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techforum

ThyssenKrupp

Issue 1 | 2008

Cover The cover picture shows a fully mobile crushing plant operating in an open-pit coal mine located in China. This new plant was developed by ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik as part of a priority research and development project and has been in operation under difficult climatic conditions in inner Mongolia since the end of 2007. The coal is loaded by an excavator directly into the crushing plants feed hopper and a crusher then reduces the ROM ore to a size suitable for transport by belt conveyor. The key innovations lie with the unique functionality and mobility of the machine while the very high capacity of up to 10,000 t/h makes it an ideal crushing plant for large open pit mines worldwide. The use of fully mobile crushing plants completely dispenses with the need for truck transportation and offers, enabling potential reductions in CO2 emissions of up to 100,000 t per year for each system installed in the mine. Cross-segment cooperation with ThyssenKrupp Steel resulted in the use of high-strength steel and liners with special wear properties to provide adequate protection from the abrasive nature of the ore. The fully mobile crushing plant was awarded 1st prize in the 2008 ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest.

ERRATUM Other than stated, the cover picture of Issue 2/2007 shows the end stage of a steam turbine in the low pressure downstream section.

PUBLISHER ThyssenKrupp AG, Corporate Technology, August-Thyssen-Str. 1, 40211 Dsseldorf, Germany, Telephone: +49 (0)211/824-36291, Fax: +49 (0)211/824-36285

ThyssenKrupp techforum appears once or twice a year in German and English. Reprints with the permission of the publisher only. Photomechanical reproduction of individual papers is permitted. ThyssenKrupp techforum is distributed according to an address file maintained using an automated data processing system. ISSN 1612-2771

Foreword | 3

Dear readers,

An invention itself does not represent an innovation; not until the idea has been translated into marketable products and services does it earn this status. Successfully implemented ideas were once again rewarded in this years 9th ThyssenKrupp Innovation Contest. The award ceremony, to which all the Groups executives and all participants in the final round of the contest were invited, took place on May 17, 2008 as part of the ThyssenKrupp Management Forum at the Ideas Park in Stuttgart. First prize in this years contest went to a cross-segment innovation in the area of materials handling. A German-Canadian team from ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik and ThyssenKrupp Steel developed a new, fully mobile crushing plant with downstream belt conveyors direct from the face for use in large open-pit mining operations. Dispensing with the need for truck transportation significantly reduces operating costs and at the same time substantially lowers CO2 emissions, thus contributing to climate protection and delivering clear economic benefits to operators. A first system of this type has been operating successfully since 2007 in an open-pit coal mine in China under extreme production conditions. There is market potential for these fully mobile crushers in all open-pit mining operations where large volumes need to be moved, e.g. also in oil sands mining in Canada. Second prize was awarded to a team from ThyssenKrupp Nirosta for the development of the new material NIROSTA 4640. This innovative stainless steel is alloyed with a new combination of chromium, nickel, manganese, copper and nitrogen and displays the same good properties as the long-established NIROSTA 4301. By reducing the amount of cost-intensive nickel, the new material which is used e.g. in white goods, household appliances, kitchen equipment and in the capital goods industry offers a low-cost alternative which is already enjoying a high level of market acceptance. Third prize went to a team from ThyssenKrupp Steel and the DOC Dortmund Surface Engineering Center for the development of a process which for the first time allows the high-quality hot-dip coating of multiphase steels. Consecutive oxidation and reduction processes avoid the undesirable formation of oxides on the surface caused by the increased alloy content of these steels. Multiphase steels coated by this new process have great potential for automotive lightweighting, not least because they help reduce CO2 emissions from motor vehicles. The other articles in this issue also underline the high level of entries to our Innovation Contest and thus the innovative capacities of our Group.

Yours,

Dr.-Ing. Ekkehard D. Schulz, Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG

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Innovative process for innovative steel concepts hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels
DIPL.-ING. MARTIN NORDEN Project Engineer Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DR.-ING. WILHELM WARNECKE Team Coordinator Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. GERNOT NOTHACKER Specialist Coordinator Production FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. NORBERT SCHAFFRATH Specialist Coordinator Electrical Maintenance FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund

A new and innovative process for the hot-dip galvanizing of multiphase steels has been developed by the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflchenCentrum) in collaboration with ThyssenKrupp Steel for indirectly heated radiant tube furnaces and implemented for the first time in the state-of-the-art hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Dortmund. The so-called oxidation/reduction technology creates the preconditions for high-quality hot-dip coating of high-strength multiphase steels in a continuous strip coating process. This enables ThyssenKrupp to develop the existing market potential of the multiphase steels. This technology is suitable for adaptation for further hot-dip galvanizing lines and can expand the Groups existing production capacity for multiphase steels. 16 |

ZMg EcoProtect new coating for high-end corrosion protection


DIPL.-ING. OLIVER BENDICK Project Engineer Interface Chemistry and Electrochemistry | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. MICHAEL KELLER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 5, Industry Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eichen MANFRED MEURER Team Leader Hot-dip Coating | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DR. RER. NAT. ERICH NABBEFELD-ARNOLD Head of Techn./Strategic Marketing, Competence Center C/C, Industry Division | Thyssen Krupp Steel AG, Eichen DIPL.-ING. SABINE ZEIZINGER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 8, Auto Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund

A new process has been developed for the manufacture of magnesium-bearing zinc coatings containing approximately 1% magnesium. Using this new process enables the coating to be produced in existing hot-dip galvanizing lines. The high corrosion resistance of this coating makes it possible to halve the coating thickness while retaining the same protective effect. The new coating thus makes an exceptional contribution to the conservation of resources. The new flat steel product ZMg EcoProtect possesses improved resistance to cut-edge and cut-face corrosion. It is also a very good substrate for organic coil-coated products. Trials as part of development partnerships have commenced with selected customers from the construction, garage door, domestic appliance, vehicle and automotive industries.

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EcoSpace cockpit optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior
DIPL.-ING. MARTIN HINZ Manger Process Innovation, Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. PETER SEYFRIED Manager Technology Management, Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund

In cooperation with Johnson Controls, ThyssenKrupp has developed a cockpit support structure known as EcoSpace that is an economical lightweight hybrid composite structure of steel and plastic, with a steel frame located only on the drivers side. The new construction has a crash performance comparable to that of conventional cockpit support structures while featuring 18% greater stiffness and a weight reduction of more than 20%. 28 |

Tailored blanks in hot stamping


DIPL.-ING. JRG MAAS Head of Sales/Senior Manager Sales | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH, Duisburg WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH, Duisburg

In collaboration with Audi, ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks has successfully developed and integrated into production processes a new manufacturing technology for tailored blanks for use in hot stamping. The work was carried out within one year. The new technology represents the worlds first application of the product tailored blanks in hot stamping along with plant engineering that is currently unique. These tailored blanks offer users all the advantages of the previous areas of application and maximum process reliability. Different steel grades and sheet thicknesses can be welded together. In this way, the new product supports the customer in achieving lightweight construction and thus also in attaining environmental objectives. At the same time, the automakers production costs can be significantly reduced. 32 |

Multi-purpose tailgate MPT a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system
DIPL.-ING. RALF SNKEL Teamleader Product Innovation/Projects, Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

The needs of customers play a decisive role in creating innovative product solutions for future generations of automobiles. Following customer surveys, ThyssenKrupp Steel, ThyssenKrupp Metal Forming and Webasto worked together closely to develop the multi-purpose tailgate. The design of the flexible tailgate module implemented in the physical prototype features maximum ease-of-use, the highest degree of functionality and flexibility and optimal use of the materials involved.

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PLADUR M (Metal-Look) an elegant product made of coil-coated steel


BEATE FUGMANN Market and Innovation Team, Industry Division, Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Kreuztal DIPL. WIRT.-ING. AXEL POHL Head of Sales-Market and Innovation Team, Industry Division, Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Kreuztal

The Market and Innovation Team at ThyssenKrupp Steels Color Profit Center correctly identified customers wishes for organic coil-coated products with a metal look at an early stage. The team then developed a suitable response in the form of PLADUR M. Thanks to its elegant and appealing appearance, its good technological characteristics and its attractive price, PLADUR M has been successful with customers from an extremely wide range of sectors and has established itself alongside prepainted products for use in many different applications. 42 |

NIROSTA 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA 4301 offering equivalent properties


DIPL.-ING. ARAZ ARDEHALI BARANI Materials Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Dsseldorf DR.-ING. GABRIELE BRCKNER Head of Materials Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Dsseldorf DIPL.-ING. MANFRED BUCKEL Head of Materials Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld DIPL.-ING. GERT WEI Head of Product Service | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld DIPL.-ING. ALFRED WELTER Technical Customer Consulting | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld

Austenitic chromium-nickel steels find a wide range of applications thanks to their universal properties. In response to the development of prices of alloy components, ThyssenKrupp Nirosta has developed the new steel grade NIROSTA 4640, which demonstrates the same good properties as the widely used material NIROSTA 4301. The alloy concept utilizes a new combination of the elements copper, nitrogen and manganese to lower the nickel content. NIROSTA 4640 is especially suitable for the area of white goods, e.g. dishwashers, and for sinks and similar products.

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Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips
DIPL.-ING. STEFAN SCHUBERTH Head of Applications Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH, Duisburg

Mixed construction using galvanized flat-rolled carbon steels and hardened, austenitic stainless steels is particularly difficult due to the differing physical properties and levels of strength. Embrittlement in the weld seam can lead to failure during subsequent forming. Exact process control of the laser welding in the manufacture of the tailored blanks has now made it possible to produce blanks with ductile seams and large changes in thickness that measure up to the demands of the subsequent forming process. The combination of work-hardened, stainless austenitic steel and carbon steel yields weight savings without disadvantages in terms of properties. Possible applications include crashrelevant components in vehicle manufacture. 50 |

Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors


DR.-ING. ANGELIKA KOLB-TELIEPS Head of Knowledge and Innovation Management | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena DR. RER. NAT. BODO GEHRMANN Project Manager Super Alloys and Physical Materials | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena

High-temperature superconductivity is on the threshold of market launch. Starting from the results of a research project, ThyssenKrupp VDM has successfully developed an industrial-scale production process for nickel W14, which is used as substrate strip in superconductors destined for applications such as generators for wind turbines. The deoxidation of the melt presented a particular challenge. On the one hand, this is required in order to avoid fractures during the hot forming, on the other, the usual deoxidation elements have negative effects on the nanoscale texture and surface roughness needed for the substrate strip. 56 |

Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content


DR. RER. NAT. HEIKE HATTENDORF Project Manager Research & Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena DIPL.-ING. JRGEN WEBELSIEP Manager Quality Assurance Wire Division | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Werdohl

For the open heating elements of appliances such as clothes driers and in-room heaters, American manufacturers in particular like to employ heating element wires made of the alloy Cronifer II. Heating element wires have to meet tough requirements in such applications. For example, the wire coil may not sag or burn through at high temperatures. As a result of its high nickel content (approx. 60%), the material known as Cronifer II that was previously used is expensive and therefore no longer competitive for this application. By increasing the chromium content and precisely matching the various elements to one another, the developers have created an alloy that contains just 37.5% nickel while still meeting the demanding technical requirements.

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Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production


DIPL.-ING. FRANZ-JOSEF ZURHOVE Specialist Department Research & Development, Head of Grinding & Crushing Technology | Polysius AG, Neubeckum

The POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll and the newly developed SEPOL HR separator have established new benchmarks for energy efficiency in the grinding of raw materials for cement manufacturing. Previous use of the highpressure grinding roll for this process was limited to niche applications featuring, for example, low levels of moisture and abrasion and lower throughput rates. With the successful commissioning of two grinding plants with POLYCOM and SEPOL HR, Polysius is setting a new benchmark for efficiency, quiet running and reliability. The attractive investment costs are a welcome complement to the low operating costs. 66 |

Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines


DIPL.-ING. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES Senior Manager Mine Planning & Sales | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen DIPL.-ING. FRANK SEEHFER Senior Manager Projects | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen DIPL.-ING. MARTINA SHEHATA M.SC, P.ENG. Vice President Engineering & Project Management | Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary/Canada STEPHEN HARRINGTON, B.ENG, P.ENG. Vice President Sales | Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary/Canada DR. RER. NAT. HANS-JRGEN KAISER Head of Technical Marketing, Heavy Plate Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

As part of a priority research and development project launched in 2006, engineers at ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik developed the concept for a fully mobile crushing plant to enhance mining operations in large open pit mines. The key innovations lie with the unique functionality and mobility of the machine which allow it to work along side the mining shovel at the mine face. The crushing plant feeds a dedicated belt conveyor system and the need for large haul trucks is eliminated. The use of continuous mining technology not only brings economic benefits in the form of higher production performance with reduced capital cost (particularly when compared to a discontinuous system using trucks), it is also more environmentally friendly because it reduces CO2 emissions. In a cross-segment cooperation with ThyssenKrupp Steel, the developers investigated the use of high strength steel and utilized liners with special wear properties to provide adequate protection from the abrasive nature of the ore.

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Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles
DIPL.-ING. JRG TIETJEN Vice President Test/Measurement Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH, Langenhagen DIPL.-ING. JOAKIM KHL Development Test Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH, Langenhagen

Todays vehicles have to meet high standards with regard to ride comfort, making balancing the drive train and noise testing of many components essential. ThyssenKrupp EGM, an internationally leading supplier of comprehensive solutions for transmission test stands, has eliminated the traditional distinction between balancing machines and NVH test stands. It has done so by developing, testing and realizing as a product a new test stand concept that unites both technologies in a single machine. Key arguments in favor of the new system, for which a patent has been applied, are its huge cost advantages and the reduced amount of space it requires. 80 |

Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks


DIPL.-PHYS. WILHELM CASSING Sales Manager, Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Gelsenkirchen DIPL.-ING. THOMAS POHL Technical Manager, Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Anlagenservice GmbH, Oberhausen DIPL.-ING. FALK STEGER Sales Magnet System| ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Gelsenkirchen

Because of the need to quickly load and unload steel slabs, a new technological concept had to be developed for lifting loads. Given the same requirements, such as being able to unload 36-ton slabs, electropermanent magnets offer a number of advantages over conventional electromagnets and chains. These include the fact that they do not require either environmentally damaging backup batteries or the use of dunnage in an integrated logistic chain. And thanks to savings in weight, the magnets can significantly reduce crane costs. Other, non-monetary benefits affect occupational safety and environmental protection. 86 |

Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)


JRGEN STIRN Head of Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. WILFRIED RUTHMANN Project Manager Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. MARTIN HBLER Construction Planning | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. GERHARD SCHIWIETZ Sales | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg PETER DIEKMANN Public Relations | ThyssenKrupp Services AG, Dsseldorf

Combined-cycle power plants have a number of virtues. They are not only profitable but also very environmentally friendly, simple in design and suitable for a broad range of applications. Following deregulation of the electricity market, this technology offers many municipal utilities an economically viable means of modernizing their old cogeneration power plants. In Wrzburg, for example, successful cooperation between ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy and Heizkraftwerk Wrzburg GmbH has recently seen the completion of the first phase in a project to upgrade a coal-fired power plant to a combined-cycle facility. On this basis, an innovative concept has been devised to build a second combinedcycle generating unit on the same site. This modernization project combines the benefits of low-emission fuel utilization with efficient combined-cycle technology for the cogeneration of heat and power.

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| Hot-dip galvanized rolled sheet in the hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 in Dortmund

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Innovative process for innovative steel concepts hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels
DIPL.-ING. MARTIN NORDEN Project Engineer Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DR.-ING. WILHELM WARNECKE Team Coordinator Metallic and Inorganic Coatings | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. GERNOT NOTHACKER Specialist Coordinator Production FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. NORBERT SCHAFFRATH Specialist Coordinator Electrical Maintenance FBA 8 | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund

A new and innovative process for the hot-dip galvanizing of multiphase steels has been developed by the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflchenCentrum) in collaboration with ThyssenKrupp Steel for indirectly heated radiant tube furnaces and implemented for the first time in the state-of-the-art hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 at ThyssenKrupp Steel in Dortmund. The so-called oxidation/reduction technology creates the preconditions for high-quality hot-dip coating of high-strength multiphase steels in a continuous strip coating process. This enables ThyssenKrupp to develop the existing market potential of the multiphase steels. This technology is suitable for adaptation for further hot-dip galvanizing lines and can expand the Groups existing production capacity for multiphase steels.

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12 | Innovative process for innovative steel concepts hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels

Lightweight construction using multiphase steels The increasing demands on occupant protection in modern motor vehicles and their CO2 emissions require both the automotive and the materials industries to apply innovative methods of reducing weight while simultaneously increasing the rigidity of the vehicle bodywork.

not run spontaneously have a free energy of RG > 0, i.e. the reaction does not take place or must be forced to occur by the input of energy. The spontaneously occurring reactions of metals with oxygen can, for example, be described by the following chemical equation:

2Fe + 02
The replacement of conventional steels by multiphase steels provides an important element in the basis of the weight reduction and the improved crash strength of the bodywork and so makes a significant contribution to achieving these objectives. New lightweight designs can only be achieved by the use of correspondingly innovative materials that measure up to the customers high requirements. Multiphase steels from ThyssenKrupp Steel offer a wide range of capabilities with respect to formability and strength

2Fe0

The result of the reaction of iron and oxygen is to convert the pure iron into iron oxide. The shield gas atmosphere in the annealing furnace of a hot-dip galvanizing line is intended to prevent oxidation of the surface of the steel strip during annealing and to reduce any surface oxides that may be present by reacting them with hydrogen according to the following mechanism:

Fe0 + H2
and are available in various surface qualities. Due to the increasing demand, ThyssenKrupp Steel is continually expanding its range of multiphase steels by the continuous further development of new steel concepts through to production maturity I Fig. 1 I. A surface coating that effectively protects the component against corrosion over its entire life cycle is essential for the application of new, innovative steel concepts for structural elements in automotive manufacture. Multiphase steels are normally galvanized by hot-dip or electrolytic galvanizing in a continuous strip coating process. Due to its ecological and economic efficiency, continuous hot-dip galvanizing

Fe + H20

The objective is to prepare a purely iron-bearing surface for the hotdip coating process. The reduction results in the addition of water vapor (H2O) to the annealing gas atmosphere. The water vapor content of the annealing gas atmosphere is given as a dew point, an old meteorological unit commonly used for measuring humidity. Due to the high temperatures of the annealing gas atmosphere, some dissociation of the vapor-phase water resulting in the presence of traces of oxygen is unavoidable:

2H20
plays an important role here. Challenges for hot dip galvanizing Recrystallizing annealing represents a decisive process step in the hot-dip galvanizing process with respect to the technological properties of the multiphase steel. Alloying elements such as aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, niobium, phosphorus, silicon, titanium and vanadium are added in controlled amounts to produce the mechanical/technological properties. In the classical recrystallizing annealing process, these alloying elements form stabile oxides that cannot be reduced despite a hydrogen-bearing shield gas atmosphere. This makes the development of a new process technology essential and requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of the reactions that are taking place. The laws of thermodynamics describe chemical reactions in general. They can be used to derive an understanding of the mechanisms and to predict the progress of the reactions. The Gibbs free energy of reaction ( RG) provides information as to whether a chemical reaction will occur spontaneously or not. Reactions which run in the direction of the reaction products have a free energy of RG < 0, which means that the reaction runs of its own accord. Reactions that do

02 + 2H20

For this reason, the dew point is taken to be a measure of the oxygen content of an annealing gas atmosphere. At high temperatures, the free oxygen formed as a result of this reaction can oxidize the alloying components of the steel. Both processes, the oxidation and the reduction of the steel strip surface, achieve an equilibrium in the annealing gas atmosphere. Considering the free energy of reaction is extremely useful when discussing the possible reactions in the annealing gas atmosphere and is addressed in detail in the so-called Richardson-Ellingham diagram. This diagram can be used to estimate whether an alloy component of a steel will be present as an oxide or as the element taking into account the temperature, the hydrogen content and the water vapor content. In contrast to iron oxide, the oxides of alloying elements with very negative free energies such as silicon, manganese, chromium and aluminum cannot be reduced under the conditions of the annealing gas atmosphere in hot-dip galvanizing lines. Should these oxides of the alloying components be present in higher concentrations on the strip surface, they could hinder the reaction of the molten zinc with the iron and lead to inadequate wetting and adhesion.

