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techforum

ThyssenKrupp

Issue 1 I 2007

Cover Airports, subway stations, trade shows just a few of the places where people need to cover large distances quickly. The TurboTrack is a revolutionary, highly efficient passenger transportation system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator. Its continuously pallet band has three speed zones. In the entry and exit areas the TurboTrack runs at 0.65 m/s. In the central section it accelerates to an impressive 2 m/s. With no need for complex infrastructure and no waiting times, the TurboTrack can transport up to 14,000 people per hour over distances of up to 1.5 km. Our cover picture shows one of the worlds first two TurboTrack installations at Lester B. Pearson International Airport in Toronto, Canada. The TurboTrack passenger transportation system was awarded 1st prize in the 2007 ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest.

PUBLISHER

ThyssenKrupp AG, Corporate Technology, August-Thyssen-Str. 1, 40211 Dsseldorf, Germany, Telephone: +49 (0)211/824-36291, Fax: +49 (0)211/824-36285

ThyssenKrupp techforum appears once or twice a year in German and English. Reprints with the permission of the publisher only. Photomechanical reproduction of individual papers is permitted. ThyssenKrupp techforum is distributed according to an address file maintained using an automated data processing system. ISSN 1612-2771

Foreword | 3

Dear readers,

Innovation activities at ThyssenKrupp have developed very positively in the past few years. Our annual Innovation Contest contributes to improving the climate for innovation, translating ideas into promising products and services and giving recognition to the work carried out by our development teams. It offers incentives for creative ideas and ultimately innovations which are essential in ensuring our continued competitiveness. This issue of ThyssenKrupp techforum presents some particularly interesting entries from the Innovation Contest, which is now in its eight year. First prize was awarded to an innovative passenger transportation system developed by ThyssenKrupp Elevator. The so-called TurboTrack is designed for high capacity and long distances. In its central section it accelerates to a top speed of 2 m/s, while the entry and exit sections move at the conventional speed of 0.65 m/s. This system the first of which has been installed at Toronto Airport in Canada can transport up to 14,000 people per hour and cover distances between 200 m and 1,500 m. Second prize went to the Uhde HPPO process for the co-product-free production of the versatile chemical propylene oxide. This exceptionally eco-friendly process produces propylene oxide from propylene using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. The process the first in the world available on a commercial scale uses less energy and produces no co-products other than water. Propylene oxide is used among other things in the production of polyurethane foams. Third prize was won by a team from ThyssenKrupp Steel for the development of a completely new method of producing innovative structural elements for the automotive industry: the so-called T3 profiling technology produces hollow steel sections for use in automotive bodymaking by shaping a blank into an almost finished component and welding it in a one-step process. This method allows the realization of completely new designs and also saves material and thus weight. I hope you will enjoy reading about both the prize-winning entries and the other equally impressive projects and that they will give you an impression of ThyssenKrupps innovative capacities and the creativity of our employees.

Yours,

Dr.-Ing. Ekkehard D. Schulz, Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG

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Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels


DR. RER. NAT. JRG LEWANDOWSKI Specialist Coordinator, Materials Competence Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. REINHILD HAUBRUCK Specialist Coordinator Sales/Engineering, Key Account DaimlerChrysler | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DR. RER. NAT. SILKE STRAU Specialist Coordinator, Center of Materials Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg ING. GRAD. HORST OEMKES Cold Strip Mill 2, Tako line | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DR. ING. BERNHARD SCHINKINGER Specialist Coordinator | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DR. RER. NAT. JOSEF SCHNEIDER Specialist Coordinator Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eichen

The material combination of a cold-rolled, dual-phase steel with low thickness and an optimized anti corrosion primer results in synergy effects offering numerous advantages for the automobile industry. The good formability and simultaneous high tensile strength and the usability of the bake hardening effect make it possible to achieve a significant reduction in the thickness of the sheet metal used and thus of the weight. The associated lower fuel consumption assists in improving the environmental balance. Furthermore, the optimized primer provides improved corrosion protection with a lower coating thickness and thus reduces costs. It also leads to an increase in the service life of the component, contributes to the value-added and simplifies processing in the stamping plant. 14 |

T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles
DR.-ING. THOMAS FLEHMIG Team Leader of New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. (FH) MICHAEL BRGGENBROCK New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg WLADIMIR RITUPER New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg LOTHAR HMIG New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg MOHAMMED TOHFA New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg

Demand for more environmentally compatible vehicles is forcing manufacturers to build extremely light automobiles, in which steel plays a dominant role because of its excellent properties. Due to their high geometrical moment of inertia, new, intelligently designed hollow section components are substantially increasing the potential of lightweight construction. Because of its unique plant and process engineering, T 3 profiling technology can be used to produce such components particularly inexpensively. Additional synergy effects are generated by giving components previously unattainable shapes and functionalities.

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OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets


DIPL.-ING. KLAUS KESSELER Manager Metallurgy Division, Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DR. RER. NAT. RONALD ERDMANN Manager Metallurgy Division, Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

OxyCup is a unique technology that allows non-recyclable, iron-bearing residual materials from iron and steel making operations to be melted back into hot metal. With environmental sustainability, an increasingly important factor, this helps to conserve raw materials resources, reduce the load on landfill disposal sites and cut costs. After extensive research conducted during a four-year period, the development of a high-quality shaft-furnace slag resulted in a disposal concept that makes it possible to convert all former waste products almost in their entirety into products. Through its outstanding, reproducible and adjustable physical and chemical values as well as its crystalline structure, the newly developed shaft-furnace slag attains properties comparable to those of natural stone such as granite and basalt. 30 |

NIROSTA 4521 a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance


DR.-ING. JRG-FRIEDRICH HOLZHAUSER Manager Metallurgy Department, Steel Plant | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Bochum DIPL.-ING. HEINZ KOCH Technical Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld

The cost of stainless steels is directly related to the prices of alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. Not least as a result of the continuing strong demand for these metals, we have seen unprecedente price increases, especially for nickel and molybdenum, which consequently have also driven the prices of austeniti stainless steels to a very high level. Through the further development of the ferritic stainless steel NIROSTA 4521 and the optimization of production processes, in particular hot forming, ThyssenKrupp Nirosta is able to provide a material that is highly corrosion resistant and offers consumers significant economic benefits in comparison to austenitic CrNiMo steels.

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Rolling microscopically fine surface structures


DIPL.-ING. MATHIAS BRWOLF Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrck DIPL.-ING. MICHAEL ULLRICH Head of Production | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrck KAI MASCHMEIER Head of Department Sales 2 | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrck

Visible structures in surfaces arise due to differing reflection characteristics of the substrate. In addition to the angle of incidence of the light, the roughness of the material surface is the primary factor determining the reflection characteristics of a surface. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband offers rolled stainless steel strips with a partially differentiated surface roughness. Individual structures and patterns can be represented on the strip by this means. Customers gain new design possibilities for their products and, at the same time, the option of improving their brand management. 38 |

HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products


DIPL.-ING., DIPL.-WIRTSCH.-ING. NORBERT ULLRICH Chief Engineer | Uhde GmbH, Dortmund DR.-ING. BRBEL KOLBE Senior Process Engineer | Uhde GmbH, Dortmund DR. RER. NAT. NIELS BREDEMEYER Senior Chemist | Uhde GmbH, Ennigerloh

The HPPO process is the first commercially available process for propylene oxide production that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidizing agent and is free of co-products. Propylene oxide is a versatile bulk chemical with high growth rates and is mainly used as a precursor for the production of polyurethanes. The entire process has been newly developed, starting with a laboratory-scale set-up, followed by several years of miniplant operation and culminating in the establishment of a large-scale reference facility with a capacity of 100,000 t/a of propylene oxide in Korea. The process includes a new reactor design and process configuration in conjunction with an optimized catalyst.

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Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive sand transportation cast components
GENE JOHNSON Electrical Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Marinette/USA TIMOTHY OWENS Melting Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Marinette/USA CODY RHODES (BS) Quality Manager | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Etowah/USA RONALD THURSTON Project Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Waupaca/USA

ThyssenKrupp Waupaca produces 1.4 million kilograms or approximately 250,000 ductile iron castings every day. Over 35% of this iron is produced for safety critical applications including automotive and heavy truck brakes, steering, suspensions and transmissions. The process to produce the ductile iron material for these components has to be monitored closely to insure the safety and strength of the material that is cast. To insure the highest quality level and introduce error proofing into the process, ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has developed two patent pending methods to determine if the important step of forming nodules in ductile iron has been properly performed and completed. 50 |

Slip free scan hardening a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways
DR.-ING. JRG ROLLMANN Head of Research and Testing Department | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt DR.-ING. WILFRIED SPINTIG Plant Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt DIPL.-ING. BERND STAKEMEIER Operations Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt

A new inductive surface hardening process that enables complete hardening of the raceways has been developed for permanently rotating slewing bearings. The new process has many advantages over the alternative case carburizing process, which is suitable for ring diameters of approx. 2 to 2.5 m. Process time, manufacturing costs and energy consumption are considerably reduced. The first scan hardening facility capable of slip-free hardening of slewing bearings with a diameter of up to 4.5 m has been installed in the Rothe Erde plant in Lippstadt. 56 |

Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS paving the way for producing steering systems in five days
DR.-ING. DIPL.-WI.-ING. DANIEL FITZEK, MSC Lead Manager Production and Logistics Systems | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein PETER SPALT, MBA Project Leader Supply Chain Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein ANJA TISCHLER (MAG. FH) Project Leader Human Resource Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein DIPL.-ING. (FH) STEFAN OBERHAUSER, MSC Project Manager Production Planning | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein

ThyssenKrupp Presta is aiming to create a flexible and streamlined company by implementing the Presta Production and Logistics System (PPLS). Process improvement teams that are networked across plants and departments are using coordinated measures to introduce streamlined production and logistics processes which will make it possible to manufacture steering systems in a process time of five days. PPLS is an innovative, holistic production system that not only ensures the targeted stabilization of series production but also encompasses improvements to the logistical order processing procedure, the production-compatible design of steering systems and the creation of highly flexible and cost-efficient manufacturing cells.

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All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks


DIPL.-ING. STEFFEN SCHMIDT Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems, Essen DR.-ING. DIRK ZIESING CAE Coordination | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems, Essen

ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems has presented an all-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavyduty trucks. The system features innovative solutions for suspension mountings, frame structures, and steering. Despite the additional effort required for the manufacture and assembly of this integrated system, the benefits it offers with respect to ride comfort, safety, crash behavior, and compactness justify its use in the production of commercial vehicles. 68 |

TurboTrack making long distances shorter


DIPL.-ING. MIGUEL GONZLEZ ALEMANY Chief Research Officer I ThyssenKrupp Elevator (ES/PBB) Ltd., London/Great Britain DR. MONICA SOFFRITTI Senior Vice President Communication & Marketing I ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG, Dsseldorf MARTINA BEHREND Senior Manager Communication & Marketing I ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG, Dsseldorf THIES EISELE Communication & Marketing I ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG, Dsseldorf

A revolutionary passenger transportation system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator, the TurboTrack, is now on the market. Thanks to its innovative technology, more people can be transported more rapidly and without waiting times over distances of up to one and a half kilometers. With a continuously running pallet belt and three speed zones, TurboTrack is an attractive product for numerous applications. The first two TurboTrack systems to enter service anywhere in the world can be found at the Lester B. Pearson International Airport in Toronto, Canada.International Air

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Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services
JRGEN WESTPHAL Management Board | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Berlin DIPL.-ING. CHRISTIAN BTTGER Branch Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Radebeul DIPL.-ING. ANDREAS MITSCHKE Sales Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Radebeul MAIK WERNER Sales Officer Projects | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Radebeul

ThyssenKrupp Schulte has developed a modular concept aimed at extending the value chain and improving networking with customers. The concept makes it possible to provide and expand services in stages. For this, various materials-related and industrial services are linked together. The concept provides ThyssenKrupp Schulte with the opportunity to increase customer penetration and reduce the earnings volatility of the materials business. One example of this concept is the graduated model developed by the Radebeul branch in collaboration with the Dresden branch of ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice for Radebeul-based printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer. 82 |

Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone
DIPL.-ING. WERNER AUEL Head of Firing Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg

ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has supplied a process for the primary-side reduction of nitrogen oxides for hard coal to a customer that operates a number of boilers with pulverized-coal firing. After the successful conversion of the firing systems and attainment of the NOx reduction target (< 200 mg/m3 NOX), an additional task was posed. This entailed feeding the extremely fine-grained fly ash resulting from the firing process, which still consists of up to a maximum of 50% unburned carbon, to an on-site system for thermal utilization. ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has, on the basis of this task, developed a melting cyclone for the combustion of the fly ash. This unit is also suitable in general for the disposal of residual industrial materials in solid, sludge or liquid form.

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| Partial view of a production plant for anticorrosion primers: Coater tower of coating line EBA 2 in the cold rolling mill at Duisburg-Beeckerwerth

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Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels


DR. RER. NAT. JRG LEWANDOWSKI Specialist Coordinator, Materials Competence Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. REINHILD HAUBRUCK Specialist Coordinator Sales/Engineering, Key Account DaimlerChrysler | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DR. RER. NAT. SILKE STRAU Specialist Coordinator, Center of Materials Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg ING. GRAD. HORST OEMKES Cold Strip Mill 2, Tako line | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DR. ING. BERNHARD SCHINKINGER Specialist Coordinator | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DR. RER. NAT. JOSEF SCHNEIDER Specialist Coordinator Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eichen

The material combination of a cold-rolled, dual-phase steel with low thickness and an optimized anticorrosion primer results in synergy effects offering numerous advantages for the automobile industry. The good formability and simultaneous high tensile strength and the usability of the bake hardening effect make it possible to achieve a significant reduction in the thickness of the sheet metal used and thus of the weight. The associated lower fuel consumption assists in improving the environmental balance. Furthermore, the optimized primer provides improved corrosion protection with a lower coating thickness and thus reduces costs. It also leads to an increase in the service life of the component, contributes to the valueadded and simplifies processing in the stamping plant.

Conflicting requirements in automobile manufacturing The pressure on the automotive industry to improve the environmental balance is constantly increasing. The steel industry is making a contribution to the reduction in emissions by improving the mechanical properties of components and thus significantly reducing the sheet thickness with corresponding weight savings. In addition, it is also important to take into account the increasing requirements of safety standards, the longevity of the produced automobile for the end customer and the economic pressures. Consistently taking into account these conflicting requirements leads to a product definition involving the combination of an innovative basic material with an economically attractive coating system. The current developmental state of the art is represented by the electrolytically galvanized, high-strength yet readily formable dual-phase steels (DP steels) with an extremely thin organic anticorrosion coating, the so-called primer | Fig. 1 |.

The material concept Dual-phase steels were specially developed for weight saving in the production of cold-formed automotive components. The tensile strengths were attained by incorporating hard phases adjacent to soft phases in the structure (ferrite with up to 20% martensite). As this structural composition of dual-phase steel combined good

Fig. 1 | Product combination of electrolytically galvanized DP steel with an optimized anticorrosion primer: Schematic and microstructure view

Optimized anticorrosion primer layer: 2 m ZE layer: 5 m Dual-phase steel core: 650 m

ZE = elektrolytically zinc-coated
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12 | Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels

Coating process in strip coating line Optimized anticorrosion primer layer: 2 m** ZE layer: 5 m Dual-phase steel core: 650 m ZE layer: 5 m Coating application: 170 C* ZE layer: 5 m Dual-phase steel core: 650 m ZE layer: 5 m Optimized anticorrosion primer layer: 2 m**

Microstructure of the dual-phase steel before (above) and after (below) baking the anticorrosion primer

* conventional baking temperature 255 C ** conventional anticorrosion primer layer: 4 m

Fig. 2 | Schematic view of the application of the anticorrosion primer to the electrolytically galvanized DP steel

Fig. 3 | Unchanged microstructure of the DP steel substrate before/after baking the anticorrosion primer at 170 C

formability with high tensile strength, their application in exposed body panels also came into consideration in addition to their intended purpose in interior components. The production and, above all, the cold-rolling of high and ultrahigh-strength steels requires special consideration in comparison to the soft, deep-drawing steels. The challenge for the production lines lies in achieving thicknesses suitable for exposed panel applications. Achieving this objective requires careful matching of the hot strip and cold strip measurements. After preliminary experiments, it was confirmed that DP steels could also be manufactured in final thicknesses of as low as 0.65 mm. It also proved possible to exploit further properties of DP steel for applications in exposed automotive panels. Due to their high hardening capacity, dual-phase steels are especially suitable for the stretch-forming of large formed components. A low yield-to-tensile ratio (< 0.65), almost isotropic forming properties and a high bakehardening potential after pre-forming support high resistance to denting. The bake-hardening effect is based on the fact that the paint baking temperatures of approximately 180 C used in the automotive industrys painting processes lead to targeted aging and a resulting additional (component) hardening of the steel by around 40 MPa. It proved possible to incorporate and integrate the aforementioned properties of dual-phase steel in the development of engine hood concepts. Combining the bake-hardening potential of the DP steel with an organic coating which would also ensure a high degree of corrosion

protection presented a special challenge. These anticorrosion primers have been known for over ten years and have proven themselves in the demanding European automobile industry over this time. They are used for corrosion protection in folds, flanges and body cavities, access to which is difficult and sometimes impossible for the secondary anticorrosion measures employed by the automakers. The development of new anticorrosion primers in previous years has led to further optimization of their properties and to considerably higher corrosion resistance levels. Development in cooperation Partners in the chemical industry were given a development order aimed at making it possible to combine the DP steels with anticorrosion primers which do not affect the bake-hardening potential of the DP steel. This was achieved by lowering the baking temperature of the primer from the original approximately 255 C to just 170 C | Fig. 2 |. This temperature, which is almost 10 C lower than the temperature of approximately 180 C at which the automobile industry carries out its painting process, permits the desired effect to be achieved. A welcome side-effect is presented by the fact that the low baking temperature of the anticorrosion primer prevents any unwanted extension of the yield limit, which would make it impossible to press passenger car shell components without flow lines | Fig. 3 |. At the same time, a further win-win situation arises: the

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Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels | 13

impairment of mechanical characteristics, which can arise due to structural changes resulting from conventional anticorrosion primers and depending on the steel grade used, is negligible overall at the low baking temperature of 170 C | Fig. 4 |. The advantage for the customer is that it is possible to work with the specific characteristics of the relevant material standards without any restrictions. The advantage for the steel producer is the elimination of material dependencies due to variances in mechanical characteristics, which translates into a reduction in quality assurance costs. Thanks to the optimization of its composition, the newly developed anticorrosion primer has made it possible to achieve a considerable improvement in the primary product requirement, i.e. the corrosion protection, compared with conventional primer systems. In the automotive industrys standardized rapid corrosion test (VDA 621-415), a corrosion resistance of approx. 15 cycles was achieved, corresponding to 15 weeks of testing without the appearance of red rust. In comparison with conventional primers, this represents an improvement of approx. 50% | Fig. 5 |. At the same time, it was possible to reduce the coating thickness to a target value of approx. 1.8 m a reduction of around 50% in comparison with conventional systems. Because the primers coating thickness is directly but (due to the spreading capacity and specific coating costs) not linearly related to the costs, a reduction in the target coating thickness also represents an economic advantage for the customer.

