G1hJ I KMa) I<.!!! .4"- .4". I KMa) I .!!YMa) I5 H MM1 $ist. G1hJ I YMa) I-.!1! 4.5!! .4". I

;1h I 5M1 F #eo. &ol. F 9onus ;1h I1.!!- F.!!4 F.!!- I1.!1;1hJ I.5!. KMin I $ist. G1p J ;1h J I KMin I <.!!! .5! .5!. KMin I1.""! YMin I 5 H MM1 $ist. ;1hJ I YMin I 5.""! 4.5!! .5!. I
Answer Guide 4.

he ma)imum and minimum distances for dimension 6?

he ma)imum and minimum distances for dimension <?

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

YMa) I1.!1

YMin I .".

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 50

Answer Guide

Chapter . +osition, 5ocation


Chapter Review
Page 1*& 1. he floating fastener formula is?

&I@/
#. M &he A M &he $ M &he &. (. *.

or

@I/F&

clearance hole 5ocation &olerance at MM1 1learance @ole MM1 *iameter /astenerLs MM1 *iameter, the nominal size @ H 5M1 I 0/ F/ hea*2 J mem,ers ,eing fastene*
. .

he clearance hole >9C diameter formula is he fi)ed fastener is fi)ed b! one or more of the he formula for fi)ed fasteners is?

t1 F t I @ /
+.

or

@ I / F t1 F t

he location tolerance for both the threaded hole and the clearance hole must come from the difference between the actual diameter of the clearance hole and the *iameter of the fastener . /t is common to assign a larger portion of the tolerance to the

7. .. 3.

threa*e*

hole.

A fastener fi)ed at its head in a countersun7 hole and in a threaded hole at the other end is called what2 A *ou,le fastener fi)e* fastener 5here specif!ing a threaded hole or a hole for a press fit pin" the orientation of the

hole
11. 11.

determines the orientation of the mating pin.

he most con'enient wa! to control the orientation of the pin outside the hole is to proEect the tolerance -one into the mating part. he height of the pro8ected tolerance -one is equal to or greater than the thic7est

mating part
1#. 1&.

or tallest

stu* or pin

after installation.

he dimension of the pro8ected tolerance -one height is specified as a

minimum

wo or more patterns of features are considered to be one composite pattern if the!

are locate* 3ith ,asic *imensions, to the same *atums features, in


Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 5/ Answer Guide

the same or*er of prece*ence, an* at the same material con*itions


1(. Datum features of si-e specified at =$@ require between the gagging element and the datum feature. 1*. /f the patterns of features ha'e no relationship to each other" a note such as

physical contact

SE: ;E8&

ma! be placed under each feature control frame allowing each pattern to be inspected separatel!. 1+. Composite tolerancing allows the relationship from

featureCtoCfeature
to be controlled to a looser tolerance.

to be 7ept to a tight tolerance and the relationship between the

pattern an* its *atum features


17. A composite positional feature control frame has one that applies to the two hori-ontal 1..

position

s!mbol that follow.

segments

he upper segment of a composite feature control frame" called the

patternClocating and the pattern


13.

control" go'erns the relationship between the datum features .

he lower segment of a composite feature control frame is called the controlJ it go'erns the relationship from

featureCrelating
. .

featureCtoCfeature location

#1.

he primar! function of the position control is to control

#1. Datum features in the lower segment of a composite feature control frame must satisf! what two conditions?

&hey are require* to repeat the *atum features in the upper segment an* they only control orientation
(Assume plane,surface datum features for question numbers ## and #&".) ##. 5here the secondar! datum feature is included in the lower segment of a composite feature control frame" the tolerance -one framewor7 must remain :arallel to the secondar! datum plane. #&. he lower segment of a multiple single,segment feature control frame acts 8ust li7e an! other position control

#(. Counterbores that ha'e the same location tolerance as their respecti'e holes are specified b! indicating the hole callout an* the counter,ore callout follo3e*

,y the geometric tolerance for ,oth


Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 52

#*. Counterbores that ha'e a larger location tolerance than their respecti'e holes are specified b! Answer Guide

separating the hole callout from the counter,ore callout


#+. 5hen tolerancing elongated holes" no

.
precedes

*iameter sym,ol e)act shape 4irtual con*ition

the tolerance in the feature control frame since the tolerance -one is not a #7. he 'irtual condition boundar! is the the elongated hole and equal in si-e to its #..

cylin*er
of

he position control is used to locate a si-e featurefeature of si-e s!mmetricall! at 99C to a datum feature of si-e specified at 994.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 53

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page 1**

4 X .323-.360
.010 M A B C

4.000

2.000

1.000

1.000

2.000 5.000 C

1.000

A
Unless Otherwise Specified: .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure # 3" $loating fastener drawing? problem 1. 1. olerance the clearance holes in $ig. .,#7 to be fastened with *;1+ H 1. :DC he) head bolts (.&1& in diameter) and nuts with a .111 diameter positional tolerance.

@I/F&

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 54

Answer Guide

2X
M

ABC

1.000

1.000

3.000

Figure # 3# $loating fastener drawing? problems # through *. #. @pecif! the 99C and >9C clearance hole si-es for C11 (F.131) soc7et head cap screws.

K B. !C. 4nCw6030mCAC<C(C
&.

K B. !!C. 4nCw60/0mCAC<C(C nCw6000mCAC<C(C


.#&1 . !! .!<! F .!1! .!4!

K B.1"!C. 4-

/f the actual si-e of the clearance holes in problem # is .#&1 in diameter" calculate the total positional tolerance for each callout. Actual @i-e 99C 4onus Geo. olerance otal olerance

.#&1 . ! .!1! F .!<! .!4!

.#&1 .1"! .!4! F .!!! .!4!

(.

@pecif! the 99C and >9C clearance hole si-es for &;. (F.&7*) he) head bolts.

K B.4!!C.4-! nCw6025mCAC<C(C
*.

K B.<"!C.4-! nCw60/5mCAC<C(C nCw6000mCAC<C(C


.((1 .<"! .!5! F .!15

K B.<(5C.4-!

