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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

COMPETENCY-BASED COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


SECOND YEAR

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency:

APPLY SAFETY MEASURES IN FARM OPERATIONS

Module No.: 1

Module Title: APPLYING SAFETY MEASURES IN FARM OPERATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

What Is This Module About?................................................................ 2 What Will You Learn? .......................................................................... 2 LESSON 1. Determining Areas Of Concern In Farm Operations For Safety Measures ............................................................................................ 3 What Is This Lesson About? ............................................................. 3 What Will You Learn? ....................................................................... 3 What Do You Already Know? ............................................................ 3 Let Us Study .................................................................................... 4 Let Us Remember ............................................................................. 6 How Much Have You Learned? ......................................................... 6 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................... 7 Resources ........................................................................................ 8 References ....................................................................................... 8 LESSON 2. Applying Appropriate Safety Measures................................................. 9 What Is This Lesson About? ............................................................. 9 What Will You Learn? ....................................................................... 9 What Do You Already Know? ............................................................ 9 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 10 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 11 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 11 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 12 Resources ...................................................................................... 13 References ..................................................................................... 13 LESSON 3. Safekeeping/Disposing Tools, Materials And Outfit ........................... 14 What Is This Lesson About? ........................................................... 14 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 14 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 14 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 15 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 19 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 19 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 21 Resources ...................................................................................... 21 References ..................................................................................... 21 Answer Key ....................................................................................... 22

MODULE I
QUALIFICATION TITLE : UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MODULE TITLE NOMINAL DURATION : : AQUACULTURE NC II APPLY SAFETY MEASURES IN FARM OPERATIONS APPLYING SAFETY MEASURES IN FARM OPERATIONS 45 HRS.

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? This module covers the knowledge, skills and right attitudes required in performing safety measures effectively and efficiently. It includes identifying areas, tools, materials, time and place in performing safety measures. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this module, you should be able to: 1. determine areas of concern for safety measures; 2. apply appropriate safety measures; and 3. safekeep/dispose tools, materials and outfit.

LESSON 1.
DETERMINING AREAS OF CONCERN IN FARM OPERATIONS FOR SAFETY MEASURES WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with determining areas of concern for safety measures. It includes the identification of work task, place and time for safety measures and the appropriate tools, materials and outfits to be prepared. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. identify the work tasks; 2. determine the place and time for safety measures; and 3. prepare the tools, materials and outfits in farm operation for safety measures. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Answer this in your test notebook. 1. Why should shells of snails and other foreign materials be removed before pond leveling? a. to prevent the pond water from fouling b. to avoid the workers feet from incision or puncture from these shells c. to prevent may increase in alkalinity of the soil caused by the decomposing shells d. to avoid water turbidity contributed by the shells 2. Why is it important for a student to wear a hat and long-sleeved working clothes in pond draining? a. to protect his skin from getting dark b. to protect him from getting dirty from soft mud c. to protect him from over exposure to heat and sunlight d. all of the above

3. What is the proper tool to use in digging the soil that has formed mud blocks? a. Crow bar b. Grub hoe c. Shovel d. Digging blade 4. In cleaning the dikes, what should be worn in order to be safe from snake bites? a. Long sleeved working clothes b. Boots c. Steel-capped foot wear d. Rubber gloves and shoes 5. Which equipment must be used to protect feet from puncture, incision and other injuries while leveling the pond bottom? a. Boots b. Barrier cream c. Gloves d. Socks LET US STUDY Before starting the day-to-day tasks, always bear in mind and be guided by this important reminder, Use the right tool to complete a job safely, quickly and efficiently Let Us Define Safety measure an act of preventing the occurrence of an accident by removing the presence of hazards. Precautionary measures measures adopted beforehand against possible danger. Outfits composed of personal protective equipment such as masks, gloves, boots, socks etc. Work Tasks in Pond Preparation Draining the pond Drying the pond bottom Cultivating the pond bottom Leveling the pond bottom Repairing gates and screens Repairing dikes Controlling competitors and predators, such as:

Snakes prey on small fish. Always keep banks and other dikes clean to prevent snakes from harboring in the ponds. Frogs they eat fry and fingerlings. Their population can be controlled by removing their egg sacks from the pond water. Place and Time for Safety Measures The students are at the workplace during their laboratory period, scheduled either in the morning or in the afternoon. They will spend their time for two hours in the fishpond. Before performing their work tasks, the appropriate tools/materials and outfit must be prepared beforehand. They have already determined the hazards associated with their work. In this way, they are able to prepare themselves for the proper outfit, tools and materials appropriate to the work task. Safety Measures Safety measures to be observed in the following work tasks: A. Pond draining and drying. Wear a hat and a long-sleeved shirt. Over exposure to heat and extreme temperature may result in injuries such as burns, frostbite, etc.

Figure 1. Shovel/water pump/digging blade

B. Cultivation of pond bottom. Use long-sleeved working clothes, hat and hand gloves. For small ponds, a shovel or rake is used in tilling or cultivating the pond bottom just after draining. For a large pond, a rotavator is used. C. Levelling. Wear gloves and long-sleeved working clothes and hat to prevent fingers from possible injuries and to prevent skin from direct sunlight. Remove or gather shell of snails in the pond for they may cause incision or puncture to the feet.

Figure 2. Rake and gloves

D. Repairing gates and screens. Broken or damaged slab and pipes must be repaired. In doing so, use proper tools to avoid accident. E. Repairing dikes. Use digging blade in repairing leakage and seepages of pond dikes. Extra care must be observed so that feet will not be wounded. F. Predator control. Keep the dikes banks clean to control predators like snakes and frogs. Wear boots, hat and long-sleeved clothes in clearing the grasses along pond dikes.

Figure 3. Boots, sickle, bolo

Considering the nature of task in the workplace, it is necessary to use personal protective clothing and equipment appropriate for the task for safety measures. LET US REMEMBER Always observe safety measures before performing any work. Familiarize yourself with the hazards associated with work to determine the proper outfit for the task.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned by answering the post test. Answer this in your notebook. 6

Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Answer this in your test notebook. 1. Why should shells of snails and other foreign materials be removed before pond leveling? a. to prevent the pond water from fouling b. to avoid the workers feet from incision or puncture from these shells c. to prevent may increase in alkalinity of the soil caused by the decomposing shells d. to avoid water turbidity contributed by the shells 2. Why is it important for a student to wear a hat and long-sleeved working clothes in pond draining? a. to protect his skin from getting dark b. to protect him from getting dirty from soft mud c. to protect him from over exposure to heat and sunlight d. all of the above e. 3. What is the proper tool to use in digging the soil that has formed mud blocks? a. Crow bar b. Grub hoe c. Shovel d. Digging blade 4. In cleaning the dikes, what should be worn in order to be safe from snake bites? a. Long sleeved working clothes b. Boots c. Steel-capped foot wear d. Rubber gloves and shoes 5. Which equipment must be used to protect feet from puncture, incision and other injuries while leveling the pond bottom? a. Boots b. Barrier cream c. Gloves d. Socks LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Apply safety measures during practicum on pond drying.

RESOURCES Equipment Water pump Electric water pressurized pump Tools Screw driver Pliers Bolo Digging blade Shovel Rake Sickle Outfits Masks Gloves Boots Long sleeve shirt Hat REFERENCES CVACP, Region 2. Technoguide for Tilapia http: barryb tripod.com/ppc.html

LESSON 2.
APPLYING APPROPRIATE SAFETY MEASURES WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with the application of appropriate safety measures in the workplace. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. use tools and materials according to specifications and procedures; wear outfits according to farm requirements and specifications; observe effectively shell life/expiration of materials; identify the emergency procedures and follow safe work requirements; and 5. identify hazards in the workplace and report in line with farm guidelines. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Before you go through this lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Applying Appropriate Safety Measures. Answer this in your test notebook. Alternative Response: Write Write Write Write A If statements A and B are True B If statements A and B are False C If statement A is True and B is False D If statement A is False and B is True

1. A. Clean the tools after using them. B. Keep the farm site tidy. 2. A. Tools should be placed in wet and damp places. B. Wear bracelet, watches and rings when working in the farm. 3. A. Dispose toxic materials which can cause injury. B. Pay attention to your work. 9

4. A. Unused and expired materials should be used. B. If an accident happened in the farm site leave the victim. 5. A. Store the tools properly to avoid injury. B. Leave the tools and materials anywhere in the farm site. 6. A. Use fitting clothes in the working area. B. Strictly observe the farm safety measures. 7. A. Do not use tools that are faulty and damaged. B. Ensure that there is an adequate space or area for working. 8. A. Apply first aid in case of injury caused by defective tools in the area. B. Wear shades or sunglasses while working in the farm. 9. A. Have a specific place for each tool. B. Always ensure the safe storage of hazardous materials. 10. A. Have a first aid kit stored in the fishpond. B. Use personal protective equipment appropriately. LET US STUDY In performing any kind of farm work, safety rules should be strictly followed to avoid accidents. Let Us Define Safety protection of oneself and others from possible danger and injury. PERSONAL SAFETY Whenever you perform a task in the farm you must: 1. use personal protective clothing appropriate for the task. Work clothingsuch as overall coats, hat and boots Eye protection such as safety goggles and face masks Hand protection such as gloves and barrier cream Respiratory equipment such as face masks and valve respiration

2. always wear protective clothing. Avoid loose fitting clothes. 3. remove your watches, rings, bracelet and other jewelry when working in the farm. 4. wear outfits according to farm requirements and specifications. 10

Use tools and materials properly 1. Use the appropriate tool for the job. 2. Understand instructions very well before using the tool. 3. Always check a tools condition prior to use. 4. Do not leave tools unattended. Return them in their proper places. 5. Clean the tools after use. 6. Store tools safely to prevent damage and unauthorized use. 7. Follow instructions on safe procedures. 8. Use materials effectively. 9. Strictly observe the shelf life and expiration of materials. 10.Dispose toxic materials which can cause injuries or accidents. Workplace Farm Safety 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Students must recognize potential hazards to insure safety. Notify the teacher on unsafe work practices or conditions. Safety can prevent injuries or save life. Keep area clean, especially the farm site to prevent accident. Store tools properly. Handle hazardous materials properly. Prepare posters on safety precautions for display in the farm site.