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70 DC, DX 60 HX 50 Elongation A80 [%] BHZ 40 30 20 MHZ 10 0 200
*MBW-K

HSZ

X-IP

DC/DX HX BHZ HSZ WHZ MHZ DP-K RA-K CP-K MBW-K


**MBW-K

WHZ

RA-K RA-K development DP-K development

X-IP

Deep-drawing steels High-strength IF steels Bake-hardening steels High-strength stretchforming steels Work-hardening steels Microalloyed steels Dual-phase steels Residual-austenite steels Complex-phase steels Manganese-boron steels for hot stamping eXtreme strength and formability through nduced Plasticity as-delivered hot-stamped

DP-K 300 400 500 600 700

CP-K 800 900

CP-K development

* **

1.000 1.100 1.200 1.300 1.400 1.500 1.600 1.700

Tensile strength Rm [MPa]


Fig. 1 | Strength classes and properties of conventional and multiphase steels

Dew point -15 C* Oxide Fe

Dew point -30 C* Oxide

Dew point -45 C* Oxide

Fe Fe 3 m 3 m 3 m

* FE-SEM (Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis laboratory annealing: 800 C; 60 s, 95% N2, 5% H2
Fig. 2 | Dependence of the surface composition on the dew point of the annealing gas atmosphere taking as an example TRIP 700, left: iron-rich surface due to internal oxidation; right: strongly oxide-coated surface due to external oxidation

This observation makes it clear that the temperature and the partial pressure of oxygen in the annealing gas atmosphere are two factors in a complex reaction chain subject to influence by a large number of factors. The high proportion of non-reducible alloy components in multiphase steels makes a systematic investigation of the reaction processes on the strip surface essential. The experience gained must be used to develop a process that enables and ensures the wetting of highly alloyed multiphase steels by the molten zinc. Reduction of the alloying elements with very high affinities for oxygen is not possible under the existing conditions. Varying the partial pressure of oxygen in the annealing gas atmosphere offers an alternative approach by means of which the location of the oxidation of the alloying components can be changed. This approach is clearly illustrated by the example shown in I Fig. 2 I. If a multiphase steel is annealed in an

oxygen-poor atmosphere as in the example, this results in an oxide skin which covers the surface and can inhibit the formation of the Fe2Al5 inhibition layer in the subsequent galvanization step. The alloying elements are thus externally oxidized. Increasing the partial pressure of oxygen, in contrast, leads to an increase in the iron content at the surface, along with a simultaneous reduction in the oxide proportion of the alloying elements. Increased oxygen diffusion along the grain boundaries into the structure of the surface leads to the oxidation of the alloying elements with a high affinity for oxygen located below the surface. So-called internal oxidation occurs. This leads to the proportion of interfering oxides on the surface being minimized. The iron-rich surface achieved in this way is well-suited to the optimal formation of a Fe2Al5 inhibition layer in the hot-dip galvanizing process.

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14 | Innovative process for innovative steel concepts hot-dip galvanized multiphase steels

Oxidation Iron oxide

Reduction Iron

Galvanized Iron Fe2Al5

Steel

Steel

Steel

2 m MnO, Al2O3.... MnO, Al2O3....

2 m MnO, Al2O3....

2 m

Fig. 3 | The process of oxidation and reduction

Due to the physical dimensions of the annealing furnace of a hotdip galvanizing line, it is not possible to influence the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. As the oxidation of the high oxygen affinity elements withdraws more water vapor from the annealing gas atmosphere than is formed by the reduction of iron oxide, the dew point of the furnace atmosphere during the production of multiphase steels tends to be very

can, in contrast to the other oxides of the alloying elements of multiphase steels, be reduced in the subsequent annealing process, a sponge structure of pure iron is formed on the surface. Step 2: Reduction I Fig. 3, middle I:

FeO + H2
low. The shift of the reaction equilibrium to low dew points has the consequence that the oxides of the alloying elements form externally. A thin oxide film is formed. This inhibits the classic Fe2Al5 inhibition layer reaction during hot-dip galvanizing and results in macroscopic quality problems with respect to zinc wetting and adhesion. Oxidation/reduction technology It has been demonstrated that the humidification of the furnace gas to force the desired internal oxidation is less effective and cost intensive. Oxidation/reduction technology presents a more effective approach for the hot-dip galvanizing of multiphase steels as shown in I Fig. 3 I. Targeted oxidation of the entire steel strip surface in an oxygen-bearing atmosphere causes the formation of iron oxide on the surface. Step 1: Oxidation I Fig. 3, left I:
1

Fe + H2O

This iron-rich surface is advantageous for the reactions in the molten zinc bath I Fig. 3, right I. Furthermore, the water vapor produced by the reduction of iron oxide supports the internal oxidation of the alloying elements and stabilizes the dew point of the furnace atmosphere. This effectively prevents a decrease in the dew point of the annealing gas atmosphere. The enrichment of the surface with iron by means of the oxidation/reduction step and the support for internal oxidation by the water vapor formed combine to create the conditions for a significant improvement of the Fe2Al5 inhibition layer in multiphase steels, thus ensuring the adhesion of and wetting by the zinc. If DFF (Direct Fired Furnace) technology is utilized in the preheating zone of a hot-dip galvanizing line, a targeted oxidation of the steel strip surface can be caused by adjusting the preheater burner gas. The atmospheric conditions can be changed from oxidizing to reducing by adjusting the air-fuel ratio of the burner gas. The oxidation

Fe + 2 O2

FeO
of the steel strip surface prior to its entering the reducing furnace can be specifically controlled in this way. On the other hand, installing oxidation/reduction technology in hot-dip galvanizing lines with vertical RTFs (Radiant Tube Furnaces) poses a special challenge. This task was accomplished in a collab-

A defined external iron oxide layer of 150-200 nm thickness be created using minimal quantities of oxygen approx. 0.2% at temperatures above 700 C. This layer inhibits further, unwanted external oxidation of the alloying elements with a high affinity for oxygen. As iron oxide

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Surface inspection Chemcoater with exit store Skin pass mill

Intermediate store Galvanizing tower

Annealing furnace

Cleaning

Entry store

Online surface inspection

Online roughness inspection Zinc pot and air knives Zinc thickness measurement

Entry

Laser welding machine

Fig. 4 | Schematic structure of FBA 8, Dortmund

oration between the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflchenCentrum) and ThyssenKrupp Steel with the help of a new, innovative process technology. The industrial scale technical implementation of a closed oxidation chamber for targeted oxidation of the steel strip surface was first installed in the annealing furnace of the hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 8 I Fig. 4 I. in Dortmund. This process makes it possible to carry out a corresponding conditioning of the surface of the steel strip during the annealing process in existing hot-dip galvanizing lines independent of the remaining furnace atmosphere. The construction of a closed chamber permits targeted oxidation in the closed reducing atmosphere of the furnace and prevents unwanted mixing of the reactive gases oxygen and hydrogen. After the steel strip surface has been oxidized, it is reduced in the remaining section of the annealing line. This technology is used in the continuous RTF to create a steel strip surface of multiphase steels that has a positive effect on the hot-dip galvanizing and guarantees the wetting and adhesion of the zinc coating.

Conclusion and outlook Innovative, weight-reducing steel concepts offer great potential in lightweight automotive construction and lead to a sustainable reduction in CO2 emissions. Oxidation/reduction technology is an innovative process for guaranteeing the suitability of the new multiphase steels for hot-dip galvanizing and sustainably improves surface quality. The implementation of the technology in additional existing lines is possible and is currently in progress. This innovative technology represents a fundamental component in the planning of new hot-dip galvanizing lines and expands the production capacity of existing facilities. By ensuring zinc wetting and adhesion, oxidation/reduction technology is making a decisive contribution to developing the market potential of multiphase steels in automotive manufacturing.

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| Coating a hot-rolled sheet in a zinc bath

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| 17

ZMg EcoProtect new coating for high-end corrosion protection


DIPL.-ING. OLIVER BENDICK Project Engineer Interface Chemistry and Electrochemistry | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. MICHAEL KELLER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 5, Industry Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eichen MANFRED MEURER Team Leader Hot-dip Coating | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum GmbH, Dortmund DR. RER. NAT. ERICH NABBEFELD-ARNOLD Head of Techn./Strategic Marketing, Competence Center C/C, Industry Division | Thyssen Krupp Steel AG, Eichen DIPL.-ING. SABINE ZEIZINGER Team Leader Hot-dip Galvanizing Line 8, Auto Division | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund

A new process has been developed for the manufacture of magnesium-bearing zinc coatings containing approximately 1% magnesium. Using this new process enables the coating to be produced in existing hot-dip galvanizing lines. The high corrosion resistance of this coating makes it possible to halve the coating thickness while retaining the same protective effect. The new coating thus makes an exceptional contribution to the conservation of resources. The new flat steel product ZMg EcoProtect possesses improved resistance to cut-edge and cut-face corrosion. It is also a very good substrate for organic coilcoated products. Trials as part of development partnerships have commenced with selected customers from the construction, garage door, domestic appliance, vehicle and automotive industries.

Introduction ThyssenKrupp Steel and the DOC surface engineering center (Dortmunder OberflchenCentrum) have succeeded with a new development in hot-dip coating the innovative coating ZMg EcoProtect. Its implementation in numerous manufacturing operations at two ThyssenKrupp Steel hot-dip galvanizing lines (FBA) was started as early as 2006 I Fig. 1 I. In principle, magnesium alloy additives in zinc improve the corrosion properties of the coating. However, currently known products also include relatively high aluminum contents in addition to the magnesium, which leads to limited forming, joining and painting properties. As a result, these products are limited in application. They are mainly used in the construction sector, in particular in environments with a maritime climate. ThyssenKrupp Steel has therefore developed a zinc-magnesium coating which possesses a balanced application spectrum. Alongside significantly increased corrosion resistance compared to zinc coatings,

the new material has application properties at least comparable with those of conventional zinc coatings. As a result, it has possible applications in the construction, garage door, domestic appliance, vehicle and automotive industries. Among other uses, the coating ZMg EcoProtect is also an outstanding substrate for coil coating applications. The switch from laboratory scale to commercial production began with a first trial run in March 2006. The material produced was characterized in detail using a wide range of test procedures and tested in application-specific experiments. ZMg coating A hypoeutectic composition with primary precipitated zinc-rich solid solutions (Zn-Mk) and a eutectic of Zn-Mk with the intermetallic phase Mg2Zn11, which forms peritectically, arise in a zinc melt with approximately 1% magnesium. The eutectic composition of 92.2 atom-% zinc solidifies under equilibrium conditions at 364 C. A magnesium content

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18 |

10 m

Fig. 2 | Coating formation of ZMg EcoProtect

Testing time to first red rust [h]

1.000 800 ZMg EcoProtect 600


ZA AZ

400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25
Z

Coating thickness [m]


Fig. 1 | Galvanizing a hot-rolled sheet in FBA 8 in Dortmund Fig. 3 | Corrosion protection of ZMg EcoProtect in comparison with other metallic-coated sheet steels in salt spray testing

of 1% results in a liquidus temperature of approximately 405 C. The formation of the intermetallic phase Mg2Zn11 is suppressed by rapid cooling, and a metastable eutectic structure of Zn-Mk and MgZn2 is formed. This structure has also been determined in the applied coatings I Fig. 2 I. Corrosion mechanism of ZMg coatings The protective effect of the ZMg EcoProtect coating is characterized

iron surface. Hydroxyl ions react with zinc and magnesium ions in a chemical precipitation reaction to form a top layer which is precipitated on the open cut edge I Fig. 4 I. The top layer deposited in this way displays a dense, ordered structure and causes a delay in cathodic oxygen reduction on the iron, which in turn results in a minimization of the anodic reaction step the dissolution of the zinc. As a result, a protective effect that is at least the equivalent of that of todays established products is achieved, even with significantly lower zinc coating weights I Fig. 5 I. Product ZMg EcoProtect Numerous production campaigns have shown that ZMg EcoProtect can be reproducibly manufactured with high quality. The new product can be supplied in strip thicknesses from 0.4 to 3.0 mm and widths from 600 to 1,650 mm, though not all combinations of thickness and width are available. The available coating weights are between 60 and 350 g/m in the case of surface finishes A (standard surface) and B (improved surface) and between 60 and 255 g/m in the case of the finish C (best surface) as well as structural steel and deepdrawing grades. The new flat steel product is also available in an oiled version.

by the interaction of several mechanisms: ZMg is at least as effective as conventional zinc coatings in providing cathodic protection of steel, as demonstrated by various studies. Extremely dense, compact and ordered top layers are formed during the blank corrosion of ZMg EcoProtect. These layers have a significantly better barrier effect and thus a greater degree of protection against corrosive attack than conventional zinc and zinc alloy layers I Fig. 3 I. The higher degree of order and the morpho logy of the resulting top layers lead to slower dissolution of the zinc and thus to an extension of the protective effect. ZMg is also seen to provide significantly better protection at unprotected cut edges, exposed iron surfaces or damage sites. This improved corrosion behavior is, according to the current state of knowledge, also due to the formation of a top layer on the free

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ZMg EcoProtect new coating for high-end corrosion protection | 19

ZMg EcoProtect can also be provided with chemical passivation or sealing to further improve the corrosion characteristics. These surface treatments are also a good foundation for subsequent painting. ZMg EcoProtect has been tested in a range of forming experiments; it can be processed without problems and can be regarded as equivalent to hot-dip galvanized coatings (Z). The suitability for welding of ZMg EcoProtect is also comparable with that of con-

weights, it is even possible to substitute todays conventional batch galvanizing, especially for chassis components without weld seams, which in turn produces substantial cost savings for the customer. Further development is taking place with the objective of making ZMg EcoProtect suitable for outer skin applications. In the meantime, in addition to general abrasion and friction tests, numerous real components have been manufactured to test the forming characteristics. To date, the forming operations have been successful. I Fig. 6 I shows a comparison of the abrasion values

ventional zinc materials. Automotive applications ZMg EcoProtect is suitable for internal components in corrosion-

for various coating variants typical of the automotive industry. The very good forming behavior of ZMg EcoProtect can clearly be seen. The electrode life determined for ZMg in resistance spot welding corresponds to that of conventional zinc materials.

threatened areas of the vehicle bodywork, such as the floor structure or doors and hatches. The coating weight can be reduced or maintained in order to improve corrosion protection. At higher coating

Paint Zinc Steel Fe eZn

Zn2+ OHFe2+ O2

Paint ZMg Steel eZn, Mg

Zn2+, Mg2+

OH-

O2

Red rust
Fig. 4 | Schematic corrosion reactions of painted, hot-dip galvanized and hot-dip alloy galvanized sheet steel

Stable surface layer

Creep after 720 h salt spray testing


ZA 185 g/m2 ZMg EcoProtect 60 g/m2

Fig. 5 | Corrosion characteristics in salt spray testing according to DIN EN ISO 9227 of ZMg EcoProtect and Galfan ZA each with Cr(VI)-free pretreatment, universal primer and polyester painting, nominal coating thickness 25 m

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20 | ZMg EcoProtect new coating for high-end corrosion protection

Abrasion

2,5 Abrasion rate in [g/m] 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 KB ZE ZEP ZMg Z ZF KB: ungalvanized sheet steel, ZE: electrolytically galvanized sheet steel ZEP: electrolytically galvanized and prephosphatized sheet steel ZMg: hot-dip coated zinc-magnesium sheet steel ZMg EcoProtect Z: hot-dip galvanized sheet steel ZF: galvannealed sheet steel

Fig. 6 | Forming characteristics of ZMg EcoProtect and other typical coatings; abrasion in strip drawing tests

Industrial applications ZMg EcoProtect can also have interesting application possibilities

ance are substantially reinforced by the additional organic coating. The known coating materials such as polyester and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) can be used almost without reservation. It is notable that especially good results were achieved using Cr(VI)-free materials. Even in the case of reduced coating thicknesses as compared to conventional substrates, the corrosion resistance is better I Fig. 8 I. Paint creep at cut edges and at points where the coating is damaged is significantly reduced, particularly in the case of long-term corrosive stresses. The effects of a corrosive stress on cut surfaces is also less I Fig. 9 I. In addition to the special corrosion characteristics, the coil-coating material also possesses good forming properties. This made it possible to sustainably extend the spectrum of organic coil-

for profiles, such as garage door accessories, cable ducts, profiles for windows and interiors, scaffolding planks, plant supports and doorframes. The new product can also be used for the manufacture of housings for small motors. The application example of a trailer fender I Fig. 7 I shows the special protective effect of the ZMg EcoProtect coating and a Cr(VI)-free seal. Despite the significantly lower

coating thickness of ZMg EcoProtect, it results in a significantly improved corrosion behavior in comparison to hot-dip galvanized sheet steel. Coil-coating application ZMg EcoProtect is an excellent substrate for organic coil-coated flat

coated PLADUR flat steel grades. The good properties of this product on the basis of ZMg EcoProtect with a reduced coating weight of 130 g/m in comparison with e.g. hot-dip galvanized sheet steel

steel grades. The positive properties with respect to corrosion resist-

Fig. 7 | Trailer fender in salt spray testing according to DIN EN ISO 9227 (test duration: 264 h): ZMg EcoProtect, 130 g/m, in sealed surface finish, Cr(VI)-free (left), hot-dip galvanized sheet, 280 g/m, in sealed surface finish, Cr(VI)-bearing (right), sheet thicknesses 1 mm

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ZMg EcoProtect new coating for high-end corrosion protection | 21

Relative corrosion resistance (cut edges and scoring)

Z 275 + PVDF 25 ZA 255 + PVDF 25

ZMg 130 + PVDF 25

Test duration

Fig. 8 | Relative corrosion characteristics of ZMg EcoProtect (ZMg) in comparison with conventional, metallic-coated sheet steel (Z and ZA) respectively with a polyester coating, nominal coating thickness 25 m, after 360 h in salt spray testing according to DIN EN ISO 9227

with a coating weight of 275 g/m have been confirmed in an expert opinion from the University of Karlsruhe. The material was rated in the highest corrosion protection class according to DIN 55928-8. The Deutsche Institut fr Bautechnik in Berlin (DIBt) has granted general building code approval for use of the organic coil-coated flat steel grade on the basis of the substrate ZMg EcoProtect with a coating

with previous zinc coatings, ZMg EcoProtect offers at least comparable processing properties when forming and joining and is well suited for subsequent coil-coating applications. Typical automotive painting is also possible. ZMg EcoProtect is a high-quality, economically attractive product and an alternative for highly effective corrosion protection in various applications. The product has now been manufactured in large volumes on a number of production lines and is being used in production in

weight of 130 g/m in the manufacture of thin-walled components. Summary and outlook ZMg EcoProtect creates substantial customer benefit thanks to

addition to being tested in development partnerships with customers.

improved corrosion protection, also in the area of cut edges. The advantages are clearly apparent in the case of long-term, repetitive corrosive stresses. The reduction in paint creep and the improved resistance in the flange areas of automobile bodywork offer exemplary evidence of the good corrosion characteristics. In comparison

Without polyester painting SP Test duration: 1,000 h

Coatings ZMg 130 AZ 185 ZA 255 Z 275

Without polyester painting SP Test duration: 384 h

Coatings ZMg 130 + SP 25 AZ 185 + SP 25 ZA 255 + SP 25 Z 275 + SP 25

ZMg: Zn-Mg hot-dip galvanized, AZ: Galvalume, ZA: Galfan, Z: hot-dip galvanized

Fig. 9 | Cut-face corrosion after a salt spray testing (DIN EN ISO 9227) of sheet steel (thickness approx. 0.6 mm)

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| EcoSpace cockpit support structure

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EcoSpace cockpit optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior
DIPL.-ING. MARTIN HINZ Manager Process Innovation, Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. PETER SEYFRIED Manager Technology Management, Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund

In cooperation with Johnson Controls, ThyssenKrupp has developed a cockpit support structure known as EcoSpace that is an economical lightweight hybrid composite structure of steel and plastic, with a steel frame located only on the drivers side. The new construction has a crash performance comparable to that of conventional cockpit support structures while featuring 18% greater stiffness and a weight reduction of more than 20%.