/f the clearance holes in problem ( actuall! measure .((1 in diameter" calculate the total positional tolerance for each callout. Actual @i-e 99C 4onus Geo. olerance

.((1 .4!! .!4! F .! 5

.((1 .<(5 .!-5 F .!!!


Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 55

otal olerance

.!-5

.!-5

.!-5

Figure # 30 $i)ed fastener assembl!? problems +. +. olerance the clearance and threaded holes in the plates in $ig. .,#3 to be fastened with *;.H11 :DC he) head bolts (.+#* in diameter). :se a .111 positional tolerance and +1N location tolerance for the threaded hole.
2X
M

A BC

1.000

1.000

3.000

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 56

Answer Guide

Figure # 31 $i)ed fastener drawing? problems 7 through 11.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 57

Answer Guide

7. @pecif! the 99C and >9C clearance hole si-es for C. soc7et head cap screws.
# G F.1+( (C.),&# :D$,#4 # G F.1+( (C.),&# :D$,#4 # G F.1+( (C.),&# :D$,#4

nCw6025mCAC<C(C .1"" . 1< nCw60/0mCAC<C(C


..

nCw6025mCAC<C(C nCw6025mCAC<C(C .1"4 . 1< nCw6005mCAC<C(C nCw6000mCAC<C(C


.#1* H .13( .!11 F .!!5 .!1-

.1."

. 1<

/f the clearance holes in problem * actuall! measure .#1* in diameter" calculate the total positional tolerance for each callout. Actual @i-e 99C 4onus Geo. olerance otal olerance

.#1* H .133 .!!O .!1!

.#1* H .1.3 .!1F .!!! .!1-

.!1-

3. @pecif! the 99C and >9C clearance hole si-es for the 1;#,inch he) head bolts.
# G F.*11,#1 :D$,#4 # G F.*11,#1 :D$,#4 # G F.*11,#1 :D$,#4

nCw6060mCAC<C(C K B.5.! .-1 nCw6020mCAC<C(C

nCw6060mCAC<C(C nCw6060mCAC<C(C K B.5(! .-1 nCw60/0mCAC<C(C nCw6000mCAC<C(C


.*.* .5(! .!15 F .!1! .! 5

K B.5-! .-1

11. /f the clearance holes in problem 3 actuall! measure .*.* in diameter" calculate the total positional tolerance for each callout. Actual @i-e 99C 4onus Geo. olerance otal olerance

.*.* .5.! .!!5 F .! ! .! 5

.*.* .5-! .! 5 F .!!! .! 5

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 58

Answer Guide

nCw6040mDCAC<C(C

2 X .500-20 UNF-2B

2600 /6000 6600


<

/65/

Mating*art

1.50

.50 /6000 46000


.XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure # 32 Pro8ected tolerance -one? problem 11. 11. Complete the drawing in $ig. .,&1. @pecif! a .1(1 tolerance at 99C with the appropriate pro8ected tolerance.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 5.

Answer Guide

nCw6050mD26/3CAC<C(C

2 > 6500B20-)!B2<

2600 /6000 6600 <

Two %tuds

Mating Part

2.12 1.50

1.25

1.000

46000

.XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure # 33 Pro8ected tolerance -one? problem 1#. 1#. Complete the drawing in $ig. .,&#. @pecif! a .1*1 tolerance at 99C with the appropriate pro8ected tolerance.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 60

Answer Guide

nCw6000mCAC<C(C (
1.000 /6000 /6000 26000 /6000

4 > 964/5B6450

nCw6040mDCAC<C(C

4 > 3=8B/6 -)(B2<

(
1.000

<

/6000

26000

<

2650

2.53

A
6>> ? @ 603 6>>> ? @ 60/0 A)G,'% ? @/A

Figure # 33 $i)ed fastener assembl!? problem 1&. 1&. he part with clearance holes in $ig. .,&& assembles on top of the part with threaded holes and is fastened with cap screws. Allow a tolerance of at least .1&1 on both threaded and clearance holes" use P1P positional tolerance" and specif! pro8ected tolerance -ones.

0&he threa*e* hole tolerance of .!4! 3as chosen so that there 3oul* ,e at least .!<! tolerance for the clearance hole.2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 6/

Answer Guide

2 X .500-.580
.000
M

2 X 1.010-1.045
C
M

AB

.010

AB

2.500

.50

C B A
Figure # 3. 9ultiple patterns of features? problems 1( through 1+. 1(. Position the small holes with .111 tolerance at 99C and the large holes with .111 tolerance at 99CJ locate them to the same datums and in the same order of precedence. :se 99C;994 where'er possible. 1*. 9ust the hole patterns be inspected in the same setup or in the same gage2 6)plain2

Yes, they must ,e inspecte* at the same time. &he large hole an* small hole patterns are tie* together ,y their *atums features.
1+. Can the requirement be changed" how2

Yes, place a note, @6P =6E " un*er each feature control frame.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 62

Answer Guide

3 X 120

3 X .438-.480
.000
M

AB

15 1.260

3.000 1.125-1.135
A

.000

A
.002

5.00-5.03
.020
M

.250-.260
M

AB

.000

AB

A C
Section A-A
.XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure # 34 A pattern of holes located to a datum feature of si-e? problem 17. 17. /n $ig. .,&*" the inside diameter and the bac7 are mating features. @elect the primar! datum feature. (Consider a form control.) he 'irtual condition of the mating shaft is 1.1#* in diameter. >ocate the 7e!wa! for a Q,inch 7e!. >ocate the three,hole pattern for 7;1+,inch (.(&. in diameter) cap screws as floating fasteners with a positional tolerance of at least .1&1.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 63

Answer Guide

4 X .250-.300
.060 M A B C .000 M A

.50

3.00 C
1.000

1.000

1.000

2.000

A B
.XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

4.00

Figure # 3! Composite tolerancing? problems 1. and 13. 1.. he pattern of clearance holes in the part in $ig. .,&+ must be located within a c!lindrical tolerance -one of .1+1 in diameter at 99C to the datum features specified. his plate is required to assemble to the mating part with 1;(,inch he) bolts as floating fasteners. Complete the geometric tolerance.