How do you react to farm emergencies? Handling emergencies Prepare for emergencies Emergency tools should be highly visible. Have first aid kit stocked in proper location. Report any accident or injury to your teacher immediately. Apply first aid in case of emergency.

LET US REMEMBER Safety rules should be strictly observed when working on a farm site to avoid accident. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned by answering the post test. Answer this in your test notebook. 11

Alternative Response: Write Write Write Write A If statement A and B are True B If statement A and B are False C If statement A is True and B is False D If statement A is False and B is True

1. A. Clean the tools after using them. B. Keep the farm site tidy. 2. A. Tools should be placed in wet and damp places. B. Wear bracelet, watches and rings when working in the farm. 3. A. Dispose toxic materials which can cause injury. B. Pay attention to your work. 4. A. Unused and expired materials should be used. B. If there is an accident in the farm site leave the victim. 5. A. Store the tools properly to avoid injury. B. Leave the tools and materials anywhere in the farm site. 6. A. Use fitting clothes in the working area. B. Strictly observe the farm safety measures. 7. A. Do not use tools that are faulty and damaged. B. Ensure that there is an adequate space or area for working. 8. A. Apply first aid in case of injury caused by defective tools in the area. B. Wear shades or sunglasses while working in the farm. 9. A. Have a specific place for each tool. B. Always ensure the safe storage of hazardous materials. 10. A. Have a first aid kit stored in the fishpond. B. Use personal protective equipment appropriately. LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Discuss the safety measures to be observed in the workplace. Determine the hazards in the farm site and discuss how it is being controlled.

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RESOURCES Materials Learning guide Signages Equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) REFERENCES http://barry-b tripod.com/ppe.html Cruz J.G, Navarro J.R., Effective Technology and Home Economics

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LESSON 3.
SAFEKEEPING/DISPOSING TOOLS, MATERIALS AND OUTFIT WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson focuses on how to keep or dispose tools, materials and outfit safely. This includes cleaning, labeling, storing and disposing of waste materials according to farm requirements. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. clean tools and outfit after use and store in designated areas; 2. properly label and store materials according to manufacturers recommendations and farm requirements; and 3. dispose waste materials according to manufacturers, government and farm requirements. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Before you go through this lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Safe Keeping/Disposing Tools Materials and Outfit. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write this in your test notebook. 1. Tools and equipment must be cleaned after use in order to a. prevent them from rusting b. prolong their usefulness c. save capital cost d. all of the above 2. The most practical way of preventing rust on tools and equipment is by a. keeping them in a dry place. b. keeping them in an open place. c. keeping them in a damp place. d. placing them in the corner.

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3. Which of the following statements is a preventive maintenance? a. Leave tools unattended. b. Wipe tools before using them. c. Store tools inside the room. d. Keep tools in a clean, dry place. 4. Which of the following is a pointer in storing tools, materials and equipment? a. Clean tools, materials, and equipment immediately. b. Leave tools unattended. c. Store them in a clean dry place. d. Remove dirt attached to them. 5. Tools and equipment are best placed in _________. a. Health corner c. Dining room b. Comfort room d. Store room 6. Improper disposal of waste can lead to _________. a. safe working area b. healthy environment c. destruction of soil and surface water d. proper protection of natural resources 7. All are considered hazardous waste except one. Which of the following is it? a. Solid waste c. Corrosive waste b. Ignitable waste d. Reactive waste 8. How will you identify hazardous waste? a. Talk to product suppliers and manufacturers. b. Read product labels. c. Ask for Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). d. All of the above 9. Tools unattended may lead to a. accident b. lost c. rust d. all of the above

10. Farm tools and equipment should always be cared for a. longer use b. rust prevention c. saving maintenance and capital cost d. all of the above LET US STUDY It is very important that tools and equipment are cleaned and stored properly in designated areas for longer use; thus, you save maintenance and capital cost. 15

Let Us Define Cleaning the removal of visible soil but not necessarily sanitized Contamination the unintended presence of harmful substances Hazard biological, chemical or physical agent that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk Waste products worthless things Cleaning of Tools and Equipment 1. Tools and equipment are cleaned immediately after use in line with farm procedures. 2. Wipe off any oil or grease on the floor. 3. Keep tools clean by brushing off any dust and wiping off excess oil. 4. Wash them thoroughly to remove dirt attached to them. 5. Wash working clothes separately from domestic clothing, or use disposable clothing. Storing Tools, Materials and Equipment 1. Maintain adequate space between materials, tools and equipment for easy inspection. 2. Store commonly used tools in an easyto-reach location. 3. Store in a clean dry place. 4. Group tools and equipment according to their use. 5. Store tools where they can readily be found. Proper Disposal of Waste Proper disposal of waste is an important role of a responsible user. Improper disposal can lead to the destruction of soil and surface water. Everyone must know how to dispose waste properly. Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes are regulated by the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). They are listed on the federal regulation section. A waste is hazardous if it has one of these characteristics: 1. Ignitable: waste that is flammable or spontaneously combustible. They have flash point of less than 140 oF or alcohol content of 24% or more. 2. Corrosive: waste that can burn skin or corrode metal. Liquid with a pH of 2 or lower or 12.5 or higher.

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3. Toxic: waste that contain certain heavy metals above specific concentrations. 4. Reactive: waste that is unstable and may explode or react violently with other materials. How do you Identify Hazardous Waste? Talk to product suppliers and manufacturers. Read product labels this should be done before purchasing any pesticides. Ask for the Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) before ordering new pesticides- chemicals.

How do you Manage Hazardous Waste? Determine how much damage waste is done to your facility per month. The rules depend on how much is generated, how much is stored, and how long it is stored. 1. Containers Maintain containers in good condition. Prevent leaks, raptures and accumulation of rain water on tops of drums. Keep containers closed. Waste must be compatible with the container. Never place wastes which are reactive in the same container. If a container leaks, transfer waste to a new container. 2. Storage Maintain adequate space between container rows to allow easy inspection for leaks, breaks, or damage. Store ignitable or reactive waste at least 50 feet from property boundaries. 3. Label The waste container should be clearly labeled as: HAZARDOUS WASTE! Include the date when waste was first put into the container. Include federal waste code number. If the waste is not hazardous, label as such; but regardless; container should state what type of waste is in the container.

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Solid Waste

Figure 1. Empty containers

Figure 2. Excess pesticide mixture

Figure 3. Excess product

Figure 4. Rinse water containing pesticides residues

Figure 5. Pesticide spills

Safety Measures in a Workplace A. Students must recognize potential hazard to ensure safety: Notify instructor/teacher of unsafe work practices or condition. Safety can prevent injury or save life. Keep area clean, specially floors, non-slippery floors prevent accidents. Store tools properly. Practice over all good housekeeping B. Handle hazardous materials properly. Keep rags in appropriate containers. Keep flammable liquid in proper cans and in safety cabinet. Handle batteries with care to prevent acid damage or explosion from hydrogen gas. Wear gloves and goggles when handling solvent. Never use gas as a cleaning solvent. Use a spill control pallet for containers of hazardous materials. 18

Personal Safety Whenever you perform a task in the workplace, you must use personal protective clothing and equipment appropriate for the task and which conform to safety regulations and policies. Among other items, this may include the following: Work clothing such as over alls and steel-caped footwear. Eye protection such as safety glasses and face masks. Ear protection such as earmuffs and earplugs. Hand protection such as rubber gloves and burrier cream. Respiratory equipment such as face masks and valued respirators Safety Check Do not use tools and equipment that have been tagged as faulty. Make sure that you understand and observe all legislative and personal safety procedures when carrying out the tasks.

Lock out and tag out The tag notifies other users that the tool or component is dangerous to use. If a tool is faulty, the tag out process is slightly different. Tools that have been identified as faulty due to failure of parts should also be tagged and set aside.

LET US REMEMBER Proper handling and keeping tools lead to accurate use and minimizes accident in the workplace. Keeping tools and equipment in good condition prolong their usefulness. Likewise, you save maintenance and capital cost.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned, by answering the post-test. Multiple Choice: Choose the correct answer. Write the letter only in your test booklet. 1. Tools a. b. c. d. and equipment must be cleaned after use in order to prevent them from rusting. prolong their usefulness save capital cost all of the above 19

2. The most practical way of preventing rust on tools and equipment is through a. keeping them in a dry place. b. keeping them in an open place. c. keeping them in a damp place. d. placing them in the corner. 3. Which of the following statements is a preventive maintenance? a. Leave tools unattended. b. Wipe tools before using them. c. Store tools inside the room. d. Keep tools in a clean, dry place. 4. Which of the following is a pointer in storing tools, materials and equipment? a. Clean tools, materials, and equipment immediately. b. Leave tools unattended. c. Store them in a clean dry place. d. Remove dirt attached to them. 5. Tools and equipment are best placed in the __________. a. health corner c. dining room b. comfort room d. store room 6. Improper disposal of waste can lead to __________. a. safe working area. b. healthy environment. c. destruction of soil and surface water. d. proper protection of natural resources. 7. All are considered hazardous waste except one. Which of the following is it? a. Solid waste c. Corrosive waste b. Ignitable waste d. Reactive waste 8. How will you identify hazardous waste? a. Talk to product suppliers and manufacturers. b. Read product labels. c. Ask for Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). d. all of the above 9. Tools unattended may lead to a. accident b. lost c. rust d. all of the above

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10. Farm a. b. c. d.

tools and equipment should always be cared for longer use rust prevention saving maintenance and capital cost all of the above

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Demonstrate the proper ways of disposing wastes. 2. Label waste containers correctly. RESOURCES Equipment Fire extinguisher Materials Fluids Lubricants Manual on preventive maintenance REFERENCES Asuncion, Ramon G. et al. Technology and Home Economics. Entrepreneurship, Abiva Publishing House Inc. 1992. http://edis.ifaus.ufl.edu/P1072.