State of development Initially, it may have sounded unusual that a specialist plastic processor and a steel company would join forces to develop a cockpit support structure which would differ fundamentally from all existing designs. However, this ambitious plan paid off for everyone involved, as the resulting cockpit is a top performer that is also lighter, less expensive and more flexible than conventional production solutions. In addition, all of the project partners benefited from the balance of the material mix and value added. A prototype of the jointly developed structure was first unveiled at the 2007 IAA International Motor Show in Frankfurt, after which it was also presented to the various automakers on site. It has been clearly demonstrated that the cockpit is suited for production use, and the first bilateral development projects for production implementation are ramping up. Successful multi-company cooperation The cooperation partners complement one another optimally. While ThyssenKrupp Steel has expertise in steel materials and their use in automobiles, ThyssenKrupp Presta is a system supplier for steering columns, and Johnson Controls has extensive experience in plastics and vehicle interiors as a system partner for instrument panels and cockpits. The projects success is the result of the partners joint recognition of the fundamental principle that the right material be used for each functional requirement without losing sight of the systems total cost and weight. The companies have developed an open, trusting and productive partnership that can serve as a best practice example for future cooperative ventures among multiple companies.

Low-cost lightweight construction using steel The EcoSpace cockpit weighs 20% less than conventional structures. In addition, prime costs can be reduced by up to 15%. Thanks to the structures natural frequency of 46 Hz, the cockpits stiffness comfort is considerably higher than that of conventional systems with a frequency of 39 Hz. Sophisticated simulations of the complete cockpit structure show that the optimized composite of plastic and metal is so homogenous in its structure that the new cockpit passes all international safety and crash tests with flying colors. Regardless of whether a collision occurs on the side containing more steel or plastic, the EcoSpace cockpits crash behavior is the same on both the driver and the front passenger sides. Multiple interface development By considering the system as a whole, the interior, body structure and steering systems experts were better able to meet the single cockpit components requirements as well as the overall performance. The aim of these efforts was to jointly develop an integrated concept for the cockpit structure that would set new standards by combining the benefits of the various conventional solutions. In the 1970s, the automotive industry began using so-called cross car beams, which were meant to enable the companies to completely preassemble all cockpit assemblies and thereby reduce manufacturing costs. As the development of automobiles progressed further, automakers focused increasingly on meeting the rising demand for more comfort. The manufacturers are therefore increasingly concentrating their efforts on creating noticeable comfort features which have a big impact on customers purchasing decisions. Besides design

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24 | EcoSpace cockpit optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior

aspects such as the easy reachability of the controls, these features include comfortable steering. This refers to low-vibration or vibrationfree steering that can be achieved through the high dynamic stiffness (first natural frequency of an oscillating system) of the steering column and the cockpit support structure. To achieve a high level of steering comfort, the cockpit support structures first natural frequency should be substantially higher than that of the engine-transmission unit. Todays cockpits are filled with numerous assemblies that are designed to enhance comfort. Air conditioning and navigation systems are now considered standard equipment for many vehicles. And since Germans spend an average of one-and-half hours in their vehicles every day, infotainment systems are becoming increasingly important in automobiles as well. As a result, a cockpit can weigh between 60 and 120 kg, depending on the vehicle segment and the equipment the cockpit contains. Prompted by the current debate concerning CO2 emissions, automakers are now checking the potential for reducing weight within the cockpit. A study has shown that the cockpit support structure plays a significant role in this regard, as it accounts for about 25% of the cockpits total weight. Because many components, such as air inlet ducts, have been optimized over a period of many years and therefore no longer offer any significant potential for further weight savings, the question arises as to how much of the cockpit should consist of structural components. The analysis showed that the cockpit needs a high level of dynamic stiffness primarily in the area of the steering column. But if structural considerations do not require the cross car beam to extend across the entire width of the cockpit, this component can be reduced by more than half. Technical highlights The EcoSpace cockpits structure is extremely innovative. A total of four new patents I Fig. 1 I have been registered for this development, for which the patented T profiling technology (cf. ThyssenKrupp techforum, Issue 1/2007) is also used. Patented hybrid of plastic and steel While the innovative steel structure on the drivers side is primarily responsible for mounting the steering column, the plastic structure that extends across the entire cockpit integrates the air ducts for the defroster and the air conditioning, as well as the connection to the front passenger airbag and the back of the glove compartment. An essential requirement for high-quality hybrid designs is that they meet all of the demands that a plastic-metal composite can face. These include the high mechanical strength of the joints as well as the use of proven technologies for industrial manufacturing processes. A two-stage process is used to create the high-strength, rigid hybrid

connection of the plastic structure and the steel frame. In the first step, plastic is injection moulded around steel inserts. Because of the nature of the material used, the metal layer is subsequently joined to the steel structure using a method that is free of thermal distortion such as laser welding. Patented expansion element optimizes crash properties Side impacts give rise to very high peak loads that are passed into the cockpit structure through the bolt points on the vehicle body. As a result, the connection plate between the steel frame and the plastic structure was designed in such a way that peak loads could be cushioned by an elastic expansion element, yet would nevertheless ensure a sufficiently high buckling load level in the event of a crash. Steel T crossbeam optimized in terms of stiffness and package A key feature of the EcoSpace cockpit is the T crossbeam I Fig. 2 I, which serves as the interface to the steering column and the vertical strut. To meet the demand for high comfort, high dynamic stiffness is required at points where masses are focused, such as the steering column connections. Stiffness is significantly increased by using a linear weld between the crossbeam and the outside edges of the vertical strut. The engineers took all stiffness-related factors such the material, shape, production technologies and sheet thickness into account while designing the crossbeam in line with the needs of the overall package. They created a stress-optimized T crossbeam that has a cylindrical shape where it connects to the A-pillar. After expanding into a cone, the crossbeam has a rectangular crosssection at the point where the steering column is mounted in order to make assembly easier. Patented optimized steering column connection The EcoSpace cockpits steering column is bolted directly to the T crossbeam I Fig. 3 I. The crossbeams cross-section is stabilized by two sleeves, making it possible to achieve a tightening torque of approximately 18 Nm. Whereas the benchmark design requires a total of seven parts to mount the steering column, the EcoSpace cockpits patented concept makes assembly much easier, since it only needs two bolts and a single assembly direction. Not only does this save costs, it considerably reduces the possible fault rate. Tripod concept with patented vertical strut The EcoSpaces design is brilliantly simple and therefore much more flexible than all existing concepts. The steel support structure consists primarily of the T crossbeam already described. On the drivers side, the crossbeam is connected to the A-pillar. In the vehicles center it

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EcoSpace cockpit optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior | 25

Arrangement for connecting the steering column of a motor vehicle (steering column connection)

Vehicle components with hybrid structure (steel-plastic composite structure)

Hybrid crossbeam (expansion element with position in the cockpit)

Support element for a cockpit crossbeam (single-piece vertical strut)

Fig. 1 | Degree of innovation in the EcoSpace cockpit

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26 | EcoSpace cockpit optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior

is connected to a vertical strut, which in turn is bolted onto the cowl and the center tunnel. Via these three connection points, the structure forms a so-called tripod. In addition, the vertical strut that extends from the cowl to the center tunnel ensures a harmonious flow of forces that enables the systems lightweight construction potential to be fully exploited. Design flexibility The elimination of the usually complex conventional steering column connection creates additional packaging space for occupant protection systems on the drivers side, Moreover, the innovative cockpit structure opens up completely new possibilities on the passenger side for automakers I Fig. 4 I, as the absence of the cockpit support
Fig. 2 | Crossbeam with perforated plates

structure opens up completely new design opportunities in this area. Practically the only limits placed on the imaginations of vehicle interior designers are technical considerations such as the fact that large parts of the front passenger area are today used for functional elements like asymmetrical air-conditioning units. However, the increasing integration of functions, for which the EcoSpace cockpit is predestined, will increase design freedom in the future. Savings can be made in all areas except safety. The revolutionary EcoSpace cockpit is as safe as any conventional system, despite the fact that its crossbeam does not link the A-pillars across the full width of the vehicle, as is the case with other alternative cockpits currently on the market. Economical solution with high customer value One of the main goals of the cockpits developers was to create a pioneering lightweight solution that would be economical and customer friendly, which is why they put great store on integrating functions and processes. Two approaches were used to integrate functions: firstly by incorporating several connections into the plastic support structure, and secondly by developing a one-piece vertical strut. As an alternative, the newly developed cockpit crossbeam can also be manufactured by means of hydroforming. Starting from a conical tube, this would involve strains of up to 38%. After pre-

Fig. 3 | Steering column connection concept for optimized assembly and flow of forces

forming, the tube must therefore undergo intermediate annealing before it can be formed to its final shape. Hydroforming requires a total of seven process steps. In T profiling technology, a shaped blank is formed into a hollow section and the profile edges are then laser welded without the need for filler materials, i.e. only two process steps are required to complete the crossbeam. Due to the extensive process integration achieved by this technology, the cockpit crossbeam can be manufactured at a much lower cost than it would be the case with hydroforming.

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EcoSpace cockpit optimum interaction between plastic and steel in the vehicle interior | 27

In addition, the number of parts was halved compared to the benchmark design, while the total weld length was reduced by as much as 60%. Besides the aforementioned factors relating to manufacturing costs, the evaluation of customer value is also greatly impacted by the systems lightweight construction performance (weight reduction multiplied by performance value). Any improvements in this regard lead to performance values >1, while any deterioration reduces the value to <1. Since the EcoSpace cockpits first natural frequency is 18% higher, its performance value in this case is 1.18. To assess the lightweight construction potential of different alternative concepts, their weight is generally determined at identical performance values. However, designing a concept in such a way that performance values are identical is not always possible or requires a time-consuming iteration process. Lightweight construction performance is a key figure that takes various factors into account in the assessment of lightweight construction and simplifies the evaluation of various alternative concepts. The EcoSpace cockpit has a lightweight construction performance of 33%. It therefore delivers the following advantages: a substantial reduction in weight, a higher performance as well as lower production costs than the benchmark concept. To assess the market potential of T technology for cockpit applications, the developers compared it with a stamped and welded cockpit crossbeam. The analyses showed that sheet thickness has to be

increased from 1.4 mm to 1.8 mm for the stamped and welded crossbeam. A cost comparison revealed that a T cockpit crossbeam can be manufactured more economically than a comparable stamped and welded crossbeam if annual sales exceed a certain level. Outlook Future cockpits will look different to those of today. They will be differentiated even more strongly into separate modules for the driver, front passenger and center areas. All of the key functions needed to operate an automobile will be integrated into the drivers side of the cockpit, while all of the comfort-enhancing elements, such as air-conditioning and entertainment systems, will be concentrated in the central module. In the future, the new design freedom that the EcoSpace cockpit creates particularly in the front passenger area will allow automakers to produce completely new offerings. It will be possible to set up comfortable workstations in front of the front passenger seat or install large-format infotainment screens to provide passengers with relaxing entertainment. In addition to incorporating special functional elements for athletic or handicapped users, designers will also be able to include features for various professions or different age groups. Whether used for new, easily accessible stowage areas of previously inconceivable dimensions, safe transport areas for one or even two child seats, or a built-in refrigerator to feed an entire family while on the road the EcoSpace cockpit has the space, designers just have to come up with the ideas.

Fig. 4 | Greater design flexibility on the front passenger side

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| Robot handling at the worlds first laser decoating plant for metallic coatings at ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks

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Tailored blanks in hot stamping


DIPL.-ING. JRG MAAS Head of Sales/Senior Manager Sales | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH, Duisburg WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH, Duisburg

In collaboration with Audi, ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks has successfully developed and integrated into production processes a new manufacturing technology for tailored blanks for use in hot stamping. The work was carried out within one year. The new technology represents the worlds first application of the product tailored blanks in hot stamping along with plant engineering that is currently unique. These tailored blanks offer users all the advantages of the previous areas of application and maximum process reliability. Different steel grades and sheet thicknesses can be welded together. In this way, the new product supports the customer in achieving lightweight construction and thus also in attaining environmental objectives. At the same time, the automakers production costs can be significantly reduced.

Tailored products Tailored products have been successfully used in the area of bodywork technology by all automakers worldwide for years. Tailored blanks are steel sheets of different steel grades and sheet thicknesses that have been laser-welded together before forming. European automobile manufacturers alone accepted delivery of approximately one million tons of tailored blanks in 2007. The increasing requirements in terms of crash behavior and the associated application of ultrahigh-strength steel grades and new manufacturing techniques have led ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks, along with the customer Audi in Ingolstadt, to jointly investigate and implement the use of tailored blanks in hot stamping as part of the project Audi B8. Application in hot stamping Hot stamping bodywork components involves heating steel sheets to a temperature of 880 C to 950 C. The sheets are than formed in a cooled forming die and cooled at a rate of 27 C/s. An extremely strong martensite structure develops in the steel. This technology can be used to increase the strength of manganese-boron steels from the starting level of approximately 500 MPa to around 1,500 MPa. These extremely high strengths cannot be attained with the steel grades used to date in conventional deep drawing. The process of hot stamping and the temperature changes are shown in I Figs 1 and 2 I. The first internal studies for tailored blanks in this area initially looked at un-coated manganese-boron steel (MBW 1500). The back-

ground to the initial experiments were suggestions for optimization of material utilization at the customers. The objective of the initial experiments was to demonstrate that the weld achieved at least the same strength after hot stamping as the base material used, in this case the steel grade MBW 1500. To this end, sample components were welded together before being subjected to the heat treatment normally used in hot stamping. I Fig. 3 I shows the hardness profile in the cross-section of the sample component before and after hot stamping. It can clearly be seen that there is no reduction in hardness in the region of the weld. This demonstration reinforced the development team in their intention to continue promoting the product for application in hot stamping. In the further course of the studies, Audi in Ingolstadt expressed the desire to use tailored blanks for hot stamping. The main reason for this was the requirement to make use of two different steel grades for crash-relevant components such as the B-pillar or the rear side member. The combination of different steel grades is a classic application for tailored blanks. To date, exclusively manganese-boron steel has been used for hot stamping. The combination of MBW 1500 with another steel grade is unprecedented. The development departments requirements for the two steel grades were: elongation A80 > 15% and tensile strength > 500 MPa. This requirement describes a steel that behaves in a more ductile fashion in the event of a side or rear-end impact. Comprehensive experiments were carried out in collaboration with the Applications Technology department at ThyssenKrupp Steel. As

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30 | Tailored blanks in hot stamping

Indirect hot stamping/MBW (two-stage)

Cold forming

Heating to 850 - 950 C under an inert gas atmosphere

Die quenching in the cold die

Cutting component using cutting tool and/or laser

Sandblasting

Direct hot stamping/MBW + AS150 (single-stage)

Heating to 850 - 950 C innert gas atmosphere

Die quenching in the cooled tool

Cutting component using cutting tool and/or laser

Fig. 1 | Schematic representation of hot stamping

part of this work, it proved possible to model the customers process using the hot stamping test facility in Dortmund. The customer decided on the single-step hot stamping process I Fig. 1 I. This process requires the steel to have a hot-dip aluminized coating which protects against scale formation and corrosion. At the conclusion of the studies, the steel grade H 340 LAD showed the desired properties. Once the steel grades to be used had been jointly determined, further experiments were carried out with respect to forming characteristics, weldability and strength after hot stamping. These experiments showed that the hot-dip aluminized coating layer had melted during the laser welding process. A mixture of iron, aluminum and silicon had solidified in the weld after laser welding. Solid solutions were forming in the weld and an intermetallic phase on the cover and root passes.

A characteristic cross-section is shown in I Fig. 4 I. In particular, the inclusions in the weld seam represent weakenings. The first approach to a solution involved carrying out welding experiments in which the coating of the tailored blanks was mechanically removed along the weld edges. The weld samples were then hot stamped in the Dortmund test facility and analyzed in the Metallography department of ThyssenKrupp Steel. The cross-sections showed the expected result I Fig. 5 I. No coating fragments (white inclusions) are to be seen in the weld seam. There is also no coating in a small area < 0.2 mm on the upper and lower sides adjacent to the weld. No anomalies resulting from melted coating could be determined. Working together with the customer, it was determined that the coating in the area of the weld seam is to be removed in the future. A maximum removal width of 1.0 mm was specified.

Fig. 2 | Temperature changes during hot stamping

Austenitizing 950 C 830 C 730 C Removal from furnace / Furnace temperature Die closed

1 2 3 4

Heating to target temperature Aloying of the surface Transfer + die closing Hardening in the die (cooling rate > 27 C/s) 5 Cooling to room temperature outside the die

Removal from die / die temperature 150 C Room temperature 240 s 1 240 s 2 10 s 3 20 s 4 330 s 5

Tailored blanks in hot stamping | 31

Weld seam Cover pass with intermetallic phase 600 500 Hardness 400 HV 0.1 300 200 Hardness profile through laser welding 100 0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Root pass with intermetallic phase Distance [mm] before hot stamping after hot stamping
Fig. 4 | Cross-section with coating

Solid solutions

Fig. 3 | Hardness profile before and after hot stamping

Area with removeed coating

No inclusions in the weld

Area with removed coating

Fig. 5 | Cross-section with removed coating

Fig. 6 | Layout of the worlds first laser decoating plant: passage of the starting blanks

Following from this work, a manufacturing process was to be developed for mass production and its suitability demonstrated. To accomplish this, a total of three processes using mechanical methods two using lasers, and one using inductive heating were reviewed. The time available from the first idea to the start of volume production was one year. With regard to reproducability and suitability for volume production, the process using Q switched lasers proved to be the economic and technical optimum. All processes were tested in the test facility and Metallography department and finally approved by the customer. The Q switched solid-state laser is a diode-pumped Nd-YAG laser. The Q-switching is carried out with a frequency of up to 15 kHz. The laser has a power of 500 W. A new line concept appropriate to the power of the laser was developed. This includes a conveying concept which enables the power of the laser to be fully used. I Fig. 6 I illustrates the line con-

cept. The blanks are guided through the line in a continuous process. The coating is removed from the weld edges of the tailored blanks by the laser at speeds of approximately 8 m/min. To guarantee quality, a new sensor has also been developed for online quality control of the process. Outlook Automakers will make increasing use of tailored blanks for hot stamping in the area of crash-relevant structural components in the coming years. Thanks to the newly developed technology from ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks, they can now be used independently of the diverse coating types. A rapid increase is already apparent. In the last two years, the volume has risen to a total of 20,000 t with strongly increasing demand on the customer side. Further applications will follow in the area of side panel and door inner assemblies.

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| MPT Multi-purpose tailgate

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Multi-purpose tailgate MPT a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system
DIPL.-ING. RALF SNKEL Teamleader Product Innovation/Projects, Sales/Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

The needs of customers play a decisive role in creating innovative product solutions for future generations of automobiles. Following customer surveys, ThyssenKrupp Steel, ThyssenKrupp Metal Forming and Webasto worked together closely to develop the multi-purpose tailgate. The design of the flexible tailgate module implemented in the physical prototype features maximum ease-of-use, the highest degree of functionality and flexibility and optimal use of the materials involved.