13. /t has been determined that the hole pattern in $ig. .,&+ is required to remain parallel" within the smaller tolerance" to datum feature 4. Draw the feature control frame that will satisf! this requirement.
6060 6000
M M

A <( A<

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 64

Answer Guide

4 63.5 @ 60/0
.010 A B C

4 X .260-.290 2 96422 @ 60/0

4600

2.000

/6000

/6000

2.000 5.00

B A

1.00

Unless Otherwise Specified: .XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure # 3" Counterbore tolerance? problems #1 and #1. #1. olerance the holes and counterbores in $ig. .,&7 for four Q,inch soc7et head cap screws. he counterbores are a diameter of .(## 0 .111" the depth is .&3* 0 .111" and the geometric tolerance is .111 at 99C. 05imit tolerances may also ,e use*.2

#1. /f the geometric tolerance for 8ust the counterbores in $ig. .,&7 can be loosened to .1#1 at 99C instead of .111" draw the entire callout below.

4 X .260-.290 .010
M

A BC

4.395 .010
.020

4 X $ .422 .010

M A BC Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

Answer Guide

65

3 X .50
.060 M A B C .040
M

ABC

.50

3 X 1.00
3.00 2.000

C
1.000 1.000 1.000

A B

.500

4.00

6XR
Unless Otherwise .XX = .XXX = ANGLES = Specified: .01 .005 1

Figure # 3# 6longated hole? problem ##. ## @pecif! a geometric tolerance of .1(1 at 99C in the 1;#,inch direction and .1+1 at 99C in the 1,inch direction for the elongated holes in $ig. .,&..

0$onLt forget to inclu*e ,asic *imensions.2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 66

Answer Guide

.020 M A B M

4.000-4.002 1.990-2.000

Unless Otherwise Specified: .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure # 30 @!mmetr!? problem #&. #&. /n $ig. .,&3" control the s!mmetr! of the #,inch feature with respect to the (,inch feature within a tolerance of .1#1. :se 99C;994 where'er possible. #&. /n $ig. .,&3" control the s!mmetr! of the #,inch feature with respect to the (,inch feature within a tolerance of .1#1. :se 99C;994 where'er possible.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 67

Answer Guide

Chapter 3 +osition, Coa,iality


Chapter Review
Page 171 1. #. Coa)ialit! is that condition where the a)es of two or more surfaces of re'olution are coinci*ent. here is a misconception that centerlines or title bloc7 tolerances control the between two c!linders. &. (. *. he position control is the appropriate tolerance for coa)ial surfaces of re'olution that are c!lindrical and require a ma)imum or least material condition. A cylin*rical tolerance -one is used to control the a)is of a feature toleranced with a position or a concentricit! control. he tolerance of position to control coa)ialit! ma! appl! at and the datum feature(s) ma! appl! at +.

coa)iality

MM1, ;/S, or 5M1

MM9, ;M9, or 5M9

he upper segment of a composite feature control frame controls the location of the hole pattern to the *atum features he lower segment of a composite feature control frame controls the coa)ialit! of holes to

7.

one another 3ithin the tighter tolerance


. .. he smaller tolerance -one framewor7 of a composite feature control frame with no datum features ma! float up an* *o3n, ,ac> an* forth, an* at any angle to the

*atum features
3.

within the larger tolerance -one.

he position control" with no datum features" can be applied to two or more coa)ial features controlling their coa)iality simultaneousl! within the specified tolerance.

11. A mating plug and soc7et will assemble e'er! time if the! are designed to their

4irtual con*itions
. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 68 Answer Guide

+roblems
Page 171
1.000 A
.004 M A M

2.00

Unless Otherwise Specified: .XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure 0 # @pecif! coa)ialit! tolerance? problems 1 through &. 1. 5hat controls the coa)ialit! of the two c!linders on the drawing in $ig. 3,.2

The way the drawing in Figure 9-8 is shown, nothing controls coaxiality.
#. &. <n the drawing in $ig. 3,." specif! a coa)ialit! tolerance to control the 1.111,inch diameter feature within a c!lindrical tolerance -one of .11( to the #.11,inch diameter feature. :se 99C and 994 where'er possible. <nce the feature control frame has been added to the drawing in $ig. 3,." if the smaller diameter is produced at 1.11 in diameter" how much total coa)ialit! tolerance applies2 .

!!"

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 6.

Answer Guide

2 X .500-.520
.030
M M

AB

.750

.000

1.000

36.00
Unless Otherwise Specified: .XX = .01 .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure 0 0 @pecif! coa)ialit!? problem (. (. >ocate the two holes in the hinge brac7ets within .1&1 at 99C to the datum features indicated" and specif! coa)ialit! to each other. he! must be able to accept a .*11 diameter hinge pin. :se 99C and 994 where'er possible.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 70

Answer Guide

.745-.750
.000
M

.751-.755
A
M

.001 M A M

1.000 .996

1.004 1.000

.000 @ MMC

.001 @ MMC

Figure 0 21 @pecif! coa)ialit! for the plug and soc7et? problem * and +. *. Control the coa)ialit! of the plug and soc7et in $ig. 3,11 so that the! will alwa!s assemble. @pecif! 99C and 994 where'er possible.

:lug MM1 #eo. &ol. Girtual 1on*ition


+.

Soc>et .(51 .!!1 I .(5!

.(5! F .!!! .(5!

Draw and dimension the tolerance -ones at 99C in $ig.3,11.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 7/

Answer Guide

Chapter 11 Concentricity and Symmetry


Chapter Review
Page 1.1 1. 4oth concentricit! and s!mmetr! controls are reser'ed for a few

unique tolerancing applications


#. Concentricit! and s!mmetr! both emplo! the same tolerancing the! 8ust appl! to different &.

concept

J .

geometries

Concentricit! is that condition where the median points of all diametricall! opposed elements of a surface of re'olution are congruent with the a)is 0or center point2

of a *atum feature
(. Concentricit! is a

. control. /t has a

location

cylin*rical shape*
. basis. that onl! applies at .

tolerance -one that is coa)ial with the *. Concentricit! tolerance onl! applies on a /t must ha'e at least

*atum a)is ;/S

one *atum feature me*ian points

regar*less of material ,oun*ary


+. $or concentricit!" the aggregate of all must lie within a

cylin*rical 0or spherical2 shape* the *atum feature

tolerance -one .

whose a)is is coincident with the a)is of 7.