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ANSWER KEY Lesson 1 Pre-test 1. b 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. a Lesson 2 Pre-test 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. d 7. a 8. b 9. a 10. d Lesson 3 Pre-Test 1. a 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. c 7. a 8. d 9. d 10. d Post-Test 1. a 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. c 7. a 8. d 9. d 10. d Post-test 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. d 7. a 8. b 9.a 10.d Post-test 1. b 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. a

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

COMPETENCY-BASED COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


SECOND YEAR

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: Module No.: 2

USE FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

Module Title: USING FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMEENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
What Is This Module About?................................................................ 2 What Will You Learn? .......................................................................... 2 LESSON 1. Selecting And Using Farm Tools .......................................................... 3 What Is This Lesson About? ............................................................. 3 What Will You Learn? ....................................................................... 3 What Do You Already Know? ............................................................ 3 Let Us Study .................................................................................... 4 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 14 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 14 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 15 Resources ...................................................................................... 15 References ..................................................................................... 15 LESSON 2. Selecting And Operating Farm Equipment ......................................... 16 What Is This Lesson About? ........................................................... 16 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 16 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 16 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 17 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 26 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 26 Resources ...................................................................................... 27 References ..................................................................................... 27 LESSON 3. Performing Preventive Maintenance ................................................... 28 What Is This Module About?........................................................... 28 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 28 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 28 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 29 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 33 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 33 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned? ........................................... 34 Resources ...................................................................................... 34 References ..................................................................................... 34 Answer Key ....................................................................................... 35

MODULE II QUALIFICATION TITLE : UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MODULE TITLE NOMINAL DURATION : : AQUACULTURE NC II USE FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT USING FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 50 HRS.

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required in using farm tools and equipment. It includes the selection, operation and preventive maintenance of farm tools and equipment. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this module, you should be able to: 1. select and use farm tools; 2. select and operate farm equipment; and 3. perform preventive maintenance.

LESSON 1.
SELECTING AND USING FARM TOOLS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with selecting and using farm tools. It includes the different kinds of farm tools and equipment and their uses. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. identify the appropriate farm tools according to requirement/ use; 2. check farm tools in accordance with farm procedures; and 3. use appropriate tools and equipment according to job requirement and manufacturers condition. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Before you go through this lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Selecting and Using Farm Tools. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Answer this in your test notebook. 1. A device used to strike objects, like nails, to fit parts and break objects. a. hammer c. wrench b. plier d. cutter 2. It is the most popular type of measuring tool that measures 6 to 12 inches long. a. ruler c. folding ruler b. speed square d. try square 3. It is a curved, hand-held aquaculture tool typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for hay. a. shovel c. sickle b. rake d. mattock

4. The most versatile and widely used tool to dig, to scoop or to shovel dirt from one point to another. a. irrigation shovel c. garden shovel b. round point shovel d. scoop shovel 5. A device for measuring the weight of an object. a. paper weight b. measuring tools c. weighing scale d. squares 6. Which of the following should not be done in taking care of hand tools? a. Clean your tools after use b. Tools should be kept in tool box or a tool cabinet c. When rust form on tools, remove it by using a fine abrasive cloth d. Store hand tools in a wet, sheltered environment 7. It measures the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. Its like a compass with the tips that can be adjusted to fit across the points to be measured. a. caliper c. ruler b. folder ruler d. squares. 8. Which is a quality indicator for using screwdrivers? a. bade metal c. screwdriver tips b. handle and bar attachment materials d. all of the above 9. The following are the guidelines to avoid hand tool injuries EXCEPT: a. right tool for the job c. proper storage b. good condition d. watch your body 10. A tool used in tightening or loosening screws. a. hammer c. wrench b. screwdriver d. pliers LET US STUDY There are different varieties of hand tools, designed for specific purposes. They are available in various types, shapes and sizes with different degrees of hardness and varying configurations for specific purpose. Hand tools are used throughout the world by industry, railroads, boundaries, contractors, carpenters and hundred of others, including home repair services. Each hand tool is designed for a particular job and should be used for that purpose only. Using a tool for other work instead of its intended purpose leads to tool damage which can cause discomfort, pain or injury. 4

Let Us Define Equipment instruments needed in performing a service. Tools devices that facilitate work. They denote small, manually operated devices. Hand Tools Classification According to Requirement/Use On the basis of the various purposes served, hand tools can be classified into four different sections: Cutting, Pinching, Gripping Tools. As the name suggests, these tools are used for cutting, pinching, and gripping purposes. Cutting tools are used not only to cut an object into pieces but also used to remove metal or wood from the work piece by means of sheer deformation. Hand tools are used for gripping objects by using leverage. For example: Pliers, cutters. Striking Tools. These tools are the most widely used and also considered the most often abused tools. Chiseling, punching and riveting can be done properly using striking tools. Hand-held striking tools have been used in a variety of disciplines as leveraged devices providing a striking force to complete endless variety of tasks. For example: Hammers, chisels. Driving Tools. Driving hand tools are designed in such a way that insertion, tightening, loosening and removing screws, bolt, nails and other pointed objects or hard turn items is done by applying torque. These tools save mechanical advantage in applying torque. For example: Screwdrivers, nut drivers, hand wrenches, t-handle wrenches. Struck or Hammered Tools. Struck or hammered tools are used for forcing a bolt, pin, or rivet in or out of a hole. For example: Punches, nail sets, chisels.

Different Kinds of Hand Tools 1. Pliers Pliers are comparatively modern invention. They are popular hand tools which are used for gripping objects by using leverage. They have a pair of pivoted jaws, used for holding, bending, turning, gripping or cutting a variety of things. They have different jaw configuration depending on their usage. Top quality pliers are forged from fine-grain tool steel, machined to close tolerances with hand-honed cutting edges properly hardened. They are polished, adjusted and inspected. Pliers vary in length from 4 to 20. Every tool user makes use of pliers of various types. 5

How do you use Pliers? Pliers convert a power grip into a precision grip. The power grip is the curling of the fingers into the palm of the hand precision grip, it means directing the power of the hands grip into the object to be gripped in a precise fashion. The handles are long compared to the shorter nose of the pliers. Pliers are used when our fingertips cant do the job alone. 2. Wrench A wrench is a hand tool with fixed or adjustable jaws. It is used for gripping, turning, fastening, tightening, twisting or loosening objects such as nuts, bolts or pipes and pipe fittings. A wrench is mainly used to hold and turn nuts, bolts, caps, screws, plugs and various threaded parts. Classification of Wrenches Wrenches are available in various shapes and sizes and are of two kinds: Pipe wrenches. They are used in plumbing and for gripping round or cylindrical things. General-use wrenches. They are used on bolts and nuts that have flat, parallel surfaces like for example square or hexagonal. Types of Wrenches Depending on whether the wrench is fixed or adjustable, there are different types of wrenches used for different purposes. Combination wrench. A doubleended wrench with one end being like an open-end wrench and the other end like a box-end wrench. Both ends usually fit the same size or bolt. A wrench is made in metric and standard sizes. Adjustable wrench. Used for tightening or loosening nuts and bolts, having movable lower jaw to adjust wrench size, depending on the size of the nuts or bolts. Socket wrench. It is like closed end wrenches but is cylindrical in shape. They can easily fit over a nut in a recessed hole which is otherwise inaccessible with open or closed ended wrenches.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

Flare-nut wrench or tube wrench, or line wrench. They are almost the same as the box end wrench used for gripping the nuts on the ends of tubes. They have narrow opening to allow the wrench to fit over the tube.

Figure 4.

Buying tips Wrenches are considered one of the most useful and often used hand tools. They are used for holding and turning all types of threaded parts like bolt and nuts. Quality wrenches are designed in such a way as to keep excessive torque from stripping or damaging the nut or bolt. Quality wrenches help in keeping leverage and the load in balance. So before buying a wrench, you should be aware of the job that is to be done. Whichever job a wrench is to be used, it is advisable to choose a size that exactly fits the fastener. If the wrench is too big, it can destroy the outside of the nut. In such a case, box or socket type wrenches are safer than open ended wrenches. Individual-sized wrenches are always safer and stronger than adjustable wrenches. 3. Hammer The most popular and the commonly used type of hand tool is the hammer. The hammer is defined as a device used to deliver blows to an object or strike another object, in the sense that it is used for driving nails, fitting parts and breaking up objects. Available in various shapes and structures, hammers are designed for specific purposes. The hammer consists of a handle to which a heavy head, usually made of metal is attached with one or more striking purposes. Types of Hammers Curved Claw Hammer. It is used for nail pulling and general carpentry work.
Figure 5.