Background The desire to go for a relaxing ride on the bike after a tough day at the office is often dampened by the fact that stowing the bike in the vehicle can be extremely arduous and is sometimes not even possible. Nevertheless, if the difficulties are overcome and the bike ride is accomplished, in some cases on dirt trails, the bicycle is often grimy and has to be stowed in the vehicle again in that condition. This can quickly diminish any interest in more cycling. The new multi-purpose tailgate (MPT) provides a remedy; it gets the enthusiastic cyclist ready to go in only two minutes. The bicycle rack system swings out of the innovative tailgate, and the bicycles are loaded onto it with very little effort. Simple opening and loading options on vehicles are essential these days because of the wide variety of ways they are used in professional and leisure activities. These considerations formed the basis for an intensive exchange of ideas with partner Webasto, which brought to the topic its experience

with door- and roof-opening systems. Over 20 ideas were discussed, and the idea that appeared most reasonable was initially simulated on a computer and later implemented in a real vehicle. Production scenarios were then calculated, and potential prices were determined. The result is impressive: a tailgate module with an integrated rack system accommodating a variety of cargo, e.g., bicycles, snowboards, skis or a luggage box, optionally available with a rear window opened separately or with a keyless open feature. A prototype of the jointly developed tailgate solution was integrated into a VW Passat and exhibited for the first time at the International Motor Show IAA 2007. The feedback from the auto manufacturers was extremely positive. Following initial customer presentations at the manufacturers, the implementations are now being carried out on their respective vehicles with the aim of supplying customers with the tailgate module in the future.

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34 | Multi-purpose tailgate MPT a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system

MPT as joint product The objective of the development process was to offer the automotive industry a product design with more convenience for their own production processes as well as for their end users, for whom convenience plays a major role when a vehicle is purchased. The first outcome of the collaboration between ThyssenKrupp Steel and Webasto is the multi-purpose tailgate, which incorporates a very high degree of convenience and functionality. ThyssenKrupp Steels expertise in materials, lightweight construction and metal forming and the comprehensive systems know-how of the roof and body specialists Webasto from Stockdorf near Munich complement each other perfectly. ThyssenKrupp has not only decades of experience in the production of demanding stamped steel components optimized for weight and material usage but also considerable skills in the development and production of doors and closures. An extensive reservoir of knowhow ranging from material development, application technology and simultaneous engineering to virtual testing as well as rapid prototyping is available for the swift implementation of new designs. Webasto, on the other hand, has all the fields of system integration covered optimally including the development of high-performance drives and highly sensitive sensors for anti-trap function, the design and programming of electronic controls for sophisticated movement sequence and the assembly of complete modules for the automakers. Loading with little effort At first glance, the MPT appears to be a completely normal tailgate. With a single movement, however, a revolutionary rack system is revealed. The lower steel shell of the tailgate, to which the carrier bar is attached with all accessories, is folded outward through a second opening mechanism. The carrier bar disappears in the space between the outer shell and the adapted inner shell of the tailgate. When driving with a loaded rack, the tailgate is still closed tight, and there are no turbulent air currents in the vehicle interior. The rapid procedure for loading bicycles onto the rear rack is as follows I Fig. 1 I: 1. Open the tailgate, 2. fold down the license plate and lights, 3. pull out the bicycle rack, 4. insert the support column, 5. load and secure the bicycles. The fact that all the parts of the bicycle rack are always present in the vehicle means that no more time-consuming searching will be

needed. A second license plate is also integrated into the multipurpose tailgate, in addition to a theft-protection mechanism, the obligatory extra lights and the bicycle racks. Little effort is required for loading; no tools are needed. Other uses of the MPT The new multi-purpose tailgate is more than just a new type of tailgate with an integrated bicycle rack. Because the development team of Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel created a modular design, the automakers can integrate a tailgate suitable for upgrade to the MPT into their normal production line without changes to the body-in-white and modify this tailgate according to customer preferences with little effort. The basic version of the MPT is no more expensive than a standard tailgate and is designed in such a way that the extra parts and reinforcing elements needed can be included in the body-in-white phase with only minor added costs. The diverse selection of attractive special accessories, which can be combined in almost any way desired, includes a rear window that folds out separately, an integrated rack system for bicycles, snowboards or a luggage box; an automatic opening mechanism for the tailgate, also available in an optional keyless version; and an integrated anti-trap function I Fig. 2 I. End customer as a driver of innovation Manufacturers who want to offer their customers the new functional extensions as special accessories will profit from a two-year head start in know-how and the certainty that there is a real demand for all these optimal features. This is evident from the results of a largescale survey of end customers which was carried out at the start of the development project. The survey asked owners of station wagons, compact-class vehicles and vans to vote on 20 different ideas for innovations regarding the topic tailgate. The following results were tied as the innovations most desired by customers: Integrated cargo rack, especially for bicycles, easier opening and closing (e.g. electric), ideally when approaching the vehicle, rear window that is opened separately as well as ability to open the tailgate when cargo is loaded. In addition to the evaluation of the technical contents, an accepted target price level for the individual variants was also determined in the framework of the customer survey. Over the course of the project, this was used to repeatedly adjust the costs and integrate better solutions.

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Multi-purpose tailgate MPT a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system | 35

Open the tailgate

Fold down the license plate and lights, pull out the bicycle rack

Load and secure the bicycles

Fig. 1 | Loading sequence

Pragmatic development through prototyping Having a great idea is one thing realizing it is another. The engineers of Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel therefore opted for a highly pragmatic development strategy for the design of a new, modular tailgate. They deliberately chose not to optimize the design of the selected production tailgate of a mass-produced model. Instead, they first reviewed the decisive standard load cases that are already satisfied by the production tailgate. Next, they identified and analyzed the new load cases that result, e.g. for a loaded tailgate on a rough road, in order to determine the necessary reinforcements. Finally, on the basis

of this tailgate, and while retaining as many parts as possible, the joint development team quickly demonstrated the viability in principle of the multi-purpose tailgate. To this end, they used hand-made parts to create prototypes that now serve as demonstration models for interested automakers. During the development processes of the MPT, it became clear that the design of a modular tailgate must take into account a variety of parameters, and that these parameters are different and could be diverse for each individual model of vehicle. Given this, further steps, including a structural optimization of the tailgate, appear reasonable

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36 | Multi-purpose tailgate MPT a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system

only in the context of an actual implementation as a joint project of the developers with the automaker, which stipulates the concrete parameters for its target vehicle, such as the package, tail lights, license plate, weight with load etc. However, the tailgate concept developed by Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel offers not only considerable potential for enhanced convenience and functional expansion but also completely new prospects for lightweight construction and for safety. In the future, for example, the use of modern high-strength steels could make tailgates much lighter and also allow them to be integrated into the passive safety strategy of a vehicle. Lightweight construction with steel There are many good reasons to opt for the new, pioneering tailgate design from Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel. One aspect that deserves special mention is the fact that the developers of the MPT have succeeded in considerably reducing the weight of the first design very quickly using well-established material substitution processes. This becomes possible because of the outstanding material properties of steel, which offers unique value for cost when maximum strength is required, as in the case of heavily loaded parts. In the framework of the development process, the material specialists of ThyssenKrupp Steel carried out a careful analysis of all the components using the expert system WeKoKa, which was developed in-house. The objective of this evaluation was to optimize the materials used in such a way as to meet all the requirements and achieve the maximum strength with the minimum weight. Through the use of modern bake-hardening steels for the external shell area, it was possible to considerably reduce the sheet thickness and thus the weight. This is possible because these steels have the pronounced characteristic of being highly formable in the initial state while exhibiting a high buckling stiffness following the paint baking I Fig. 3 I. For parts subject to extreme loads, engineers also use ultra-highstrength steels such as MHZ-W 380 +Z (hot-rolled microalloyed steel with cold performance) for a special reinforcement and advanced high-strength steels (e.g. DP-K 45/78). This makes it possible to keep the weight increase of the optional variants relative to the basic tailgate version extremely low. Enhanced convenience as motivator The numerous functional extensions of the new multi-purpose tailgate correspond exactly to the preferences of the end customers, who want more convenience. This includes easier and more convenient

opening and closing of the tailgate, preferably keyless operation, as well as the need for more protection, with respect to trapping, for instance. As proven roof and body experts, Webastos developers have considerable expertise in the system integration of drive, electronic, differential, seal and locking systems as well as anti-trap functions for roof and rear modules. The objective of every development is a system that is both robust and highly sensitive. Only proven components are therefore used for the new modular tailgate from ThyssenKrupp Steel and Webasto, such as a standard drive for heavy loads with a stalling torque of up to 150 Nm. This drive allows automatic opening and closing of the tailgate; it can halt in any (freely programmable) position; and it can recognize obstacles. Thanks to its compact design, it was possible to integrate this unilateral direct drive supported by conventional gas springs into the MPT in the spoiler. The multi-purpose tailgate is perfected by a variety of sensors and sophisticated electronics with specially developed software algorithms which, acting together with the drive, enable the tailgate to move uniformly and harmoniously and to detect obstacles with great sensitivity for protection against trapping. Engineers are currently still working intensely on the most challenging request of all the drivers surveyed, namely, the ability to open the tailgate automatically in the loaded state, which requires exceptionally powerful hydraulic drives needing substantial installation space and can therefore only be realized in close collaboration with the automakers. Summary Webasto and ThyssenKrupp Steel are offering automakers the multipurpose tailgate as a joint system supplier. The automakers profit directly from the synergies of two experienced partners. ThyssenKrupp supplies the steel materials and manufactures all the stamped parts and welded assemblies of the new modular tailgate. Webasto takes care of the whole assembly and the system integration. An attractive offer with numerous advantages for automakers, ranging from a twoyear head start in know-how with an extensive package of patents to a considerable reduction in the complexity of their manufacturing. The new tailgate system represents a maximization of convenience with a simultaneous minimization of expense in transport in the passenger car segment.

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Multi-purpose tailgate MPT a flexible tailgate module with integrated rack system | 37

Anti-trap function

Fig. 2 | Optional modules expand the number of combinations possible

Deep-drawing steels

Conventional high-strength steels

Advanced high-strength steels

Fig. 3 | Materials placement

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| Thermally sublimated PLADUR M (Metal Look) in an aesthetic application as decorative cladding for a column at the Lilien-Carr shopping mall in Wiesbaden

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PLADUR M (Metal Look) an elegant product made of coil-coated steel


BEATE FUGMANN Market and Innovation Team, Industry Division, Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Kreuztal DIPL. WIRT.-ING. AXEL POHL Head of Sales-Market and Innovation Team, Industry Division, Color Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Kreuztal

The Market and Innovation Team at ThyssenKrupp Steels Color Profit Center correctly identified customers wishes for organic coil-coated products with a metal look at an early stage. The team then developed a suitable response in the form of PLADUR M. Thanks to its elegant and appealing appearance, its good technological characteristics and its attractive price, PLADUR M has been successful with customers from an extremely wide range of sectors and has established itself alongside prepainted products for use in many different applications.

The PLADUR brand-name product The Color Profit Center is ThyssenKrupp Steels competence center for organic coil-coated products. The brand name of these products, which are offered in many varieties, is PLADUR. This designation

nology-focused customers can also be met with regard to a metal look, the Color Profit Center began at an early stage to consider what concepts for coating materials could be used to mass produce such goods on a coil coating line. The challenge was to create a brushed metal look that not only fulfilled aesthetic needs, but also met the customers processing requirements in areas such as rollforming. In addition, the product should be unique to make it appealing to highly innovative customers and applications. The aim was not to give PLADUR M (Metal Look) the functionality of a pure metal but only to create a product that would be similar to metal in some ways such as its appearance. During the initial brain-storming phase, the developers quickly realized that conventional painted or paint-and-laminate-coated products would not do, since paints cannot achieve a convincing metal look and a possible printed brushed look would not meet either internal or market requirements. At an early stage of the evaluation and selection process, the Color Profit Centers Market and Innovation Team therefore decided to cooperate with a partner from the plastics industry in its search for alternatives. Because of the synergy effects that resulted from

is used for both painted and laminate-coated products as well as for combinations of paint and laminate. Most commonly, the substrate used for PLADUR is either a hot-dip galvanized or hot-dip coated flat product (such as GALFAN

or ZMg EcoProtect) that meets the needs of the customers wide range of processes, which include deep drawing, rollforming and bending. PLADUR therefore provides customers with a functional and decorative semi-finished product that is used as a finish-coated material in many areas of application. Thats why innovative customers from an extremely wide variety of sectors such as manufacturers of home appliances, automobiles, garage doors and the construction industry have been using finish-painted semi-finished goods from ThyssenKrupp Steel for many years. In addition to color, shine, topography, and resistance to wear and weathering, the focus of development is now increasingly on aesthetics. PLADUR M Consumer demand for metal and metal-looking products has recently increased. For many years now, the Color Profit Center has been supplying its customers with metallic look products in various colors and with a wide range of different properties, including easy-to-clean and anti-graffiti surfaces. To ensure that the desires of these tech-

the combination of the plastic partners many years of experience in metallization and the Color Profit Centers extensive process and development expertise, the development of this high-end product quickly focused on environmental protection, product quality, aesthetics and, of course, cost efficiency.

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40 | PLADUR M (Metal Look) an elegant product made of coil-coated steel

Fig. 1 | Taber Abraser test of PLADUR M (Metal Look) (left), PLADUR White Structure (center), and PLADUR Silver Metallic (right)

The home appliance industrys demand for chromate-free products (in line, for example, with the Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, or RoHS) have strengthened us in our view that developments using decorative films contaminated with PVC and halogens is neither environmentally sustainable nor does it lead to the desired goal. When the project was launched, the Market and Innovation Team therefore decided to take a completely new approach, in which it developed an innovative coil-coating product using a hot-dip coated steel sheet (GALFAN),

improved and expanded into a separate product line, with a wide variety of different variants. Besides different metal-look variants, such as aluminum, titanium, copper and stainless steel I Fig. 3 I, there is also the product known as PLADUR M WR (Wear Resistant), which is not only available in a variety of shine levels, but also in translucent colors I Fig. 4 I. Emotive colors with a metal look enable customers to better identify themselves with the end product and allows them to differentiate themselves from their competitors. As a result, there are almost no limits to what designers and product managers can do to create a characteristic, easily recognizable look with these appealing, high-quality semi-finished products. The range of design possibilities is rounded off by the products suitability for thermal sublimation printing. An example of this is provided by the Lilien-Carr shopping mall in Wiesbaden, where a lily motif was applied by thermal sublimation to PLADUR M bright Steel Finish WR, which was used as wall and ceiling panels

an adhesive and metallized PET (polyethylene terephthalate) laminate. This product innovations outstanding properties were already demonstrated in the first version of this product, PLADUR M brightSteel Finish, which is currently used e.g. for the side walls of freestanding stoves. The product looks as elegant as pure brushed metal, even though it is a classic coil-coating product which can be flexibly formed and is easy to process. The outstanding flexibility of PLADUR M (Metal Look) is demon-

alongside other printed materials such as stainless steel and glass I see title picture of the report I. Conclusion It has become apparent that customer and market requirements were correctly interpreted during the development of PLADUR M (Metal Look). In a very short period of time, this allowed the team to develop a product that is already being mass produced for a wide variety of different uses, from refrigerator and freezer doors I Fig. 5 I to wall panels. In addition to economic, environmental, qualitative and aesthetic aspects, PLADUR M (Metal Look) provides diverse benefits for processors and end-users at an appropriate price, such as the freedom to create individualized designs, good processability and excellent cleaning properties. The PLADUR M (Metal Look) product line is used in areas such as building interiors, where the inherent functionality considerations of pure metal are secondary and the focus is on the materials appearance.

strated by the fact that it can be processed with all of the usual methods, including deep drawing, bending, rollforming and stamping. In addition, the innovative product fulfills explicit customer wishes with regard to wear-resistance and cleanability. For example, the abrasion-resistant surface meets the demanding requirements of the home appliance industry. A comparison between PLADUR M (Metal

Look) and other high-quality PLADUR products, such as PLADUR Silver Metallic and PLADUR White Structure, which are supplied to

this sector, has shown that the surface of PLADUR M even holds up to the extreme grinding stresses of a Taber Abraser test, which changes as well the optical appearance of pure metal surfaces I Fig. 1 I. And because the surface is deliberately hydrophobic, it offers excellent easy to clean properties, even in comparison with other PLADUR products I Fig. 2 I. Soiling caused e.g. by mustard, oil,

red wine, and shoe polish can easily be removed from the surface, as can fingerprint residues. Although the original product already offered customers and endusers considerable added value, PLADUR M has been continuously

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PLADUR M (Metal Look) an elegant product made of coil-coated steel | 41

Fig. 2 | Hydrophobic surface tension on a standard PLADUR product (left) and a PLADUR M product (right)

Fig. 3 | Various Metal Look variants

Fig. 4 | Emotional and trendy colors available with PLADUR M (Metal Look)

Fig. 5 | Exterior skin of a refrigerator

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| Typical application of NIROSTA 4640

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NIROSTA 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA 4301 offering equivalent properties


DIPL.-ING. ARAZ ARDEHALI BARANI Materials Engineer | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Dsseldorf DR.-ING. GABRIELE BRCKNER Head of Materials Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Dsseldorf DIPL.-ING. MANFRED BUCKEL Head of Technical Customer Consulting | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld DIPL.-ING. GERT WEI Head of Product Service | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld DIPL.-ING. ALFRED WELTER Technical Customer Consulting | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld

Austenitic chromium-nickel steels find a wide range of applications thanks to their universal properties. In response to the development of prices of alloy components, ThyssenKrupp Nirosta has developed the new steel grade NIROSTA 4640, which demonstrates the same good properties as the widely used material NIROSTA 4301. The alloy concept utilizes a new combination of the elements copper, nitrogen and manganese to lower the nickel content. NIROSTA 4640 is especially suitable for the area of white goods, e.g. dishwashers, and for sinks and similar products.

Features of the new material NIROSTA 4640 The high alloying costs of the widely used nickel-bearing austenitic stainless steel NIROSTA 4301 have created growing demand for economical alternative materials. The explosion in the nickel price led to an enormous rise in the price of this stainless steel in 2007. The manufacture of low-nickel materials with marketable properties is thus a focus of innovation at ThyssenKrupp Nirosta. To this end, various concepts for alloy composition and manufacture were developed. The stainless steel NIROSTA 4640 was developed for those customers who did not wish to make any compromises with respect to material quality. This material is cheaper than NIROSTA 4301, yet exhibits the same properties with respect to: corrosion resistance, formability, weldability, aesthetics.