Concentricit! can be inspected" for acceptance onl!" b! placing a on the toleranced surface of re'olution and rotating the part about its

*ial in*icator *atum a)is


.

..

o re8ect parts and to inspect features such as regular pol!gons and ellipses" the traditional method of

*ifferential measurements ,alance

is emplo!ed.

3.

he concentricit! tolerance is often used to accuratel! control for high speed rotating parts.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 72

Answer Guide

11. Parts toleranced with concentricit! are time consuming and e)pensi'e" to but less e)pensi'e to

inspect

"

manufacture

than with the runout tolerance.

11. @!mmetr! is that condition where the

me*ian points

of all opposed

or correspondingl! located points of two or more feature surfaces are with the 1#. @!mmetr! is a

congruent
of a datum feature. control.

a)is or center plane location

1&. @!mmetr! has a tolerance -one that consists of e'enl! disposed about the

t3o parallel planes


of the datum feature. . that ma! .

center plane or a)is ;/S *atum feature

1(. @!mmetr! tolerance onl! applies at 1*. @!mmetr! must ha'e at least one onl! appl! at 1+. he aggregate of all

regar*less of material ,oun*ary me*ian points t3o parallel planes *atum feature size an* form

must lie within a tolerance -one defined b! equall! disposed about the center plane of the 17. he s!mmetr! tolerance is independent of both

. .

1.. Differential measurement e)cludes

size, shape, an* form ,alance


.

while controlling the median points of the feature. 13. he s!mmetr! tolerance is often used to accuratel! control for rotating parts or to insure equal

3all thic>ness time consuming an*

#1. @pecif! s!mmetr! onl! when it is necessar! because it is

e)pensi4e
to manufacture and inspect.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 73

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page 1.#

.001 A

7.990-8.000

3.995-4.000

Figure 21 " Coa)ialit! of a c!linder? problem 1. 1. he mass of this high speed rotating part in $ig.11,7 must be accuratel! balanced. he form of the surface is sufficientl! controlled b! the si-e tolerance. @pecif! a coa)ialit! control for the a)is of the (.111,inch diameter within a tolerance of .111 at =$@ to datum feature A at =94.

6004 A

Figure 21 # Coa)ialit! of an ellipse? problem #. he mass of the ellipse shown in $ig. 11,. must be balanced accuratel!. @pecif! a coa)ialit! control that will locate the median points of the ellipse within a tolerance of .11( at =$@ to Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design Answer Guide 74 #.

datum feature A at =94.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 75

Answer Guide

3 X 24.990-25.000 .005 A

A
Figure 21 0 Coa)ialit! of the he)agon? problem &. &. he mass of the he)agon shown in $ig. 11,3 must be accuratel! balanced. @pecif! a coa)ialit! control for the median points of the he)agon within a tolerance of .11* at =$@ to datum feature A at =94.
A
6005 A

4.000

2.000-2.004

Figure 21 21 @!mmetr! of the slot? problem (. (. he part in $ig. 11,11 rotates at a high speed and the mass must be accuratel! balanced. @pecif! a geometric tolerance that will centrall! locate the slot in this part within a tolerance of .11* at =$@ to datum feature A at =94. Answer Guide 76

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

Chapter 11 Runout
Chapter Review
Page 131

1.

Circular runout applies independentl! to each

circular element

on

the surface of a part either constructed around a datum a)is or perpendicular to a datum a)is as the part is rotated <-!+ about its datum a)is. #. &. (. 5here applied to surfaces of re'olution" circular runout controls a combination of 'ariations in circularity an* coa)iality . otal runout is a compound tolerance that pro'ides control of all of a feature. otal runout tolerance is applied simultaneousl! to all circular and profile measuring positions either aroun* or perpen*icular to its datum a)is as the part is rotated *.

surface elements

<-!+

about that datum a)is.

5here applied to surfaces constructed around a datum a)is" total runout controls a combination of surface 'ariations such as

circularity, straightness, coa)iality, angularity, taper, an* profile


+. 5here applied to surfaces at a 31I angle to the datum a)is" total runout controls a combination of 'ariations of perpen*icularity to the *atum a)is an*

flatness
7. he runout feature control frame consists of

a runout sym,ol, the numerical


. are used to support a rotating part. .

tolerance, an* at least one *atum feature that applies at ;M9


.. 3. /n man! cases" two functional

*atum features

he datum reference frame for the face and diameter is quite a different requirement than the datum reference frame for the multiple *atum feature

11. Design requirements ma! ma7e it necessar! to restrict datum surface 'ariations with respect to (other geometric controls) straightness, flatness, circularity, cylin*ricity,

an* parallelism
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 77

. Answer Guide

11. /t ma! be necessar! to include a runout control for indi'idual datum features on a

multiple *atum feature reference

1#. /f two or more surfaces are controlled with a runout tolerance to a common datum reference" the worst,case runout between two surfaces is the sum of the t3o tolerances . 1&. /f two features ha'e a specific relationship between them" one should be

tolerance*
.

*irectly to the other an* not through a common *atum a)is


1(. 9ultiple leaders directed from a runout feature control frame ma! be specified without

affecting the runout tolerance

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 78

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page 13#

.002 A-B

4.000-4.005

2 X .998-1.000

Figure 22 # =unout control? problem 1. 1. <n the part in $ig. 11,." control the (,inch diameter with a total runout tolerance of .11# to both 1,inch diameters.
.001 A-B A 6002 AB< .001 A-B B

1.995-2.000

1.000 2 X .998-1.000

Figure 22 0 Partial runout? problem #. #. <n the drawing in $ig. 11,3" specif! a circular runout tolerance of .11# controlling the #,inch diameter to both of the 1,inch diameters. his control is a partial runout tolerance one inch long" starting from the left end of the #,inch diameter. @pecif! a circular runout of .111 for each of the 1,inch diameters.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 7.