Furthermore, the new anticorrosion primer possesses a number of additional properties such as its dry formability (oil-free stamping plant) or, in an oiled state, an extension of the possible deep-drawing working area thanks to a significant improvement in its tribological properties. The working area for deep-drawing designates the area in which a pressed component can be deep-drawn without faults, i.e. folds and tears. The extension allows settings for stamping lines in automotive body-in-white production to be optimized, thus minimizing scrap rates. Thanks to the excellent tribological properties, drawn parts which would otherwise be difficult to form can also be manufactured without problems. Conclusion The combination of thin DP steel suitable for use in exposed automotive panels and optimized anticorrosion primers presents ThyssenKrupp Steel with the means to satisfy the automotive industrys high expectations with respect to future-oriented materials. The decisive advantages are the additional benefits that offer added value for customer and manufacturer alike. The material combination presented adds yet another steel facet one with a promising future on the market to the broad existing product spectrum.

Fig. 4 | Extract from the stress/strain curve for dual-phase steel: The absence of an extended yield limit enables pressing free of flow lines.

Fig. 5 | Corrosion results in test flange after 15 cycles (VDA test 621-415) in comparison with a reference

500

Clear rust formation Reference anticorrosion primer, 1st generation: approx. 3.5 m coating thickness

No red rust Optimized anticorrosion primer: approx. 1.8 m coating thickness

400 No extended yield limit Rp0,2 Stress [N/mm2] 300

200

100

0 0 10

Strain [%]

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| T3 pilot plant at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Duisburg

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T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles
DR.-ING. THOMAS FLEHMIG Team Leader of New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. (FH) MICHAEL BRGGENBROCK New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg WLADIMIR RITUPER New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg LOTHAR HMIG New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg MOHAMMED TOHFA New Processing Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg

Demand for more environmentally compatible vehicles is forcing manufacturers to build extremely light automobiles, in which steel plays a dominant role because of its excellent properties. Due to their high geometrical moment of inertia, new, intelligently designed hollow section components are substantially increasing the potential of lightweight construction. Because of its unique plant and process engineering, T3 profiling technology can be used to produce such components particularly inexpensively. Additional synergy effects are generated by giving components previously unattainable shapes and functionalities.

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16 | T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles

Hollow sections in automobile production The appalling environmental destruction that was graphically described in the recently published IPCC Report requires that all countries immediately undertake activities to prevent a catastrophic change in the earths climate. As one of the chief contributors to this development, the automotive industry is in particular called on to make major cuts in greenhouse gas emissions by creating new drive concepts and extremely lightweight vehicles. Most of the known concepts for vehicle bodies with lightweight and low-cost structures focus on steel as one of the primary materials. This is not only a result of steels favorable energy balance in the cycle from production to recycling, but also due to the materials outstanding ability to combine excellent crash performance with high rigidity and stress-optimized design. However, these properties can only be achieved if intelligent design is combined with new manufacturing methods. To this end, the Auto Division at ThyssenKrupp Steel aims to use new or improved vehicle and material concepts and innovative processing technologies to make its customers aware of steels potential as a lightweight construction material and to demonstrate this potential in mass production. At the IAA 2003 motor show, the company presented the NSB NewSteelBody (see ThyssenKrupp techforum, July 2004), a bodyin-white that costs only 3% more to manufacture than the reference vehicle (the Opel Zafira), but is at least 24% lighter. The NSB con-

weight structures is to use intelligently designed, thin-walled hollow sections made of steel. Around 37% of the NSB structure is made up of components based on such profiles. Further studies undertaken since then have shown that the focus should not only be on the shape of the profiles, but also on that of the surrounding modules. Only if the tubes have flange elements that fit with the adjacent stamped parts and are accessible from both sides, can they be cost-efficiently incorporated into vehicle bodies. To make this possible, the designers and, in particular, the suppliers need to provide inexpensive and innovative production methods for such components. ThyssenKrupp Steel has been researching such technologies for about ten years. After initially making tube-shaped semi-finished products out of blanks, the company has now been focusing for about three years on shortening the process chain for manufacturing the components and on creating hollow section components or modules that have previously either been impossible to produce or that could only be manufactured at great cost. Hollow section components (Thyssen Tailored Tubes) can be divided into three generations: While the first generation consisted of traditional tube-shaped semi-finished products lacking any variations in the cross-sections along the longitudinal axis, the second generation tubes are characterized by linear differences. The third generation, finally, is defined by changing tube cross-sections and secondary design elements, including finished components | Fig. 1 |.

cept plausibly showed that the key to developing economical light-

Fig. 1 | The three generations of Thyssen Tailored Tubes

Examples of cross-sections Single-part 1. Generation No variation along the longitudinal axis Multi-part linear separation Patchwork

2. Generation Conical

3. Generation Non-linear variation, also complete components

Degree of complexity
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Manufacturing requirements

T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles | 17

The combination of stampings with tubes results in modules that are either monolithic or composed of several parts. In most cases, it is not until the parts are assembled into modules that ready-to-install solutions are available. As a result, the specialists at ThyssenKrupp Steel today focus on developing modules. A process group for all generations As the components became increasingly sophisticated, the need to cut manufacturing costs by means of short process chains and integrative methods arose early on. Against this background, the vision of a one-step manufacturing technology solution for strongly structured hollow section components that should also permit their combination with stampings arose about four years ago. The name T3 profiling technology was defined later. It refers to the three generations of the tubes that can be manufactured using this manufacturing technology | Fig. 2 |. The normal production path of a front side member for the NSB consists of the steps profile shaping, longitudinal welding, preforming, bending, hydroforming, end and hole cutting and end flange forming. Each of these steps requires a manufacturing step with corresponding equipment, transfer units, operating personnel and relevant cost items. In total, there are six steps. T3 profiling technology uses a compact line to create the finished component from a shaped blank and welds it using a laser, i.e. in the best case, it brings together all six steps in one. The basis for this process group arose from various tube forming technologies such as U-O forming or roll bending. There are no direct

examples for such a process group, however, and each of the subsequently named process steps also stands alone, as an individual principle. This process step, however, is a member of the process group of T3 profiling technology | Fig. 3 |. The process variants can be combined with one another and varied according to the component geometry. This results in numerous sub-variants. The following presents a brief description of the main variants.

Fig. 2 | Shortening the process chains as a vision for the T 3 profiling technology. The example is a front side member of the NSB

Shaped blank

Finished component

Compact line

T3 process sequence: 1. Profile shaping 2. Longitudinal welding 3. Tube bending 4. Hydroforming 5. End and hole cutting 6. Flange forming

Fig. 3 | The four main process modifications of T 3 profiling technology

Curling

Core rolling

Modified U-O forming

W forming

18 | T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles

In curling, a blank is shaped in the gap between two forging die and core pieces, calibrated on a centering blade and the abutting edge joint is finally rounded off and welded closed. This is historically the oldest variant and is suitable for first and second generation tubes. In core rolling, the forging dies move symmetrically towards a solid core and completely enclose it. During this process, after the centering blade has been withdrawn, the core shapes the workpiece. This is accompanied by targeted calibration. Depending on the component, it can be welded closed with or without the core. Core rolling is suited for all generations of Thyssen Tailored Tubes that only have extremely small longitudinal curvature and secondary design elements and/or undercuts. The NSB side member referred to above was
Fig. 4 | Partial steps of the core rolling technique when fabricating the NSB side member

simulated in this way. | Fig. 4 | shows the essential partial steps of the simulation. In modified U-O forming a preliminary shaping step is first carried out to form the lower contour by means of a U core in a U forging die. An O forging die that can also be split is then lowered onto the U forging die and in the process forms the finished profile with or without the use of a core. After removing the O forging die, the abutting edge joint is exposed and can be welded. Modified U-O shaping is suitable for more strongly-structured profiles with moderate curvatures, secondary design elements and undercuts. If the component involves a high degree of structuring with pronounced secondary design elements, undercuts, openings and extension elements, then W forming is suitable. This process variant requires an opened, deep-drawing preform with a linear region. The component is then finally closed by turning over this area, then by calibrating and by welding closed the abutting edge joint. New equipment Every process requires suitable equipment for its realization. In the case of the T3 profiling technology, there was no standard to fall back on. As a consequence, the entire configuration not only had to be newly defined; it also had to be completely newly developed. The laboratory curling facility was set up in 2001 as a precursor of the T3 profiling line and has been systematically further developed since that time | Fig. 5 |. After intensive experimentation both on the laboratory facility and in numerous FEM (finite element method) simulations, the New Processing Technologies team decided they had reached a point at which the functionality of a pilot press could be defined in a specification. According to this specification, a press with four side functions was required, i.e. the primary working direction must be accompanied by an auxiliary working direction at 90. This requirement is, however,

Fig. 5 | Laboratory curling facility (precursor of the T3 profiling line)

only capable of effective implementation when every working direction

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1.5 t 200 t 1.5 t 1.5 t 200 t

1,000 t

1,000 t

1,000 t

1,000 t

200 t

Fig. 6 | Four-side concept of the T3 pilot press with press forces, for forming and welding

also has a fixed side. This, in turn, forces the auxiliary direction also to have a component in the primary direction. The press concept was also extended by a core-pulling unit working along the longitudinal axis and a 4 KW solid-state laser welding unit with a 3D axis system | Fig. 6 |. Additional, no less important movements are realized in the modules of the blade-pulling unit, the edge centering lever, the blank carrier unit and the take-up plate. Numerous connection locations complete the configuration. Additional plant parameters decisive for the process are precise, synchronous-running axes with maximum rated loads und maximum rigidity. Cycle time comparisons show that considerable cost advantages arise when the plant is designed according to a twin concept with 2

work stations. The process time overlap of the two stations increases the output by more than 60%. At the same time, the investment required is reduced significantly thanks to the double utilization of the controller, the hydraulics, and the laser. In order to achieve ease of operation and minimize the footprint, the team decided on an A shaped frame variant with front-mounted supply and control modules. | Fig. 7 | shows the twin concept and the working area of the first workstation. The company Karl Eugen Fischer Maschinenfabrik of Burgkunstadt, was commissioned to design and produce the press. The New Processing Technologies team accompanied and intensively monitored the development and manufacture. In May 2006, the press was

Fig. 7 | Working area of the first workstation of the T3 pilot press (left); A-shaped twin machine concept (right)

200 t

200 t

1,000 t

200 t

0.4 t

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20 | T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles

delivered to ThyssenKrupp Steel. Final assembly was completed in December 2006. Start-up for the production of a 3-m-long flat-cone component with a tailored structure and extreme dimensions | Fig. 8 | has been in progress since January 2007. Important milestones and views from the manufacturing and construction phase, the transport and after completion are brought together in | Fig. 9 |. Application and advantages The design possibilities for hollow sections from T3 profiling are extremely varied. Such sections can be straight, slightly curved, conical, round, ridged or variable with secondary design elements. Mild or high-strength steels can be processed; tailored structures are just as possible as monolithic designs. Flange connections, stamping extensions, bulkhead plates, openings and tops are also possible within specific limits. With respect to the size, the only limitations are the working area and the available press forces. As a result T3 components are not restricted to applications in vehicles of all types. Additional applications present themselves, for example in scaffolding, shipbuilding, aircraft manufacture, furniture production, and industrial design. The preconditions for their application in vehicles are that the respective module be consistently designed for hollow sections, a design with stamping-type connection locations and nodes, and a body-in-white and/or an assembly analogous to a stamped-and-welded construction. | Fig. 10 | shows examples of applications in the fields of vehicle bodywork and exhausts. In addition to the new design possibilities, T3 components also provide cost advantages. These are less from the tooling or material

costs than from the design potential and the short process chain itself. Thanks to the bringing together of individual stamped components into integrated hollow section components and the elimination or integration of individual process steps, as well as the saving of transfer steps, considerable savings can be achieved for medium and large volumes. For example, the first cost comparisons between the stampeddesign side member of the reference vehicle for the NSB (Opel Zafira) available on the market and the NSB side member already resulted in cost equivalence without optimizing the design with respect to the possibilities offered by T3 . And this with a weight saving of 26%, linked with an 11% increase in energy absorption in the component. With respect to the alternative process hollow sections from half-shells with flange, a cost advantage of 6% and a 10% weight saving resulted. Summary To date, it has been possible to identify potential components in the body sector with a total production volume of approximately 36 million pieces. The advantages of the T3 profiling can thus be summarized as follows: securing the steel sales of ThyssenKrupp Steel for future generations of vehicles, long-term, high market potential for the automotive area, shipbuilding, scaffolding etc, ThyssenKrupp is innovation leader in the area of vehicular applications for hollow sections,

Fig. 8 | Commissioning part: Flat-cone component with longitudinal flange and tailored structure (3,000 x dia. 180 x dia. 40 of 1.5 mm CPW800 / 2.0 mm DC04 / 2.5 mm CPW800)

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Preassembly at Fischer company

Structure of the hydraulics unit

Transport to ThyssenKrupp Steel in Duisburg

Fig. 9 | Views of the T3 pilot press during preassembly, setup, transport and after completion

leading specialist supplier expertise in the areas of bodies, chassis, exhaust as well as long-term OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) customer loyalty. The marketing of the products made by this technology is an area to which Sales/Engineering at ThyssenKrupp Steel is paying special attention. A marketing concept intended to continue specifically

preparing the potential for ThyssenKrupp Steel is currently being developed on the basis of fundamental strategic studies. The New Processing Technologies team is now working intensively on successfully concluding the commissioning of the press. The first real components are currently undergoing testing; discussions with the OEMs regarding joint projects in the area of T3 profiling technology have begun.

Fig. 10 | Examples of applications of T3 sections in the NSB (left) and in the exhaust area (right)

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22 |

| OxyCup slag enlarged (below: reflected-light microscope)

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OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets


DIPL.-ING. KLAUS KESSELER Manager, Metallurgy Division, Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DR. RER. NAT. RONALD ERDMANN Manager, Metallurgy Division, Hot Metal Production | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

OxyCup is a unique technology that allows non-recyclable, iron-bearing residual materials from iron and steel making operations to be melted back into hot metal. With environmental sustainability, an increasingly important factor, this helps to conserve raw materials resources, reduce the load on landfill disposal sites and cut costs. After extensive research conducted during a four-year period, the development of a highquality shaft-furnace slag resulted in a disposal concept that makes it possible to convert all former waste products almost in their entirety into products. Through its outstanding, reproducible and adjustable physical and chemical values as well as its crystalline structure, the newly developed shaft-furnace slag attains properties comparable to those of natural stone such as granite and basalt.