Straight Claw Rip Hammer. This type of hammer is mainly used for general and heavy carpentry work, ripping and framing.
Figure 6.

Ball Peen Hammer. It is used for bending or shaping soft metal, for riveting and for center punching. This type of hammer has a round face with beveled edges and the other end has a ball-shaped peen for metal working.

Figure 7.

Hand Drilling Hammer. This type of hammer is designed to do powerful job like striking masonry nails, steel chisels masonry drills.

Figure 8.

4. Screwdriver A screwdriver is a tool used for turning screws so as to drive them into their place. It is a tool to insert, tighten, loosen and remove screws. It has a thin end, which enters the nick in the head of the screws and with a mechanism to apply torque or force by rotating the tip/end, the screw is inserted into its place. Screwdrivers are available in a variety of shapes, and the tip of the driver can be rotated manually or by an electric or other motor. Types of Screwdrivers Let us now get to know some of the popular screwdrivers, with their uses and features. Philips. Having crossed slots with a flat tip, they are used for tightening and loosening Philips head screws and bolts.
Fig. 9

Standard (slotted). The standard screwdrivers have single slotted tip which is flared to the sides above the tip and used for tightening and loosening slotted screws and bolts. Fig.10 Clutch Head. It is used for tightening and loosening clutch head screws and bolts. They have four points of contact, lock into the screw head when turned counter clockwise. Nut Driver. It is available in varied sizes from 3/16 to , they are used for tightening and loosening hexagonal screws and bolts.
Fig.12

Fig.11

Magnetized tip screwdrivers There are some other varieties of screwdrivers which are very popular in the market today. These are the magnetized tip screwdrivers. They have magnetized tips, the blades can range from Philips to Hex and other types and these are convenient when guiding screws to holes or otherwise inaccessible areas. They can also be used to retrieve dropped screws and nuts. 8

Buying tips: Quality indicators There are several factors that help judge the quality of screwdrivers such as: Blade Metal. If the kind of metal in the blade is of poor quality, it will chip and crumble under pressure. Amount of grinding on the tip. If the tip is improperly ground and flares too much, it will rise out of the screw slot. Handle and bar attachment materials. The materials used to make the handle and bar attached to it also indicate the quality of the screwdrivers. If the blade is not attached firmly to the handle, it will eventually loosen and slip from the handle. Screwdriver Tips. Tips used on the screw drivers may be of many kinds. Important kinds of tips are regular, Phillips, clutch-head, hex and square-tipped.

5. Measuring Tools Used for the purpose of measuring dimensions, measuring tools are imperative for implementing any work with precision. The measuring tools are used at large for carrying out different types of measurement. Importance of measuring tools Measuring tools are essential tools for examining a finished product or semi-finished product. Inspection or examination operation includes checking, testing an object by comparing dimensions of the object/work piece to the required dimensions given on a diagram or a sketch. Again the measurements taken must be accurate. Accuracy of measurements depends on ones ability to use measuring tool correctly. For any kind of homeimprovement projects or DIY projects or any professional jobs for hands, tool users, especially for carpenters, accurate measurements are always called for. It is not only necessary to know precisely how many feet and inches are involved, but also necessary to ensure everything comes out in exact size that one requires. Types of measuring tools Below are descriptions of popular measuring tools. Squares. Squares are indispensable to woodworkers, carpenters, machinists, tile setters, and anyone else who needs to make their projects with complete precision. Squares comprise a group of tools which come in wide variety of shapes 9

and sizes, depending on their intended use. Try square. Try squares are L-shaped squares having a handle which is also called the body and a thin metal blade marked in graduations like a scale/ruler. These squares are used basically to mark a straight line across a wood piece for cutting.

Figure 13.

Rules. The rule is the most popular type of measuring tools. This rule is usually 6 or 12 inches in length. The rules or ruler are made of wood, metal or plastic. It is to be noted that the thinner the rule, the easier it is to measure accurately. Caliper. Caliper is a measuring tool used for measuring the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. It can be like a compass with inward or outward facing points and the tips can be adjusted to fit across the points to be measured. When the caliper is removed, the distance between the tip is measured using a ruler.

Figure 14.

Caring for Your Farm Tools When you are purchasing new farm tools, you will more than likely have a choice of low price/low quality of higher price/high quality tools. Quality tools are designed to last many years but they must be cared for and maintained. If you opt for bargain priced tools, maintaining them is less of a problem. When they wear out, you simply throw them away. Maintaining your farm tools on a regular basis assures that they will be ready to go to work on your next chore. Following a basic rule will add many years of life and use to all the tools which make your farming tasks easier. Always remove all the soil from your digging tools after use. Usually hosing is all it takes, but use a screwdriver to remove dried mud. Never put your tools away wet. Allow them to dry completely before storing to prevent rusting and handle rot. Once each farming season, rub linseed oil into your wooden handles to help preserve them. After use, wipe the metal parts of pruners, shears, and loppers with an oily rag. Alternately, you can wipe your tools dry with a clean rag, and then spray lightly with a penetrating oil such as WD40.

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Sharpen your cutting tools as well as the blades of shovels and spades during the gardening season. A hone or whetstone should be used for sharpening cutting tools. A file should be used to remove nicks and smooth the edge of your shovels and trowels. Thoroughly clean any tools which have been used for chemical applications. Fertilizers and other chemicals will rapidly corrode any metal parts. For extra rust prevention fill a 5 gallon bucket with builders sand and pour a quart of new motor oil over it. Use this as a shovel cleaner /oiler each time you put your tools away. Push each tool into the oily sand several times. You can also use this bucket as a shovel stand.

Choose the Right Tool for the Job Round point shovel. The most versatile and widely used shovel. It is used to dig, scoop or shovel dirt from one point to another. Garden shovel. It has the same general design as a round point shovel, but it is smaller and lighter. It is used for lighter task and for less muscular persons.

Figure 15. Round point shovel and garden shovel

Scoop shovels. It is designed to be used to move light materials such as sawdust or dried manure. Because of the volume which most scoops will hold, it isnt advisable to use them for heavy wet materials, unless your goal is a backache.

Figure 16. Scoop shovel

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Bow rake. The traditional steel rake is actually called a bow rake. The head may be anywhere from 8 inches to 24 inches wide. The head is connected to the handle by a steel bow at each end. These bows act as shock absorbers, giving this tool the strength to do serious raking of heavier materials.

Figure 17. Bow rake

Level head rake. The level headed rake is much the same as a bow rake, except that the back of the head is straight and even, and it connects to the handle in the center. Its straightedge is used for leveling seedbeds. The corners may also be used for creating furrows.

Figure 18. Level head rake

Sickle. A sickle is a curved, hand-held farm tool typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for hay. The inside of the curve is sharp, so that the user can draw or swing the blade against the base of the crop, catching it in the curve and slicing it at the same time.

Figure 19. Sickle

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Safety Measures in Using Farm Tools According to Job Requirements Even though hand tool injuries tend to be less severe than power tool injuries, hand tool injuries are more common. The most common farm tool accidents are caused by the following: Failure to use the right tool Failure to use a tool correctly Failure to keep edged tools sharp Failure to replace or repair a defective tool Failure to store tools safely

IMPORTANT: Use the right tool to complete a job safely, quickly and efficiently. Follow these guidelines for general farm tool safety: Wear safety glasses whenever you hammer or cut, especially when working with surfaces that chip or splinter. Do not use a screwdriver as chisel. The tool can slip and cause a deep puncture wound. Do not use a chisel as screwdriver. The tip of the chisel may break or cause an injury. Do not use a knife as a screwdriver. The blade can snap and injure an eye. Never carry a screwdriver or chisel in your pocket. If you fall, the tool could cause serious injury. Instead, use a tool belt holder. Replace loose, splintered, or cracked handles. Loose hammer, axe, or maul heads are not safe. Use the proper wrench to tighten or loosen nuts. Pliers can chew the corners off a nut. When using a chisel, always chip or cut away from your body. Use a soft-headed hammer or mallet strike wooden chisel handle. A metal hammer or mallet may cause the handle to split. Do not use wrench if the jaws are sprung. Do not use impact tool, such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins, if their heads are mushroom shaped. The heads may shatter upon impact. Direct saw blades, knives, and other tools away from aisle areas and other employees. Keep knives and scissors sharp. Dull tools are more dangerous than sharp tools. Iron or steel tools may cause spark and be hazardous around flammable substances. Use spark-resistant tools made from brass, plastic, aluminum, or wood when working around flammable hazards.