Answer Guide

.0005 A .001 A-B

.0005 B

1.995-2.000

2 X .998-1.000

Figure 22 21 Datum features toleranced with a c!lindricit! tolerance? problem &. &. olerance the #,inch diameter in $ig. 11,11 with a total runout tolerance of .111 to both of the 1,inch diameter shafts. olerance each 1,inch diameter shaft with a c!lindricit! tolerance of .111*.

Figure 22 22 9ultiple features tolerance with one feature control frame? problem ( and *. (. /n $ig. 11,11" which datum feature" A or 4" ta7es precedence2

$atum feature A is no more important than *atum feature 9, an* *atum feature 9 is no more important than *atum feature A.
*. 5hat is the worst possible runout tolerance between the two largest diameters in $ig. 11,112

.!<!
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 80 Answer Guide

Chapter 1# +ro/ile
Chapter Review
Page #13 1. Profile of a line is the

outline proEecting the profile of an o,Eect on a

of an ob8ect in a plane as the plane passes through the ob8ect. #. &. Profile of a surface is the result of

plane

or ta7ing cross sections through the ob8ect at 'arious inter'als.

he true profile ma! be dimensioned with what 7ind of dimensions2

Mith ,asic size *imensions, ,asic coor*inate *imensions, ,asic ra*ii, ,asic angular *imensions, formulas, mathematical *ata, or , un*imensione* *ra3ings .
(. he feature control frame is directed to the profile surface with a

lea*er or an e)tension line


*. 5hat s!mbols do not appl! in the tolerance section of profile feature control frames2

&he *iameter sym,ol an* material con*ition mo*ifiers


+. 7. /f the leader from a profile feature control frame points directl! to the true profile" the tolerance specified is equally *ispose* a,out the true profile /f the leader from a profile tolerance points directl! to a segment of a phantom line e)tending" outside or inside" parallel to the profile" then all the tolerance .

is
.

outsi*e or insi*e the true profile


.. 5here a profile tolerance applies all around the profile of a part" the

Nall aroun*O sym,ol


3. Draw the Rall aroundS s!mbol.

is specified.

11. /f the profile is to e)tend between two points" the points are and a note using the

la,ele*

,et3een sym,ol

is placed beneath the feature control frame.

11. Draw the between s!mbol. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 8/ Answer Guide

1#. /f a part is to be controlled with a profile tolerance o'er the entire surface of the part" the

NA55 6GE;O
1&. Profile tolerances 1(.

s!mbol is specified.

may or may not

ha'e datum features.

he profile of a surface control usuall! requires a datum feature(s) to properl!

orient an* locate the surface


1*. Datum features are generall! onl!

. for profile of a line tolerances where is being controlled.

not use*

the cross section

1+. /f the design requires a smaller radius than the radius allowed b! the profile tolerance" a local note such as" NA55 16;AE;S ;.!15 MAK,O or N;.!15 MAKO is directed to the radius with a 17.

lea*er geometric tolerances

he profile tolerance ma! be combined with other to

refine of t3o or more elements in one plane

certain aspects of a surface.

1.. Coplanarit! is the condition of surfaces ha'ing all

13. Coplanarit! is toleranced with the profile of a surface feature control frame" connected with a lea*er " to a phantom line connecting the surfaces. #1. he number of coplanar surfaces followed b! an

precedes the

feature control

frame.
#1. 5here coplanar surfaces are used as a datum feature" it is best to attach the datum feature s!mbol to the profile feature control frame ##. Conicit! ma! be controlled with a . . . #(. he upper segment of a composite profile feature control frame is called the

profile of a surface tolerance composite positional tolerancing

#&. Composite profile tolerancing is 'er! similar to

profile locating control


#*. he lower segment" referred to as the

J it go'erns the . "

location relationship ,et3een the *atum features an* the profile profile refinement control
is a smaller tolerance than the profile locating control and go'erns

the size, form, an* orientation relationship


Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 82

of the profile. Answer Guide

#+.

he feature profile must fall inside

,oth profile tolerance zones

#7. Datum features in the lower segment of a composite feature control frame must satisf! two conditions?

$atum features in the lo3er segment must repeat the *atum features in the upper segment of the feature control frame. $atum features in the lo3er segment only control orientation.
#.. A second datum feature ma! be repeated in the lower segment of the composite feature control frame. 4oth datum features onl! control orientation #3. he lower segment of a multiple single,segment profile feature control frame acts 8ust li7e .

any other profile control


&1. he upper segment of a multiple single,segment profile feature control frame allows the smaller tolerance -one to translate relati'e to the datum feature not repeated in the lower segment within the larger tolerance.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 83

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page #11

2.000 A

1.800

1.015.015 3 X R.750
.020 A

Figure 23 2# Profile of a surface? problem 1. 1. @pecif! a profile of a surface tolerance of .1#1" perpendicular to datum feature A" and all around the part in $ig. 1#,1..
( > R1.000 R2.000 A .030 A B C X1 &

26000

&

60A

3.00

Figure 23 20 Profile of a surface between two points? problem #. #. Control the top surface between points G and L in $ig. 1#,13" specif! a profile tolerance of . 1&1" located to datum features A" 4" and C.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 84

Answer Guide

3 X R1.000

R3.500

.015 A B C

10.000 5.000

2.500 2.000
A

2.500
C

6.000 11.000

Figure 23 31 >ocating a profile of a surface? problem &. &. Control the entire surface of the die ca'it! in $ig. 1#,#1 to the datum features indicated within a tolerance of .11* outside the true profile. (<utside the profile is e)ternal to the true profile line. /nside the profile is within the profile loop.)

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 85

Answer Guide

3 X R1.000

R3.500

60/5 A < (

1.000

10.000 5.000

2.500 6.000
C

2.500

2.000
A

11.000
Figure 23 32 >ocating a mating profile of a surface? problem (. (. Control the entire surface of the punch in $ig. 1#,#1 to the datum features indicated within a tolerance of .11* inside the true profile. (<utside the profile is e)ternal to the true profile line. /nside the profile is within the profile loop.)