Slags as byproducts of steel production Iron and steel are not only among the most important materials of all time; they are also among the most versatile. Specific adjustment of chemical composition, appropriate heat treatment, and targeted deformation make it possible to produce iron alloys and steels with extremely varied properties for a wide range of application areas. The steel industrys innovative capacities and its broad spectrum of development are, however, not limited to the main products iron and steel; they also encompass further development of the most important byproducts, including slag from steel mills. Slag products with an extremely broad range of properties are now available. These standardized, quality-controlled products are even superior in some instances to natural materials for use in the most varied areas of application where high quality is required. OxyCup process

down. Arriving in the blast-furnace hearth together with the charge, the coke used as a reduction agent is converted into carbon monoxide by means of a heated air blast. The gas mixture of this carbon monoxide and the nitrogen from the blast air ascends in the furnace and heats the material it encounters. In so doing, the carbon monoxide reduces the iron oxides. The raw materials first lose their volatile components, then the iron oxides gradually change from the highest to the lower oxidation states, and then finally into metallic iron. The iron alloy, which contains carbon, melts at approx. 1,140 C and sinks to the bottom, settling on the furnace hearth under the lighter layer of slag. The slag is formed from the gangue of the iron ore and elements of the charge that have not been reduced. When the blast furnace is tapped, molten slag and hot metal are drawn from the furnace together and then separated from each other in trough systems (skimmer). In contrast, the OxyCup shaft furnace technology | Fig. 1 |, which was developed at ThyssenKrupp Steel, processes residual materials from iron and steel production. Typical charge materials are dusts and sludges from iron and steel production facilities, and sometimes oil-bearing mill-scale sludge from rolling mills and slag residue with iron content. The aim of this technique is to remove these fine-grained materials from the steel mills internal cycle and to process them using a method that is specially tuned to their composition | Fig. 2 |. This is necessary because these materials, which are collected

Most iron found in nature is in the form of an oxide. The process of extracting the iron content generally begins with iron ores, which are composed of the iron-bearing mineral and the gangue. Oxide ores are by far the most important types, due to their high iron content and ready availability, e.g. from opencast mines in Brazil. Hematite iron ore, for example, is nearly 70% iron. Most pig iron, a pre-product in steel production, is extracted in blast furnaces. The raw materials in the blast furnace undergo a complex transformation as they move

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24 | OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets

Fig. 1 | OxyCup shaft furnace at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Duisburg

primarily from air-purification systems at processing facilities, contain substances that can have adverse effects on production and quality in such facilities. As is true with all shaft-furnace methods, the OxyCup process requires a feedstock in the form of lumps. Like ore, the dusts and sludges used in the OxyCup shaft furnace are iron-oxygen compounds that must be reduced in order to extract iron. However, this requires reduction times that are determined by the kinetic reaction rates with the coke. The dwell time in the shaft furnace is too brief for this, though. This is why cold-bound, self-reducing agglomerate bricks | Fig. 3 |, within which reduction reactions proceed automatically when they are heated, were developed. The reduction in the agglomerate bricks takes place by means of the coke breeze in the mixture and the additional carbon already present in the residual materials. The decisive factors are that the reduction must proceed in a controlled manner and the bricks must react in such a way that they do not burst and disrupt the gas flow in the furnace. Self-reducing agglomerate bricks To produce the agglomerate bricks, the dusts and sludges are mixed in a high-speed mixer with coke breeze, water, mineral binders, and other ingredients to form a homogeneous mass. The fine coke breeze, which is also a byproduct, cannot be used in other processes due to its fine-grained nature. This mixture is then shaped into agglomerate bricks in a jolt squeeze molding machine like those used in the pro-

duction of concrete blocks. After a maximum drying time of three days, the agglomerate bricks and the iron-bearing slag residues are then added to the OxyCup shaft furnace in a 70:30 mixture on the furnace top. The shaft-furnace tower is roughly ten meters high. Approx. 2,200 C at the tuyeres, the temperature decreases to about 250 C, due to the fact that the heat of the gas is transferred to the descending charge. The shaft furnace is a hot-blast countercurrent reactor. The bricks added to the furnace move through the shaft against the flow of the gas. In so doing, the oxide compounds react with the added reducing agents before melting in the higher-temperature zone. Similar to the process in a blast furnace, in the hot reaction zone the reaction gas is blown into the furnace via a circular pipeline. The blast temperature during this phase is approx. 620 C. At the bottom of the furnace, the hot metal is then continually tapped at a temperature of approx. 1,500 C separately from the slag. The shaft furnace produces up to 65 t of hot metal and 30 t of slag per hour. Slag from metallurgical reducing processes The slag phase serves two purposes in the blast-furnace process. In addition to removing the non-reducible elements of the ore gangue and the coke ash from the furnace in molten form, it also carries out metallurgical functions, such as desulphurization of the hot metal. Blast-furnace slag is largely composed of mixed phases of the oxides CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO. The blast-furnace operators task is to

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OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets | 25

assemble feedstocks ranging from highly acidic ore pellets to basic sinter that will ensure the desired composition of the finished slag. The coke ash, which has a higher aluminum oxide content, must also be taken into account during this process. This is done by adding materials such as CaCO3 (limestone) to the feedstocks. A rough measure here is provided by the binary basicity B1, the ratio of CaO to SiO2. Most blast furnaces today operate with basic blast-furnace slag. The aforementioned main elements represent more than 90% of the slags composition; the basicity of the CaO/SiO2 is usually between 1.1 and 1.2. Due to their higher CaO contents, basic slags have higher melting temperatures than acidic blast-furnace slag. A special method can be used to create acidic slags with basicities CaO/SiO2 < 1.0 and low melting temperatures. In addition to the physical and chemical values of the slags, their physical properties also play an important role. Vitally important for the functioning of the tapping process, for instance, is the slags viscosity, in combination with the temperature. Low-viscosity blast-furnace slags can be obtained at medium-range basicities of between 1 and 1.3, while high-viscosity slags are obtained at basicities of < 1.0. The viscosities increase once again, however, on the high-basicity side. These increases, which in some instances are extreme, are a result of the precipitation of extremely finely distributed crystals when the respective levels of saturation are exceeded.

The blast-furnace slag is granulated by means of very rapid cooling with copious amounts of water. This granulated blast-furnace slag is used as a main ingredient of cement (blast-furnace cements). In recent years, the use of cements containing granulated slag has been steadily on the rise in Germany, thanks to their advantageous technological and ecological characteristics. Slowly air-cooling the blast-furnace slag in beds yields a lumpy, mostly crystalline slag that can be used as a mineral material for paving roads, footpaths, and bicycle paths, and as an additive for concrete. Due to the metallurgy in the OxyCup shaft furnace, the shaftfurnace slag is an acidic slag with a CaO/SiO2 ratio of < 1.0 and tends to form amorphous (glass-like) structures when cooled | Fig. 4 |. To obtain this slag basicity, acidic materials such as gravel with a high proportion of SiO2 are added to the charge. If this slag is poured in molten form into a bed like the basic blast-furnace slag and air-cooled | Fig. 5 |, varying amounts of vitreous and crystalline material are produced. Because of the limited mechanical properties of such a material, it is not suitable for use in road construction or for paths and walkways. Economic perspective Shaft-furnace slag is a new product displaying properties that are hardly comparable to those of blast-furnace slag, which has been extensively studied. If shaft-furnace slag is cooled very slowly, the

Fig. 2 | OxyCup shaft furnace: Material flow management at ThyssenKrupp Steel

Production line Mill scale (coarse) Sinterplant ESP dust

Recycling line

BF dust

BF sludge Blast furnace Skulls/rubble

C-Brick manufacturing Bricks

BOF dust (fines) Hot briquetting Steel plant Skulls, processed slag BOF dust (coarse) Hot metal Hot strip mill Mill scale sludge (oily) BF = Blast-Furnace BOF = Basic Oxygen Furnace ESP = Electrostatic Precipitator
Existing recycling inside the production Main production line Recycling parallel to main production line

OxyCup shaft furnace

26 | OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets

result is a crystalline product with excellent mechanical and environmental properties. It was therefore necessary to find a way to produce a solid, crystalline shaft-furnace slag suitable for the most demanding areas of application, for example as riprap. If these high quality criteria could be met, there would be no limitations to the use of the slag for other possible applications in road and highway construction. Operation of the OxyCup shaft furnace under everyday conditions

establishing defined conditions for cooling, adapting the processing to this specially produced shaft-furnace slag, determining the characteristic properties of an optimally produced shaft-furnace slag and establishing the areas of application, introducing a process for the continuous production of riprap made of shaft-furnace slag and using the shaft-furnace slag in a reference construction project. In summary, it is clear that the results of the studies conducted indicate the possibilities of influencing the morphological processes during cooling so that the shaft-furnace slag solidifies to form a product that is the equal of high-quality building materials on the market in terms of its technological properties and grain-size distribution. Pouring the molten shaft-furnace slag with a carefully adjusted composition into molds with capacities of up to 17 m3 and cooling it in a controlled, slow fashion ensures that the greatest proportion of the slag becomes a crystalline solid. The granularity of the stone thus produced displays the strength values needed for blast-furnace slag of the highest quality class. Before the start of the project, the entire volume of shaftfurnace slag, which is comparable to blast-furnace slag, was poured in molten form into beds. With faster cooling, the acidic, reduced slag with a basicity of < 1.0 tends to form glass because it contains a higher proportion of network-forming silicic acid. This undefined cooling process for the shaft-furnace slag cannot ensure the maximum possible volume of high-strength crystalline material. The aim was, however, to produce a shaft-furnace slag that would at least meet the HOS-A quality class or have characteristics equal to those of natural stone. Slag with a C/S basicity of < 0.65 that is cooled in a slow, controlled manner meets these requirements. Examinations of the solidified slag, following its preparation to achieve suitable granularity, yielded excellent results in slag testing and bulk densities of approx. 3 g/cm3. The examinations of the mineral composition of the test slags with low C/S basicity showed a shift from the mineral akermanite to diopside. This means that the strength of the shaft-furnace slag is

uses a feedstock whose proportion of self-reducing cement-bound agglomerate bricks does not exceed 70%. As a result of the high proportion of bricks and the accompanying materials they contain, the OxyCup shaft furnace produces large quantities of slag approx.

350-450 kg/t hot metal. The slag output of a foundry cupola furnace (between 60 and 80 kg/t hot metal), by contrast, is much lower, and even blast furnaces produce only approx. 250-280 kg/t hot metal. Given this high slag output, it is essential to ensure that a high-quality slag with application-oriented properties is produced, in order to avoid producing new residual materials in the OxyCup shaft furnace

in the form of slag that can not be utilized. This is the only way to live up to the claim of having a closed, environmentally sustainable production system that is both in line with the principle of a zerowaste process and also combines ecological and economic targets in an ideal manner. The slags clearly defined chemical, mineral, and physical parameters can thus be used to ensure consistent characteristics that meet quality standards in, for example, hydraulic engineering and highway engineering. Ensuring that these quality standards are met also leads to greater acceptance and more widespread use of the OxyCup

shaft furnaces closed recycling process, which is unique worldwide. Over the long term, it will be possible to secure the use of approx. 50,000 to 100,000 t of shaft-furnace slag per year as high-quality building material in a market with a good sales revenue structure. As a mineral material comparable to natural stone, the shaft-furnace slag is expected to contribute to the conservation of natural resources. Slag innovation The aim of the development activities was to create a process that would make it possible to produce a high-strength, high-density crystalline material from shaft-furnace slag. It was also important for the material to have excellent characteristics in terms of water resources management. The product needed to have characteristics that make it suitable for use as riprap. This required the investigation of various aspects: optimizing the chemical composition of the shaft-furnace slag through appropriate measures in the production process in the OxyCup shaft furnace,

affected not only by the cooling conditions but also by the mineral composition, which is changed by the C/S basicity. The iron content of the slags only affects the color (low Fe content: brown) and the viscosity during tapping (low Fe content: higher relative viscosity); it does not affect strength. Environmental compatibility In addition to the technical parameters, the hydraulic characteristics of the shaft-furnace slags are also a decisive factor affecting their subsequent use. The first indications emerged from trough tests conducted at the Research Association for Iron and Steel Slags (FEhS).

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OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets | 27

Crystalline phase

Amorphous phase

Fig. 3 | Cold-bound, self-reducing agglomerate bricks

Fig. 4 | Formation of amorphous and crystalline phases in the shaft-furnace slag

Fig. 5 | Pouring molten slag into a bed

The values of the examined parameters in the leachates from the trough tests easily met the limits for the use of blast-furnace slag, for example in highway construction. It is also clear that the solidified, crystalline shaft-furnace slag stands out markedly from most other steel mill slags in terms of its environmental compatibility. The specially cooled shaft-furnace slag is completely inert, meaning, for example, that its pH value is in the neutral range. The electrical conductivity in the leachate is particularly low due to the low concentration of Ca ions. Any heavy metals and sulfur that may be present are also not leached out. The testing program for determining the Water Hazard Classification (WGK) for the shaft-furnace slag showed that the shaft-furnace slag is rated in the non-hazardous to water class. The determination of characteristics that pose a hazard to water resources and the toxicity levels for algae, Daphnia and fish can only take place in aqueous solutions. For this reason, the corresponding tests were conducted with a ten percent aqueous leachate of the slag. Specific guidelines served as the basis for determining the inhibiting effects on cell reproduction of green algae. This involved cultivating the green algae Scenedesmus subspicatus for 72 hours under defined conditions in a nutrient medium with different concentrations of the leachate from the shaft-furnace slag. The toxicity of the leaching filtrate is checked by determining the cell count at specific time intervals (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). Toxicity for Daphnia is determined in similar fashion, using a water flea of the genus Daphnia magna Straus. The measure of the effect of water-borne substances was the dilution level of the leachate in which a certain percentage of the Daphnia were still capable of swimming at the end of the 48-hour test period (temperature: 20 C 1 C, no illumination). The acute toxicity for fish was tested using

ide (Leuciscus idus) between 5 and 7 cm in length. During the 96-hour test period, the temperature of the aerated solution was maintained at a constant 20 C 1 C. In summary, it was possible to determine that no environmental hazard is posed by the shaft-furnace slag that was developed in the course of the research efforts. Areas of application Due to the volumes produced approximately 50,000-100,000 t per year which are low compared to figures for the blast-furnace process, and based on its good physical and chemical properties, OxyCup slag will be offered on sales markets that previously were dominated by natural materials such as basalt, granite, and greywacke. This is a segment characterized by costly building materials, which means that good revenues are to be expected as a result of establishing OxyCup slag on the market. Possible areas of application are its use as a reinforcing material for riverbanks, shorelines, quays etc. (riprap), in landscaping and gardening, and as boundary elements. Before a market launch, for example as riprap, numerous requirements and regulations must be complied with following the preparation and sifting of the slag | Fig. 6 |. The slag particles that are produced must have a stone shape with a length and width that do not exceed certain limits. In addition, the proportion of rounded stones must not exceed a predetermined value. This excess can be ruled out during the production process by breaking and screening the shaft-furnace slag.

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Fig. 6 | Preparing shaft-furnace slag for use as riprap

Fig. 7 | Completing a groyne made completely of shaft-furnace slag

The stones must have a bulk density of at least 2.3 g/cm3 in order to meet the technical requirements. With an average bulk density of 2.92 g/cm3, the shaft-furnace slag meets this requirement.

structed as a demonstration | Fig. 7 |. A total of 4,000 t of riprap made of shaft-furnace slag was processed at the site. In the landscaping and garden design sector, as well as in the reclamation of waste land, the new product offers many design possibilities and is attracting strong interest on the part of landscape architects and garden designers, as the examples in | Figs 8 -10 | show. Summary/conclusion The studies focusing on adjusting the shaft-furnace slag analysis in the furnace and following tapping, as well as the implementation in everyday practice, represent a sustainable contribution to integrated environmental protection in the steel industry. 1. The participants succeeded in establishing conditions for furnace operation that allow appropriate adjustments to be made to the composition of shaft-furnace slag. 2. Producing shaft-furnace slag that has a suitable basicity and is subjected to a cooling process carried out under defined conditions can yield a high-quality product.

In order to also ensure that the slag can withstand temperature fluctuations outdoors without suffering any significant damage, it is necessary to determine the frost-thaw fluctuation resistance, which depends on the stones water absorption. With a water absorption of less than 0.5%, the shaft-furnace slag is rated as suitable for allseason applications involving freezing and thawing. The ripraps resistance to breaking is determined by testing its compressive strength, which must exceed 80 MPa. Testing of the shaft-furnace slag yielded an average value of 280 MPa, three and one-half times the required minimum. The strength of the new product thus reaches a level that is otherwise only displayed by the natural materials granite and basalt. On the basis of these tests and positive results, carefully selected markets have been explored in cooperation with the preparation and marketing team. In an initial measure carried out in cooperation with the Waterway and Marine Transport Agency of Wesel, a groyne projecting 8 m out into the Rhine River was con-

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OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets | 29

3. Shaft-furnace slag produced in this manner can be marketed in high-end markets and contributes substantially to the conservation of natural resources. 4. The processing of residual materials in hot metal and producing the marketable product shaft-furnace slag can help to conserve natural raw materials. The studies focusing on the production of a high-quality product made from molten shaft-furnace slag have yielded positive results. The project findings have been applied in everyday practice at the OxyCup shaft furnace. In addition to determining the slag composition, this work involved developing coordinated, reproducible furnace operating procedures, suitable cooling conditions and measures for preparing stone in sizes suitable for areas of application with demanding standards.