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LET US REMEMBER Use the right tool for the right job. Keep tools and the work area clean. Inspect tools before using. Be alert and work defensively.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post test. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write this in your test notebook. 1. A device used to strike objects, like nails, to fit parts and break objects. a. hammer c. wrench b. plier d. cutter 2. It is the most popular type of measuring tool that measures 6 to 12 inches long. a. ruler c. folding ruler b. speed square d. try square 3. It is a curved, hand-held aquaculture tool typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for hay. a. shovel c. sickle b. rake d. mattock 4. The most versatile and widely used tool to dig, to scoop or to shovel dirt from one point to another. a. irrigation shovel c. garden shovel b. round point shovel d. scoop shovel 5. A device for measuring the weight of an object. a. paper weight b. measuring tools c. weighing scale d. squares 6. Which of the following should not be done in taking care of hand tools? a. Clean your tools after use b. Tools should be kept in tool box or a tool cabinet c. When rust form on tools, remove it by using a fine abrasive cloth d. Store hand tools in a wet, sheltered environment 14

7. It measures the distance between two symmetrically opposing sides. Its like a compass with the tips that can be adjusted to fit across the points to be measured. a. caliper c. ruler b. folder ruler d. squares. 8. Which is a quality indicator for using screwdrivers? a. bade metal c. screwdriver tips b. handle and bar attachment materials d. all of the above 9. The following are the guidelines to avoid hand tool injuries EXCEPT: a. right tool for the job c. proper storage b. good condition d. watch your body 10. A tool used in tightening or loosening screws. a. hammer c. wrench b. screwdriver d. pliers LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Visit a farm in your locality and observe how the workers use their tools. List down power tools and handy tools that are used in the farm and make a report on how they are used. 2. The students will perform how the tools are arranged, maintained and stored. RESOURCES Hand tools Wrench Hammer Pliers Screwdriver Farm tools Shovel Rake Sickle REFERENCES Santos C.P., De Guzman I A. Technology and Home Economics ABCs of Hand Tools 1999. Their Current Usage and Care

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LESSON 2.
SELECTING AND OPERATING FARM EQUIPMENT WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with selecting and operating farm equipment. It includes reading of instructional manual before operation to orient and familiarize ones self to the uses of farm tools and equipment. It also contains safety procedures in operating said tools and equipment. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. identify appropriate farm equipment; 2. identify appropriate farm tools; 3. identify and report faults in farm equipment in line with farm procedures; 4. use farm equipment according to manufacturers specification; and 5. follow the safety procedures in operating the farm equipment. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Before you go through this lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about selecting and operating equipment. Answer this in your test notebook. A. Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. It is the most important lubricant in small engines. a. water c. fluid b. oil d. all of the above 2. What are the things that should be remembered in selecting a sprayer? a. The wand and hand grip should be easy to remove and clean. b. Hoses should be light with secure attachment to the sprayer. c. The nozzles tip depends on your spraying need. d. The pumping lever should be in a comfortable position.

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3. The following are the standard applications in broadcast spraying, EXCEPT a. constant walking speed c. selecting a nozzles tip b. uniform pressure d. weight 4. It is the process of reducing friction between sliding surfaces by introducing a slippery substance between them. a. oil c. lubrication b. engine d. calibrating 5. Thoroughly clean and triple-rinse the sprayer after use. Useful cleaners are water and a. Lysol c. soap b. ammonia d. all of the above B. Write: A - If statements A and B are True B - If statements A and B are False C - If a statement A is True and B is False D - If a statement A is False and B is True 6. A. Use liquids when possible in spraying pesticides. B. Powders and granules tend to require more agitation and can clog nozzles and screens more easily. 7. A. All pesticides must be mixed thoroughly and agitated in the tank to ensure uniform coverage. B. Nozzle pressure on backpack sprayer is maintained by constant walking speed. 8. A. To prevent alternator damage, do not open or switch circuits when the engine is stopped. B. Crank the engine for only 25 seconds and pause for 25 seconds. 9. A. Fuel must be free of any moisture or impurities. B. Moisture can seriously damage pump and nozzles. 10. A. Provide and use personal and protective equipment where appropriate. B. Ensure adequate working space for each job. LET US STUDY Right choice and proper operation of farm equipment contribute great success in operating a farm. It is very important that farmers/fishermen be oriented and familiarized with the uses of different farm tools and equipment including safety measures to be observed in operating a farm. 17

Let Us Define Equipment selection the process of determining tools and equipment needed to do a job. Backpack Sprayer A backpack (or knapsack) sprayer consists of a tank, a pump, and a spray wand with one or more nozzle. The small size, transportability and ease of use make the sprayer a versatile tool. Characteristics and Accessories of Sprayer Youll find a wide variety of sprayers and accessories in the market. There are some key differences among the sprayers commonly sold: types of pumps, pressure regulation, available of nozzles and booms, sprayer tank volume and other features. Types of Pump Both piston and diaphragm pumps are available. The piston type is generally capable of developing high pressures around 90 psi. The piston rings of these pumps wear and lose pressure after extensive use, particularly with abrasive wet table powder herbicides. Pressure Regulation Proper calibration demands constant uniform pressure. Some sprayers have built-in valves to regulate pressures. Others have pressure gauges on the handle. Either type is acceptable as long as uniform pressure is maintained. Availability of Nozzles and Booms Before you buy, be sure the sprayer can accept different spray tips, booms, shielded spray and other accessories. The greater the number of attachments makes your sprayer more useful. Sprayer Tank Volume Sprayer capacities range from 2 to 5.5 gallons. You can decide how much weight you want to carry. The tank should have an easy-to read volume gauge printed or embossed at the sides.

Figure 1. Backpack Sprayer

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Other Features There are some important additional features in selecting a sprayer. These are: 1. The pumping lever should be in a comfortable position. Consider too, a sprayer with a reversible lever (one that you can use left-or right-handed). 2. The wand and hand grip should be comfortable and easy to remove and clean. 3. The sprayer should balance comfortably and solidly on your back. The straps should be comfortable when youre carrying a 25 to 70 pound weight. The sprayer should be stable when it sits on the ground. 4. Hoses should be durable and reinforced, with secure attachment to the tank. 5. In-line screens are available in some models (usually in the handle). These help the reduction of clogs in the nozzle. 6. The filling hole should be large, with a tight-fitting lid, to prevent spray liquid from spilling on when you bend or walk. Calibration and Operation Important Variables The amount of spray you apply to an area will depend on four variables: 1. your walking speed 2. the selected pressure 3. spray swath width 4. the chosen nozzle tip If you change any one of these, you change the amount of spray you apply. Calibrating For Broadcast Spraying Broadcast spraying requires a uniform application over the entire area you plan to spray. To accomplish uniform application, you must establish standard application practices regarding pressure, walking speed, nozzle-tip selection and height. Uniform pressure. Nozzle pressure on backpack sprayers is maintained by hand pumping. Try for a constant pressure that is easily maintained 19

while walking/pumping. With broadcast spraying, tips design to operate in the 1540 psi pressure range often will be the tip of choice for this application. Constant walking speed. In broadcast spraying, walking speed must be constant, regardless of slope or terrain conditions. This constant walking speed should be one that you can comfortably maintain over the entire time you intend to spray. It also must be the same speed at which you calibrate the sprayer. Selecting a nozzle tip. The nozzle tip you select depends on your spraying need and the amount of pesticide and carrier you choose to apply per acre. In general, applying 10 to 20 gallons/acre of carrier and pesticide is adequate, but check the pesticide label to be sure. Also keep in mind that its generally better to change nozzle(s) to alter spray volume than to change walking speed or pressure. Steps In Calibration There are different ways to calibrate sprayers. This method is one that may be easier with backpack sprayers. You need a tape measure, and you may find a calculator convenient. 1. Select the spray tip or boom that provides the desired output. 2. Add water, and spray the ground or dry pavement as if you were spraying your field. Now check spray pattern for uniformity. Adjust the spacing and/or height until you achieve the desired pattern. Check fittings and hose for leaks. Try to calibrate in the same field or under the same conditions as where the spray application will occur. 3. If all is well, add exactly 2 gallons of water to the tank. 4. Mark your starting point. 5. Spray the water as if you were actually spraying your field. Remember that you must maintain: constant pressure, constant walking speed, and consistent height of the nozzle or boom over your spray target. 6. When the water is gone, stop and mark the spot. 7. Measure the area you sprayed and calculate square feet (length of swath x width).

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8. Calculate how much of an acre you covered: Number of ft2 you sprayed ------------------------------- = acres sprayed 43,560 ft2/acre 9. Calculate how many gallons/acre you sprayed: 2 gal sprayed ----------------- =gal/acre Acres sprayed Operating Hints Here are some useful operating tips. Following them will help you do a more proficient spray job. Keep records. Complete records help you duplicate successful spraying jobs and avoid repeating mistakes. Record these especially (and other notes you think might help in the future): spray tips used, date of spray application, pressure, spray mixture, weather (during spraying and for 24 hours after), and stage of weed crop growth. Remember to do this job immediately after you spray-and after results are evident, make notes on your impressions for future reference. Clean your nozzle(s). Have an old toothbrush or other fine brush, clean water, gloves, and pliers handy. Clean the tip and screen after your first two tanks full, and thereafter as needed. Use only a soft brush or compressed air to clean the tip opening. Maintain correct boom or nozzle height. Keeping the nozzles at the calibrated height above your target is critical. The wand or boom tends to drop as the applicator tires. This should be avoided. Agitate pesticides. All pesticides must be mixed thoroughly and agitated in the tank to ensure uniform coverage. Some products (such as wettable powders) tend to settle. Others (such as emulsifiable concentrates) tend to separate. When you spray these products, jostle or agitate the tank with a brisk side to keep the solution well mixed. Clean your tank. Thoroughly clean and triple-rinse your sprayer after use. Useful cleaners are water and ammonia (6 ounces of household ammonia per tank), commercially prepared tank-cleaning compounds trisodium phosphate (2 fluid ounces TSP per tank). Ammonia is recommended for cleaning after spray. When you use oil-based herbicides like 2.4-D esters, rinse the sprayer first with a light oil (diesel oil or kerosene). 21