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 86

Answer Guide

4 X .375-.415
.000
M

ABC

2.000

1.000 3.000 2.000

2X

.004

A
Figure 23 33 Coplanarit!? problem *. *. he primar! datum feature is the two lower coplanar surfaces in $ig. 1#,##. @pecif! the primar! datum feature to be coplanar within .11(. Answer Guide 87

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

3 > 96500B6540
6000
M

$/600

< 2 > 96625B6665


6000
M

A<

2 > $.600 36000

76000

/6000 46000 2 X R1.50 86000


6060 A <
M

R16.00

A
Figure 23 33 Profile controlled to datum features of si-e? problem +. +.

6>> ? @ 603 6>>> ? @ 60/0 Angle ? @ /A

olerance the drawing in $ig. 1#,#&. @pecif! controls locating the hole,patterns to each other and perpendicular to the bac7 of the part. he holes are for T,inch and *;.,inch bolts respecti'el!. @pecif! a control locating the profile of the part to the hole,patterns and perpendicular to the bac7 of the part within a tolerance of .1+1.

0E)plore other solutions to this pro,lem2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 88

Answer Guide

4 X R.300

.060 A B C .010 A

2.00 2.000

1.000

1.000

5.000

1.00

Figure 23 3. Composite profile tolerancing? problems 7 through 3. 7. /n $ig. 1#,#(" specif! a profile tolerance for the center cutout that will control the si-e" form" and orientation to datum feature A within .111 and locate it to the datum features indicated within .1+1. Complete the drawing. Draw a profile tolerance below that will satisf! the requirements for problem 7 and orient the cutout parallel to datum feature 4 within .111.
6060 A < ( 60/0 A <

..

3.

Draw a profile tolerance below that will satisf! the requirements for problem 7 and locate the cutout to datum feature 4 within .111.
6060 A < ( 60/0 A <

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design 8.

Answer Guide

96500B6540
6000 M A < (

96/.0B6220
6000 M A < (

4600
(

36000 26000 /6000

/6000 26000 36500 66000

<

6 > 96250B6300 56000 7600


6040 A < ( X1 E T"* %-$!A(' E 6000 M A < (

26000
>

6020 A TWO BOTTOM SURFACES

Figure 23 34 Profile of a sheet metal part? problem 11. 11. @pecif! the lower two surfaces of the bottom of the sheet metal part in $ig. 1#,#* coplanar within .1#1. olerance the holes with geometric tolerancing. he 99C for each hole is the 'irtual condition for the mating part. @pecif! the profile of the top surface of the sheet metal part within .1(1. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .0 Answer Guide

Chapter 1& Graphic 'nalysis


Chapter Review
Page ##* 1. >ist the ad'antages of graphic anal!sis.

1. :ro4i*es functional acceptance . ;e*uces cost an* time <. Eliminates gage tolerance or 3ear allo3ance
4. Allo3s function 4erification of MM1MM9, ;/S;M9, an* 5M15M9

5. Allo3s 4erification of any shape tolerance zone -. :ro4i*es a 4isual recor* for the material re4ie3 ,oar* (. Minimizes storage require*
#. >ist the factors that affect the accurac! of graphic anal!sis.

1. &he accuracy of the inspection *ata . &he completeness of the inspection process <. &he *ra3ingLs a,ility to pro4i*e common *ra3ing interpretations

Figure 23 23 =efer to this feature control frame for questions & through 7. &. (. *. +. A piece of graph paper with datum features" true positions" tolerance -ones" and actual feature locations drawn on it (see $ig. 1&,1#) is called a *ata graph A piece of tracing paper with datum features" true positions" tolerance -ones" and actual feature locations traced or drawn is called a tolerance zone o4erlay gage he upper segment of the composite feature control frame" the drawing" and the inspection data dictates the configuration of the *ata graph . he lower segment of the feature control frame" the drawing" and the inspection data dictate Answer Guide ./

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

the configuration of the 7.

tolerance zone o4erlay gage


on the tracing paper" the featureHtoHfeature relationships are in

/f the tracing paper can be ad8usted to include all feature a)es within the

tolerance zones
tolerance.

Figure 23 23 =efer to this feature control frame for questions . through 11. .. 3. o inspect a datum feature of si-e" the feature control frame ($ig. 1&,1&)" the drawing and the inspection data dictate the configuration of the *ata graph . Draw the actual location of each feature on the data graph. /f each feature a)is falls inside its respecti'e tolerance -one" the part is in tolerance .

11. /f an! feature a)is falls outside of its tolerance -one"

further analysis may ,e


.

require* to reEect the part

11. /f the tracing paper can be ad8usted to include all feature a)es on the o'erla! gage within their respecti'e tolerance -ones on the data graph and datum a)is D contained within its shift tolerance -one while orienting datum feature 4 on the o'erla! gage parallel to datum feature 4 on the data graph" the pattern of features is accepta,le 0in tolerance2 .

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .2

Answer Guide

+roblems
Page ##+

4 X .190-.205
.010 M A B C .000 M A

4.000

2.000

1.000

1
1.000 2.000 5.000 C

4
1.000 A

Unless Otherwise Specified: .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure 23 2. A pattern of features controlled with a composite tolerance? problem 1. Feature ;umber Feature 5ocation /rom Datum /eature C 6 ',is 1.11# 1.11* &.11* &.11& Feature Feature Departure 5ocation Si-e /rom /rom Datum ((C /eature * $*onus& < ',is 1.11& F .#11 .!1! &.11+ &.11# .33. F .13. F .13. F .13+ Datum to +attern Tolerance =one Si-e Feature to Feature Tolerance =one Si-e

1 # & (

.!!. .!!. .!!-

B .! ! B .!1. B .!1. B .!1-

B .!1! B .!!. B .!!. B .!!-

Table 23 3 /nspection data for the graphic anal!sis problem? problem 1. 1. A part was made from the drawing in $igure 1&,1(" and the inspection data was tabulated in able 1&,&. Perform a graphic anal!sis of the part. /s the pattern within tolerance2 Yes Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .3

4 X .166-.180
.010 .002
M M

A BC AB

4.000

2.000

1.000

1
1.000 2.000 5.000 C

4
1.000 A

Unless Otherwise Specified: .XXX = .005 ANGLES = 1

Figure 23 24 A pattern of features controlled with a composite tolerance? problem #. Feature ;umber Feature 5ocation /rom Datum /eature C 6 ',is 1.11( .33* &.111 &.11+ Feature 5ocation /rom Datum /eature * < ',is .33. &.11( &.11+ 1.11# Feature Si-e Departure /rom ((C $*onus& Datum to +attern Tolerance =one Si-e Feature to Feature Tolerance =one Si-e

1 # & (

F .17( F .17( F .17# F .17+

.!!. .!!. .!!.!1!