Alloy design The material NIROSTA 4301 had established itself over decades as the optimum in terms of price and processing and corrosion properties. Every alteration to the materials analytical composition led to either an increase in the material price or to a completely different set of material properties I Fig. 1 I. As a result, the materials developers were faced with the difficult task of finding an alternative for NIROSTA 4301. The requirements of a new stainless steel soon became clear. The nickel content had to be reduced due to the high price of nickel on the world market. At the same time, it was necessary to achieve the same good processing characteristics as NIROSTA 4301, in order to meet the highest demands in terms of formability, e.g. for sink manufacture. The equally important requirement for corrosion resistance comparable to that of NIROSTA 4301 means that the new alloy composition must have a minimum chromium content of

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44 | NIROSTA 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA 4301 offering equivalent properties

28
Limit of properties

high

Nickel content [%] = price

Cr/Ni austenite Austenite allround properties Corrosion resistance Ferrite 4509 4310 4301 4640

Chromium content [%] = corrosion resistance


Fig. 1 | Phase diagram of Cr-Ni steels Fig. 2 | Corrosion resistance and formability of different stainless steels groups

NIROSTA 4301

>

>

4301 8 poor properties

Duplex special properties

4520 4016

Ferrite poor formability 0 0 18 26

low low Formability high

NIROSTA 4640 Material Mn Mn Cr Ni N Cu

18 Cr Cu N

Mn

18 Cr Cu N NIROSTA 4640 1.8 18 6.5 0.09 1.8 NIROSTA 4301 6.5 Ni 1.3 18 8-9 0.05 0.4

8-9 Ni

Fig. 3 | Chemical compositions

18%. A nickel-free ferritic stainless steel with a chromium content of at least 18% would fulfill the corrosion resistance requirements, however, due to fundamental metallurgical principles, its formability could never reach that of an austenitic material I Fig. 2 I. The solution lies in a significant lowering of the nickel content relative to that of NIROSTA 4301 and the use of the appropriate combination of the elements copper, nitrogen and manganese to produce a new alloy while maintaining the tried and tested properties I Fig. 3 I. Market potential The new NIROSTA 4640 provides customers with the same good

fulfilling all aesthetic requirements for surfaces. The high chromium content of NIROSTA 4640 guarantees equally good corrosion resistance to that of NIROSTA 4301, which customers have long treasured. The corrosion tests for chloride-induced pitting corrosion result in a critical potential at 400 - 450 mVH for the NIROSTA 4640 in potentiostatic tests in 0.5% NaCl solution at 50 C and so achieve the same resistance as NIROSTA 4301 I Fig. 4 I. Other corrosion tests such as salt spray and cyclic climate tests confirm the equivalence of the materials with respect to corrosion resistance. NIROSTA 4640 is readily weldable using all of the known welding processes. The formability of NIROSTA 4640 is practically identical to that of NIROSTA 4301 I Fig. 5 I. Thanks to the equivalence of the two materials, customers can retain their optimized processes while simultaneously benefiting from the lower material costs when switching to the new material. The new

properties as they are accustomed to with NIROSTA 4301. The cost saving is achieved by reducing the nickel content from 8 - 9% to 6.5%. Like all austenitic stainless steels, NIROSTA 4640 is extremely suitable for grinding and brushing and is also suitable for polishing, thus

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NIROSTA 4640 as a low-cost alternative to NIROSTA 4301 offering equivalent properties | 45

Scattering range 800 Critical pitting corrosion potential [mVH] 25 Pitting resistance equivalent PRE = % Cr + 3.3 x % Mo [%] 1,200 1,100 Flow stress k f [MPa] 600 20 15 400 10 200 5 0 NIROSTA 4401 NIROSTA 4301 NIROSTA 4640 NIROSTA 4509 NIROSTA 4016 0 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 0 0.10 Degree of deformation 0.20 0.30 0.40 NIROSTA 4301 NIROSTA 4640

Fig. 4 | Corrosion resistance in chloride environment (Experiments in 0,5% NaCl at 50 C, at constant potential with 50 mV steps)

Fig. 5 | Formability

material exactly matches customer requirements and is exclusively available from ThyssenKrupp Nirosta. Potential applications for NIROSTA 4640 are primarily in the area of white goods, sinks, kitchen equipment and commercial kitchen outfitting I see title picture of the report and Fig. 6 I. The application tests carried out with sector leaders in the dishwasher and sink manufacturing industry were successful. In the area of sink manufacturing, it was possible to produce difficult geometries without problems using NIROSTA 4310. The long-term tests of corrosion resistance in household appliances were also concluded with good results.

Summary The newly developed NIROSTA 4640 is an austenitic chromiumnickel steel in which a new combination of the elements copper, nitrogen and manganese have made it possible to lower the nickel content. The new alloy also achieves the same good properties with respect to corrosion resistance and formability as NIROSTA 4301. The new material is particularly suitable for the areas of white goods, sinks and similar products and also for all applications for which NIROSTA 4301 is currently used. NIROSTA 4640 is about to be launched on the market. Application trials with sector leaders have already been successfully carried out.

Fig. 6 | Typical products on the basis of the new material NIROSTA 4640

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| Body of the Volvo S40 before (above) and after (below) a side-impact crash

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Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips
DIPL.-ING. STEFAN SCHUBERTH Head of Applications Technology | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld WERNER STAUDINGER Engineering | ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks GmbH, Duisburg

Mixed construction using galvanized flat-rolled carbon steels and hardened, austenitic stainless steels is particularly difficult due to the differing physical properties and levels of strength. Embrittlement in the weld seam can lead to failure during subsequent forming. Exact process control of the laser welding in the manufacture of the tailored blanks has now made it possible to produce blanks with ductile seams and large changes in thickness that measure up to the demands of the subsequent forming process. The combination of work-hardened, stainless austenitic steel and carbon steel yields weight savings without disadvantages in terms of properties. Possible applications include crash-relevant components in vehicle manufacture.

Tailored process ThyssenKrupp Steel and ThyssenKrupp Nirosta manufacture a large number of high-grade steel products for demanding applications in automobile manufacture. The optimal combination of these products opens up new possibilities for optimizing properties and costs. Stainless austenitic steels offer great potential for lightweight construction because they can be work-hardened to strengths of more than 1,400 MPa by rolling and still retain useable residual ductility. This makes it possible to reduce wall thicknesses. These increased strengths are, however, usually only required locally. In order to utilize the advantages of the work-hardened stainless steels and simultaneously keep component costs as low as possible, one solution is a combination of these steels with lower-cost, low-alloyed steels. This can be accomplished by means of the tailored blank processes, in which laser welded blanks or coils in different combinations of materials and thicknesses are joined to form a pre-product ready for further processing by the customer. Welding galvanized, flat-rolled carbon steels and hardened, austenitic stainless steels is particularly difficult due to the differing physical

properties, however. Embrittlement in the weld seam caused by grain size enlargement in the heat-affected zone after the welding process can lead to failure in subsequent forming. The state of the art The demands placed on the material for safety-relevant components such as the crash box call for the highest possible strength in connection with a significant residual elongation, as this leads to optimal energy absorption capability. The crash box is located in the vehicle behind the bumper and protects the vehicle structure from deformation in the event of an impact at comparatively low speed. The component itself requires the material used to have excellent formability without being too soft. If this requirement is not met, the adjacent vehicle structure could be damaged in the event of a crash I Fig. 1 I. There are many areas that require these properties. These special characteristics, however, are not necessary for the entire component, they are only required for a locally limited part. Mixed construction using laser-welded tailored blanks or tailored strips presents new possibilities for this.

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48 | Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips

Manufacturing process for tailored blanks Exact process control during laser welding in the manufacture of tailored blanks has now made it possible to produce blanks with ductile seams and large changes in thickness that stand up to the demands of subsequent forming. Laser welding without additives and with minimal heat input results in a narrow weld seam with less weakening and no embrittlement. The formats to be welded were aligned edge-to-edge in the welding line and welded with high preci-

sion on a continuous welding system developed for ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks I Fig. 2 I. The diameter of the laser beam at the focus is just 0.6 mm. Laser performance, welding speed, intensity distribution, focus diameter, cut edge quality, positioning of the sheet edges, and gas flow control are decisive for achieving optimal weld seams. A multisensor concept continuously monitors the processes and so guarantees the quality.

Fig. 1 | Stainless steel crash box of the Porsche Carrera GT

Fig. 2 | Continuous welding system at ThyssenKrupp Tailored Blanks in Httenheim

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Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA steel and flat-rolled carbon steel with tailored blanks and tailored strips | 49

Application The combination of work-hardened, stainless austenitic steel and carbon steel produces weight savings thanks to thickness reductions, without disadvantages in terms of properties. The material has applications in e.g. crash-relevant components in vehicle manufacture (B-pillar, crash box). The seam does not fail abruptly with a brittle fracture when subject to excessive stress, but in a ductile way, and so contributes to absorbing the energy of impact. Example B-pillar I Fig. 3 I shows a B-pillar after forming. The component was made from a tailored blank of NIROSTA in combination with a carbon steel. The hardened stainless steel NIROSTA 4318 C1000 (hardened to a yield strength > 1,000 MPa) was used for the upper part of the B-pillar (right of photograph). The lower part of the B-pillar is made of a higher-strength dual-phase steel (DP 600) (left of photograph). The colored marking shows this is an approved part that is free of cracks and dimensionally correct. After laser welding, the component can be processed on a transfer press as usual. Forming can be specifically improved at critical points by varying the material thicknesses and the use of different materials. A B-pillar manufactured in this way is recognizable similar to the shown vehicle body in the I title picture of the report I before and after a crash test. This test demonstrated that the components behavior is equivalent to that of the production component manufactured from DP600, however at a reduced weight. The cost of a component manufactured in mixed construction using tailored blanks was calculated with the help of a cost model developed in cooperation with MIT in Boston. This process took account of all the manufacturing-relevant expenses and material, capital, variable and fixed costs etc. of the various concepts. The amount of stainless steel by weight in the complete B-pillar is relatively low at around 14%. Nonetheless, its targeted use in areas particularly subject to stress permits a substantial lightweighting effect. The low additional costs per kilogram saved are promising. The fact that the total manufacturing costs increase due to the use of mixed construction and the tailored blanks, can be seen as a disadvantage; counterbalancing this, however, is the fact that the crash properties of the volume-produced component are maintained at a lower total weight. Conclusion and outlook Mixed construction using work-hardened NIROSTA and carbon steels with weld seams suitable for further processing and load bearing was not previously available. The great potential of hardened stainless steels for lightweight construction was previously unavailable for use because of the weakening and partial embrittlement in the weld seam. The special properties of the two different materials can now be utilized by the customer in a single component in the usual production process steps. The cost/weight ratio is of the same order of magnitude as the hot-stamped components commonly used today, with the additional advantage of residual formability in the event of a crash. A further cost advantage arises from the use of the tailored strips process, which is currently being implemented. The component can be manufactured as previously from coil on continuous press lines with comparable cycle times. The cost savings on the component has been realized by using NIROSTA 4318. Additional possibilities for cost savings result from use of materials with reduced nickel content, such as NIROSTA H400 (1.4376). The low cost per kilogram saved should be viewed extremely positively. According to conservative estimates, a value of 4.505.50 per kilogram saved could be implemented immediately for sports cars. The additional costs determined and calculated for the stainless steel solution using tailored blanks are approximately half of this. The process thus offers substantial savings potential thanks to the combination of stainless steels with carbon steels. The innovation was tested in close collaboration with major European steel and automobile companies as part of the Next Generation Vehicle project. ThyssenKrupp has realized cross-segment materials expertise combined with made-to-measure joining processes in a single component to the benefit of the customer.
Fig. 3 | B-pillar made from a tailored blank of stainless steel NIROSTA 4318 C1000 and high-grade steel DP600 after forming

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50 |

| Wind turbines are one area of application for high-temperature superconductors.

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Nickel W14 substrates for hightemperature superconductors


DR.-ING. ANGELIKA KOLB-TELIEPS Head of Knowledge and Innovation Management | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena DR. RER. NAT. BODO GEHRMANN Project Manager Super Alloys and Physical Materials | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena

High-temperature superconductivity is on the threshold of market launch. Starting from the results of a research project, ThyssenKrupp VDM has successfully developed an industrial-scale production process for nickel W14, which is used as substrate strip in superconductors destined for applications such as generators for wind turbines. The deoxidation of the melt presented a particular challenge. On the one hand, this is required in order to avoid fractures during the hot forming, on the other, the usual deoxidation elements have negative effects on the nanoscale texture and surface roughness needed for the substrate strip.

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52 | Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors

High-temperature superconductors in wind turbines The worldwide total installed wind energy capacity in 2007 amounted to 94 MW, of which more than 22 MW was in Germany, followed by 18 MW in the USA. An expansion to 160 MW is forecast for 2010, with many of these wind turbines being planned as offshore installations (source: EWEA European Wind Energy Association). Conventional technologies reach their limits at unit capacities above 5 MW. This is due to damage to the transmission as a result of material fatigue and the fact that the higher weight of such units which can exceed 400 t means that they can no longer be economically mounted offshore. The most interesting alternatives are offered by HTS (high-temperature superconductor) systems, which make possible systems with capacities of 10 to 12 MW and should simultaneously reduce costs I Fig. 1 I. In contrast to the approximately 4 million cost of a conventional 6-MW facility, an 8-MW HTS system is expected to cost just 3 million. The technological leap to the directly driven HTS generator is made possible by the use of a multilayer conductor I Fig. 2 I. In addition to its conductivity, such a strip must also offer mechanical stability and a long life expectancy. These objectives are best achieved by using a three layer structure. The top layer is the actual superconductor, YBa2Cu3OX (YBCO) and the bottom one is the substrate strip of Ni-W. Between them is a buffer which acts as a diffusion barrier and affects the texture of the YBCO layer. The entire composite is less than 0.5 mm thick and 10 to 100 mm wide. The Ni-W foil has a thickness of between 50 and 100 m. The fundamentals were worked out in the LOLY (Long Length YBCO Conductor) projects I and II in collaboration with the partners Zenergy Power, previously known as Trithor, in Rheinbach and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden. This report describes the development of the industrial-scale production of substrate foils by ThyssenKrupp VDM. Requirements of the nickel W14 substrate HTS conductors are currently used in liquid nitrogen in most applications, although they are also sometimes used at lower temperatures. In order to avoid AC losses, the substrate must be non-magnetic at these temperatures. The stacking defect density must exceed a threshold value which enables a desired texture to be set. This texture

will be discussed below. This condition can be met at tungsten contents of less than 20 wt-%. On the other hand, the strip must also guarantee both the mechanical stability and sufficient flexibility of the HTS conductor during manufacture and in operation. This requirement is better fulfilled at higher tungsten contents and competes with the unwanted magnetization. The chemical composition of nickel W14 was optimized on a laboratory scale. Impurities must be kept to the minimum possible as they affect the texture development and the surface properties. The strip is continuously coated with the buffer out of a liquid phase after an annealing step which defines the cubic texture. The best results here were obtained using strip with an extremely smooth surface. The roughness, as measured using a scanning force microscope, should be less than 20 nm, both in the grain and across the grain boundaries. The sharp cubic texture required after the final annealing I Fig. 3 I is set during the cold working by means of a specific degree of reduction tailored to the composition and by the use of suitable annealing temperatures and holding times. The texture can be optimized by subsequent annealing if necessary. The inspection is carried out by means of EBSD (Electron Back Scatter Diffraction) measurements. Industrial manufacture In order to meet the high purity requirements, nickel W14 was melted in the vacuum furnace I Fig. 4 I and cast into four 4.5-t ingots. Once Gleeble tests had been carried out to determine the hot rolling conditions, the ingots were rolled out into slabs which in turn were then rolled out to approximately 5 mm thick and 630 mm wide strips. The metallurgical purity satisfied the requirements. Unlike the samples previously melted at the IFW Dresden, deoxidation elements such as magnesium and silicon had to be added in order to guarantee an acceptable yield and a reliable process. A relatively low upper limit was specified for these elements in consideration of the cubic texture. These were tested in a dedicated series of laboratory melts and then transferred to the industrial-scale conditions. After pickling, grinding and rolling to approximately 3 mm, the strip was pre-annealed. Temperature and holding time were optimized in a series of experiments so that an even structure with grain sizes of less than 20 m could be set. Know-how in the field of soft-magnetic

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Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors | 53

Fig. 1 | High-temperature superconductor in the generator of a wind turbine

EBSD measurement

Schematic of an ideal cubic structure

Strip plane YBCO superconductor layer Buffer layer LZO + CeO Illustration of an ideal cubic distribution (ideal situation blue, with angular displacement represented in green and/or as dark lines) Rolling direction, flow direction

Metal substrate nickel W14

Fig. 2 | HTS conductor consisting of nickel W14 substrate, buffer and YBCO superconductor

Fig. 3 | Cubic texture

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Fig. 4 | VIM (Vacuum Induction Melting) furnace at ThyssenKrupp VDM in Unna

Fig. 5 | Roll stand with 20 rolls in Werdohl

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Nickel W14 substrates for high-temperature superconductors | 55

nickel-iron materials that had been built up by ThyssenKrupp VDM provided a useful foundation for this. Here too, the decisive issue is the texture, which determines the physical properties. The strip was subsequently rolled to a final thickness with a surface roughness of less than 30 nm on a roll stand mill with 20 polished rolls I Fig. 5 I and cut to the desired widths of between 10 and 100 mm. The results of the first experiments were extremely promising, and work is now being carried out on fine tuning the degree of rolling with matched parameters for the recrystallization annealing in order to further reduce the number of twins. It is also planned to include rolls made of different materials in the tests. A series of tests for setting the parameters and for the surface treatment was carried out on the cold rolled foil during the recrystallization annealing at between 800 C and 1,150 C. In addition to texture measurements, the development partner and customer Zenergy Power also carried out studies of the surface using an AFM (Atomic Force Microscope). An example is shown in I Fig. 6 I. Outlook The experience gained in the laboratory was successfully transferred to industrial-scale practice. A reproducible melting standard and production method were developed. The development partner Zenergy Power was provided with samples of both cold-rolled and annealed foils in order to be able to carry out their own experiments in the production of the end product a high-temperature superconductor. A patent has been applied for.
0.00 nm y z x x: 2.5 m y: 2.5 m z: 7.4 nm 0.00 nm 7.44 nm

19.71 nm

The joint development with the customer Zenergy Power has opened the door for ThyssenKrupp VDM to participate in the forecast growth in the wind energy market. In addition, the HTS conductors can also be used in other applications such as generators for hydroelectric power, industrial heaters, current limiters and cables.
y z x x: 10.0 m y: 10.0 m z: 19.7 nm

Fig. 6 | AFM photo of electropolished nickel W14 (Source: FH Bonn-Rhein-Sieg)

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| Heating element wire for appliances

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| 57

Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content


DR. RER. NAT. HEIKE HATTENDORF Project Manager Research & Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena DIPL.-ING. JRGEN WEBELSIEP Manager Quality Assurance Wire Division | ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Werdohl

For the open heating elements of appliances such as clothes driers and in-room heaters, American manufacturers in particular like to employ heating element wires made of the alloy Cronifer II. Heating element wires have to meet tough requirements in such applications. For example, the wire coil may not sag or burn through at high temperatures. As a result of its high nickel content (approx. 60%), the material known as Cronifer II that was previously used is expensive and therefore no longer competitive for this application. By increasing the chromium content and precisely matching the various elements to one another, the developers have created an alloy that contains just 37.5% nickel while still meeting the demanding technical requirements.

Heating elements in the appliance industry The US appliance industry uses open heating elements for devices such as clothes driers and in-room heaters. Open heating elements consist of freely suspended wire coils that are supported at only a few points. When used in such heating elements, the heating element wire has to meet tough requirements. During operation at high temperatures, the wire coils may not sag so far down that they could touch the units housing and produce a short circuit. This means the wires have to keep their shape as good as possible. This sagging becomes more and more pronounced the less nickel the heating element alloy contains. A protective oxide film forms on the surface of the wire when the heating elements are in operation, thus protecting the wire from any further strong oxidation. This oxide film has to adhere well and must not flake off when the wire is heated or cooled. A new oxide film has to form at the areas where it has flaked off, which can quickly cause severe damage to the heating element by making it burn through and shorten the devices life time. Heating element alloys containing a higher percentage of nickel gen-

Development of the alloy The developers were faced with the task of creating a heating element material with: metal costs of about two-thirds those of the comparable alloy Cronifer II, at least twice of the life time of Cronifer III and the heating coils having about the same shape stability of those made of Cronifer II. However, life time and shape stability are not only influenced by the alloys nickel content, but also by the content of other elements, such as chromium, silicon, carbon, nitrogen, cerium, lanthanum and zirconium. By increasing the chromium content and precisely matching the various elements to one another, the developers were able to create an alloy containing just 37.5% nickel while still meeting the previously mentioned requirements. I Fig. 1 I shows the composition

Material

Composition [mass-%] Cr Ni 60 30.5 37.5 Si 1.4 2.1 1.6 Fe 12 47 38

Metal costs [%]

erally have longer life times as well. The alloy used to date (Cronifer II)
Cronifer II 16 20 21 100 57 70

contains approximately 60% nickel. However, higher nickel prices are directly affecting the materials overall costs, making it no longer competitive. Because the standard alloy, Cronifer III, contains only 30% nickel, it could not be used since its life time is too short and its shape stability is inadequate.
Fig. 1 | Typical chemical composition of the heating element alloy and metal costs

Cronifer III Cronifer 40B

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58 | Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content

of the Cronifer II alloy used to date, as well as that of the standard Cronifer III alloy, which contains only 30% nickel, and of the new alloy, Cronifer 40B. When postulating nickel costs of 20/kg, the metal costs of Cronifer 40B are about 30% lower than those of Cronifer II. The life time is tested using 0.40 mm thick round wire at a temperature of 1,150 C I Fig. 2 I. The wire is heated electrically, with the current being interrupted for 15 seconds every two minutes. The temperature is measured with a non-contact pyrometer. This is an accelerated life time test, as it is conducted on a thin wire at increased temperatures in order to achieve a result in less time. I Fig. 3 I shows the relative life time of various heating element alloys, compared to

a reference specimen of Cronifer II, as a function of nickel content. As is clearly apparent, life time rises with increasing nickel content. However, Cronifer 40B has a life time that is significantly above that of the standard alloys. The life time is 80% that of Cronifer II and more than three times that of Cronifer III. The shape stability of the heating coils is determined by measuring the extent to which they sag. To do so, wire 1.29 mm thick is wound into heating coils with an inside diameter of 14 mm. The coils are then inserted into brackets I Fig. 4 I, after which they are electrically heated to a starting temperature of 1,000 C. Every 30 seconds, the current is interrupted for another 30 seconds. After four hours of

Fig. 2 | Life time test on wire specimens

Fig. 3 | Relative life time of various heating element alloys as a function of nickel content

140 120 Relative life time [%] 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 Cronifer III Standard alloys 60 70 80 New alloy Cronifer 40B Cronifer II

Nickel content [%]

Fig. 4 | Setup for measuring the sagging of the heating coils to test shape stability

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Alloy for heating elements with reduced nickel content | 59

Cronifer 40B 37.5% Ni 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 Sagging [mm] after 4 h (TStart = 1,000 C)

40% Ni

Cronifer II 60% Ni

Material

resistance * [mm2/m] 1.11 1.04 1.06

Specific electric

(1,000 C)/(20 C)
1.12 1.26 1.21

Resistance ratio

Cronifer II Cronifer III Grain size 22 m for all samples Repeated tests, different batches Cronifer 40B
* ASTM B344

Fig. 5 | Shape stability (sagging) of heating element wires with respect to nickel content. Measured at a starting temperature of 1,000 C on wires with a diameter of 1.29 mm.