Cleaning is especially critical if you plan to use the same sprayer for insecticide and herbicide sprays. In fact, many users have two sprayers-one for insecticides and one for herbicides, because total cleaning sometime is difficult. Review current label. The product label contains a wealth of information, from safety data to application tips. Read it carefully, refer to it often, and heed the advice. Especially be aware of toxicity classification and needed protective gear. Use protective or safety clothing/gear. In many ways, backpack sprayer users are in closer contact with pesticide than tractor operators are. Frequent refilling and mixing, walking over sprayed surfaces, etc, and you must be careful. Rubber boots and gloves, and eye protectors, are a must. Your product label may specify additional protection, such as respirator, rain gear, or face shield. Use liquids when possible. Most liquids mix easier and stay mixed longer. Powders and granules tend to require more agitation and can clog nozzles and screens more easily. Keep a safe distance between adjacent applicators. To minimize possible contact, it is wise to keep a distance between adjacent applicators. Investigate accessories and have a supply of tips. Much of the versatility of backpack sprayers come use of accessories such as booms, shields and the various tips available. Investigate options and consider their use where appropriate. Accurate calibration is vital. The fact that your neighbor adds a certain amount of herbicide per gallon and gets good results is no reason for you to expect the same. You might walk more slowly; you might have different nozzles; or you might use greater pressure. You simply must calibrate for your conditions. Control these factors: 1. Pressure. If you increase the spray pressure, you increase output. 2. Walking speed. If you slow down, you increase output per acre. 3. Swath width/nozzle height. Your output (gal/acre) may change with different tips, nozzle, height, and swath widths. It is best to first establish walking speed and pressure and then 22

change your tip selection on which the recommendation was based. Engines The following procedures, if observed, will help ensure safe safety and prevent damage and its components. Safety Measures: Keep the engine and engine compartment clean and free from oily waste and clothes. Keep fuel and oil out of bilge. Periodically inspect the engine, exhaust system, fuel lines and water connections for leaks. Do not overfill the fuel supply tank; this may cause raw fuel to accumulate in the bilge. The blower should always be operated for approximately four (4) minutes prior to starting so that the engine compartment will be completely ventilated, if blower is installed.

Lubrication: The engine is shipped from the factory with the crankcase empty. The correct grade and amount of oil must be added before operation, see specifications and fill to full mark on dipstick. The transmission is filled before shipment but the oil level must be checked before operation.

Alternator: To prevent alternator damage, do not open or switch battery circuits while the engine is running.

Racing the Engine: Do not race the engine. This practice may cause serious damage.

Decompression Lever: Do not use the decompression lever to stop the engine, this will cause serious damage to the exhaust valves. Do not have a decompression lever.

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Maintenance and Upkeep: It is the owners or operators responsibility to perform all necessary preventive maintenance and upkeep, at least semi annually.

Freshwater Water Cooling System: (all models except M-15) This system must be filled with a 50/50 blend of water and a good grade of premium anti-freeze. (the coolant blend may change, based on climatic condition in your area). You may use clean fresh water with an anti-rust inhibitor. Do not use pure antifreeze. After engine has reached operating temperature it may require adding more coolant as the air is purged from the system. If engine overheats, recheck level, if hot water is installed, all air must be removed from the lines and prevent overheating usually by means of added bleed valve in heater line or expansion tank in the system.

Cooling System: (Model 15) The m-15 which is cooled directly by sea water, uses a recirculating system which discharges the water vapor with the exhaust gases. Exhaust System: It should be installed without sharp bends and should be designed to drain any water away from the engine. The water inlet to exhaust line must be located to prevent water from backing up into the engine. If a water-lift can type muffler is used, be sure it is large enough to hold approximately 3 times the amount of water that may be in the lines when the engine is shut down so that water wont back up into the engine. Prolonged cranking of the engine with failure to start can fill the exhaust system with sea water causing it to back up into the engine causing serious damage to the engine when cranking is stopped. Check complete system at least monthly for leaks. Starting and Stopping Engine: Be sure to carefully read the instructions on how to start and stop your engine before starting the engine. Fuel Supply: Do not run engine out of fuel or rebleeding of your fuel system will be required. 24

Fuel must be free of any moisture or impurities. Check carefully. Moisture can seriously damage pump and nozzles. An additive should be used as bacteria growth can prevent good running conditions. Starting Motor: Crank the engine for only 10 seconds and pause at 10. Repeat until engine starts. Never crank engine longer than 20 seconds without a pause to permit starter to cool down. Use of glow plugs will aid in starting, reduce cranking time and increase battery life. General concepts of oils and lubrication in small engines. A. Principles of lubrication. 1. Lubrication is the process of reducing friction between sliding surfaces by introducing a slippery substance between them. 2. Friction is the resistance to motion created when one dry surface rubs against another. 3. Lubricants come in three forms. a. dry (powdered) b. semi-dry (grease) c. liquid (oil) 4. Oil is the most important lubricant in small engines because it is the only lubricant an engine needs. 5. Oil lubricates by separating surfaces with a thin film that when in motion has molecules that roll over one another like tiny ball bearings. 6. To help prevent wear due to friction, engines are made of certain materials. Bearing shells with a Babbitt surface. Babbitt is an alloy of tin and antimony. B. Properties of Oil Oil must have the following properties, or do the following jobs: 1. Permit easy starting. 2. Lubricate. 3. Protect against rust and corrosion-needed because for each gallon of gas burned, a gallon of water is formed. Some of this water goes into the engine. 4. Keep engine parts clean. Oil have detergent/dispersant additions. 25

LET US REMEMBER 1. Always check wires on a piece of equipment before using. 2. Do not operate an engine at speeds greater than recommended to avoid engine damage and accidents. 3. Follow helpful maintenance schedule to keep your outdoor power equipment run smoothly. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test A. Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. It is the most important lubricant in small engine. a. water c. fluid b. oil d. all of the above 2. What are the things that should be remembered in selecting a sprayer? a. The wand and hand grip should be easy to remove and clean b. Hoses should be light and secure attachment to the sprayer c. The nozzles tip you select depend on your spraying need d. The pumping lever should be in a comfortable position. 3. The following are the standard applications in broadcast spraying, EXCEPT a. constant walking speed c. selecting a nozzles tip b. uniform pressure d. weight 4. It is the process of reducing friction between sliding surfaces by introducing a slippery substance between them. a. oil c. lubrication b. engine d. calibrating 5. Thoroughly clean and triple-rinse the sprayer after use. Useful cleaners are water and a. Lysol c. soap b. ammonia d. all of the above B. Write: A - If statements A and B are True. B - If statements A and B are False. C - If a statement A is True and B is False. D - If a statement A is False and B is True. 26

6. A. Use liquids when possible in spraying pesticides. B. Powders and granules tend to require more agitation and can clog nozzles and screens more easily. 7. A. All pesticides must be mixed thoroughly and agitated in the tank to ensure uniform coverage. B. Nozzle pressure on backpack sprayer is maintained by constant walking speed. 8. A. To prevent alternator damage, do not open or switch circuits when the engine is stopped. B. Crank the engine for only 25 seconds and pause for 25 seconds. 9. A. Fuel must be free of any moisture or impurities. B. Moisture can seriously damage pump and nozzles. 10. A. Provide and use personal and protective equipment where appropriate. B. Ensure adequate working space for each job. LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Demonstrate the use of backpack or knapsack sprayer. 2. Demonstrate the starting and stopping of engine. 3. Identify each part of the engine and its functions. RESOURCES Farm equipment Engine Knapsack sprayer REFERENCES OSU Publication 962: Columbia County Oregon State University: Revised 1996: Prepared by Chal G. Landgren Farm Safety: Standards of Practice for Farms in Nova Scotia: Machinery & Workshop: December 2004

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LESSON 3.
PERFORMING PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? The lesson deals with the different ways of maintaining and keeping tools and equipment. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. clean tools and equipment immediately after use in line with farm procedures; 2. perform routine check-up and maintenance; and 3. store the tools and equipment in designated areas in line with farm procedures. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through this lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Performing Preventive Maintenance. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test Write T if the statement is correct and F if it is incorrect. 1. Keep your work unclean. This will help you work more efficiently and safely. 2. It is important to keep engines clean to prevent overheating as well as to reduce dirt getting into the engine. 3. Read the manual before using new tools and equipment. 4. All workshop equipment should have damage when using them. 5. Dispose liquid and solid waste such as oil, corelant and worn components in the improper manner. 6. Use the appropriate tool for the job. 28

7. Proper tool storage is responsible for many shop accidents. 8. Flush the pump case with clean fresh water then completely drain. 9. If an engine appears to use oil excessively, set the engine aside and do not check the problem. 10. Always use chemical gloves when using any cleaning material because excessive exposure to cleaning materials can damage the skin. LET US STUDY Tools and equipment should be maintained and kept immediately after use for safety and longer use. Check them for any damage and make sure that the preventive measures in carrying out the different tasks in the farm are observed. Let Us Define Hand Tools hand operated tools. Power Tools current operated tools. Ways of maintaining tools and equipment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Understand the requirements of machinery guarding. Ensure that power tools and equipment are properly guarded. Ensure that all guards and shields are kept in place during use. Read the manual before using new tools and equipment. Follow instruction on safe procedures. Use the appropriate tool for the job. Store tools safely to prevent damage and unauthorized use. Keep bystander and children away from tools and equipment. Ensure that electrical cords are in good condition and grounded.

How to Keep Farm Tools and Equipment Cleaning Tool and Equipment The objective of this procedure is to show how to keep work areas and equipment clean and operational. At the end of each working day, clean the tools and equipment you used and check them for any damage. If you note any damage, tag the tool as faulty and organize a repair or replacement.