The extremely slow solidification of the slag in slag troughs results in a high-quality product that is appropriate for even the most demanding marine applications. ThyssenKrupp Steel has thus developed a highly innovative solution for the utilization of slag. In summary, it is clear that the process for the dry granulation of molten slag from the shaft-furnace metal-smelting process in the special troughs with a capacity of 10 - 20 t and a cooling period of at least four days has proven its value. Now it is possible to produce high-quality riprap that will win a strong position in a lucrative market thanks to the outstanding characteristics of shaft-furnace slag.

Fig. 8 | Gabion wall in Duisburg-Rheinhausen

Fig. 9 | Pond site

Fig. 10 | Embankment design

30 |

| Possible application of NIROSTA 4521: hot water boiler

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NIROSTA 4521 a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance


DR.-ING. JRG-FRIEDRICH HOLZHAUSER Manager Metallurgy Department, Steel Plant | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Bochum DIPL.-ING. HEINZ KOCH Technical Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld

The cost of stainless steels is directly related to the prices of alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. Not least as a result of the continuing strong demand for these metals, we have seen unprecedented price increases, especially for nickel and molybdenum, which consequently have also driven the prices of austenitic stainless steels to a very high level. Through the further development of the ferritic stainless steel NIROSTA 4521 and the optimization of production processes, in particular hot forming, ThyssenKrupp Nirosta is able to provide a material that is highly corrosion resistant and offers consumers significant economic benefits in comparison to austenitic CrNiMo steels.

Stainless steels ThyssenKrupp Nirosta is among the worlds leading producers of stainless steel flat products. Products made of stainless steel have been well-established in the marketplace for many years, not only for many industrial applications but also for a wide array of consumer goods. And by virtue of their excellent properties, they also frequently offer an economical solution. Their typical properties and characteristics are: corrosion resistance, high tensile strength, good formability, good welding properties, easy cleaning, low maintenance, extremely long service life and easy recycling. Corrosion resistance in steel is achieved by alloying it with Cr content equal to at least 10.5% of the total volume of the steel. Typical stainless steels, such as NIROSTA 4301, contain a minimum of 17% Cr and 8% Ni. Having an austenitic structure, these steels are particularly well-suited for forming. The corrosion resistance of the steels can be further improved by adding molybdenum to the alloy.

In response to dramatic increases in raw material prices in recent years | Fig. 1 |, efforts are being intensified to replace stainless austenitic CrNi steels and CrNiMo steels with less costly stainless ferritic Cr steels and CrMo steels. This article describes the production and properties of the stainless ferritic CrMo steel NIROSTA 4521. Material properties As defined by the applicable material standards EN 10088 in Europe and ASTM A 240 in the USA, the steel grade NIROSTA 4521 is a ferritic CrMo steel with approx. 17.5% Cr, 2% molybdenum, and niobium and titanium stabilization or only titanium stabilization. The typical composition of the steels NIROSTA 4521 and NIROSTA 4301, and of the CrNiMo steels NIROSTA 4401 and NIROSTA 4571, is shown in | Fig. 2 |. | Fig. 3 | shows the typical mechanical properties of the ferritic steel NIROSTA 4521 and the austenitic steels NIROSTA 4301, NIROSTA 4401, and NIROSTA 4571. Processing properties NIROSTA 4521 is well-suited for cold-forming. Deep-drawing, pressing and spinning operations, pipe bending and rolling pose no problem for this material, thanks to its low strain hardening value. NIROSTA 4521 is less suited to stretch-forming processes, which require a

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32 | NIROSTA 4521 a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance

60,000

120,000

50,000

Molybdenum

100,000

40,000 Nickel [US$/t]

80,000

Molybdenum [US$/t]

30,000

60,000

20,000 Nickel 10,000

40,000

20,000

0 Oct. 01 April 02 Oct. 02 April 03 Oct. 03 April 04 Oct. 04 April 05 Oct. 05 April 06 Oct. 06 April 07
Fig. 1 | Increasing costs of the alloys nickel and molbydenum

higher strain hardening value. NIROSTA 4521 can be welded by any process appropriate for stainless steels, without the need for preheating and subsequent heat-treatment. Processes with low heat penetration are preferred for this material. When welding with austenitic welding filler metals, the different expansions of the metal being welded and the base metal should be taken into account. Corrosion resistance The corrosion resistance of stainless steels in media containing chloride is essentially determined by the chromium and molybdenum content. NIROSTA 4521s pitting potential is therefore equal to that of the

of the surface of the roll material and adhere to the surface of the hot-rolled strip. As the rolling operation proceeds, the particles, which have become oxidized, are pressed into the surface of the hot strip. This is damaging to the roll surface and the surface of the hot strip. For this reason, NIROSTA 4521 production is severely limited in terms of maximum width and production batch volume. Changing the analysis to double stabilization with Nb and Ti, a modified deoxidization practice during steel production combined with changes in the process technology during hot rolling have ensured a production of hot rolled strips with good surfaces | Fig. 5 |. Any faults that have occurred have been of minor intensity, with no adverse effects on production. All the expertise and know-how of ThyssenKrupp Stainless, and the transfer of this knowledge, played a decisive role in the aforementioned process optimization. The process optimization has made it possible to eliminate production volume limitations. Now, NIROSTA

grades NIROSTA 4401 and NIROSTA 4571, and even exceeds that of NIROSTA 4301 | Fig. 4 |. Ferritic stainless steels also are much

more resistant to stress corrosion cracking than are austenitic stainless steels with a Ni content of approx. 10%. Areas of application The good corrosion resistance of NIROSTA 4521 makes it a suitable material for hot water boilers, residential water pipe systems, and numerous other components used in energy and heating technology. Other applications are motor vehicle exhaust systems and any area where using a material with conventional austenitic qualities poses a risk of stress corrosion cracking. Process innovation During hot rolling, stabilized ferritic Mo-alloy stainless steel grades tend to stick to the roll surface. This means that particles are pulled out

4521 as well as other stainless ferritic steels can be planned into rolling operations without special considerations. This in turn also makes it possible to produce wider strips than it was possible in the past. Conclusion and outlook The further development and optimization of the manufacturing processes has resulted in sustainable improvement in terms of the production possibilities for the material NIROSTA 4521. NIROSTA 4521 is a ferritic stainless steel that offers an affordable alternative to the stainless austenitic CrNiMo steels.

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| 33

Steel grade C

Chemical composition [mass %] Cr Mo Ni Ti Nb

Ferrite

1.4521

0.020

17.50

2.0

0.20

0.27

Austenite

1.4301 1.4571 1.4401

0.040 0.040 0.035

18.00 16.70 16.70

2.0 2.0

8.10 10.60 10.60

0.35 -

Fig. 2 | Composition of various steel grades with ferritic or austenitic structure

Steel grade

Yield strength Rp0.2 [N/mm2]

Tensile strength Rm [N/mm2] 510

Ellongation A80 [%] 29

Ferrite

1.4521

340

Austenite

1.4301 1.4571 1.4401

300 315 315

630 600 600

57 55 55

Fig. 3 | Mechanical properties of different steel grades

Potential 1,400 1,200 Potential [mVEH] 1,000 800

Equivalent 30 Pitting Resistance Equivalent [% Cr + 3.3% Mo] 25 20 15

600 400 200 0 NIROSTA 4571 NIROSTA 4401 NIROSTA 4521 NIROSTA 4301 10 5 0

Fig. 4 | Corrosion resistance of stainless steels

100 90 80 Defect ratio [%] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Standard 2004


Fig. 5 | Development of sticker defects on rolled strip

Hot rolling 3 - 4 mm thickness Material 1.4521 (AISI 444)

modified chemical composition 2005

improved rolling programm

improved rolling process

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34 |

| Examples of rolled surfaces with extremely fine structures

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Rolling microscopically fine surface structures


DIPL.-ING. MATHIAS BRWOLF Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrck DIPL.-ING. MICHAEL ULLRICH Head of Production | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrck KAI MASCHMEIER Head of Department Sales 2 | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband GmbH, Dahlerbrck

Visible structures in surfaces arise due to differing reflection characteristics of the substrate. In addition to the angle of incidence of the light, the roughness of the material surface is the primary factor determining the reflection characteristics of a surface. ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband offers rolled stainless steel strips with a partially differentiated surface roughness. Individual structures and patterns can be represented on the strip by this means. Customers gain new design possibilities for their products and, at the same time, the option of improving their brand management.

Rolling structured sheets Most metals are distinguished by good formability. The best-known forming processes are forging as well as hot and cold rolling. The latter two processes use rolls to exert a high pressure on the material, causing it to change its shape in response. The usual starting material for precision strip is stainless steel slit strip. This is rolled to the required dimensions in a reversing 20-roll mill | Fig. 1 |. After bright annealing under a protective gas atmosphere, the precision strip is temper rolled or stretch-bend-leveled before being processed in the finishing shop. Structured sheet has also long been produced in this way. The classic teardrop-pattern plate is an example of this. Finer structures

can also be produced, for example using specially ground rolls or an edited roll. In the latter case, the roughness is imparted to the product by temper rolling, also known as skin pass rolling, using a pretreated roll. The result is a strip with an even, but relatively rough surface. Development history ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband, a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Nirosta, produces stainless steel strip in thicknesses of 0.05 to 1.5 mm to especially close tolerances. Such strips are used, for example, in special applications in the automotive industry and in electrical and medical technology.

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Fig. 1 | Schematic representation of cold rolling in a 20-roll mill

The first step in the development of special surfaces involved the optimization of existing roll-grinding processes. Special processes and grinding speeds were used to develop different yet homogenous roughnesses, which in some cases can show a fine striped structure. The second development step was to test whether the conventional processes of roll editing, such as roll coating, could be further improved. The result was the development of different processes capable of producing a homogenous surface, but with significantly

coarser results compared with special roll grinding techniques. In contrast to grinding technology, these processes can also produce structures running transverse to the strip direction. The skin surface was developed during this stage. This is distinguished by an especially interesting, irregular rough appearance. Due to this roughness, the strip offers particularly good grip | Fig. 2 |. All of the surfaces described above display homogeneous roughness. In order for structures and motifs to be visible, heterogeneous,

Fig. 2 | Skin surface, roughness: Ra = 1.0 - 2.0 m

Fig. 3 | Schematic representation: Embossing the strip surface

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Rolling microscopically fine surface structures | 37

changing surface roughnesses are necessary. The different roughnesses and changing refractions of light make structures visible on the strip surface. Complicated heterogeneous surface structures are also transferred to the strip by cold rolling, as are homogenous and uniform structures. The work rolls used for this are subjected to a special pretreatment. Special etching or laser techniques are used to form the embossing structures in negative on the work rolls, similar to a print roll used for intaglio printing | Fig. 3 |. Etching techniques are primarily suitable for geometric structures that demonstrate a perceptible depth, while laser techniques are capable of producing any desired motif on the work roll. The work roll only exhibits the different surface roughness required for the embossing. A work roll that has been prepared in this way can be used to emboss any desired motif on the strip surface. To accomplish this, the prepared work roll is fitted to the rolling mill prior to the final operation. As this roll is extremely sensitive to scratches, it must be handled with special care. The service life of the work rolls is an important issue for the technical feasibility of the process. A degree of wear on the rolls that is

too high would lead to the strip surface at the beginning of a strip being different to that at the end of the strip. Experience has shown, however, that changing rolls and/or strips presents the greatest risk of damage to the rolls. The work rolls are subject to virtually no mechanical wear during the rolling process. Conclusion The special surfaces enable customers to use any design for purely optical reasons. The process can also be used to enable customers to practice intensive brand management. Such branding makes the product unique | Fig. 4 |. One result of this is to that pirating such products becomes more difficult. During the development of the special surfaces it became apparent that such structures are less sensitive to fingerprints than bright stainless steel surfaces. The extremely finely divided, structured surfaces have the effect that when the surface is touched, contact is only made with a very small area, which could ultimately be a point of attack for soiling.

Fig. 4 | Size comparison of extremely fine rolled structures

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| HPPO process from the lab to commercial implementation

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HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products


DIPL.-ING., DIPL.-WIRTSCH.-ING. NORBERT ULLRICH Chief Engineer | Uhde GmbH, Dortmund DR.-ING. BRBEL KOLBE Senior Process Engineer | Uhde GmbH, Dortmund DR. RER. NAT. NIELS BREDEMEYER Senior Chemist | Uhde GmbH, Ennigerloh

The HPPO process is the first commercially available process for propylene oxide production that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidizing agent and is free of co-products. Propylene oxide is a versatile bulk chemical with high growth rates and is mainly used as a precursor for the production of polyurethanes. The entire process has been newly developed, starting with a laboratory-scale set-up, followed by several years of miniplant operation and culminating in the establishment of a large-scale reference facility with a capacity of 100,000 t/a of propylene oxide in Korea. The process includes a new reactor design and process configuration in conjunction with an optimized catalyst.

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40 | HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products

Reaction

Propylene

Recycle propylene

Market for propylene oxide


H2O2

Propylene oxide is a versatile bulk chemical (global production:


Methanol

6 million tonnes annually) with high growth rates and is mainly used as a precursor for the production of polyurethanes (PUR). Polyurethane plastics are suitable for use in a wide variety of areas, mainly as foam, e.g. for the furniture industry (mattresses, upholstery), the construction
Reaction Cooling system

industry (insulation materials) and the automotive industry (seats, cladding). However, polyurethanes are much more than just foam: they are also used as varnishes and adhesives, as thermoplastics, e.g. by manufacturers of wheels | Fig. 1 | as elastomers and as fibers (spandex). Other propylene oxide-derived products are used in the cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industries.
Product mixture

The annual worldwide growth rate for polyurethane is between five and six percent, which is greater than the rate of overall global economic growth. To meet the demand for this product, an extra worldscale plant (i.e. a large facility capable of global-scale production) with an annual capacity of 250,000 t of propylene oxide is needed every year.
Fig. 2 | Flow diagram of the propylene oxide production process

Development aims Conventional large-scale processes hitherto used to produce propylene oxide have disadvantages: they create more than double the quantity of co-products for which there is lower demand, or a comparable quantity of waste salts, which increasingly pose an environmental problem. Using these conventional processes to produce propylene oxide also entails high investment costs, which is why single-product facilities used exclusively for propylene oxide production with no coproducts are the focus of strong interest among established and newly emerging propylene oxide producers alike. In order to profit from the outstanding growth forecasts for this product, Uhde set itself the aim of developing a propylene oxide production process that would be free of co-products while also conserving resources and protecting the environment. The chosen process uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the agent for oxidizing propylene. The development was carried out in close cooperation with Degussa, an excellent industrial partner and the worlds second-largest producer of H2O2. Degussa has impressive technological expertise and resources in the areas of H2O2, catalysis and process development. Moreover,
Fig. 1 | Example of an end product made with polyurethane: wheels for inline skates

Degussas global sales operations can be utilised. This strategic cooperation between Degussa and Uhde is thus ideal.

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| 41

Propylene recycling

PO purification

Methanol recovery

PO product From PO purification Offgas To propylene recycling Recycle methanol

Compressor system

Purge gas system Preseparation Propylene separation PO purification Methanol processing

Cooling system Flash system

Methanol/water Steam Recycle propylene to reaction section Product mixture

Waste water

HPPO process HPPO stands for Hydrogen Peroxide Propylene Oxide, i.e. the production of propylene oxide (PO) using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. The process takes place in a newly developed oxidation reactor, where H2O2 is used to oxidize the raw material propylene to propylene oxide over a special new catalyst. Methanol is used as the solvent. Subsequently, the educts, products, and solvent have to be separated from one another and reprocessed. The liquid reaction mixture is fed into a pre-separation unit, in which the unconverted propylene is recovered. In further separation units, the product is separated out and purified to meet the quality specifications. Finally, the methanol solvent is separated from the water and fed back into the reactor. The process helps to conserve resources and to protect the environment thanks to the environmentally friendly H2O2 and the use of a highly selective catalyst. Water is formed as a by-product. The quality of the propylene oxide thus produced is suitable for applications that require the highest levels of polyurethane quality as well as for other PO-derived products | Fig. 2 |. The oxidation reactor for the synthesis of propylene oxide is the key element in the HPPO process. A shell-and-tube reactor of an entirely new design is used, making it possible for the reaction liquid to flow through each of the several thousand catalyst-filled tubes. The reaction

takes place at a pressure of approx. 30 bar and at temperatures well under 100 C. The new design and an optimized process configuration guarantee good removal of the reaction heat and nearly ideal flow characteristics in each tube, resulting in very high propylene oxide selectivity. Reactor internals, such as distributors and collectors, were developed for this special application. In conjunction with an optimized H2O2 quality (stabilizers, concentration), this reaction process also makes for a long catalyst lifetime. Development phases The development of the reactor included the overall design as well as design details of the internals, selection of suitable materials and the process engineering, including the cooling system for the highly exothermal reaction | Fig. 3 |. Then the entire sequence of processing units was developed for the raw product produced in the new reactor, whereby emphasis was given to using proven separation processes and equipment. During the development phase, the cost efficiency of the process development was continually checked and controlled with the help of IRR (Internal Rate of Return) calculations. All process steps and the core equipment are patented.