B .!1. B .!1. B .!1B .! !

B .!1! B .!1!. B .!!. B .!1

Table 23 . /nspection data for the graphic anal!sis problem? problem #. #. A part was made from the drawing in $ig. 1&,1*" and the inspection data was tabulated in Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .4

able 1&,(. Perform a graphic anal!sis of the part. /s the pattern within tolerance2

Ao

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .5

Answer Guide

0&he pattern must remain parallel to *atum feature 9 ,ecause *atum feature 9 has ,een repeate* in the lo3er segment of the feature control frame.2
/f it is not in tolerance" can it be rewor7ed" if so" how2

tolerance if holes num,ere*


.000
M

&he pattern 3ill ,e in an* < are enlarge* ,y a,out .!!4.

4 X .270-.285
AD
M

.505-.530
6020
M M

A <( A

6""5

D
2 3

3.000

3.000

1
4.000 4.000

B
'ctual Feature Si-e F .#7. F .#.1 F .#.1 F .#.# F .*#1 @hift Departure /rom ((C $*onus&

Figure 23 2! A pattern of features controlled to a feature of si-e? problem &. Feature ;umber Feature 5ocation /rom Datum /eature D 6 ',is ,1.33# ,1.33& #.111 #.111 Feature 5ocation From Datum /eature D < ',is ,1.(3& 1.*13 1.*1( ,1.(31 Total Geometric Tolerance

1 # & ( Datum feature

.!!. .!1! .!1! .!1

B .!!. B .!1! B .!1! B .!1 olerance M B .! !


Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .6

Table 23 4 /nspection data for the graphic anal!sis problem? problem &. &. A part was made from the drawing in $ig. 1&,1+" and the inspection data was tabulated in able 1&,*. Perform a graphic anal!sis of the part. /s the pattern within tolerance2

Yes

4 X .214-.225
.004
M

.375-.390
6030 M A < ( 6""0 M A

AD M B

D
2 3

3.000

3.000

1
4.000 4.000

B
'ctual Feature Si-e F .##( F .#1. F .##1 F .### F .&.1 @hift Departure /rom ((C $*onus&

Figure 23 2" A pattern of features controlled to a feature of si-e? problem (. Feature ;umber Feature 5ocation /rom Datum /eature D 6 ',is ,1.33* ,1.33+ #.11* 1.337 Feature 5ocation From Datum /eature D < ',is ,1.(3* 1.*1& 1.(37 ,1.*1+ Total Geometric Tolerance

1 # & ( Datum feature

.!1! .!!4 .!!.!!.

B .!14 B .!!. B .!1! B .!1 olerance M B .!!5


Answer Guide

Table 23 ! /nspection data for the graphic anal!sis problem? problem (. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .7

(.

A part was made from the drawing in $igure 1&,17" and the inspection data was tabulated in able 1&,+. Perform a graphic anal!sis of the part. /s the pattern within tolerance2 Ao

&he pattern 3ill ,e in tolerance if all holes are enlarge* to their 5M1 size.
/f it is not in tolerance" can it be rewor7ed" if so" how2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design .8

Answer Guide

Chapter 1( ' Strategy /or Tolerancing +arts


Chapter Review
Page #(+
1.005-1.020

C 4.00

2.000

3.000 6.00

2.00
Unless Otherwise Specified: .XX = .03 .XXX = .010 ANGLES = 1

Figure 2. 2# A hole located and oriented to datum features A" 4" and C for questions 1 through +. 1. #. 5hat t!pe of geometric tolerances applies to the primar! datum feature in a drawing li7e the drawing in $igure1(,1.2 /orm tolerance 5hat geometric tolerance applies to the primar! datum feature in the drawing in $ig.1(,1.2

/latness
&. he primar! datum feature controls

the orientation

of the feature being controlled.

Figure 2. 20 A feature control frame with two location datum features? question (. (. /f the feature control frame for the hole in $ig. 1(,1. happened to be the one shown in $ig. 1(,13" what relationship would the 1,inch diameter hole ha'e to datum features 4 % C2 Answer Guide ..

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design

&he tolerance zone of the 1Cinch hole 3oul* ,e parallel to *atum feature 9 an* parallel to *atum feature 1 an* at the same time, locate* 3ith ,asic *imensions up from *atum feature 9 an* o4er from *atum feature 1.
Figure 2. 31 A feature control frame with three position datum features? question *. *. /f the feature control frame for the hole in $igure 1(,1. happened to be the one shown in $igure 1(,#1" what relationship would the 1,inch diameter hole ha'e to datum features A" 4 % C2

&he tolerance zone of the 1Cinch hole 3oul* ,e perpen*icular to *atum feature A, locate* 3ith ,asic *imensions up from *atum feature 9 an* o4er from *atum feature 1.

Figure 2. 32 A position feature control frame with a refinement? question +. +. 7. Complete the feature control frame in $igure 1(,#1 so that it will refine the orientation of the hole in $igure 1(,1. within a c!lindrical tolerance -one of .111 at 99C. Draw a feature control frame to control a pattern of holes within a c!lindrical tolerance -ones .1#* in diameter at 99C to their datum features" datum features A" 4" and C. =efine the tolerance of the feature,to,feature relationship to c!lindrical tolerance -ones .111 in diameter at 99C.

..

5hat is the orientation tolerance for the pattern of holes specified in the answer for question number 72 :erpen*icular to *atum feature A 3ithin a cylin*rical

tolerance zone of .!!! in *iameter at MM1.