29

Personal Safety: Whenever you perform a task in the workshop or in farm you must use personal protective clothing and equipment that is appropriate for the task and conforms to your safety regulation. This includes: 1. work clothing- such as over alls and steel capped footwear 2. eye protection such as safety glasses and face masks. 3. hand protection such as rubber gloves and barrier cream Safety Check: 1. Some cleaning agents are toxic. 2. Do not use flammable cleaners or water on electrical equipment. 3. Make sure designated walkways are kept clear of any obstructions. 4. Always wear protective clothing and appropriate safety equipment. 5. Make sure that you understand and observe all legislative and personal safety procedures when carrying out the tasks. Points to note: 1. Clean tools and equipment work more efficiently. At the end of each working day clean the tools and equipment and check them for any damage. If you note any damage, tag the tool as faulty and organize a repair or replacement. Electrical current can travel over oily or greasy surfaces. Keep electrical power tools free from dust and dirt and make sure they are free of oil and grease. All workshop equipment should have a maintenance schedule. Always complete the tasks described on the schedule at the required time. This will help keep the equipment in good working condition. Store commonly used tools in an easy-to-reach location. If a tool, or piece of equipment is too difficult to return, it could be left on a workbench or on the floor where it would become a safety hazard. Keep your work area tidy. This will help you work more efficiently and safely. Have a waste bin close to your work area where you can easily dispose waste materials. Dispose liquid and solid wastes such as oil, corelant and worn components in the correct manner. 30

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

When cleaning products lose their effectiveness, they need to be replaced. Refer to the suppliers recommendation for collection or disposal. Do not pour solvents or other chemicals into the sewage system. This is both environmentally damaging and illegal. Always use chemical gloves when using any cleaning material because excessive exposure to cleaning materials can damage skin.

9.

10. The fumes from cleaning chemicals can be toxic, so wear appropriate respirator and eye protection wherever you are using these products. Step-by-step instruction 1. Clean hand tools. Keep your hand tools in good, clean condition with two sets of rags. One should be lint-free to clean or handle precision instruments or components. The other should be only to prevent rust and corrosion. 2. Clean electric power tools. Keep power tools clean by brushing off any dust and wiping off excess oil or grease with a clean rag. Inspect any electrical cables for dirt, oil or grease and for any chafing or exposed wires. With drills, inspect the chuck and lubricate it occasionally with machine oil. Improper tool storage is responsible for many shop accidents. Follow these guidelines to ensure proper tool storage. 1. Have a specific place for each tool. 2. Do not place unguarded cutting tools in a drawer. Hand injuries are caused by rummaging through drawers that contain a jumbled assortment of sharp-edged tools. 3. Store knives or chucks in their scabbards. 4. Provide study hooks to hang most tools on. Small Engine Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting A. Keeping engines clean: 1. It is important to keep engines clean to prevent over heating as well as reduce dirt into the engine. 2. Cooling fans should be clean to avoid heat retention. Overheating and possible part distortion and seizing up. 31

3. Methods of cleaning: a. Blowing off debris with compressed air 1. Be careful. 2. Wear safety goggles. 3. Never direct air towards skin or clothes. b. Scraping with wood and wiping with rag c. Using Aerosol cleaners. B. Checking oil level and condition: 1. Check oil level every time fuel is added. 2. Oil condition should be checked. Engine manufacturers usually have recommendation. 3. Two methods of checking oil. a. Dipstick. Withdraw dipstick, wipe it off, reinsert it properly. Take it back out and check oil level. Most dipsticks have at least 2 marks, a full and low (add) mark. Oil level should be between those two marks. Too much oil can damage an engine if over flows. If the oil level indicates the engine is over filled, extra oil should be drained out. Add recommended oil if the oil level is low. b. Filler plug. Clean off area around filler plug and remove. Check oil level. Generally, oil level should be at the top of the filler hole or at a mark just below the hole. Check operation manual for specifics. 4. If an engine appears to use oil excessively, the engine should be checked to determine the problem. C. Changing oil: 1. Determining when to change oil a. usually based on hours of running time or estimation usually when the oil is sticky b. new engines oil should be changed after a few hours of operation. c. should check manual to find manufacturers recommendations. 2. Process of changing. a. Run engine until warmed up. Warm oil and contaminants drain more completely because they have to be stirred up in the oil. b. Stop engine and remove plug wire. c. Clean area around drain plug. d. Remove drain plug using the proper wrench. e. Allow oil to drain into a pan for at least 5 minutes. If necessary, tilt engine towards drain hole to help draining. 32

f. If the engine has filter, change it also following recommendations. g. Replace drain plug if enough. h. Clean funnels, area around oil filter site, etc. i. Add proper oil to recommended level. j. Replace filter cap and spark plug. k. Start the engine for testing Waste materials should be disposed properly in accordance with environmental requirements. Water Pump Storage Tips: 1. Flush the pump case with clean fresh water, then completely drain. This keeps your unit clean and protects against freezing. 2. Cover the intake and discharge ports to prevent debris entering your unit during storage. Personal Safety: 1. Always read the manufacturers operation manual. 2. Carefully follow all safety and operation rules. 3. Always wear safety glasses and hearing protection when using a water pump. Equipment Safety: 1. Ensure that the pressure safety-valve ring is properly operating. 2. Moisture can condense a unit, so it is extremely important to drain the tank after each days use. If left in the tank, moisture could cause rust and weaken the tank. 3. The most energy-efficient motors are equipped with coulverters and variable speed drivers to help the motor match output in the energy necessary for the tank. LET US REMEMBER 1. At the end of each working day, clean the tools and equipment and checks them for any damage. 2. It is important to keep engines clean to prevent over heating as well as to reduce dirt getting into the engine. 3. Read the manual before using new tools and equipment. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook.

33

Post Test Write T if the statement is correct and F if the statement is incorrect. 1. Keep your work unclean. This will help you work more efficiently and safely. 2. It is important to keep engines clean to prevent overheating as well as to reduce dirt getting into the engine. 3. Read the manual before using new tools and equipment. 4. All workshop equipment should have damage when using them. 5. Dispose liquid and solid waste such as oil, corelant and worn components in the improper manner. 6. Use the appropriate tool for the job. 7. Proper tool storage is responsible for many shop accidents. 8. Flush the pump case with clean fresh water then completely drain. 9. If an engine appears to use oil excessively, set the engine aside and do not check the problem. 10. Always use chemical gloves when using any cleaning material because excessive exposure to cleaning materials can damage the skin. LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED? 1. Demonstrate the correct procedure for keeping work areas and equipment clean and operational. 2. Perform the safety procedures in maintaining and storing farm tools and equipment. RESOURCES Maintenance tools and equipment Lubricants Fluids CBLM REFERENCES Farm: Safety Standards of Practices For Farm Machinery and Workshops ( December 2004 ) Agricultural Mechanics Small Engines Briggs Straton (Manual) 34

ANSWER KEY Lesson 1 Pre-test 1. a 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. d 7. a 8. d 9. d 10 b Lesson 2 Pre-test A. 1. b 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. b 6. a 7. b 8. c 9. b 10. a Post-test A. 1. b 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. b. 6. a 7. b 8. c 9. b 10. a Post-test 1. a 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. d 7. a 8. d 9. d 10.b

B.

B.

Lesson 3 Pre-test 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T Post-test 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


SECOND YEAR

Unit of Competency:

PERFORM ESTIMATION AND BASIC CALCULATION

Module No.: 3

Module Title: PERFORMING ESTIMATION AND BASIC 0 CALCULATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

What Is This Module About?................................................................ 2 What Will You Learn? .......................................................................... 2 LESSON 1. Performing Estimation......................................................................... 3 What Is This Lesson About? ............................................................. 3 What Will You Learn? ....................................................................... 3 What Do You Already Know? ............................................................ 3 Let Us Study .................................................................................... 5 Let Us Remember ............................................................................. 8 How Much Have You Learned? ......................................................... 8 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 10 Resources ...................................................................................... 10 References ..................................................................................... 10 LESSON 2. Performing Basic Workplace Calculation ........................................... 11 What Is This Lesson About? ........................................................... 11 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 11 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 11 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 12 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 16 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 16 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 17 Resources ...................................................................................... 17 References ..................................................................................... 17 Answer Key ....................................................................................... 18

MODULE III
QUALIFICATION TITLE : UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MODULE TITLE NOMINAL DURATION : : AQUACULTURE NC II PERFORM ESTIMATION AND BASIC CALCULATION PERFORMING ESTIMATION AND BASIC CALCULATION 25 HOURS

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? This module covers the knowledge, skills and right attitudes required to perform basic estimation and calculation in the workplace. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this module, you shall be able to: 1. perform estimation; and 2. perform basic workplace calculation.