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42 |

Propylene H2O2 Methanol

Recycle propylene

Commercial application The first large-scale industrial plant to use the new process is currently being built for SKC at Ulsan in Korea. It consists of a PO facility with a capacity of 100,000 t/a | Fig. 6 |. Detailed planning, preparation
Reaction

of the site, and the procurement of equipment are continuing apace.


Cooling system

The plant is scheduled to go on stream in early 2008. Once the reference facility is in successful operation, the operating company SKC intends to construct additional PO plants with much higher capacities. In addition, concrete sales negotiations regarding the construction of new world-scale facilities are being conducted with a number of potential customers. Summary and outlook

Product mixture

The new HPPO process is the first commercially available hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-based process for propylene oxide production that is free of co-products. The process is a completely new development,
C3H6 + H2O2 C3H6O + H2O

which started with a laboratory-scale set-up, was followed by several years of miniplant operation and culminated in the establishment of a
MeOH / H2O2

large-scale reference facility with a capacity of 100,000 t/a of propylene oxide in Korea. The entire process is new, including an optimized catalyst, the reactor design and process configuration. The scale-up progressed from the miniplant and a rigorous simulation model to a world-scale facility in a single development step. In addition to having very high product yields and producing no

Coolant

Cooled tube wall

Propylene

Titanium silicalite catalyst

co-products, the HPPO process helps to conserve resources and protect the environment thanks to the use of a very selective catalyst and environmentally friendly H2O2. Water is formed as a by-product.

Fig. 3 | HPPO reactor, schematic diagram

The total investment for an HPPO facility is much less than that needed for PO facilities that use conventional processes because there is no need to devote investment funds to co-products. With even larger single-train plants, further economic benefits (economies of scale) can be achieved. All process steps and the core equipment are patented. Worldwide licensing will expand the potential customer target group to include companies that have not yet had access to

The entire process was demonstrated in a miniplant | Fig. 4 | featuring all the process steps, and described by means of a simulation model. This is particularly important in order to detect trace components in the closed recycle loops at an early stage and to permit a low-risk scale-up to the commercial scale. The scale-up procedure from miniplant to a world-scale PO facility with a capacity of 100,000 t/a as a reference plant was carried out in a single development step. The scale-up risk was minimized by connecting many reaction tubes (with the dimensions of the miniplant reactor tubes) in parallel and by intensive process simulation | Fig. 5 |.

PO technology. Uhde serves such clients not only in its capacity as an engineering partner and contractor, but also as a direct source of expertise and as a licensor.

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HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products | 43

Fig. 4 | HPPO miniplant, detail photos

Reactor tubes

X Y

Fig. 5 | CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations of the reactor cooling system

Temperatur profile

Fig. 6 | Detail from the 3D model of a commercial HPPO facility

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44 |

| Ductile iron treatment

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| 45

Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components
GENE JOHNSON Electrical Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Marinette/USA TIMOTHY OWENS Melting Supervisor | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Marinette/USA CODY RHODES (BS) Quality Manager | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Etowah/USA RONALD THURSTON Project Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Waupaca/USA

ThyssenKrupp Waupaca produces 1.4 million kilograms or approximately 250,000 ductile iron castings every day. Over 35% of this iron is produced for safety critical applications including automotive and heavy truck brakes, steering, suspensions and transmissions. The process to produce the ductile iron material for these components has to be monitored closely to insure the safety and strength of the material that is cast. To insure the highest quality level and introduce error proofing into the process, ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has developed two patent pending methods to determine if the important step of forming nodules in ductile iron has been properly performed and completed.

Ductile cast iron The production of ductile iron castings and components | Fig. 1 | is a complex process. The material has far superior fatigue, wear and other dynamic properties to those of conventional gray iron. However, improperly processed ductile cast iron can produce a material that displays only part of the required mechanical properties. Obviously if lower-quality ductile cast iron is poured into a mold and a defective casting or component is produced, catastrophic early failure can occur. Many production variables such as raw materials making up the base metallic charge, alloying agents, alloy composition, metal temperature, metallic weight, alloy weight and treatment environment

can alter the resultant ductile cast iron and its properties. Even with process control in place, the results of the reaction must be verified after the solidification of the casting. The need to rapidly determine if the treated metal is acceptable for casting while the iron is still molten is paramount to developing an error proofing methodology of this complex process. Production methods Ductile cast iron is produced at ThyssenKrupp Waupaca by the addition of either a form of pure magnesium or a ferro magnesium alloy to molten cast iron. The boiling point of magnesium is 1,100 C,

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46 | Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components

and the temperature of the molten metal is 1,500 C. The resulting magnesium reaction is very violent. Corresponding safety measures must be taken. Also the reaction emits a vibrant and bright light. Both the light intensity and movement of the ladle can be captured, recorded and compared to set limits to insure the process is completed properly. ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has developed two methods for verification of this treatment process. Both methods are patentpending and center around the fact that a sensing device can detect and monitor an original response and compare it to a pre-set limit to determine if a proper treatment of the molten iron has occurred | Fig. 2 |. One method uses a photo detector | Fig. 3 | to measure and monitor the light intensity that results from the treatment process. The mixture of molten iron, magnesium and oxygen produce an exothermic combustion reaction that produces a very bright light.

The photo sensor is located so that while the reaction is taking place the intensity of the light can be recorded. If a proper reaction has taken place | Fig. 4 | the light intensity follows a very well defined pattern. If an insufficient reaction has occurred | Fig. 5 | the light intensity and duration of intensity will be below the required threshold. In this case a computer determines that the process should be placed on hold and subsequent operation ceased. The second method for treatment processes that emit less light uses hydraulic pressure sensors within the hydraulic lines attached to the treatment ladle | Fig. 6 |. The sensors detect the change in hydraulic pressure that is caused by the mechanical vibration resulting from the violent treatment process. The reaction data is then compared to known data for complete and incomplete treatments. If a proper reaction has taken place | Fig. 7 | the hydraulic pressure follows a shaking pattern. If an insufficient reaction has

Fig. 1 | Crankshaft of ductile cast iron

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Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components | 47

Response Sensing Device

Microprocessor
Digital Response Data (DRD) Threshold Data Threshold Criterium

Comparison of data

Does DRD meet Operator Criterion? No

Yes

Message: molton metal treatment sufficient

Message: molton metal treatment not sufficient


Fig. 2 | Schematic of control logic

Bright light White smoke Photo detector

Treatment ladle

Molton iron

Magnesium alloy

Fig. 3 | Photo detector measures light from reaction

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48 |

occurred | Fig. 8 | there will be a smooth monotonic increase in the


25,000

hydraulic pressure. If the data does not meet the required threshold for a good reaction, a computer determines that the process should be placed on hold and the subsequent pouring operation ceased.
15,000 20,000

Conclusions ThyssenKrupp Waupaca has created a patent pending methodology

Lux 10,000 5,000

which insures proper treatment process has taken place for producing ductile cast iron. The main idea is to capture the response of the treatment of molten cast iron with pure magnesium or a magnesium alloy to produce ductile cast iron. This response could be light intensity, wavelength, density of smoke, mechanical vibration or some combination of these events. This response is then electronically transformed, automatically compared to a known data set to verify the completion of the treatment process and then communicated to employees in the next step of the processing.
20,000 15,000 Lux 10,000 5,000 0 Time 25,000
Fig. 4 | Response of a treatment using photo detector

0 Time

Fig. 5 | Response of an incomplete treatment using photo detector

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Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive and transportation cast components | 49

Load sensors Hydraulic pressure sensors

Lift cylinder

Control PC

Treatment ladle

Fig. 6 | Hydraulic sensor measures mechanical bouncing.

Weight 10,000 9,000 8,000 Iron [Pounds] 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Scan time
Fig. 7 | Response of a proper treatment using hydraulic feedback

Hydraulic pressure feedback

Weight 10,000 9,000 8,000 Iron [Pounds] 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Scan time

Hydraulic pressure feedback

Fig. 8 | Response of an incomplete treatment using hydraulic feedback

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50 |

| Machine for slip-free scan hardening of slewing bearings at Rothe Erde

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| 51

Slip free scan hardening a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways
DR.-ING. JRG ROLLMANN Head of Research and Testing Department | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt DR.-ING. WILFRIED SPINTIG Plant Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt DIPL.-ING. BERND STAKEMEIER Operations Manager | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt

A new inductive surface hardening process that enables complete hardening of the raceways has been developed for permanently rotating slewing bearings. The new process has many advantages over the alternative case carburizing process, which is suitable for ring diameters of approx. 2 to 2.5 m. Process time, manufacturing costs and energy consumption are considerably reduced. The first scan hardening facility capable of slip-free hardening of slewing bearings with a diameter of up to 4.5 m has been installed in the Rothe Erde plant in Lippstadt.

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52 |

Fig. 1 | Slewing bearings in wind turbines enable the rotor to turn.

Production and application of slewing bearings Slewing bearings are extremely versatile machine elements that come in a variety of designs which are used in almost all fields of mechanical engineering and transport. Rothe Erde manufactures slewing bearings (ranging from 0.4 to 8 m in diameter) from seamless-rolled rings. In successive operations, these are machined in the unhardened state, induction hardened, finish machined, fitted with rolling elements and cages or spacers, and finally coated, depending on the use. Development of new areas of technology and ongoing development of the manufacturing process for slewing bearings are continually extending their areas of application. Examples of possible applications in new technological areas include medical scanners and tunnel-driving machines. In contrast to their previous areas of application, slewing bearings are increasingly used in permanently rotating equipment, for example, as rotor bearings for wind turbines | Fig. 1 |. Some of these bearings require complete (slip-free) hardening of the raceways in order to provide adequate bearing capacity and quiet running. The induction scan hardening process normally used in the manufacture of slewing bearings cannot meet these requirements. The inductive single shot hardening process for slewing bearing raceways developed at Rothe Erde (cf. ThyssenKrupp techforum, July 2005

issue) comes up against its capacity limits as the diameter of the rotor bearing increases, making it necessary to develop a new process. State of the art Generally, the raceways of slewing bearings are scan hardened by induction. An inductor and an attached sprinkler head are set up above a segment of the raceway that is relatively short compared with the diameter of the ring | Fig. 2.1 |. During the hardening process, the inductor and sprinkler head scan the contour of the raceway once in the direction of the perimeter while the bearing ring is advanced at a constant rate, so that each segment of the raceway is continually heated and quenched (hardened). As a result of the nature of this process, a short, partially hardened segment (slip area) remains at the point where the hardening process terminates | Fig. 2.2 |. This process can be used to harden raceways with a constant cross-section (e.g. for a roller with a diameter of 40 mm) on bearing rings of any diameter using a single tool with relatively low power (approx. 40 kW). This process requires less than one hour for a bearing ring with a 2.5 m diameter. In another inductive hardening process single-shot hardening of slewing bearings the entire raceway over the circumference of the bearing is exposed simultaneously to the electromagnetic field

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Slip free scan hardening a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways | 53

of a ring-shaped inductor that covers the complete bearing ring raceway. The induced eddy currents heat the raceway to the hardening temperature | Fig. 3 | and it is then quenched as a whole by spraying or submerging it. This process hardens the bearing ring raceway without slip. Unlike the progressive hardening process, however, the inductor and sprinkler head are only useable for a single bearing diameter and are many times more expensive. The process time for this method is a few minutes, depending on the bearing diameter. Between 700 and 1,000 kW of power is required over short periods

for this process, however. Due to the high cost of the inductors and the available power, this process is limited to bearing diameters of up to a maximum of approx. 2 m. The only slip-free hardening process that has been available to date for diameters greater than 2 m is case carburizing. This involves heating the bearing rings to approx. 950 to 1,000 C in a furnace, carburizing over several hundred hours, then quenching. The complete hardening of the rings | Fig. 4 | subjects them to considerable distortion, which can only be limited with substantial technical effort,

2.1

2.2

Sprinkler

Hardening start

Inductor

Slip area

Ring movement Heated zone


Figs 2.1 and 2.2 | Schematic diagram: Scan hardening of axial raceway

Fig. 3 | Single shot hardening of radial raceway

Fig. 4 | Hardening of whole ring

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54 | Slip free scan hardening a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways

5.1

5.2

Raceway

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Fig. 5.1 to 5.6 | Principle of slip free scan hardening of axial raceway

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Slip free scan hardening a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways | 55

e.g. by the use of fixtures when quenching. In addition, the rings are subject to heavy scaling due to the long dwell time at the carburizing temperature. Both must be removed by means of cost-intensive hard machining. Furthermore, the use of this process is limited by the available contract hardening furnace capacity. The maximum diameter here is in the range of 2.5 to 3 m. An inductive surface hardening process that could be used to completely harden only the raceways was sought on the basis of Rothe Erdes experience. This led to the development of slip free scan hardening. Slip free scan hardening In scan hardening, two induction coils are arranged above a segment of the raceway to be hardened. At the start of the process, both inductors are immediately adjacent to one another and heat the surface of the raceway lying directly underneath to hardening temperature | Fig. 5.1 |. Both inductors then move apart in opposing directions around the circumference at constant speed. After covering a short distance, the sprinkler heads attached to the inductors are activated, quenching the middle of the zone initially heated and dividing the zone that has been heated to hardening temperature in two | Fig. 5.2 |. Each inductor then passes over the raceway surface of a half of the ring circumference at constant speed and in the opposite direction to the other one | Fig. 5.3 |. While this is happening, a third

inductor preheats the end point of the hardening, until the two hardening inductors approach it | Fig. 5.4 |. Once the preheater inductor has been removed, the hardening inductors reach the end point and once again produce a joint heated zone | Fig. 5.5 |. When both inductors have formed a common (closed) heated zone, this is simultaneously quenched by turning the ring or swiveling the sprinkler heads | Fig. 5.6 |. Summary This process, which has been patented by Rothe Erde, hardens only the raceway of the bearing ring, without slip, and in a fraction of the time that would be required for case carburizing. This reduces the costs for reworking and dramatically cuts the energy costs in comparison to case carburizing | Fig. 6 |. For the small batch sizes normal at Rothe Erde, the application of scan hardening offers further cost advantages, because the power requirement and inductor size are independent of the bearing ring diameter. Against this background, the decision was made to invest in a scan hardening facility | see title picture of the report | that would make it possible in the future to harden raceways with diameters of up to 4.5 m completely, i.e. without slip. The scan hardening facility was designed in such a way that it could also be used for carrying out the other hardening processes typically used in the production of slewing bearings (single tooth hardening and progressive hardening).

Case carburizing Hardening Process duration Distortion Hardening costs Diameter range (Case depth 4 mm) ( 2.5 m) ( 2.2 m) whole ring > 100 h 1.6 mm approx. 6,500 max. 2.5 m

Scan hardening loaded surfaces only approx. 25 min 0.4 mm approx. 700 max. 4.5 m

Fig. 6 | Comparison of typical process characteristics: Case carburizing and induction scan hardening without soft spot

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| Jointed shaft assembly at ThyssenKrupp Presta

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Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS paving the way for producing steering systems in five days
DR.-ING. DIPL.-WI.-ING. DANIEL FITZEK, MSC Lead Manager Production and Logistics Systems | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein PETER SPALT, MBA Project Leader Supply Chain Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein ANJA TISCHLER (MAG. FH) Project Leader Human Resource Management | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein DIPL.-ING. (FH) STEFAN OBERHAUSER, MSC Project Manager Production Planning | ThyssenKrupp Presta AG, Eschen/Liechtenstein

ThyssenKrupp Presta is aiming to create a flexible and lean company by implementing the Presta Production and Logistics System (PPLS). Process improvement teams that are networked across plants and departments are using coordinated measures to introduce lean production and logistics processes which will make it possible to manufacture steering systems in a process time of five days. PPLS is an innovative, holistic production system that not only ensures the targeted stabilization of series production but also encompasses improvements to the logistical order processing procedure, the production-compatible design of steering systems and the creation of highly flexible and cost-efficient manufacturing cells.