3. Ueeping in mind that the primar! datum feature controls orientation" e)plain how !ou would select a primar! datum feature on a part. Pey points in selecting a primary

*atum feature areQ Select a functional surface Select a mating surface


Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /00 Answer Guide

Select a sufficiently large, accessi,le surface that 3ill pro4i*e repeata,le positioning in a *atum reference frame 3hile processing an* ultimately in assem,ly
11. Aow would !ou determine which datum feature should be secondar! and which should be tertiar!2

&he secon*ary *atum feature may ,e more important ,ecause it is larger than the tertiary *atum feature or ,ecause it is a mating surface.
4 X .514-.590
.014
M

AB M C M

3.970 2.500

.500.515
.000
M

AB M

4.235-4.250
.002 .005
M

Figure 2. 33 Pattern of features? questions 11 through 17. 11. @elect a primar! datum feature and specif! a form control for it. 1#. @elect a secondar! datum feature and specif! an orientation control for it. he 'irtual condition of the mating part is a diameter of (.#**. 1&. olerance the 7e!seat for a T,inch 7e!. Answer Guide

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /0/

1(.

olerance the T,inch clearance holes for T,inch floating fasteners.

1*. Are there other wa!s this part can be toleranced2 Aow

Yes, the hole pattern coul* ,e *atum feature 1, or *atum feature 1 coul* ,e left off entirely.
1+. /f the outside diameter is actuall! produced at (.#(1" how much shift tolerance is a'ailable2

7f *atum feature 9 3ere perfectly perpen*icular to *atum feature A, there 3oul* ,e a cylin*rical tolerance zone shift of .!15 in *iameter.
17. /f the outside diameter is actuall! produced at (.#(1 and the 7e!seat is actuall! produced at . *1*" how much can this part actuall! shift2 @7etch a gage about the part.

7f *atum feature 9 3ere perfectly perpen*icular to *atum feature A, &he outsi*e *iameter coul* shift ,ac> an* forth .!15 an* up an* *o3n .!!5. &he part coul* rotate some.
3 X .250-.285
.000
M

AD

1.000 1.000

C
1.500

1.000

1.000 2 X .510-.540
.085 .010
M M

2.000

A BC A

D
Figure 2. 33 wo patterns of features? questions 1. through #1. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /02 Answer Guide

1.. >ocate the two,hole pattern to the surface datum features with a positional tolerance of .1.* in diameter at 99C. >ocate the two holes to each other and orient them to datum feature A within a c!lindrical tolerance of .111 in diameter at 99C. 13. >ocate the three,hole pattern to the two,hole pattern within a .111 positional tolerance. #1. he two,hole pattern is specified as a datum feature at 994" at what si-e does each of the two holes appl!2

Girtual con*ition .5!! in *iameter


#1. /f the 1;#,inch holes are actuall! produced at a diameter of .*&*" what is the shift tolerance allowed for the three,hole pattern2

7f the holes 3ere perfectly oriente* an* locate* an* pro*uce* at a *iameter of .5<5, there 3oul* ,e cylin*rical tolerance zone shift of . !<5 in *iameter.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /03

Answer Guide

Problems
Page #(3
4 X .223-.246 C
.000
M

A BC

4.00 3.000 A

.500 .500 6.00


Unless Otherwise .XX = .XXX = ANGLES = Specified: .03 .010 1

4.000

2.00

Figure 2. 3. >ocating a hole pattern to plane surface datum features? problem 1. 1. Dimension and tolerance the four,hole pattern in $ig. 1(,#( for C 11 cap screws as fi)ed fasteners. Allow ma)imum tolerance for the clearance holes and +1N of the total tolerance for the threaded holes in the mating part. 0&he . < MM1 clearance hole

*iameter is su,Eect to goo* engineering Eu*gment. 7t might 4ery 3ell ha4e ,een roun*e* off to . !.2
Aow flat is datum surface A2

Mithin .!-! in reality pro,a,ly 3ithin .!15 .


Aow perpendicular are datum features 4 and C to datum feature A and to each other2

' 1+

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /04

Answer Guide

.505-.540
.060 M A B C .005 M A

3.500 C

1.500

1.500 1.500

2.500

3.000

4 X .250-.260
.000 M A D M B

Figure 2. 34 A (,hole pattern located to a datum feature of si-e? problem #. #. /n $ig. 1(,#*" tolerance the center hole to the outside edges with a tolerance of .1+1. =efine the orientation of the 1;#,inch hole to the bac7 of the part within .11*. >ocate the four,hole pattern to the center hole. Cloc7 the pattern to a surface. he four,hole pattern mates with a part ha'ing four pins with a 'irtual condition of .#*1. Gi'e each feature the ma)imum tolerance possible. At what si-e does the center hole appl! for the purposes of positioning the four,hole pattern2 Girtual

con*ition 3ith respect to orientation .5!! in

*iameter
/f the center hole is produced at a diameter of .*&*" how much shift of the four,hole

A cylin*rical tolerance zone .!<5 in *iameter if *atum feature $ is perfectly perpen*icular to *atum feature A
pattern is possible2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /05

Answer Guide

2 X .510-.525
.060 M A B C .010 M A

6 X .250-.260
.000 M A D M

D .500 3.00 1.500 .500 1.000 1.000 1.500 4.00 C


Unless Otherwise Specified: .XX = .03 .XXX = .010 ANGLES = 1

.750 1.000

1.00 B A

Figure 2. 3! olerancing? problem &. /n $ig. 1(,#+" the location of the hole patterns to the outside edges is not criticalJ a tolerance of . 1+1 at 99C is adequate. he location between the two 1;#,inch holes and their orientation to datum feature A must be within .111 at 99C. Control the si),hole pattern to the two,hole pattern within .111 at 99C. he mating part has 'irtual condition pins of .*11 and .#*1 in diameter. Complete the drawing. At what si-e does the two,hole pattern appl! for the purposes of positioning the si),hole pattern2 Girtual

con*ition 3ith respect to orientation .5!! in As much as .! ! in *iameter

*iameter
/f the two large holes are produced at a diameter of .*#1" how much shift of the four,hole pattern is possible2

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Mechanical Design /06

Answer Guide