Fig. 6 | Electrical properties of the heating element alloys

operation, the amount to which the coils have sagged in the middle is measured. I Fig. 5 I shows the measurement results of coils made of Cronifer II and Cronifer 40B. All specimens had the same grain size of 22 m, because grain size also influences shape stability of the heating coil. While Cronifer II sagged by about 5.5 mm, Cronifer 40B sagged by only 4 mm. An alloy with 40% nickel content that was melted according to the same principle as the Cronifer II specimen showed a more pronounced sag of approximately 7 mm. The results demonstrate the success of the alloying measures. This result was reproduced multiple times and has already been confirmed by an American customer. Another aspect that has to be taken into account when developing a new heating element alloy are the alloys electrical properties. The aim here is to achieve a specific electric resistance that is as much above 1 mm/m as possible while at the same time ensuring as little dependence on temperature as possible. Real-life values at 1,000 C deviate by +10% to +25% from those at room temperature. Lowering the nickel content reduces the specific electric resistance at room temperature and increases the electric resistances dependence on temperature. By increasing the percentage of chromium and silicon, the developers were partially able to offset the deterioration of

the electric properties, making it possible to achieve a nickel content of 37.5%. I Fig. 6 I shows the electrical properties of the new Cronifer 40B alloy in comparison to the material used previously. The development of Cronifer 40B in the laboratory was completed in 2006, after which a patent was filed for the material. The material has since then been melted on a large scale. The measurement results shown in I Figs 3 and 5 I were made using specimens from large-scale batches. The heating element manufacturers have been supplied with samples of wire made of Cronifer 40B. The producers will have to adapt the design of the heating elements to the slightly different electrical properties of the new materials and have their customers test them. Summary The material developers at ThyssenKrupp VDM have managed to create a significantly less expensive material with a nickel content of only 37.5%. The materials life time and shape stability properties are comparable to those of Cronifer II, making the alloy suited for use in open heating elements in clothes driers and in-room heaters in the USA. As a result, there is now a competitive material available again for this application.

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| Polysius cement grinding plant

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Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production


DIPL.-ING. FRANZ-JOSEF ZURHOVE Specialist Department Research & Development, Head of Grinding & Crushing Technology | Polysius AG, Neubeckum

The POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll and the newly developed SEPOL HR separator have established new benchmarks for energy efficiency in the grinding of raw materials for cement manufacturing. Previous use of the high-pressure grinding roll for this process was limited to niche applications featuring, for example, low levels of moisture and abrasion and lower throughput rates. With the successful commissioning of two grinding plants with POLYCOM and SEPOL HR, Polysius is setting a new benchmark for efficiency, quiet running and reliability. The attractive investment costs are a welcome complement to the low operating costs.

POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll Grinding and crushing of raw materials before sintering in a rotary kiln accounts for about 25% of the entire electrical energy consumption in cement production. Raw materials grinding technology has been dominated for more than 30 years by the roller mill, which is also referred to as the vertical mill. Competition in the field of vertical mills is characterized by cost reductions on the one hand and the development of larger machines on the other. By contrast there have hardly been any improvements in energy efficiency. The POLYCOM highpressure grinding roll I Fig. 1 I exhibits higher energy efficiency in comparison to vertical mills, and also requires much less power for the auxiliary machinery thanks to its use of mechanical rather than pneumatic material transport within the vertical mill. To date, several factors have been responsible for the limited use of POLYCOM for

milling raw materials. The main such factors were the low drying capacity of the existing air separators, the structural design of these separators, which were not specifically conceived for the requirements of the POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll and the inadequate service life of the roller materials. The successfully concluded development and commissioning of an air separator which has been specially designed for the requirements of the POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll has enabled the POLYCOM to break out of its niche. Previously limited to special applications, the high-pressure grinding roll has now established itself in a greatly expanded range of applications in the field of grinding and crushing raw materials, where it has set a new benchmark for energy efficiency.

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62 | Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production

SEPOL HR air separator The newly developed SEPOL HR air separator I Fig. 2 I is distinguished by its low space requirement and the resulting positive effect on costs for material transport and civil engineering. Thanks to this compact design, the investment costs of the grinding plant are reduced by approximately 15% relative to those of a comparable plant with a vertical mill. Various processing functions are integrated in the machine. The material feed system disagglomerates the feed material, which is still partially compacted, and ensures an even distribution of material across the feed system width. The bulk material is dried within a cross flow of hot gas. During this process, the medium and fine fractions of the feed material are carried upward and the coarse fraction is discharged by gravity. The horizontal rotor, which is fitted with tangentially set, axially running bars rotates against the flow of gas in the housing spiral and so ensures excellent separation and drying of the feed material. The medium grain size fraction, which is too coarse and is rejected by the rotor, is conveyed by gravity to the coarse material discharge where it is once again homogeneously mixed with the coarse fraction. This homogenization is extremely important for low dynamic loads in the POLYCOM. Alongside the best-possible separation of the fine feed material fraction, the homogeneity of the mixing is an essential precondition for the efficiency of the grinding and crushing. The horizontally arranged rotor enables the compact plant design, in contrast to conventional, vertical arrangements. Originally conceived for cement grinding with a broad range of product fineness (3,000 to 5,500 cm/g) and types of feed material (granulated blast furnace slag, fly-ash, cement clinker, pozzolana etc.), the combination of air separator and POLYCOM also offers a significant energy saving for raw material. The use of wet additives such as granulated blast furnace slag, limestone and pozzolana in cement grinding has greatly increased, with the objective of reducing the CO2 emissions that are unavoidable in clinker production. As a result, the drying of these additives in the grinding plant is very important. Furthermore, it should also be possible to use the air separator for expanding the capacity of existing grinding plants in such a way that it can be installed during continuing operation of the existing plant and rapidly integrated in the grinding system without the need for long downtimes.

Grinding plant I Fig. 3 I shows the schematic flow diagram and layout of a grinding plant. The fresh feed material is transported to the air separator together with the recycled material coming from the POLYCOM by a bucket elevator and trough belt conveyor. The separator is operated using hot furnace gas to dry the fresh feed material. The air separator separates the material that has already reached the final particle size. Material that is still too coarse is returned to the POLYCOM. The decision to acquire an industrial prototype was taken in fall 2004. A long-term Indian customer, who was offered the new development, expressed the wish to equip both the cement and the raw meal plant for a new production line with the SEPOL HR. The order handling included a complete new construction and was realized including shipment and installation in less than 24 months. In contrast to the follow-up orders which have already been placed the prototype system was equipped with two air separators in parallel, as a 23-fold scale-up relative to the technical test center plant was viewed as too great a risk. Commissioning and operating results The raw meal plant commenced operation in December 2006 I Fig. 4 I. One of the POLYCOM rollers can be seen through the open machine door in the photograph below. The SEPOL HR air separator with downstream cyclone separator is visible at the top left of the photograph. It proved possible to significantly improve the operating results during the optimization phase. The throughput rose from its initial 260 t/h (guarantee 275 t/h) to a notable 360 t/h and the electrical energy requirement fell significantly from 14.5 kWh/t to 11 kWh/t. A direct system comparison was possible as the customer utilized a vertical mill in an older production line in the same plant. The comparison of the electrical energy requirement is shown in I Fig. 5 I. Due to the existing conditions, it was possible to achieve an energy saving of 36% for the raw material in the grinding and crushing stage by the application of a POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll and the SEPOL HR. On-site measurements were also taken to check the mechanical design of the air separator with respect to mechanical stresses, vibrations, and drive powers. All expectations were fulfilled. The cement grinding plant was commissioned in February 2007, and

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Fig. 1 | POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll with planetary gear units

Fig. 2 | SEPOL HR air separator

Finished product 1,200-2,300 t/h

Bucket elevator

Limestone Bauxite Iron ore

Hot gas Finished product 300 -500 t/h

31,600 15,700

8,000

POLYCOM

5,300

New material feed 300 -500 t/h

Recirculated material 900 -1,800 t/h Data in mm

Fig. 3 | Schematic flow diagram and layout of a raw material grinding plant

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3,500

64 |

this also immediately exceeded the guarantees. After measuring and optimizing the plant, the expectations were exceeded by 15%. The customer was so pleased with the performance of the prototypes that he has already placed a follow-up order for another new production line. The experience gained from the operation of the prototype will be implemented in this new order. The building volume of the raw meal plant has been cut by almost half and the number of auxiliary machines has been greatly reduced by the replacement of the two parallel air separators by one unit. Effects on future plants The increased throughput has the effect of reducing the investment costs per production unit. The available POLYCOM range thus covers larger plant capacities too. The result is a significant improvement in cost effectiveness for the customer, from the point of view of both investment and operating costs. The air separator has the effect of opening doors for grinding plants with the POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll. As the POLYCOM poses high requirements with respect to materials and manufacturing quality, the roller units are only manufactured in the
Fig. 4 | Cement grinding plant, (blue marking) SEPOL HR (green marking), POLYCOM HR

in-house work-shop I Fig. 6 I. The SEPOL HR thus boosts competitiveness while simultaneously increasing value-added. It opens up a greatly expanded range of possible applications for the POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll, one of Polysius core products, and is

also suitable for application in selected projects within the minerals


150

industry. It will thus enable Polysius entry into this market segment as a systems supplier.
Electrical ernergy requirement 125

At the beginning of 2008, a further grinding plant for raw mate100 75 50 25

rials with POLYCOM and static parts of the SEPOL HR as drier went into operation in the USA. In contrast to the Indian plant, the raw material in the USA has a high proportion of quartz, which causes a high degree of wear. In addition to the mineralogy of the raw material, its moisture content also has a strong effect on the wear rates of the POLYCOM rollers, with the consequence that the drying of the feed material before it is fed into the gap between the rolls is very important. The first operating results show that

0 Ball mill Vertical mill POLYCOM with SEPOL HR

the air separator with its excellent drying capability makes an important contribution to ensuring low wear rates on the rollers of the POLYCOM. The guaranteed performance values for throughput and energy requirements per unit mass were also immediately

Fig. 5 | Comparison of the electrical energy requirement

exceeded here.

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Increasing energy efficiency and reducing investment costs in cement production | 65

Fig. 6 | POLYCOM manufacturing at Polysius

Summary Both grinding plants have demonstrated that the POLYCOM high-

be efficiently dried and subsequently ground. Practical evidence of this is, however, not yet available. Market reaction to the innovation has taken the form of sales of another seven plants equipped with POLYCOM and SEPOL HR. The situation regarding further projects is promising and increasing numbers of orders are expected. The SEPOL HR air separator is a simple unit that has been successfully developed and commissioned to meet the requirements of the POLYCOM high-pressure grinding roll and fills an essential gap in the application of energy-efficient and competitive technology.

pressure grinding roll in combination with the SEPOL HR can make a significant contribution to reducing the electrical energy requirement, improving the creation of value-added, reducing investment costs and increasing market share for raw materials that are easy or difficult to mill, have low or high wear rates and have limited moisture content. It is expected that raw materials with higher moisture contents can

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| Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines a cross-segment development

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| 67

Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines


DIPL.-ING. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES Senior Manager Mine Planning & Sales | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen DIPL.-ING. FRANK SEEHFER Senior Manager Projects | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen DIPL.-ING. MARTINA SHEHATA M.SC, P.ENG. Vice President Engineering & Project Management | Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary/Canada STEPHEN HARRINGTON, B.ENG, P.ENG. Vice President Sales | Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary/Canada DR. RER. NAT. HANS-JRGEN KAISER Head of Technical Marketing, Heavy Plate Profit Center | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

As part of a priority research and development project launched in 2006, engineers at ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik developed the concept for a fully mobile crushing plant to enhance mining operations in large open pit mines. The key innovations lie with the unique functionality and mobility of the machine which allow it to work along side the mining shovel at the mine face. The crushing plant feeds a dedicated belt conveyor system and the need for large haul trucks is eliminated. The use of continuous mining technology not only brings economic benefits in the form of higher production performance with reduced capital cost (particularly when compared to a discontinuous system using trucks), it is also more environmentally friendly because it reduces CO2 emissions. In a crosssegment cooperation with ThyssenKrupp Steel, the developers investigated the use of high strength steel and utilized liners with special wear properties to provide adequate protection from the abrasive nature of the ore.

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68 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines

Background The use of continuous mining systems is primarily dependent on the type and properties of the ore being mined. In the case of light and loose earth, bucket wheel excavator technology, combined with a system of conveyors, offers the advantages of a continuous mining system. In order to take advantage of continuous mining in harder ore, such as minerals and hard coal, crushers are required to reduce the ROM ore to a conveyable size. The crushing plants can be stationary (mounted on concrete foundations) or semi-mobile style, supported on steel pontoon feet. As the mining operation progresses, the semimobile crushing plants can be relocated within the mine using multiwheeled trailers or transport crawlers. Typically, shovels load the ROM ore on to heavy-duty haul trucks that transport the ore to the crushing plant and relocating the crushing plant as the mine expands reduces the distance that the large trucks need to haul the ore from the working face. The objective of the new development was to totally eliminate the need for trucks by having the shovel feed the ROM ore directly to a continuous material handling system. The crushing plant would need to be fully mobile such that it could follow the movements of the shovel, would have to be designed to suit the movement of the shovel boom and bucket and would have to match the operating capacity of the shovel. To achieve this result, ThyssenKrupp developed a fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant which allows for continuous material handling while providing an economical solution not yet realized in a high capacity mine. Cross-segment improvements in material use Possible changes and improvements to the fully mobile open-pit mining system were investigated at an early stage in the priority project and various products produced by ThyssenKrupp Steel were reviewed and analyzed. A common approach to reducing the construction weight of the supporting structural steel work is to use higher strength steel. To optimize the heavy components, it was found that further benefits could be realized by utilizing special alloy fine grain structural steels. The know-how possessed by ThyssenKrupp Steel, along with valuable feedback from the employees at ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, resulted in employing structural steel in ways that could improve those components not governed by fatigue, such as the large crawler assemblies.

The demand for abrasion resistant wear materials increases with highly abrasive ore. There is a definite benefit to employ wear resistant steel where load bearing members must be protected against abrasion caused by continuous direct contact with the conveyed materials. In a fully mobile crushing system, typical high wear areas are the hopper, chutes and feeder skirtboard. For the referenced facility in China, the customer was convinced by the advantages offered by wear-resistant XAR 400, a special purpose structural steel manufactured by ThyssenKrupp Steel I Fig. 1 I. When working with hard rock, XAR 400 offers two to three times the expected life compared to conventional steel. Customer benefits High level of system availability Conventional shovel / truck operations in open-pit mines leads to loss of efficiency due to the discontinuous transportation of the ore because the shovel needs to wait for the loaded truck to leave and for the empty truck to spot itself beside the shovel. Depending on the number of trucks available, the shovel waiting time can be a few minutes or more per truck. In contrast, the fully mobile crusher is always positioned next to the shovel meaning that shovel operation is not interrupted. Ideally, the crushing plant is as mobile as the shovel such that neither has to wait for each other as they advance along the working face. The crusher comminutes the ore to a conveyable size and discharge to a system of shiftable and fixed mine conveyors. To increases the flexibility of the system a short mobile transfer conveyor can be added to the system I Fig. 2 I. In most cases, existing cable shovels or hydraulic excavators can be used if a mobile crushing plant replaces the truck fleet. The hopper height and geometry is similar to the truck box so the shovel operation is similar if loading trucks or the mobile crushing plant.

Lower operating costs A mine based on truck haulage requires a large number of drivers and support staff while a continuous style operation allows customers to reduce personnel without affecting production output as only 3 to 4 workers are required per shift to operate and control a crusher/ conveyor system. In addition to saving wages and wage related costs, customers can reduce their safety related costs as well.

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Fig. 1 | Feed hopper and skirtboard lined with XAR 400 wear resistant plant, a product of ThyssenKrupp Steel

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70 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines

One of the hidden benefits of the continuous system is the fact that the scarcity of tires for the large haul trucks becomes a no issue. Further, it is common for large mines to utilize trucks from several manufacturers and the expense involved in stocking duplicate spare parts can be considerable while the spare parts inventory for a crusher/ conveyor system can be tailored to meet the clients exact needs.

Another environmental consideration is the savings in rubber that can be achieved. In the scenario just described, the expected life of the conveyor belt is 8 years and, comparing this to the tire needs of the 26 trucks over the same time period, a savings of 400 t of tire rubber could be realized, a reduction of about 95%. Customer loyalty

Environmental considerations Fully mobile crushing plants with conveyors operate exclusively with electrical power which leads to the overall CO2 balance favoring a continuous mining system over the diesel-powered haul trucks and through a related R&D project the extent to which a fully mobile crushing system would reduce CO2 emissions compared to conventional shovel-truck operations was investigated (see ThyssenKrupp techforum, Issue2/2007). The results showed a CO2 reduction of up to 100,000t per year for each truck system that was replaced. As an example, in China a fully mobile crushing system with associated conveyors replaced about 26 large haul trucks. The mining trucks consumed about 190 liters of diesel for every hour of operation. Considering that annual production remains constant and factoring in the higher availability of the continuous system, the diesel fuel savings amounted to 22 million liters per year leading to a favorable carbon footprint for the continuous system.

Use of a continuous system In many cases, the replacement of a truck transport system with an innovative fully mobile crushing system forces customers to think of other technology that they can use to make their systems more efficient. ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik has a broad range of products for such needs, extending from long overland conveyor systems, stockyard equipment, ore process plants, train loading and unloading systems as well as port facilities.

Long life expectancy extending in some cases to several decades A characteristic feature of continuous open-pit mining technology is the long life expectancy which can exceed 20 years. The large number of such examples includes the in-pit crushing system at the Morenci open-pit copper mine in the USA which commenced operations in the late 1980s. Another example is offered by the open-pit mining facilities and equipment employed by RWE in the Rheinish

Fig. 2 | The fully mobile system showing, from right to left, the shovel, mobile crushing plant, mobile transfer conveyor, hopper car and belt conveyor.

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lignite fields, some of which have been in use since the 1950s. One can expect that the new generation of fully mobile high capacity crushing systems will also experience such life expectancy.