PPLS lean and flexible production and logistics processes ThyssenKrupp Presta is one of the worlds foremost manufacturers of state-of-the-art steering systems. It is the worlds leading supplier of assembled camshafts and the technology leader in the area of forging. With the group-wide introduction of the Presta Production and Logistics System (PPLS) in early 2006, ThyssenKrupp Presta has been forging ahead with the implementation of lean and flexible production and logistics processes. On the basis of the strategic goal of producing steering systems | Fig. 1 | with a process time of five days, the company has established an improvement and innovation process that is now being implemented at all levels of the organization. To ensure successful implementation, the system has three pillars. As part of the strategic definition process for the creation of PPLS, the systems vision, objectives and core topics were set out by the companys top management in close cooperation with managers and experts from Production, Logistics, Quality Assurance and Development. The result of this endeavor was the PPLS Navigator, which

serves as a compass on the path to implementing the five-day steering system. The Navigator consists of eleven core principles and provides a wide array of specific methods and tools for supporting their implementation | Fig. 2 |. To ensure sustained implementation of the eleven core PPLS principles and the use of uniform standards for all of the plants, the participating departments appointed ten platform project leaders who pursue clearly defined goals to manage the implementation of the plants. They are assisted in this task by local project leaders at the various production plants. All project resources, and with them the entire organization of the PPLS, are centrally coordinated by the PPLS office and a steering committee headed by the Management Board. A PPLS Academy has been set up expressly to provide employees with the qualifications they need to implement the PPLS. The academy offers special training programs on topics such as lean automation and Six Sigma (a synonym for zero-defect quality).

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58 | Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS paving the way for producing steering systems in five days

Fig. 1 | Electric Power Assisted Steering (EPAS)

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Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS paving the way for producing steering systems in five days | 59

Lean automation

Just-in-time production

Design for manufacturing Plan Safety Supply chain management Costs Quality Do

TOP workplace

Zero defects

Act Active leadership

Delivery

Check

Visual management

Teamwork Tasks and qualifications

Kaizen

Fig. 2 | PPLS Navigator, outer region: PPLS core principles and activities; middle region: basis of action for all PPLS activities; inner region: core target values

The various PPLS implementation projects include a standardized group-wide Six Sigma Green Belt program with currently 42 participants (for employees with a solid background in Six Sigma), the 5S/TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) offensive, various value flow optimization projects for high-volume products, a project for the implementation of a standardized shop floor management system and a program for the introduction of a group-wide production and logistics cockpit on the basis of SAP. The implementation projects described below are meant to provide a better picture of how the implementation of the PPLS is carried out and what the results of these measures are. Value stream optimization of steering column production The value analysis is the key approach employed to reduce throughput time as part of the implementation of the core PPLS principle of just-in-time production. A value flow analysis is a simple method of visualizing and analyzing the flow of material and information. To reduce throughput time in the production of steering columns, the participants in one of the implementation projects analyzed the value flow for the steering columns of a midrange sedan with an annual production

volume of about 500,000 units. The value flow extends across two production locations and the three manufacturing processes of cold extrusion, steering shaft assembly | see title picture of the report and Fig. 3 | and steering column assembly. The project is based on a value flow analysis in which a process improvement team consisting of a value flow manager and employees from Production, Logistics, and Production Planning first collected information on the current state of all material and information flows. They subsequently studied the bottlenecks and throughput times and developed a shared perception of what the state of the value flow should be in the future. In this specific case, three key optimization measures were used to reduce the throughput time. To reduce batch sizes during steering shaft assembly, SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) workshops were employed to cut retooling times for high-volume products. At the same time, a fixed production sequence was introduced for final assembly and for the subassembly building systems. This made it possible to minimize production fluctuations and to ensure optimal production of the highly complex respective types. In addition, changes were made to the logistical demand-driven supply management system

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60 | Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS paving the way for producing steering systems in five days

of the final assembly line. By switching to a consumption-controlled production system, steering shaft assembly is now managed by means of a subassembly supermarket in accordance with the supply needs of the downstream final assembly process. As a result, only the number of units that are actually needed are produced. Within 12 months these measures reduced retooling times by 43% in selected setup relationships. The throughput time for steering shaft assembly was reduced by 40%, resulting in a 37% drop in resource commitment. SQDC shop floor management system The SQDC shop floor management system is a simple method for reducing throughput times during day-to-day operations. It focuses on identifying deviations from Safety, Quality, Delivery and Cost targets as well as on finding quick and pragmatic solutions to these deviations. To this end, a plant-specific improvement team (consisting of the production leader, MRP controller, quality assurance officer, process engineers and maintenance personnel) meets for 15 minutes each day to visualize and analyze the key figures of the facility as well as to define and implement minor improvement measures. At the beginning of the process, it is essential that the bottlenecks of a key facility are analyzed so that the right priorities can be set for the orientation of the improvement process. Similarly, the right setup of
Fig. 4 | Jointed shaft assembly

the cross-departmental improvement team is an important precondition for successfully holding the daily SQDC meetings. During basic training courses, the organizers worked together with the affected SQDC teams and facility operators to work out the backgrounds, sequences, conditions and interrelationships between the predefined key values of safety, quality, delivery and costs. Over a period of 12 months, 15 key facilities throughout Europe were converted to the SQDC system as part of the SQDC Shop Floor Management implementation project. That means that SQDC teams were set up and target figure displays were erected at each key facility. In addition, joint annual goal agreements were drawn up within each team. The introduction of SQDC meetings created a standardized global communication and improvement platform that sets clear priorities for daily work while enabling quick responses to facility bottlenecks and deviations from plan on the basis of simple figures, data and facts. As a result, the number of quality defects has been reduced by around 21% on average, while facility downtimes have been cut by 23%. Among the key factors that made the implementation a success were the daily handling of problems on site, the transparency of deviations and problem areas, the analysis of causes in cooperation with expert personnel and rapid implementation of the improvements.

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Lean automation

Conventional

Capital expenditures Number of employees Cycle time Area Work in process (WIP) Time needed to respond to changed orders Annual personnel costs (135,000 units/year) Annual personnel costs (35,000 units/year)
Fig. 4 | Concept comparison

72% 2-7 120-670 s/unit 90 m2 15 units 30 min. 88% 64%

100% 8 120 s/unit 182 m2 39 units 78 min. 100% 100%

Creation of a lean automation facility for the production of an electrically adjustable steering column Since the market is characterized by a wide variety of different types and wide fluctuations in production quantities, new approaches to production planning had to be taken so that throughput times for the new product family could be systematically reduced. To achieve the goal of creating a lean, simple and flexible facility for the final assembly of a new generation of electrically adjustable steering columns for a luxury car, the company set up an interdisciplinary project team consisting of employees from Production Planning, Logistics, Production and Product Development. The chief challenge facing this team was to create a final assembly line with a production capacity of up to 135,000 units per year. This output would be spread out among six different product types that would successively go into volume production over a period of about two years. The profitable production of such a product family requires that a scalable use of human resources is possible, that additional assembly operations can be easily integrated and that the necessary investments can be successively made in line with the ramp-up of production. The starting point for the creation of a suitable manufacturing concept was to conduct a detailed analysis of the ramp-up and the development of customer demand. The results served as the basis for determining the required cycle time for the facility so that the layout and grouping of the assembly operations could commence. The focus was initially on the work sequence of the assembly line worker and not on the automation technology. The main task was to create

assembly steps with an extremely high added value and to find the optimal balance between them. A paper mock-up of the assembly line was made to serve as a simple tool for assisting this development process. Several simulations were conducted, during which the assembly operations were continuously improved, the stability of the throughput times checked and the remaining ergonomics issues resolved. This made it possible to quickly identify problems in the assembly operations and to check the feasibility of new solutions within a few minutes. Compared to the conventional production concept that was created at the same time, the project teams approach achieved much better results for all key target figures. In addition, | Fig. 4 | shows that the amount invested was lower despite the systems greater flexibility. The projects key success factors were the use of interdisciplinary teams to draw up the assembly concept and the focus on the assembly line worker with regard to production flexibility. Conclusion The implementation of the Presta Production and Logistics System has provided ThyssenKrupp Presta with an innovative approach that paves the way for producing steering systems in five days. PPLS is now an integral part of the companys production strategy and is being implemented throughout the global production network. The objective for the next several years is to further refine the process throughout the company and to establish the PPLS as the worldwide standard at all production locations.

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| A newly developed support frame concept for commercial vehicles offers numerous advantages with respect to space, weight and functionality.

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All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks


DIPL.-ING. STEFFEN SCHMIDT Managing Director | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems, Essen DR.-ING. DIRK ZIESING CAE Coordination | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems, Essen

ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems has presented an all-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks. The system features innovative solutions for suspension mountings, frame structures, and steering. Despite the additional effort required for the manufacture and assembly of this integrated system, the benefits it offers with respect to ride comfort, safety, crash behavior, and compactness justify its use in the production of commercial vehicles.

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64 | All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks

Concept Whereas independent suspension has been available for the steered wheels of buses and light trucks for some time now, the transfer of this principle to heavy-duty trucks has posed a serious challenge. On the one hand, the system has to deal with high axle loads, and on the other there is little room for its installation as a result of the front-mounted drive unit. However, the advantages associated with independent suspension (suspension comfort, improved steering behaviour, modular design) generally justify the development of new support frame concepts. Ever since trucks have been manufactured, their support structure has primarily consisted of two side members (most commonly with a C-shaped profile). Although such a ladder frame principle leaves sufficient room for adding various types of vehicle bodies and any form of rigid axle arrangement, it is not an optimal solution for load bearing and requires additional structural components for independent suspensions. To solve this problem, ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems has come up with an innovative concept whose starting point is an optimized topology within the vehicles front end packaging space. Another factor that influenced the endeavor to find optimal load paths for different load levels was the desire to improve partner protection during crashes (front underrun protection). The Chassis project unit at the former ThyssenKrupp Automotive location in Bochum provided perfect conditions for cross-company and cross-segment cooperation within the project team. While Automotive Systems was responsible for system integration, the Forming Technology unit provided the know-how for forming metal sheet. Meanwhile, ThyssenKrupp Presta contributed its decades of experience in the development of truck steering systems, and Bilstein Suspension supplied its expertise in suspension and damping components. Finally, the innovative use of new steel grades created a link to ThyssenKrupp Steel. Although the project unit has moved to Essen along with ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems, it continues to provide a platform for cross-company and cross-segment cooperation. Requirements for future truck chassis Future generations of commercial vehicles will have to meet several requirements that will affect their design to various degrees. Among the objectives that commercial vehicle manufacturers continuously strive to achieve are the improvement of handling behaviour and the enhancement of ride comfort. Major aims in this regard are the reduction of body roll and pitch. Another challenge is to create more room for the engine and the drivetrain, which is particularly important Advantages of a double wishbone axle ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems uses double wishbones for its new steering axle with independent suspension. The wheel location is governed by the wheel knuckle, which is connected to the vehicle frame by means of an upper and lower control arm I Fig. 1 I. In this design, spring travel was limited to a range extending from +100 mm to -100 mm, which is sufficient for meeting the needs of a mass market semi-trailer truck. The advantages of this type of axle design are obvious, since it allows kinematic properties to be optimally set and makes it possible to transmit forces between the wheels and the frame along favorable paths. Multi-body simulations were performed during the design of the systems kinematics. The main focus here was on improving various aspects of driving safety and cost of owner-ship, such as a reduction of tire wear. It was decided to separate the suspension and damping elements in order to make more effective use of space and improve the load distribution. Because such axles generally have ball joint connections to the wheel knuckle, for enabling diesel engines to meet future emission requirements. The main features of an efficient design are a compact arrangement, modular construction, and preassembled modules. An additional aspect that may have to be considered is the optional use of alternative steering systems. Steering requirements to be met by the vehicles include a correspondingly large steering angle and a small turning circle.
Fig. 1 | Independent suspension with double wishbone design

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Fig. 2 | Unit load situation for determining frame stiffness

the number of components can be reduced. A particular design aim in this system is to keep the control arms as short as possible in order to provide more room for the drivetrain and reduce vehicle weight. Requirements of the support system It is assumed that the front axle investigated for this article has an axle load of 8 tons. This results in the following conditions for the arrangement of the components: the static wheel load is around 40 kN. If the dynamic magnification factor is set at 2.5, the corresponding vertical load is 100 kN. The forces from transverse impacts are similar in magnitude, at about 80 kN. And if a braking torque of 30 kNm is to be achieved, the longitudinal force at the wheel contact area of a tire with a radius of 0.5 m will be 60 kN in the direction of travel. Naturally, this has to have a corresponding friction coefficient in relation to the wheel load in order to transfer this horizontal force from the tires to the road surface. Besides this basic concept for dealing with load requirements, the vehicle structure must also meet certain stiffness requirements to ensure that internal deformation of the support frame has no negative effects on the vehicles handling. Common influencing variables in this case are the degree of transverse and torsional stiffness. To determine these relative values, the frame is fixed at the rear, while the front is loaded with standard loads I Fig. 2 I. In addition, since 2003 the EU has required that newly registered trucks have front underrun protection. This protective system is designed to prevent

trucks from rolling over passenger cars following a frontal collision I Fig. 3 I. The regulation applies to vehicles over 7.5 t GVW, which means that it does not affect delivery trucks weighing up to 7.5 t. In addition, more than 15% of heavy-duty trucks are subject to a special exemption for off-road vehicles, allowing them to dispense with any protective measures for road traffic. To achieve this protective stand-

Fig. 3 | The front underrun protection required for trucks prevents the vehicles from rolling over passenger cars following a frontal collision.

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66 | All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks

S355 MC S420 MC

Aluminium

S700 MC

S355 MC S500 MC

S420 MC DPW600

S355 MC, S420 MC, S700 MC Thermomechanically (M) rolled structural steel (S) with a predefined minimum value for the elastic limit at ambient temperature of 380 MPa (S355 MC), 420 MPa (S420 MC), 500 MPa (S500 MC), 700 MPa (S700 MC) suitable for cold-forming (C) Fig. 4 | Results of the topology optimization of the available packaging space Fig. 5 | Material allocation using advanced steel grades

DPW600 Cold-formable and weldable hot-rolled strip dual-phase steel (DPW) with a tensile strength of 580 MPa

ard, the following requirements must be met: a horizontal force of up to 160 kN is applied at predefined points at a height of up to 445 mm above the road surface. When this force is applied, the penetration must be limited to a depth of 400 mm, which means that only a geometrical limit is defined. In addition to meeting these minimum legal requirements, it is desirable that the front of the truck is equipped with energy-absorbing structural sections. To keep costs down, these deformation elements should be easily replaceable and feature a defined interface to the main structure, which must remain damagefree up to a predefined crash level. At its base in Bielefeld-Brackwede, the ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik company has gained considerable expertise in the development of so-called crash boxes, which were easy to incorporate into the new axle system concept. Optimized topology of the available packaging space The design measures are restricted to the front end of the vehicle. This study does not extend to the semi-trailer trucks rear frame surrounding the king pin and the rear drive axle. The first task under these conditions was to create a model of the available packaging space, while taking the geometrical situation into account. This three-

dimensional model was meshed by means of the finite element method and subjected to an optimization process using special software. In a number of steps, this process reduced the structure to the regions required for transmission of the forces. Non-load-bearing areas were defined by means of a notional density graduation. The result was a skeletal residual structure I Fig. 4 I. Transfer of the optimal structure to a sheet metal design Large-scale downstream operations and interpretations of the results are required to transfer the optimized 3D model into a design suitable for manufacturing from steel profiles. There are limits to how far the meshing process can be carried, even with the computer capacities available today. It is therefore unavoidable that the result will have a substantial layer thickness even in the minimalized structural areas. This is in contrast to stamped structures, in which the thickness of the surface elements is negligible compared to the length of the sides. As soon as a welded or bolted design has been created that is suitable for manufacturing, it can be fine-tuned through the parameter-controlled optimization of individual sheet thicknesses. It is during this phase that the special strengths of ThyssenKrupp Steel come into play.

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Fig. 6 | Auto show model of the front section of a truck with independent suspension

Whereas a traditional truck ladder frame is made of conventional steel grades, the use of new high-strength grades makes it possible to further reduce the weight of the support structure I Fig. 5 I. An evaluation of the final sheet structures of several passenger car axle projects shows that the results are 90% in agreement with those of the three-dimensional structures considered optimal. The concept created in this manner features several innovations that set the support structure apart from previous truck frame designs. The lower structural section is a major part of the overall system. The specified height at which force is applied for passenger car crashes results in a load path that must be suitably transferred to the structure of the main frame. For this reason, the pronounced substructure is connected to the main structure at several points. This results in a distribution of the force to be transferred and makes it possible to reduce the weight of the individual connecting elements. Conclusion and outlook The double wishbone principle of this all-new support structure combines all of the advantages required for a steerable front axle with independent suspension. A computer-based topology optimization

method was employed for the design of the support frame. This generated new possibilities for the load paths and consequently for the arrangement of the components. The systems modular design and the reduction of the number of variants and components create potential savings that make the concept interesting for commercial vehicle manufacturers. Considerable business opportunities are also created by the foreseeable tightening of the emission regulations for commercial vehicles and the associated requirements with respect to packaging space. Volumeproduced heavy-duty vehicles with independent suspension are currently not available on the market. However, for the reasons given above, it is only a question of time until such systems are at least introduced for front axles. The project has greatly promoted cross-company and crosssegment cooperation. A life-size model of the structure was first presented in 2006 at the International Commercial Vehicle Show in Hanover, where it met with a great response from trade visitors I Fig. 6 I. Before the system was unveiled, ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems had submitted two patent applications to protect the concept it developed.

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| TurboTrack system at Toronto International Airport

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TurboTrack making long distances shorter


DIPL.-ING. MIGUEL GONZLEZ ALEMANY Chief Research Officer | ThyssenKrupp Elevator (ES/PBB) Ltd., London/GB DR. MONICA SOFFRITTI Senior Vice President Communication & Marketing | ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG, Dsseldorf MARTINA BEHREND Senior Manager Communication & Marketing | ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG, Dsseldorf THIES EISELE Communication & Marketing | ThyssenKrupp Elevator AG, Dsseldorf

A revolutionary passenger transportation system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator, the TurboTrack, is now on the market. Thanks to its innovative technology, more people can be transported more rapidly and without waiting times over distances of up to one and a half kilometers. With a continuously running pallet band and three speed zones, TurboTrack is an attractive product for numerous applications. The first two TurboTrack systems to enter service anywhere in the world can be found at the Lester B. Pearson International Airport in Toronto, Canada.

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70 | TurboTrack making long distances shorter

Basic principle High transport capacity and low spatial requirements are features of TurboTrack, the revolutionary system from ThyssenKrupp Elevator for transporting people over relatively long distances. At first glance, it looks like an unusually long moving walk. However, it is actually a new, independent concept for transporting people. Conventional cabin-based systems, referred to as Automatic People Movers (APMs), are only economical for distances of around 2 km or more. TurboTrack is a continuously running system and therefore does not need any costly infrastructure. With no need for signaling, wagons and stops, installation costs are reduced. In addition, there is no need for operating personnel to supervise ongoing operations. At the same time, the transport capacity of the new system is significantly higher than cabin-based systems. With around 14,000 people transported per hour, TurboTrack has around four times the capacity of an APM. The TurboTrack combines three speed zones within a continuously running system. Its pallet band runs at 0.65 m/s in the entry and exit areas, the ideal speed to permit passengers to enter and exit the system in comfort. In the central section, the new transport system smoothly accelerates to 2 m/s. This means relatively long distances can be covered in less time I Fig. 1 I. Attractive market Demand for a faster and effective passenger transportation system that can be used in various areas has been growing steadily over the past few years. Airports all over the world, for example, are being expanded or new, ever bigger ones are being built. The distances that passengers have to cover inside an airport such as from one terminal to another, from the gate to the baggage reclaim or from the aircraft to customs are getting longer and longer. This is time-

consuming and tedious for travelers, and it costs the operators money. Nowadays, airports generate the majority of their turnover by renting out shop space. TurboTrack is the ideal solution for getting airport visitors on their way faster. The less time they spend moving around the airport, the more ready they are to take advantage of the growing availability of consumer outlets. In conurbations, TurboTrack offers significant advantages for local public transport. The area served by metro stations can be significantly expanded using this system. Using TurboTrack as a feeder system, the hinterland of an individual station can be extended by up to 2 km. For urban transport companies, this innovative product from ThyssenKrupp Elevator represents a low-cost alternative to unprofitable bus links or short railway routes. Equally, it is possible to create direct underground connections between various lines in cases where building new lines would not be profitable. Adjacent but non-connected stations can be turned into new interchanges with TurboTrack, offering additional changing and connection options at a stroke. The resulting practical benefits for passengers shorter distances, more direct connections markedly increase the attractiveness of an urban metro system. Trade show operators also need to transport large numbers of people over relatively long distances on a regular basis: to and from a railway station serving the trade show or within the premises itself TurboTrack can transport people rapidly and continuously I Fig. 2 I. The outstanding technology is suitable for use both indoors and outdoors, and it has been designed from the outset with continuous, heavy-duty operation in mind. Similarly to other passenger transportation systems in the transport sector, TurboTrack has also been designed for continuous operation and a long service life.

0.65 m/s

2.0 m/s

0.65 m/s

Fig. 1 | The TurboTrack combines three speed zones in one continuously running system.

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Fig. 2 | Torontos Lester B. Pearson International Airport: TurboTrack entry zone with display for user information

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Fig. 4 | The pallets move together or apart as the speed changes.

Fig. 5 | The individual paletts each comprise two parts.

Fig. 6 | Handrail and handrail inlet guide in the exit area

Fig. 3 | Pallet band in acceleration zone

Fig. 7 | Handrail design with hand-grips and endless handrail

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Fig. 8 | TurboTrack at Toronto Airport fast and efficient passenger transportation

Ground-breaking innovation A key challenge that had to be met when implementing TurboTrack was to achieve the smooth speed change without reducing traveling comfort. The solution takes the form of an innovative system of foding, overlapping pallets made of die-cast aluminum, each of which has a front and a rear part. When the user steps onto the system (i.e. in the low-speed area at 0.65 m/s), the pallets are closely spaced together. They draw apart as the travel speed increases. The pallet band stretches out in order to permit continuous acceleration up to the maximum speed of 2 m/s. At the other end, the pallets contract together again as the belt approaches the exit area. The travel speed is reduced back to 0.65 m/s I Figs 3 to 5 I. An endless handrail with mounted individual hand-grips runs synchronously with the pallets through all of the speed zones. The hand-grips slide over the endless handrail like on a guide rail. They are spaced closely together in the low-speed zones. As soon as the pallets move apart in the high-speed zone, they take the hand-grips with them, so to speak. This increases the distance between the individual hand-grips. Passenger safety is not impaired, irrespective of whether they use the endless handrail or the grips. These are designed in a way that the passengers hand is pushed gently onto the next grip by the faster-moving endless handrail in the exit area. As a result, the way the problem of the handrail has been solved in TurboTrack represents a remarkable innovation in its own right I Figs 6 and 7 I. A three-stage warning system with an acoustic signal, physical contact warning and an automatic emergency stop additionally provides for increased safety in the handrail inlet guide area.

Toronto breaks new ground The first two TurboTrack systems to enter service anywhere in the world can be found at the Lester B. Pearson International Airport in Toronto I Fig. 8 I. The ongoing expansion of Canadas largest airport is a classic example of how this innovative passenger transportation system can be used. Covering a distance of 270 m, there is one system in each direction between the gates and the new International Terminal 1. This section of the building was started before the launch of TurboTrack, and had been planned to be equipped with conventional moving walks only. When the high-speed systems were launched, however, the planners of the Canadian airport changed their concept. The new transportation systems were retrofitted in such a way that one TurboTrack each was installed parallel to three individually spaced moving walks. The directly adjacent layout of the two passenger transportation systems makes clear the fun-damental difference between the two technologies: whereas the trip with the three conventional moving walks takes 415 seconds in total, TurboTrack needs only 140 seconds. Effectively, this shortens the journey to only one third of the time. Long distances really do become shorter. The extremely long transportation distance meant that emergency stop buttons were integrated at regular intervals I Fig. 9 I. TurboTrack takes account not only of environmental aspects but also of operating costs: A frequency converter ensures that energy savings are achieved. As soon as there is no-one using TurboTrack, its speed is reduced by two thirds.

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Fig. 9 | Standard on the long TurboTrack installations: an emergency stop button every 40 meters.

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Fig. 10 | A mobile gantry was designed specially to install the TurboTrack in Toronto.

Tailor-made installation An international installation team was formed to install the systems. The combined expertise of colleagues from Spain and Canada was faced by particular challenges. The terminal had already been largely completed when the installation took place. As a result, each of the two systems had to be brought in through a narrow window opening in segments each measuring 20 meters in length and then reassembled. The cramped conditions with a low ceiling height and the fact that the adjacent moving walks had already been installed made it necessary to come up with an individual technical solution. The project team developed a mobile gantry that was specially used for installing TurboTrack. In this way, the systems weighing 440 metric tons in total were lifted into position piece by piece. The individual segments had to be suspended on the gantry at the head end of the connection tunnel and lifted lengthways into the construction space provided in the floor in parallel to the conventional moving walks. The high loads were balanced by corresponding counterweights on a boom I Fig. 10 I. The result of the installation is a technical and stylish success. The innovative systems have a modern and elegant look. They are understated and functional, in harmony with the clear architecture

of the terminal. Their design made from steel, glass and Corian, a tough composite material, reflects the ground-breaking character of TurboTrack technology. It also passed the last test prior to commissioning without difficulty: directly on being completed, the two systems were certified by the Canadian Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA). Summary and outlook TurboTrack is a ground-breaking product innovation for transporting people. Now that the first two systems have entered service at Toronto Airport, ThyssenKrupp Elevator is presenting the influential concept to the world. Lester B. Pearson International is Canadas most important airport and handles over 30 million passengers every year. Here, and in other locations with large numbers of people, the advantages of TurboTrack for its passengers can be exploited to the full. Many people can be moved faster and more directly over longer distances. Numerous inquiries from airport and metro operators underline the existing level of interest in this innovation. The passenger transportation system TurboTrack introduced in this article was awarded First Prize in the 2007 ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest.

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| Assembly line for sheet-fed printing presses at the Radebeul plant of KBA Koenig & Bauer AG

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Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services
JRGEN WESTPHAL Management Board | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Berlin DIPL.-ING. CHRISTIAN BTTGER Branch Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Radebeul DIPL.-ING. ANDREAS MITSCHKE Sales Manager | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Radebeul MAIK WERNER Sales Officer Projects | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Radebeul

ThyssenKrupp Schulte has developed a modular concept aimed at extending the value chain and improving networking with customers. The concept makes it possible to provide and expand services in stages. For this, various materials-related and industrial services are linked together. The concept provides ThyssenKrupp Schulte with the opportunity to increase customer penetration and reduce the earnings volatility of the materials business. One example of this concept is the graduated model developed by the Radebeul branch in collaboration with the Dresden branch of ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice for Radebeul-based printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer.

Reference project In 2005, a team composed of representatives from ThyssenKrupp Schultes Radebeul branch and the printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer | Fig. 1 | came up with the pioneering idea of jointly realizing a graduated model for efficient outsourcing. In 2006, the reference customer KBA Koenig & Bauer selected ThyssenKrupp Schulte as a competent outsourcing partner on the basis that they offered a fair and transparent overall concept, had the expertise to manage efficient processes, and always acted in the best interests of the customer. The comprehensive project covers the transfer of previously customer-owned machines and equipment, materials procurement, warehousing, materials handling, complex processing, and logistics services including associated quality management. ThyssenKrupp Schulte enters material bookings independently in the production planning system of KBA Koenig & Bauer. As a result, from 2006 the Radebeul branch became an exemplary finishing center.

Overall concept The graduated model presented below | Fig. 2 | is an innovative and variable modular system that can be rolled out in further areas, particularly in key and target sectors. This or a similar model can be used as the basis for many outsourcing concepts in collaboration with ThyssenKrupp Schulte. The models structure is characterized by three logically divided modules covering materials procurement, the transfer of the manufacturing of semi-finished products, and the transfer of the customers supplier management activities. An integrated materials supply system, a comprehensive customerspecific solution, and an integrated network solution | Fig. 3 | are all achieved simultaneously within the customers basic business operations. Within these areas there is close process networking that encompasses quality assurance, technical and business consulting, information management, logistics, warehousing, and first-stage processing. This modular system serves as the basis for stronger and growing customer loyalty. The expertise of ThyssenKrupps Services

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Fig. 1 | Aerial view of the Radebeul plant of KBA Koenig & Bauer

Scope of the networking with the customer Module 3 Module 2 Module 1 Materials procurement for the customer Materials planning Just-in-time delivery Transfer of the manufacturing of semi-finished products for the customer Storage of starting material If necessary, transfer of customers machinery If necessary, transfer of customers employees Transfer of the supplier mangement activities for the customer Supplier selection Transfer of the customers production planning data (online)

Development of the integration modules


Fig. 2 | Variable module/graduated model for combining materials-related and industrial services

segment is expanded through the combination of materials-related and industrial services. The customer reaps a number of major benefits, including reduced capital employed, savings in storage space and costs, and the prevention of resource planning risks. This creates a win-win situation for both the customer and ThyssenKrupp. Project phases ThyssenKrupp Schulte and ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice are strongly committed to serving KBA Koenig & Bauer in Radebeul, a reference customer and one of the worlds leading suppliers of printing presses. The company manufactures sheet-fed offset printing presses in Radebeul | see title picture of the report |. Key reasons for KBA Koenig &

Bauers choice of ThyssenKrupp Schulte as its materials partner included the companys geographical proximity, broad product range, great flexibility, and experience and expertise in outsourcing projects. Other factors included the fact that KBA would retain control of the overall process and that the two companies participating employees had a great deal of respect for one another. To ensure the secure implementation of the project, a contract was concluded for a jointly developed graduated model comprising three modular project phases/ integration steps. Project phase 1 encompasses the transfer of existing KBA processes (in particular subcontracted finishing processes) to the buildings and other premises of ThyssenKrupp Schultes Radebeul branch. Materials

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Customers value chain Research and development Marketing and sales Procurement Logistics Production Distribution and customer services

Integrated network solutions Customer-specific process solutions

Supply-chain management for materials and maintenance material 2 Combining requirements and procurement 1 Customer-specific procurement* Steel 2 Operator solutions for inflow logistics Customer-specific logistics Tubes 3 Operator solutions for processing and assembly 1 Cutting to size, processing, assembly/kitting Plastics

Integrated materials supply

Basic business

Stainless steel

Non-ferrous metals

1, 2, 3

Reference to the module of the graduated model

* always in connection with customer-specific logistics and/or processing

Fig. 3 | Visualization of the graduated model in the value chain

are stored unsorted in the storage racks provided by KBA | Fig. 4 |. Included in this relocation are KBAs machines and equipment. Booking procedures are carried out in KBAs production planning and control system (PPS), which is used to manage inventory. The goods remain the customers property. ThyssenKrupp Schulte in Radebeul and ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice in Dresden concluded a service agreement under which ThyssenKrupp Schulte provides ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice with all machines, equipment, media and premises. The latter company is responsible for managing and loading the machines, unloading goods, and putting materials into and out of storage, while ThyssenKrupp Schulte serves as the overall consortium manager | Fig. 5 |. In addition, ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice is responsible for the daily cleaning and care of the machines, including any tool changes that may be required. The materials are packaged into transport containers provided by KBA | Fig. 6 | and subsequently loaded onto the KBA shuttle service | Fig. 7 |. ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice is also responsible for inspecting goods inward and outward. Both ThyssenKrupp companies constantly communicate and implement quality management measures in close cooperation with the customer.

The implementation of project phase 1 commenced in January 2006. During this phase, goods are processed/finished from about 1,000 sets consisting of approximately 1.26 million processing steps and allowing for a 10% fluctuation range. Each year, this affects about 1,700 tons of bar steel, bright/carbon steel, thick-walled/precision tubes, special profiles, stainless steel and non-ferrous metals. The finishing encompasses the processes of sawing, straightening, wave milling, centering | Fig. 8 |, deburring, chamfering, blasting, coating, picking and warehouse logistics. Since the project was launched, 99% availability has been maintained with just-in-time delivery, which has also had a positive impact on employee satisfaction and, consequently, on the models acceptance. Project phase 2 is still under development and is scheduled to commence in November 2007. The subcontracting from project phase 1 will remain unchanged. In addition, KBA will transfer responsibility for procurement and supplier selection to ThyssenKrupp Schulte. The booking of the production orders will continue to be carried out in KBAs PPS system. It will be linked to the SAP-R3 system in the form of a data interface via scheduling agreements. The goods will become property of ThyssenKrupp Schulte. SAP-R3 is the system

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Fig. 4 |Unsorted warehousing in KBAs storage racks by ThyssenKrupp Schulte

Fig. 5 | Finishing in Radebeul by ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice with ThyssenKrupp Schulte as the consortium manager

used by ThyssenKrupp Schulte for inventory management, which is why all goods inward must be entered there, from where they are then transferred via an interface to KBAs PPS system for checking purposes. As a result, the customer remains in absolute control of the system and can check all transactions made by the two ThyssenKrupp companies. This creates a mutual interface for networking two different systems, in order to ensure reciprocal transparency in the processing and material procurement processes. Every day, KBAs expected demand for purchased materials from ThyssenKrupp Schulte flows into the SAP-R3 purchasing tool. Project phase 3 will retain the specifications from project phases 1 and 2. However, the number of KBA suppliers and customers in the local area of relevance to ThyssenKrupp Schulte as sources of materials will be expanded. In addition, minimum stock levels will be established, as will contingency reserves and call-off systems. All three project phases basically correspond to the variable components of the general graduated model.

graduated model with a modular structure to enable customerspecific adaptation; 2. Integrated market presentation of: ThyssenKrupp Schulte for materials-related services, ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice for industrial services; 3. The customer is offered a wide range of elements from the graduated model. Examples include: transfer of materials planning activities by means of networking with the customers production planning processes, ThyssenKrupp Schulte is responsible for selecting the suppliers and procuring the materials; 4. Provision of up to 100% of the demand-specific service capacity for the customer: The customer does not need to maintain any capacity to deal with peaks in demand, cost is dependent on performance and quality delivered. Conclusion

Summary The process innovation described above has the following characteristics: 1. Unique selling points: combined materials-related and industrial services from a single source,

Outsourcing its finishing operations, including warehousing and firststage processing activities, to ThyssenKrupp Schulte has provided the following benefits to printing press manufacturer KBA Koenig & Bauer at its Radebeul location: the company no longer needs to tie up large amounts of capital to hold stock in the form of around 1,000 sets, grades and dimensions of goods. This has led to a signif-

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icant reduction of personnel costs in the warehousing and processing areas. Further capital expenditures for the modernization of the highbay racking system and the machinery have been avoided. The modernization of the now outsourced finishing operations alone would have required an investment of around 1.5 million euros. The customer can use the freed-up space to operate additional modern and innovative manufacturing machines. In addition, product availability remains at a minimum of 99%. Most of the fixed costs for ware-housing and processing have been transformed into variable costs. Besides providing 1,500 m2 of warehousing facilities, ThyssenKrupp Schulte has taken on both the organization of the supply chain and all preparatory work for mechanical production. As a result, the customer has to manage far fewer logistics processes. Data are exchanged fully electronically between KBA and ThyssenKrupp Schulte for all steps of the business process. At the finishing center, KBAs PPS

system is used to electronically display the finishing sequence according to deadline. This allows the employees of ThyssenKrupp Schulte to prepare themselves in good time for the actual requirements and to further optimize their own workflows. Through this cooperation, the three companies KBA, ThyssenKrupp Schulte and ThyssenKrupp Industrieservice have directly networked their expertise to ensure that all participants are kept up to date on developments. The result is an innovative win-win situation for the customer and ThyssenKrupp as the service provider. By working together, they can optimize processes and implement changes more quickly. In the service project, the participants developed and successfully implemented a reference example of a general graduated model for combining materials-related and industrial services. In fiscal year 2005/2006, this business model helped ThyssenKrupp Schulte to achieve a substantial increase in sales.