Fully mobile crushers can attain hourly output rates that could otherwise only be achieved with a large number of large mining trucks. These trucks have useful payloads of between 140t and 350t and the tires need to be replaced, on average, once per year. Depending

After sales service The expected long life noted above yields a positive image and provides the potential to create long-term customer loyalty with regards to repeat business and after sales service. Cost savings for customers Efficient use of capital Due to the high system availability previously mentioned, a continuous system directly contributes to the efficient use of invested capital. Associated with this is an increase in the capacity utilization of the shovel or hydraulic excavator and the downstream process equipment.

on the size of the truck, a set of six tires currently costs between 90,000 and 300,000 and delivery can take up to two years. Innovation and degree of implementation of fully mobile crushers In early 2007, the patent for the newly developed crushing plant was published. The primary features described in the document are the plants degrees of freedom in combination with a single slewing discharge conveyor as well as the arrangement of the supporting structure. The large machine is supported on the two crawlers without the need for additional supports, thus providing for a true fully mobile crushing plant. In the fall of 2007, the first fully mobile crushing system com-

Reduction of operating costs Because fewer employees are needed, ongoing operating costs are reduced not only as a result of lower personnel costs, but also with regard to safety. The ratio of each ton of extracted mineral to applied cost is optimized through the decreased cost of wear parts, the standardization of spare parts, and, above all, the elimination of truck transport and the associated significant reduction in diesel and tire costs.

menced operation at the YiminHe open-pit mine in China. The crushing plant processes ROM coal at a rate of 3,500t/h. I Fig. 3 I shows the crushing plant while being relocated from the assembly area to the mine face while the continuous conveyor system is visible in the background. In October 2007, Krupp Canada, a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik, signed a contract for the delivery of the first fully mobile

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72 | Fully mobile crushing plant for large open-pit mines

crushing plant use in the oilsand mines of Northern Canada. The plant, which will operate at a capacity between 6,000 and 7,000 t/h, is scheduled to commence operation at the end of 2009 I Fig. 4 I. Worldwide market potential The continuous crushing system has worldwide market potential particularly in the area of mining for coal and oilsand. Due especially to the economic boom in China and India, the demand for coal in Asia is steadily increasing. For several years now, Canadas huge deposits of oilsand have been a veritable home market for Krupp Canada. Numerous semi-mobile crushers with capacities of up to 14,000t/h have been installed over the past few years. Some of them have been supplied in combination with the entire process train up to, and including, the hydro transport system. A typical ore train consists of a semi-mobile crushing plant, a semi-mobile surge facility, the connecting belt conveyors and the slurry preparation plant I Fig. 5 I. All of the oilsand operators are currently developing plans to transform the semi-mobile process into a fully mobile one. The first fully mobile crushing plant, currently at the design stage, will be an element in this mobile process and will, undoubtedly, be followed by further mobile systems as the mines expand. The fully mobile concept can conceivably be utilized in all mining operations where a shovel can excavate the ore directly at the face,

with our without blasting. ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik is currently cooperating with Brazils largest iron ore producer to determine if mobile crushing systems can be adapted for use in their large mines which, typically, extend downward with fairly steep fit walls. Compared to coal and oilsand mines, which typically have relatively wide benches, the planning and realization of a fully mobile concept in an iron ore mine is complicated by the chiefly vertical alignment of the deposits. The fully mobile system, however, promises considerable savings in capital and operating costs and it is very likely that a solution can be realized. Summary Even though the research and development project for a fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant is still ongoing, the work to date has already resulted in a number of marketing successes. For example, the first reference facility has been in operation in China for the past six months while a larger machine will commence operation at a Canadian oilsand mine late in 2009. In addition to the cost savings to the customer, the fully mobile crushing system has huge potential for reducing operations related CO2 emissions providing a greener footprint. The fully mobile crushing plant introduced in this article won first prize in ThyssenKrupps Innovation Contest 2008.

Fig. 3 | The Fully Mobile Crushing Plant for China being relocated for the erection area to the mine face

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Fig. 4 | Computer rendering of a fully mobile crushing plant for an oilsand mine

Fig. 5 | A typical ore train for oilsand mining showing, from right to left, the semi-mobile crushing plant, the face conveyor, the semi-mobile surge facility and, in the background, the slurry preparation plant.

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| End-of-line test stand at ThyssenKrupp EGM

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Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles
DIPL.-ING. JRG TIETJEN Vice President Test/Measurement Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH, Langenhagen DIPL.-ING. JOAKIM KHL Development Test Technology | ThyssenKrupp EGM GmbH, Langenhagen

Todays vehicles have to meet high standards with regard to ride comfort, making balancing the drive train and noise testing of many components essential. ThyssenKrupp EGM, an internationally leading supplier of comprehensive solutions for transmission test stands, has eliminated the traditional distinction between balancing machines and NVH test stands. It has done so by developing, testing and realizing as a product a new test stand concept that unites both technologies in a single machine. Key arguments in favor of the new system, for which a patent has been applied, are its huge cost advantages and the reduced amount of space it requires.

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76 | Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles

New test stand concept for the volume production of rear axles For several years now, automakers specifications have almost always included requirements regarding residual imbalance and the noise analysis of rear axle differentials. As a result, these requirements are also found in specifications for suppliers. Until now two separate machines were required to check balance and analyze noise and vibration. Depending on the systems cycle times, two employees might be required as well. ThyssenKrupp EGM has now developed a test stand concept for the volume production of rear axle differentials that enables a single machine to conduct a balancing procedure and a residual imbalance inspection as well as the usual acoustic test. In addition, the test part remains in a single clamp during the entire process. During the balancing procedure, the system also takes into account the coupled masses in the vehicle. Basics of NVH analysis and rear axle differential balancing The main factors affecting transmission noise are geometry, rotational speed and load. The quality of manufactured rear axle differentials is usually checked by running them in the load and rotational speed ranges relevant to the vehicle on the test stand. During this test, the acceleration have to remain below a limit curve at a control point. The decisive factors here are the orders (orders are multiples of the rotational speed 1st order = 1 x rotational speed = imbalance), which represent various components, such as the gear tooth system and the bearing components. To determine the imbalance of rear axle differentials, the focus is primarily on fast moving components, because the square of the rotational speed is a factor in the dynamic force caused by the imbalanced mass. For the test stand this means that first order forces with respect to the drive shafts rotational speed have to be determined. During the early phase of development, the limit for the permissible residual imbalance is only defined by the values contained in the specifications. Our customers experiences have shown that a good limiting value for residual imbalance on the drive shaft level is 230 gmm (gram-millimeters) at speeds of up to 250 km/h and a final drive ratio of 3. This residual imbalance consists of imbalances of the axle and of the output shaft. A cardan shaft is coupled to the axle. This connection has a designrelated eccentricity so that the shafts mass causes an imbalance. In the case of an interface with a permitted concentricity of 0.05 mm per side and an attached effective mass of 2 kg, the imbalance can amount to up to 200 gmm. In order to balance the wheels, this

eccentricity can be taken into account in two different ways: One possibility is to measure the eccentricity and calculate the amount and direction of the imbalance so that it can be corrected. The second possibility involves connecting a spare shaft (master prop shaft) without any clearance and subsequently measuring the imbalance caused in this manner. This was the variant chosen for the new test stand concept. Development of the combined test stand The biggest challenge in the development of the combined test stand was to create a system for clamping the component into the test stand that would meet the requirements for both the NVH test and the balancing. At the heart of the combined test stand is a measuring table test that is flexible enough to detect imbalance excitations of < 1 gmm while at the same time being so rigid that parts can be tested for NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) at up to 6,000 rpm without having to pass through any significant resonance points I Fig. 1 I. The fully developed prototype achieved an outstanding balancing quality of G1 without reducing the quality of the NVH tests, such as those for detecting faults. A goal aim during the development of the measuring table was to determine the most favorable rotational speed for measuring imbalance. To determine this speed, several measuring tables were set up with different spring stiffness. Order analyses of the first order (imbalance order) were then conducted across the rotational speed. The results of these order analyses were used to define rotational speed points at which the developers conducted reproducibility observations of the imbalance measurement I Fig. 2 I. When evaluated according to the reproducibility value Cg, the reproducibility of the imbalance was best at the point of the rotational speed range with the lowest excitability (2,100 rpm). Reproducibility was the worst at the first resonance point (1,350 rpm) and was still much worse at the second resonance point (2,700 rpm) than at 2,100 rpm. The less the system responds to the imbalance excitation, the more reproducible are the imbalance measurements. Characteristics of the new test stand The main technical data: DME16i data acquisition unit from ThyssenKrupp EGM using an industrial PC UPS32 measurement and evaluation software from ThyssenKrupp EGM Siemens S7 test stand control system

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Rear axle differential Input flange Output shaft

Vibration table

Leaf springs

Leaf springs

Sensor

Leaf springs

Fig. 1 | Schematic design of the measuring table

3.5 Cg value = f (rotational speed) 3.0 Value of reproducibilty Cg 2.5 2.0 1.5 1,794 1.0 0.0 1,350 2,700 2,100

-0.5 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 Rotational speed [rpm]
Fig. 2 | Order analysis of imbalance order, Cg value as a function of rotational speed

Input drive (front unit) with 120 Nm at 4,500 rpm Output drive (rear units), each with 250 Nm at 1,200 rpm 75 s cycle time, including balancing and NVH test Output drive quality of the simple wheel balancer (without the master prop shaft): G2.5 Balancing quality of the master prop shaft: G6.3 Reproducibility of the NVH measurements: 1dB The test run is divided into seven main steps: Measurement of the breakaway torque Determination of the imbalance of the cardan flange (a master

prop shaft is used to take into account the geometric eccentricity that can appear during later cardan shaft fitting) Balancing is achieved by removing material (drilling) Control measurements are made to check the balancing process Measurement of the drag torque and determination of the transmission ratio NVH test (acceleration sensor for structure-borne vibration) under load on a drive and coast ramp Test of the differential function A master prop shaft is used to simulate the subsequent fitting of a cardan shaft to the rear differential. By adapting the master prop shaft,

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78 | Combined end-of-line test stand for NVH analysis and determining the balancing quality of rear axles

the geometric inacuracies of the rear differential flange are combined with the portion of the cardan shaft mass fitted there to create a measurable imbalance that is corrected fully automatically on the test stand by removing material from the input flange. The reproducibility of the gripping position on the input flange journal is < 4 m, in accordance with an imbalance value of approx. 10 gmm. Upon completion of the balancing process, the location of any remaining residual imbalance is marked I Fig. 3 I. Due to the possible repeatability of the master prop shaft gripper of 4 m, it was a major challenge to ensure that reproducible measurements could be conducted with the master prop shaft. To do this, tests were conducted with an optimally balanced system, using test

weights at three different points on the test specimen (120 offset) and continuously repeated adaptations. Five measurements were made within each adaptation without opening the gripper. The system was subsequently readapted. After five such cycles, the test mass was offset by 120 three times and the same process was applied again. I Fig. 4 I displays the result of such a series of tests in the form of a diagram. The test weights applied during the series of tests was 29 gmm. Three distinct areas can be seen at intervals of 120. Two of these distinct areas contain 25 measurements, while the third has 50 measurements. Each of the individual distinct areas has a variance that is clearly within the grippers theoretical repeatability range.

Fig. 3 | Test stand details, 1 = master prop shaft, 2 = NVH sensor, 3 = drilling machine with suction , 4 = marking unit

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100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 -100.00 -80.00 -60.00 -40.00 -20.00 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 -20.00 -40.00 -60.00 -80.00 -100.00 gmm gmm 25 measurements with 5 adaptions pos. 120

50 measurements with 10 adaptions pos. 0

25 measurements with 5 adaptions pos. 240

Fig. 4 | Repeated measurements with the master prop shaft

Fig. 5 | Main screen of the UPS32 test stand application

The results are stored in a database and are available for statistical evaluations, archiving, parts tracking and other purposes. The measurement and evaluation system consists of the DME16i hardware from ThyssenKrupp EGM and the UPS32 software. The letters UPS stand for the German words for universal test stand software (Universelle-Prfstands-Software). The program is a PCbased automation system that can run on Windows NT4.0, Windows 2000 and Windows XP. UPS32 can be used to solve diverse tasks such as of measurement, automation and control technology as well as those involving industrial data archiving and statistics. The measurement data can be recorded, analyzed and evaluated in user-programmable sequences. A freely configurable visualization/ GUI is available for the user. UPS32 is used in many of the transmission test stands at ThyssenKrupp EGM as a complete vibration analysis tool for recording measurement values as well as for calculating and evaluating NVH tests. Thanks to the integration of balancing analysis capabilities into UPS32, all of the tasks performed by an automation system are united in tested and proven manner I Fig. 5 I.

Summary The combination of two formerly separate processes into a single unit results in considerable customer utility and therefore also improves the market and revenue potential of ThyssenKrupp EGM. Customers have to invest much less in the new system than in the typical twomachine solution. Moreover, the new system takes up less space. Considerable savings can be achieved during system operation in the areas of training, servicing, maintenance and spare parts stockkeeping. The single machine concept simplifies the logistics concept and optimizes processes by reducing the amount of time needed to insert and take out the test part. For ThyssenKrupp EGM, the new machine concept described also has the potential for further development. The system particularly makes it possible to determine the influences of the input flange's concentricity and axial run-out, which can then be incorporated into the results. As a result, the interrelationship between imbalance and wheel set noises can be inspected as well.

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| An electro-permanent magnet loads a steel slab.

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Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks


DIPL.-PHYS. WILHELM CASSING Sales Manager, Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Gelsenkirchen DIPL.-ING. THOMAS POHL Technical Manager, Authorized Officer | ThyssenKrupp Anlagenservice GmbH, Oberhausen DIPL.-ING. FALK STEGER Sales Magnet System | ThyssenKrupp Schulte GmbH, Gelsenkirchen

Because of the need to quickly load and unload steel slabs, a new technological concept had to be developed for lifting loads. Given the same requirements, such as being able to unload 36-ton slabs, electropermanent magnets offer a number of advantages over conventional electromagnets and chains. These include the fact that they do not require either environmentally damaging backup batteries or the use of dunnage in an integrated logistic chain. And thanks to savings in weight, the magnets can significantly reduce crane costs. Other, non-monetary benefits affect occupational safety and environmental protection.

The loading and unloading of slabs in ports The importance of slab transport at ThyssenKrupp will increase in the future, particularly as a result of the Herkules project and the new steel plants in Brazil and the United States. At these locations, the slabs have to be loaded onto ships before they can be transported further. Slabs weighing up to 36 tons each have to be loaded onto ships in Brazil and reloaded onto inland waterway vessels after reaching the ports of Rotterdam, Netherlands, or Mobile, Alabama. Once these inland waterway vessels have reached their destination harbors, the slabs are again unloaded so that they can be transported to other locations for further processing. This entire logistics chain can only be optimized if all of the port facilities work according to similar principles. Magnet technology offers a quick and convenient solution for achieving this goal. At the end of 2007 a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Steel, Eisenbahn und Hfen GmbH, asked the ThyssenKrupp Magnettechnik business unit of ThyssenKrupp Schulte to develop a system for the rapid unloading of slabs. Although an electromagnetic solution with a mechanical underpinning already existed, the client wanted a simpler yet safer solution using permanent magnets. ThyssenKrupp Magnettechnik was asked to enhance this concept and develop an effective

solution that would meet several different criteria. This was done in the context of a complete assessment of the logistics chain as an element in the so-called Herkules Project. The requirements the system had to meet are described in more detail below. Elimination of dunnage Eliminating dunnage means that the slabs must now be placed directly on top of one another. However, since this does not leave any space between the slabs, chains and cables can no longer be used for unloading. This lack of dunnage also enables an increase in the packing density. As a result, force can only be brought to bear on the slabs from above. Because dunnage no longer has to be inserted or removed and disposed of, work times and resource needs can be significantly reduced. All of the wood-handling work is no longer required. Naturally, these benefits can only be achieved if dunnage and chains are no longer used at any points along the entire logistics chain. Should such work be required at any point, then these advantages are lost. The only ways of enabling the elimination of dunnage that come into consideration are either electromagnetic solutions with mechanical underpinning or permanent magnetic systems.

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Reduction of unloading times Because cycle times should not exceed three minutes, systems using mechanical underpinnings were assessed negatively, since the opening and closing of their hydraulic lifting grabs alone consumed onethird of this time. Another disadvantage of mechanical under-pinning is that the lateral extension of the yoke becomes significantly longer, creating a blocking element which can damage the slab or the side of the ship. Another factor that would lead to a loss of time was the use of electromagnets as initially planned. This is because the processes of magnetizing and demagnetizing these systems would each take about 25 to 30 seconds since backup batteries would have to be used for safety reasons. As a consequence, the times cannot be reduced by means of overvoltage, since the voltage of the backup battery cannot be significantly exceeded because it has to serve as a safeguard in case of a power outage. A substantial increase in voltage could have reduced the time constant. However, according to the employers liability insurance association (Berufsgenossenschaft) for lifting equipment, backup batteries cannot be dispensed with. A solution to this problem is offered by electro-permanent magnet systems (EPMS), which take much less time to magnetize and demagnetize (5-10 seconds). Moreover, such a solution does not require backup batteries, since the lifting is carried out solely by permanent magnets. Electric power is only required to switch over the magnets within the magnet system. These bistable magnet systems can remain in a magnetic state or a magnetically neutral state for any length of time without current flow. Safety requirements The employers liability insurance associations safety requirements in accordance with SIL 3 (EN ISO 62061) would have required electromagnets to be equipped with mechanical underpinning. Such underpinning is not required for bistable magnet systems if the magnetic holding force is more than three times greater than the force exerted by the weight, i.e. there is a safety factor of three (EN 13155). To verify the holding force, a magnetic flux measurement has to be made each time a load is picked up. The slab may only be lifted if the holding force is more than three times the slabs weight. It should be noted in this regard that electromagnets are only required to achieve a safety factor of two. The flux measurement takes into account any air gaps caused by bending and scale, as well as any changes in the slabs magnetic

properties. These parameters can only be accurately recorded by means of a magnetic flux measurement, which can be compared to the measurement of an electric current. When measuring an electric current, the current is always the same throughout the entire electrical circuit, no matter where the measurement is taken. This is achieved in a magnetic circuit by measuring the magnetic flux. The required level of safety is achieved through the control system and the associated processes which were approved by the employers liability insurance association. This made it possible to dispense with the mechanical underpinning, which led to a substantial reduction in the weight of the yoke. Additional safety throughout the entire dynamic transport process is provided by a safety factor, whose value can be continuously compared with the slabs actual weight by using a load cell. The safety factor therefore shows where things might become critical in the overall process. The factors value can be continuously recorded and archived. Environmental compatibility The systems environmental compatibility is ensured because it does not need backup batteries that would require additional maintenance and eventually would have to be disposed of and replaced, which would also create costs. Another important factor that contributes to environmental protection is the elimination of dunnage. Energy savings The amount of energy saved by the new system can also be quantified. Whereas electromagnets require electrical energy during the entire transport time (it is typically assumed to be 60 to 70% of the duty cycle), the electro-permanent magnet system only needs electricity for a short amount of time. The electrical power of a yoke with two electromagnets can be assumed to be 15 kW. During a single shift, this corresponds to a total of approx. 80 kWh. If two shifts work for 200 days in the year, 32 MWh of energy is consumed by each yoke. Assuming a price of 0.10/kWh, the total cost of energy will be about 3,200 per year. By contrast, the EPMS consumes only about onetenth this amount of energy. Another factor that leads to considerable energy savings is the use of smaller drives, which help to conserve energy and other resources over the long-term. Ease of maintenance The elimination of the backup batteries also makes maintenance easier, because the batteries functional performance would otherwise have

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to be continuously checked. In addition, the annual inspection of the lifting system as stipulated by the employers liability insurance association is no longer required, since this can now be performed by the operators themselves. By measuring the flux on a reference slab, it is possible to accurately check the functional performance of the yoke and therefore of the magnet systems. The systems longevity is also improved, since the short switching times barely increase the magnet systems temperature. This prevents the generation of mechanical strain through differences in temperature, thereby substantially increasing the life of the coils.