Fig. 6 | The transport containers are provided by KBA.

Fig. 7 | Just-in-time loading onto the KBA shuttle service

Fig. 8 | Close-up of parallel wave milling and centering according to DIN 333 along with the finished product and packaging at ThyssenKrupp Schulte

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| Power plant in the Frankfurt-Hchst Industrial Park

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Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone
DIPL.-ING. WERNER AUEL Head of Firing Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg

ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has supplied a process for the primary-side reduction of nitrogen oxides for hard coal to a customer that operates a number of boilers with pulverized-coal firing. After the successful conversion of the firing systems and attainment of the NOx reduction target (< 200 mg/m3 NOx ), an additional task was posed. This entailed feeding the extremely fine-grained fly ash resulting from the firing process, which still consists of up to a maximum of 50% unburned carbon, to an on-site system for thermal utilization. ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has, on the basis of this task, developed a melting cyclone for the combustion of the fly ash. This unit is also suitable in general for the disposal of residual industrial materials in solid, sludge or liquid form.

NOX reduction using the melting cyclone A power plant is operated in heat-led mode for supplying process steam to the location in the Frankfurt-Hchst Industrial Park | see title picture of the report and Fig. 1 |. Two boilers are designed for firing with hard coal, heating oil, and natural gas. A flue gas cleaning system using the Uhde activated coke process was installed in 1989. Shortly after commissioning, it became apparent that quasi-simultaneous desul-furization and denitrification was not possible with the selected plant concept, as ammonium chloride deposits occurred in the second stage of the adsorber the so-called denox stage after the addition of ammonia. Despite substantial efforts, it was not possible to find an acceptable solution to this problem, particularly with respect to possible retrofitting costs. As a result, it was necessary to conform to the applicable NOX limit value of 200 mg/m3 (calculated as NO2 w.r.t. m3 (dry, at standard temperature and pressure) 6% O2) by means of firing technology measures alone. The use of the Herenox-K process developed in collaboration between ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy and Henkel, which uses flue gas recirculation to reduce nitrogen emissions, has shown that conforming to the nitrogen oxide emission limits is possible. The carbon

component of the fly ash increases considerably, however, reaching values of between 30 and 60%, depending on the fuel used. In addition to the associated consequences for disposal of the fly ash, these high loss-on-ignition values represent a reduction of the boiler efficiency of around 5 to 8% and associated economic disadvantages. A solution based on the application of a newly developed melting cyclone is described below. This solution makes the residual calorific value of the fly ash usable, converts the fly ash into an environmentally compatible form, i.e. makes it suitable for landfill disposal without limitations, and improves the plant efficiency, thanks to the corresponding primary energy savings. Plant description The coal-fired boilers 3 and 4 built by Lentjes (the predecessor company of ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy) were constructed largely to the same drawings as dry ash removal, natural-circulation steam boilers in a 11/2 -pass design. The tri-fuel firing was designed to burn hard coal, heating oil, and natural gas. The most important technical data are summarized in | Fig. 2 |.

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7 5

21 6 1 20

13

11 10 19 12

4 14 2 15

16

Fig. 1 | Schematic overview of the coal-fired boiler of the power plant in the Frankfurt-Hchst Industrial Park

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In order to achieve the specified target of meeting the applicable NOX limit value for the coal-fired boilers without denitrification by means of the addition of ammonia in the downstream flue gas cleaning system, it was necessary to reduce the emission values by approximately 80% by means of firing technology measures. This figure lies in the region normally reached by the use of secondary NOX reduction technologies.The Herenox-K firing process technically implements this reduction by means of the use of low-NOX burners, sub-stoichiometric control of individual burner systems, flue-gas recirculation, and the addition of reducing gas in the reduction zone upstream of the upper air intake. Cyclone melting firing
18

The use of the Herenox-K process gives rise to losses on ignition of between 30 and 60% in the fly ash. These losses reduce the boiler efficiency considerably. Because economical disposal of this fly ash in the Frankfurt region was not possible, the only solution was to

reburn the ash. It was therefore decided to provide each of the two boilers with an ash melting capability. Due to the restricted space available in the existing boiler house, only a cyclone firing system could be considered. Such systems also provide the highest level of ash retention, which is important with a view to avoiding a possible capacity overload of the existing electrostatic precipitators.

17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Coal bunker Coal mill Primary air fan Tri-fuel burner Steam boiler Rotary air heater Electrostatic precipitator Silencer Induced draught fan Forced draught fan Fly ash storage bin Fly ash conveyor system Melting cyclone Slag granule removal system Ash removal Pneumatic ash conveyor fan Flue gas recirculation fan Flue gas desulphurisation Fly ash conveyor system unit Feed water inlet Superheated steam outlet

The cyclone consists of a cylindrical combustion chamber, to which a secondary combustion chamber with a deflector plate is connected. A waste gas flue equipped with a slag screen leads the flue gas into the furnace of the existing steam boiler | Fig. 3 |. Injection jets for the residual materials and the combustion air are integrated into the surface of the combustion chamber casing. Two coal-dust gas burners are also fitted here. They enable the combustion chamber to be heated to its ignition temperature. All parts of the cyclone have a tube wall. Water flows through the tubes to cool the cyclone and to provide usable heat (single-tube forced circulation system). The tube system is welded to be gas-tight. Small, closely spaced steel pins are welded to the sides of the tubes facing the interior of the cyclone. These pins are there to transport the heat and to provide a hold for the refractory lining material that is applied to protect the tube wall. Complex manufacturing technologies were used to produce this complicated pattern of pipe bends and to attach the holding pins. | Fig. 4 | shows the completely assembled cyclone undergoing pressure testing.

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Boiler Deflector plate Rated thermal output Live steam output Live steam pressure Live steam temperature Feed water temperature Combustion air temperature Waste gas temperature Boiler efficiency 2 x 120 MW 2 x 150 t/h 121 bar 520 C 192 C 315 C 140 C 91,9 % Slag screen

Secondary combustion chamber (Secondary chamber) Starting and auxiliary burners from the company Lentjes

Air jets

Dust jets Middle of cylone A hole

Firing system Type Burner type Number of burners Number of mills Type of mills Front firing Vortex burner 6 3 LM 13.21 D Cyclone combustion chamber (Primary chamber) Slag Fuel Natural gas Heating oil Hard coal Calorific value Volatile components (anhydrous and free of ash) Ash (raw) Water Grindability Quality: high/low Side wall of boiler Extra light/heavy Gas flame/bituminous coal
Fig. 3 | Structure of the melting cyclone

Middle of deflector plate

B hole

21.9 - 29.4 MJ/kg 25 - 40% 6 - 20% 9 - 12% Hard Grove Index: 36 - 60

Emission values SO2 NOX, started as NO2 CO Particulates

Operation < 50 mg/m3 1,000 mg/m3 < 50 mg/m3

Approval 200 mg/m3 200 mg/m3 250 mg/m3 50 mg/m3

< 50 mg/m3

* w.r.t. m3 (dry, at standard temperature and pressure) 6% O2

Fig. 2 | Technical data on the coal-fired boilers

Fig. 4 | Melting cyclone during manufacture

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Mode of operation of the cyclone Once the cyclone has been brought up to temperature by the coal-dust gas burners, the residual dust and the associated combustion air are blown tangentially into the cylindrical combustion chamber at high speed via the injection jets. Here, the dust particles and the gas flow follow a spiral path, during the course of which there is sufficient time for the carbon still present to burn. Because cyclone melting firing systems have no longer been constructed and commissioned in recent times, a finite element model was used to validate the design of the melting cyclone. This made it possible, for example, to determine the influence of various design changes on the degree of ash retention. It was discovered that only very small particles (< 25 m) circulate repeatedly in the primary chamber, while most of the particles stick to the cyclone wall within their first circuit. A certain proportion of the small ash particles is also not retained in the downstream secondary chamber, so that these particles leave the cyclone without being melted. The layout of the cyclone was, however, designed to keep this proportion as low as possible | Figs 5 to 8 |. The temperatures in the cyclone reach values > 1,500 C, so that the remaining burned-out ash particles melt. Eventually all of the particles end up on the cyclone wall, where a molten skin forms. Due to the slight incline of the cyclone axis, the ash flows through a slot in the end wall and into the secondary combustion chamber, the floor of which is equipped with a drainage hole for the molten slag. The melt falls through this hole and into a water bath in which it forms a granulate due to the sudden quenching. Thanks to its high resistance to leaching, this slag granulate is very environmentally compatible. The flue gas flows through a circular, axis-centered opening into the secondary combustion chamber, where it is deflected and led off into the furnace of the connected boiler via the waste gas flue into which the slag screen is integrated. The remaining molten ash particles in the flue gas are precipitated by this deflection and the slag screen to prevent deposits and soiling in the downstream boiler furnace. The NOX emissions from slag-tap pulverized-coal firing systems are normally higher than those from dry-bottom firing systems by at least a factor of two, and can be up to 2,000 mg/m3. The tests carried out on the melting of fly ash have, however, shown that the NOX emissions in this mode of operation are of the order of 500 mg/m3, due to the low concentration of emissions-boosting nitrogen compounds in the fly ash. Furthermore, the rated thermal output of the cyclone accounts for only 10% of the total rated thermal output and the waste gas from the cyclone passes through the reduction zone of the main firing system

once again. It is therefore safe to assume that the melting of the fly ash has no significant effect on the emissions situation of the complete plant. Plant concept for the main firing system The pulverized coal is fed to the low-emission burners by means of conveying air, the oxygen content of which is reduced due to the flue gas recirculation. The pulverized fuel is blown into the combustion chamber evenly over the circumference of the burner by means of suitable swirlers. The combustion air is supplied to the lower layer slightly super-stoichiometrically and to the upper burner layers substoichiometrically. Reduction gas is fed in concentrically via multiple gas nozzles to make the combustion in the primary zone of the flame even leaner. The exclusive recirculation of the flue gas via the tubes in the burner throat, which are also arranged concentrically, ensures a further reduction of the oxygen partial pressure in the core zone of the flames. The addition of upper air then guarantees almost complete combustion. To avoid chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion in the reducing-atmosphere region of the furnace, so-called shield gas in the form of flue gas is added at the side walls and the back wall. The known technique of feeding in combustion air for this purpose leads to an increase of the oxygen supply in the reduction zone, which also causes an increase of the NOX emissions. Further development of the melting cyclone The fly ash melting cyclones were converted from their previous natural-gas auxiliary firing to additional coal-dust auxiliary firing (power 14 MW) with changes to the burner geometry of the main boiler firing in 2006. A partial flow (approx. 30%) of the coal dust from the coal pulverizing mill is gated out and diverted to the newly installed coal-dust radiation burners in the melting cyclone. The fly ash precipitated in the electrostatic precipitator, which has a carbon content of between 30 and 60%, is fed to the cyclone firing system for melting. With this carbon content, the fly ash has a sufficiently high calorific value (NCV = 10,000-17,000 kJ/kg) to enable substantially self-sustaining combustion. The resulting molten ash flows to a granulator, in which it is cooled. The latent heat of fusion released by the cooling process is used for preheating the feed water via a heat transfer system. The resulting flue gases enter the furnace of the main firing system.

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88 | Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone

The system is cooled with feed water in the forced circulation; this preheated water is fed in at the end of the boiler drum. The proportion of the cyclone cooling water in the total boiler feed water is around 6% at full load. The slag screen situated at the end of the cyclone in the flue gas flow direction is connected as part of the evaporator ascension pipe system of the boiler. The complete geometry (primary and secondary chambers, separating wall, A and B holes) is finally fitted with three tubes measuring 38 x 5 mm in pipe-rib design. The internal region is completely covered with pins and lined with a SiC compound. The cylindrical primary chamber of the cyclone has a diameter of 1,800 mm and a length of 2,700 mm. The combustion air is fed into the primary chamber tangentially with a velocity of 120 m/s. The fly ash enters the combustion chamber secantially carried by conveying air (30 m/s). The dust burners are surrounded by two natural gas-coal dust burners for starting and for auxiliary firing. Operating results A series of teething problems, which are normally to be expected in conjunction with a new technology, occurred. These problems were not, however, due to the process, but were exclusively concerned with the engineering design. The work concentrated largely on improving the slag flow and increasing the degree of entrainment. The following individual measures were taken: enlarging the start-up firing system, design engineering changes to the secondary combustion chamber, optimizing the air and fuel distribution as well as enlarging the slag drop shaft. The result of the optimization process was a stable slag flow. Now that the cyclones have been rebuilt for additional coal dust operation, there is no longer any need to use natural gas as an auxiliary fuel. The plant concept described must always be operated with a minimum firing system heat output of 50% to ensure reliable melting of the fly ash. The proportion of auxiliary firing must therefore be increased correspondingly in the partial load range to maintain the melt flow. Furthermore, the carbon content of the fly ash and its melting properties also have an influence on the proportion of auxiliary firing. Taking account of this condition, a stable and even slag flow can be guaranteed; manual interventions, for example, to keep the B hole clear, are not required. Although it was not foreseen in the layout, the operation of the melting chambers has demonstrated that the ash from both boilers can be melted in one system, so that the second cyclone can be held in reserve. This is mainly due to the fact that the carbon content of the fly ash present in operation at approximately 30% is well

below the design value of 50%. The degree of entrainment in the cyclone firing system is around 90%, whereby the greater part of the discharged material is precipitated in the furnace of the boiler. The NOX emissions from the cyclone melting firing system conform to the expected values. The amount of excess air with which the cyclone firing system is operated is decisive for the emission level. As expected, the nitrogen oxide emissions of the flue gases from the cyclone are further reduced while passing through the reduction zone in the furnace of the steam boiler, so that the operation of the cyclone melting firing system will not have any negative effects on the maintenance of the NOX limit value. Summary A process for low-NOX combustion has been applied to two steam boilers fired using pulverized coal in the Hchst Industrial Park. A process concept with nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 200 mg/m3 (calculated as NO2 w.r.t. m3 (dry, at standard temperature and pressure) 6% O2) has been achieved without the application of secondary NOX reduction technology by combining a low-emission dust firing system with a cyclone melting firing system for melting the fly ash. The melting cyclone enables the energetic utilization and the disposal of residual materials. Its application leads to savings of primary fuel. This enables significant improvements in the efficiency and economics of boiler systems especially of older plants. Exact calculations of the improvement in efficiency can be carried out individually for any plant. Because the slag is resistant to leaching, the plant operator receives an additional economic advantage, as cost-intensive landfill disposal is no longer required. The environmentally compatible granulated slag also makes it easier to obtain approvals for plant extensions. Thanks to its compact structure, the cyclone is especially suitable for retrofitting fuel burner facilities and thus replaces special disposal facilities. In combination with a low-NOX pulverized-coal firing system, the use of an expensive SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system can be avoided.

ThyssenKrupp techforum

1 | 2007

Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone | 89

Y Y

Z Z X X

[m/s] 145 127 108 90.4 72.3 54.2 36.2 18.1

Fig. 5 | Modeling the melting cyclone with wire frame for the numerical simulation

Fig. 6 | Flow field in a plane of the cyclone

[m/s] 124 108 92.9 77.4 61.9 46.4 31.0 15.5 X X

[m/s] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Y Z

Fig. 7 | Velocity field

Fig. 8 | Velocity vortex (plane normal to cyclone z-axis)

ThyssenKrupp techforum

1 | 2007

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