Use at Walsum-Sd harbor Primarily as a result of the yokes reduced weight, the new technology was successfully introduced on the Rhine Cranes 1 and 2 in the Walsum-Sd harbor. Even when using cable breakage and short circuit tests, it was possible to show that the system remained safe even when faced with such events.

Fig. 1 | Loading a slab onto a ship

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940 mm

Reduced weight

AlnNiCo AINiCo

AlnNiCo AINiCo

Fig. 2 | Schematic representation of a bistable electro-permanent magnet: The shaded areas represent soft iron, while the areas with arrows are the magnets and the crossed boxes represent the coils for the change in magnetization.

110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Holding force [t]

Air gap [mm]

Fig. 3 | The graph shows the holding force of the EPMS plotted against the size of the air gap. The curve shows the values of real-life measurements conducted on the system at Walsum-Sd harbor. System dimensions: 1,350 x 940 mm, distance between the poles: max. 710 mm

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Using electro-permanent magnets to lift loads in modern logistics networks | 85

Structure of an electro-permanent magnet Electro-permanent magnets as such are not a new form of technology. However, the new system is the first in Germany to be used for loading and unloading slabs onto and from ships I see title picture of the report and Fig. 1 I. By involving the employers liability insurance association early on, the developers created a sound, safety-oriented overall concept that received the associations approval from the very start. Electro-permanent magnets have a long history, and Thyssen Magnettechnik began using the magnets in automotive industry stacking facilities more than 30 years ago. However, due to the steadily increasing stacking speeds, the switchable permanent magnet systems used there employ a different principle. The application was still retained for load lifting purposes, as the frequency of switching is comparatively low in such situations and the systems technology can fully exploit its advantages. There are various methods for constructing bistable magnet systems, all of which have advantages as well as disadvantages. The specific use of the system determines how it should be optimally structured. Key considerations in this regard are the thickness of the material and the type of surface encountered. As a result, the systems for slabs must be completely different from those for coils, for example. While the systems for slabs only need a low penetration effect but great holding force and small air gaps, those for coils also require a much greater holding force, but also a great penetration effect and a substantially larger air gap. All of these factors must be taken into account when designing the specific system. An example of how a system can be designed for transporting slabs is shown in I Fig. 2 I, while I Fig. 3 I is a graph of the associated holding force.

EPMS are activated and deactivated while at rest. The mechanical locking mechanism and the controls ensure that no current flow is possible while material is being transported. As a result, the operator can only trigger a current pulse when forces are active within the system. The operator can immediately read the value of the safety factor during magnetization. The control prevents the load from being lifted if the prescribed safety factor value is not reached. This might be the case, for example, if the air gap has become too large. Demagnetization is only possible if both the load cell and the mechanical switch show that the chains are no longer carrying a load. This double check of information from separate signal lines ensures that the high safety requirements are met. Summary of the savings potential The yokes low weight as a result of the elimination of the mechanical underpinning makes it possible to save costs in the design of the cranes structural steelwork and to substantially simplify the statics of the foundations. The lighter design also allows the drives to be made smaller while retaining the previous cycle time. The systems greater efficiency saves time. Because no dunnage is needed, the entire logistics concerned with procuring, disposing and recycling dunnage is eliminated. Energy is saved not only by using smaller drives, but also by the magnet systems themselves. Personnel costs are reduced because no dunnage needs to be handled. Summary

Description of operation In general, materials can be handled with magnets not only quickly and well, but also simply and safely. The work of picking up, transporting and depositing the materials requires the services of only a single person (the crane operator), who can observe and control everything from a safe distance. The system does not require room for lateral maneuvers, nor is there need for any separation between the various loads. In addition, the loads are not deformed or squeezed during transport. The EPMS combines the strength of electromagnets with the independence of permanent magnets from power supplies. Whereas the holding force of electromagnets decreases as temperatures rise, EPMS do not experience any increase in temperature and therefore do not suffer from any loss in holding force.

The use of electro-permanent magnet systems enables the efficient design of the slab transport logistics chain to guarantee the shortest possible loading times. This advanced technology can be designed to meet safety requirements, thus offering all the safety, speed and convenience benefits needed for the quick transshipment of slabs. Additionally, the system can result in notable cost savings. This innovative approach can be fully exploited by using the same technology along the entire logistics chain. Since this makes it possible to completely dispense with dunnage, environmental impact is reduced and energy and, above all, time are saved.

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| Cogeneration Power Plant Wrzburg

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1 | 2008

| 87

Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)


JRGEN STIRN Head of Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. WILFRIED RUTHMANN Project Manager Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. MARTIN HBLER Construction Planning | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. GERHARD SCHIWIETZ Sales | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg PETER DIEKMANN Public Relations | ThyssenKrupp Services AG, Dsseldorf

Combined-cycle power plants have a number of virtues. They are not only profitable but also very environmentally friendly, simple in design and suitable for a broad range of applications. Following deregulation of the electricity market, this technology offers many municipal utilities an economically viable means of modernizing their old cogeneration power plants. In Wrzburg, for example, successful cooperation between ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy and Heizkraftwerk Wrzburg GmbH has recently seen the completion of the first phase in a project to upgrade a coal-fired power plant to a combined-cycle facility. On this basis, an innovative concept has been devised to build a second combinedcycle generating unit on the same site. This modernization project combines the benefits of low-emission fuel utilization with efficient combined-cycle technology for the cogeneration of heat and power.

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88 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)

Exhaust gas

Heat recovery boiler

Condensate

F
Hot steam Fuel Exhaust gas District heating Exhaust steam

Generator

Generator

~
Gas turbine Air
Fig. 1 | Combined-cycle gas turbine process

~
Steam turbine

Background ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH is one of the world's leading service providers in the energy and power plant sectors. With roots in boiler engineering stretching back to 1927, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy today provides services for boiler systems with steam outputs of anywhere between 20 and 2,200 t/h. Diverging widely in both shape and design, these boiler systems feature a wide variety of fuels, firing systems, steam outputs and steam pressures. An increasingly important area of activity in Europe's deregulated energy market is the modernization of power plants and their conversion from coal to natural gas. Drawing on many years of experience in this field and innovative engineering expertise, an upgrade concept for operators of cogeneration power plants could be devised that puts together different plant components to form a highly efficient unit. From 2003 to 2005, in successful partnership with Heizkraftwerk Wrzburg GmbH, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy completed the first phase in the project to upgrade the Wrzburg cogeneration plant a coal-fired cogeneration power plant to a combined-cycle facility (GuD I = Gas- und Dampfturbine/gas and steam turbine). On this basis, the company was also able to develop a highly innovative concept to build a second combined-cycle generating unit on the same site (GuD II). This essentially involves converting the existing coal-fired boiler II to a heat-recovery boiler, which is combined with an ultramodern gas turbine in use for the first time worldwide at the cogeneration power plant in Wrzburg in order to create a combined-cycle plant (GuD II). Combined-cycle process In the first stage of the combined-cycle process employed in Wrzburg I Fig. 1 I, natural gas is burned in a gas turbine. The hot gases thus generated power the gas turbine, which in turn drives a generator

to produce electricity. These gases are still hot when discharged from the gas turbine. They are therefore led through a heat-recovery boiler, where they generate superheated steam. By means of auxiliary firing equipment, it is also possible to increase the steam parameters (mass flow rate, temperature and pressure) according to requirements. This superheated steam is used to drive a steam turbine connected to another generator, which produces additional power. The exhaust steam discharged from the steam turbine is fed into the district heating network. In effect, this means that significantly less fuel is required to generate steam. By using the primary fuel to simultaneously generate power and heat, the combined-cycle process yields an enormous improvement in efficiency. GuD II project In order to modernize Block II I Fig. 2 I, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy is to convert the existing coal-fired boiler II to a heat-recovery boiler. The heat-recovery boiler will be fired by the new gas turbine system GuD II. Auxiliary firing equipment is required to achieve the highpressure steam temperatures needed to operate the new steam turbine set II. The firing power of this auxiliary firing equipment can be increased in order to generate the quantities of steam required to cover peak loads. The steam thus produced will be used to drive the new steam turbine set II and thus produce electricity. In addition, steam will be taken to feed into the district heating network. Natural gas from the public gas supply network will be exclusively used to fuel both the new gas turbine II and the auxiliary firing equipment. Boiler modernization Conversion of the boiler I Fig. 3 I concerns essentially the boiler lower parts (1) and the second boiler pass (2). The furnace bottom is to be modified so as to enable installation of two new high-specification

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Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) | 89

Coal Natural gas Process steam Heat recovery boiler = AHK Siemens gas turbine = SGT

District heating Cooling water Combustion air Exhaust gas

GuD II SGT 700 G

GuD I SGT 800 G

~
AHK Modernization phase 2 Boiler III

~
AHK Modernization phase 1

Steam turbine set TS II

Steam turbine set TS III

Consumer

Fig. 2 | Modernization Phase II (GuD II)

1 Boiler lower parts 6 2 13 7 7 7 9 15 1 3 9 12 4 11 5 10 2 Second boiler pass 3 Bottom burner 4 Finned tube evaporator 5 Finned tube preheater 6 Drum 7 Superheater surfaces 8 Bottom air fan 9 Gas turbine exhaust gas ducts 10 Flue gas ducts 11 Boiler rear wall 12 Supporting frames 13 Connecting pipework 8 14 14 Suction side 15 Boiler front wall

Fig. 3 | Heat recovery boiler

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90 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)

plain-tube economizer I, is to be completely replaced by a new finned tube economizer (5) I Fig. 4 I. This necessitates raising the existing supporting frames (12) by approximately four meters. A new condensate preheater is to be installed in the existing pipework, between the feed water tank and the finned tube preheater. This requires modifications to the existing pipework. The existing bottom air fan (8), which provided the air supply for the coal-fired boiler, is to be adapted for the purpose of pre-purging the boiler and the exhaust gas ducts. This will merely necessitate renewal of the flues on the discharge side. The suction side (14) complete with silencer and the intake ducts is to remain in place. Installation of the gas turbine exhaust gas ducts (9) for the new gas turbine necessitates modifications to the existing boiler supporting structure along with the platforms and stairways. Reinforcements to the foundations on account of the new heat-recovery boiler are not necessary, since the modifications will not place any substantial additional loads on the existing foundations. Since the converted heat-recovery boiler is fired by natural gas, it can dispense with the existing fabric filter. This will also be dismantled. The new gas turbine II (SGT 700) with its auxiliary systems is to be installed in its place. The flue gases from the boiler are discharged via separate flue gas ducts (10), which run, as before, along the roof of the boiler house. These ducts lead to the existing chimney system. However, their course and geometry are to be modified according to the new requirements. The current single-flue chimney jointly used
Fig. 4 | Finned tubes

by boiler II and boiler III is to be converted to a tube-in-tube system, i.e. with a concentric second inner pipe. It will therefore be possible to separately discharge exhaust gases from both the new combinedcycle generating unit and the coal-fired boiler III, which will remain in operation to cover peak loads. I Fig. 5 I provides a comparison of the

bottom burners (3). Components of the existing coal boiler (constructed in 1980), such as the pilot burner, coal-handling system, traveling grate, ash removal system and sootblowers including pipework, are to be completely removed. In the second boiler pass, a new finned tube evaporator is to be installed in place of the coil preheater and integrated in the boiler's natural circulation system. This requires modification of the lower part of the boiler rear wall (11). In addition, supplementary openings (tube screen), through which approximately 70% of the exhaust gases from the turbine will be fed to the heat-recovery boiler are to be installed in the boiler front panel (15). The remaining exhaust gases from the turbine (approx. 30%) enter the boiler via the bottom burners. The upper part of the boiler with drum (6), the connecting pipework (13) and the three superheater surfaces (7) will remain largely unchanged. The existing housing, with a condensate preheater and

technical data and emission values of the old and the new plant. One of the requirements of the invitation to tender was that the cogeneration power plant should continue to harmonize with the architecture of the Kulturspeicher museum and the nearby city center. This has been fully met. Indeed, as the award of the "Best Architects 2008 in Gold" prize for industrial architecture in the German-speaking countries of Europe testifies, it is perfectly possible to combine active environmental protection with innovative design. Auxiliary firing equipment By means of natural gas auxiliary firing equipment with two bottom burners, the exhaust gases from the gas turbine are used in the partial flow to increase the boiler's production of steam in order to cover peak loads. The low-NOx firing system is aspirated exclusively with oxygen contained in the turbine exhaust gases. There are no

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Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) | 91

Coal boiler II Year of construction Construction type Fuel Rated thermal output Firing Steam generation HP temperature HP pressure 1980 Natural circulation system Hard coal 89.5 MW Travelling grate 95 t/h 525 C 75 bar (g)

Heat recovery boiler (GuD II) 1980/2008 Heat recovery boiler with auxiliary firing equipment Natural gas 55 MW Gas burners 95 t/h 515 C 72 bar (g)

Emission values SO2 NOX CO Dust


All with respect to an O2 content of 3% in dry exhaust gas

Operation mg/m3N 500 350 25 5

Licensing mg/m3N 540 490 250 50

Operation mg/m3N 0 < 150 < 50 0

Licensing mg/m3N 35 150 50 5

Fig. 5 | Comparison technical figures and emission values existing/new plant

provisions to install an independent fresh air supply for the auxiliary firing equipment. For this reason, the heat-recovery boiler will not be available in the event of downtime or stoppage of the gas turbine. This is because the cogeneration power plant has enough guaranteed capacity to obviate the need for installation of a fresh air supply and flue gas bypass. The auxiliary firing equipment for the new combined-cycle plant will incorporate two gas turbine gas burners from ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy I Fig. 6 I. The maximum rated thermal output will be 55 MW at a boiler output of 95 t steam/h. Gas Turbine II will also be fired exclusively with natural gas from the public gas supply network. The gas turbine gas burners consist essentially of the following components: gas turbine air box (1) with burner front plate (2), core air pipe (3), secondary air pipe (4), sliding sleeve damper (5), burner mouth (6), central lance (7), gas lances (8), swirler/impeller (9), ignition burner (10) and flame detector (11). Each gas turbine gas burner is fitted with its own gas turbine air box. This is welded out of sheet metal with reinforcements, rounded edges and corresponding flanges for the burner plate and duct connections. The pipes and sheets of the gas turbine air box are fabricated of austenitic stainless steel to ensure that they are able to withstand the high temperatures

of the turbine exhaust gases. In the gas turbine air box, the exhaust gases from the gas turbine (12), which provide the combustion air, are separated into primary or core air (13) and secondary air (14), according to requirements. The secondary air is introduced unswirled into the combustion process. The primary air, however, is swirled by means of a swirler (9) and can be regulated by an externally operated sliding sleeve damper (5). The swirler has fixed blades and is mounted on the central lance (7). This central lance is fitted inside the core air pipe (3) and functions as a mount for the gas and electric ignition burner (10). In addition to a gas and electric ignition burner (10), the gas turbine gas burner is also fitted with a flame detector. The flame monitoring for the main gas burner is carried out by a UV cell on the gas turbine gas burner. A total of eight gas lances (8) are positioned around the central lance. These can all be externally adjusted both radially and axially. This arrangement ensures correct ignition and combustion of the natural gas (15). The gas lances are supplied with gas via a shared gas box. The burner plate (2) in the gas turbine air box is fitted with an insulating chamber 137 millimeters in thickness plus an additional cooling-air insulation chamber. The fuel supply to the gas lances is from a natural gas box installed outside and behind an insulating and

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92 | Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD)

9 3

4 1

14

13 5 2 12

7 15 8 11 10 1 Gas turbine air box 2 Burner front plate 3 Core air pipe 4 Secondary air pipe 5 Sliding sleeve damper 6 Burner mouth 7 Central lance 8 Gas lances 9 Swirler/impeller 10 Ignition burner 11 Flame detector 12 Gas turbine exhaust gas 13 Core air 14 Secondary air 15 Natural gas

Fig. 6 | Gas turbine gas burner by ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy

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Sustainable energy generation with combined-cycle power plants (GuD) | 93

cooling box. This is where natural gas (15) is fed in and distributed to the individual gas lances. All the connections to the outside and into the burner are welded gas-tight to this gas box. The supply of air/ exhaust gases can be shut by means of a butterfly valve fitted directly upstream of the gas turbine gas burner. The two bottom burners are additionally fixed to the floor straps of the boiler by means of a cleat clamp design so as to distribute the load evenly across the surface of the boiler floor. Thanks to the use of modern combustion technology, it is possible to maintain nitrogen oxide (NOX) levels constantly low despite increases in the amount of energy generated. This reduction of NOX emissions is achieved by the application of combustion-engineering measures. These so-called primary measures are based upon the following: advanced burner geometry and design (stepped combustion) developed by ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy, near stoichiometric combustion (fuel-air ratio) and fine-tuning of the firing process (enhanced control systems). Active climate protection The project to upgrade Block II to GuD II is a prime example of what can be done toward active climate protection in Europe's deregulated energy market. It will significantly increase the efficiency of power generation and thus not only boost the power plant's profitability but also reduce CO2 emissions in comparison to the former coal-fired operation by around 120,000 t/a for phase one (GuD I) and a further 52,000 t/a for phase two (GuD II). Moreover, the project will also result in an almost complete elimination of particulate and sulfur dioxide emissions. Assuming the decoupling of a comparable amount of heat for the district heating network of Stadtwerke Wrzburg AG, this enhanced efficiency will lead to a threefold increase in the amount of electricity generated. On this basis, the plant could achieve annual reductions in CO2 and NOX of over 900,000 metric tons and around 1,350 metric tons, respectively. Similarly, the changeover in fuel for the power plant will mean a complete reduction in the production of slag and filter dusts from the combustion of coal as well as the elimination of the use of hydrated lime for flue gas desulfurization. Moreover, reductions in the use of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for the purposes of water treatment have also been achieved as a result of operating improvements. Despite increased power production, the amount of cooling water required per unit of electricity generated will fall as a result of the project. Similarly, the amount of heat introduced into the River Main will remain at the present low levels, despite the fact that power generation will be increased by a factor of four (GuD I + GuD II) com-

pared to the former coal-fired operation. As a result, the facility will continue to contribute actively toward the fish ecology of the Main. Applying the national targets of the Kyoto Protocol to the Wrzburg cogeneration power plant, it can be seen that the targeted reduction in emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 of 21% by 2020 have already been achieved since 2005 as a result of the replacement of the coal boiler by GuD I. Other benefits for the plant operator include the reduction in capital costs as a result of converting the existing coal boiler to a heat-recover boiler rather than build-ing a completely new and conventional combined-cycle facility. Conclusion and outlook Modernization of the CHP plant in Wrzburg by means of environmentally friendly cogeneration technology was necessary in order to be able to supply the future demand for electricity and heat in a profitable way. Following the full installation of combined-cycle technology, the efficiency of the upgraded plant in pure condensation operation is set to increase from 25 to up to 47%. The cogeneration of heat and power ensures an even more efficient use of fuel. Use of the heat produced by the generation of electricity results in primary energy savings of at least 10% compared to modern stand-alone power and heat plants. Following a construction phase of around 18 months, the second combined-cycle power plant (GuD II) with an electrical rating of 50 MW is scheduled to come on stream in January 2009. As of 2009, the operating company, Heizkraftwerk Wrzburg GmbH, intends to generate as much as up to 80% of the electricity required in Wrzburg from its two cogeneration facilities on the site (GuD I and GuD II). Construction of GuD II is not projected to have any negative impact on the environment, with expert surveys having confirmed that it poses no danger to the air, water or ground. All in all, emissions of air pollutants will be significantly reduced, while noise emissions will remain at their current low level as a result of additional soundproofing measures, and removal of cooling water from the Main will also continue to conform to the current stipulations. Given the current political directives on the reduction of CO2 emissions, there is now significant market potential worldwide for the modernization of existing power plants. The upgrade in Wrzburg is just one of a broad spectrum of environmentally friendly modernization concepts used by ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy to bring aging plants up to date. As such, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy is ideally positioned to respond to EU-wide invitations to tender with an unrivalled range of integrated services offering substantial customer benefits that combine enhanced efficiency with a significant reduction in emissions and an innovative construction concept.

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