LESSON 1.
PERFORMING ESTIMATION WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson focuses on how to perform estimation. This includes identifying job requirements from written or oral communication, estimating the quantities of materials and resources required to complete a work task, estimating time needed to complete a work activity, and reporting to appropriate person the material resources and time needed. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. identify job requirements from written or oral communication; 2. estimate quantities of materials and resources required to complete a work task; 3. estimate the time needed to complete a work activity; and 4. report the estimated materials, resources and time needed to appropriate person. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Performing Estimation. Pre-Test Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write it in your test notebook. 1. Which of the following is the main cause of a project failure? a. Low cost of development b. Poor planning c. Economic considerations d. Proper record keeping 2. What is needed to analyze the demands of a particular job in relation to the qualification of a job applicant? a. Job requirement b. Educational qualification of applicants c. Materials needed to complete a work activity d. Financial requirements 3

3. In order to estimate the quantity of materials and resources needed to complete a work task, prepare a ___________. a. schedule of development b. bill of materials c. feasibility study d. project proposal 4. What a. b. c. d. is not included when preparing a bill of materials? Kind of materials Quality of materials Quantity of materials Cost of materials

5. If the unit cost of one elf load of gravel is Php 1400, how much is the cost of 3 elf loads of gravel? a. Php 2,200 c. Php 4,200 b. Php 3,200 d. Php 5,200 6. How will you estimate the time needed to complete a work activity? a. Hire plenty of laborers b. Prepare a work schedule or program of work c. Make a feasibility study d. Follow a project proposal 7. It is the listing of activities in relation to manpower requirements. a. Project estimation b. Project development c. Project programming d. Project proposal making 8. The number of days allotted to complete a work activity is dependent on __________. a. daily labor requirement b. weekly labor requirement c. monthly labor requirement d. yearly labor requirement 9. Which of the following is a function of a project caretaker? a. Preparing a feasibility study b. Forming a functional working team c. Securing loan from a bank d. Delegating work to others 10. Reporting needed materials for a project to appropriate persons facilitates _________ a. funding of the project b. hiring of needed laborers c. recording of income d. record keeping 4

LET US STUDY The worst error a prospective operator can make is to develop an area without project cost estimates and program of development. The disadvantages of this are: development money is wasted and management of the area becomes difficult. Poor planning is the major cause of project failure that leads to personal bankruptcy. Let Us Define Estimation the process of preparing an approximate computation of the probable cost of a piece of work prepared by a person doing a work. Job requirement an element necessary to perform a work task in relation to job applicants. Project programming the listing of activities to determine how and when a project will start and be completed. Bill of materials the list of materials needed that are itemized to complete a job. Job Requirements A job requirement is important to analyze the demands of a particular job in relation to the qualifications of job applicants. It consists of the following: 1. Physical demand to perform a job Strength. Communicating Hearing Seeing 2. Physical condition of the work area Temperature Humidity Noise Atmospheric condition Unavoidable hazards 3. Mental requirements Understand and carry out oral and simple written instructions. Prepare detailed records or reports. Estimate size, form, quantity, or quality of objects. Count and make simple arithmetic addition and subtraction. Plan and schedule movement or flow of material or products. Perform repair and maintenance of equipment. Plan a work activity. Direct work of activities. 5

Train other workers. Work as a member of a team. Work with minimum amount of supervision.

Estimating Quantity of Materials to Complete a Work Task In order to estimate the qualities of materials and resources required to complete a work task, there is a need to prepare a bill of materials and cost estimates. Remember that prices of materials change depending on the locality and supply of materials. Table1. Example of bill of materials and cost estimates in constructing a 5 m. X 1.5 m X 1.0 m rectangular fish tank SCOPE OF WORK/MATERIALS 1. Gravel 2. Sand 3. CHB 4 x 8 x 16 4. Portland cement 5. Steel Bar (10 mm) 6. Sahara cement 7. PVC 8. PVC Elbow 9. PVC 4 10. PVC Solvent cement 11. Faucet 12. G.I. Wire # 16 13. Hose 5 mm. Quantity 1 ELF load 1 ELF load 160 pcs 23 bags 16 pcs 9 bags 5 pcs 6 pcs 1 pc 1 small can 1 pc. 1 kg. 10 m. 10 m Unit Cost* 1,400.00 1,000.00 5.50 182.00 175.00 30.00 100.00 15.00 220.00 35.00 130.00 65.00 8.00 8.00 Total 1,400.00 1,000.00 800.00 4,186.00 2,800.00 270.00 500.00 90.00 220.00 35.00 130.00 65.00 80.00 80.00

Grand Total: Php 11,736.00 Note: Sample of Bill of Materials from (Competency Based-Learning Materials Third Year) * Unit cost of materials subject to change based on the prevailing price Estimating Time to Complete a Work Activity Time is a very important element to consider in a work activity. To facilitate completion of a certain job, prepare a work schedule or a program of work. Project programming is a listing of work activities in relation to manpower requirement versus the volume or piece of work required at a certain time of development. It is undertaken to determine how and when a project will start and be completed within a given period based on daily output, or by determining the number of days wherein a work will be finished. 6

The program of work is the basis of the implementation of the project. Each item should be evaluated and calculated realistically so that each job will be properly developed and implemented economically. Table 2. Proposed program of work for one-hectare fishpond
NATURE OF WORK
DAILY LABOR REQUIREMENT (8 hr/day)

ACTIVITIES

DURATION (DAYS)

SUPPORT FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

1. Clearing and marking the park of dikes 2. Earthwork a. Excavation and construction of dikes b. Leveling 3. Construction and installation of gates and pipes a. construction b. installation 4. Finishing touches

Daily Contract labor Machine Operation Contract labor Daily Daily Daily

5 laborers 20 laborers 15 laborers 5 Operators

14 45 30 10

Plastic hose( 1cm. dis. 50 m. long Digging blades, tractor, rotavator, bulldozer Carpentry and masonry tools, digging blades, solved:

5 laborers 5 laborers 5 laborers

10 10 10

Table 3. Schedule of development of a one hectare fish pond (Ghan Chart)


ACTIVITIES Time Frame JAN FEB MAR APR MAY

1. Clearing and marking the path of the dike 2. Earthwork a. construction of the dike b. construction of the canals c. leveling 3.Construction of gates and installation of pipes a. construction b. installation 4.Finishing touches

The fishpond operator or caretaker who acts as overseer of the project should: plan ahead of what are to be done on time; keep his co-workers well-informed of the activities to be undertaken; follow the work plan, target and calendar of activities closely to attain its target production; and form a functional working team in order to carry out the plan as scheduled.

After all the job requirements are identified, quantity of material resources, and time needed to complete a work activity is estimated, reporting to appropriate person for funding is necessary i,e, teacher, project, leader, head teacher, principal, entrepreneurs, and private stake holders. LET US REMEMBER Accurate estimation facilitates the acquisition of materials and other resources to complete a work task. Availability of materials and other resources ensures easy development of a project. Time is a very important element in completing a work activity.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write it in your test notebook. 1. Which of the following is the main cause of a project failure? a. Low cost of development b. Poor planning c. Economic considerations d. Proper record keeping What is needed to analyze the demands of a particular job in relation to the qualification of a job applicant? a. Job requirement b. Educational qualification of applicants c. Materials needed to complete a work activity d. Financial requirements 8

2.

3. In order to estimate the quantity of materials and resources needed to complete a work task, prepare a ___________. a. schedule of development b. bill of materials c. feasibility study d. project proposal 4. What a. b. c. d. is not included when preparing a bill of materials? Kind of materials Quality of materials Quantity of materials Cost of materials

5. If the unit cost of one elf load of gravel is Php 1400, how much is the cost of 3 elf loads of gravel? a. Php 2,200 c. Php 4,200 b. Php 3,200 d. Php 5,200 6. How will you estimate the time needed to complete a work activity? a. Hire plenty of laborers b. Prepare a work schedule or program of work c. Make a feasibility study d. Follow a project proposal 7. It is the listing of activities in relation to manpower requirements. a. Project estimation b. Project development c. Project programming d. Project proposal making 8. The number of days allotted to complete a work activity is dependent on _________. a. daily labor requirement b. weekly labor requirement c. monthly labor requirement d. yearly labor requirement 9. Which of the following is a function of a project caretaker? a. Preparing a feasibility study b. Forming a functional working team c. Securing loan from a bank d. Delegating work to others 10. Reporting needed materials for a project to appropriate persons facilitates ____________. a. funding of the project b. hiring of needed laborers c. recording of income d. record keeping

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Estimate the materials required to fabricate a net for fish cage operation measuring 5 m in length; 4 meter wide; and 3 meters in depth. 2. Make a schedule of development for a two hectare fishpond. RESOURCES Tools Calculator Distance measuring instruments REFERENCES Sarmiento, Jr, R.S. Module in Fishpond Engineering and Management. CVACP. Region on Technoguide for Tilapia. Materials paper and pencil CBC Reference materials

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LESSON 2.
PERFORMING BASIC WORKPLACE CALCULATION WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson is focused on how to perform basic workplace calculation. This includes identifying calculation according to job requirements, familiarizing with the system and unit of measurements and conversions, performing accurate calculations of mixed fraction, percentage and conversions. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson you shall be able to: 1. identify calculation according to job requirements; 2. ascertain system and unit of measurement and conversions to be used; 3. perform accurate calculations using the four basic mathematical operations; and 4. perform calculation using mixed, proper and improper fraction, percentage and conversion. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through this lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Performing Basic Workplace Calculation. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test A. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write this in your test notebook. 1. Calculation means a. to ascertain by estimating. b. to ascertain by computing. c. to ascertain by visualizing. d. to ascertain by converting. 2. A system of measurement based on meter and gram is a. Algebraic system c. Metric system b. English system d. Mathematical system 11

3. To convert 1 inch to centimeters, multiply 1 inch by _______ a. 30.48 c. 25.4 b. 2.54 d. 28.3 4. What is the equivalent of 1 metric ton to kilogram? a. 500 kgs c. 1500 kgs b. 1000 kgs d. 2,000 kgs 5. If there are 3.281 in 1 meter, how many feet are there in 5 meters? a. 16.405 c. 16.054 b. 16.504 d. 16.540 B. By using ratio and proportion, calculate the amount of chicken manure used to fertilize these following areas of fishpond. The application rate is 750 kgs. 1. 250 sq. m 2. 650 sq. m 3. 750 sq. m 4. 1,200 sq. m 5. 5,000 sq. m LET US STUDY To calculate means to ascertain by computing. It is a process of transforming one or more inputs into one or more result. Basic calculation in aquaculture is a very important tool in order to facilitate the completion of a work task. Let Us Define Calculation the mathematical determination of the quantity. Metric system a system of measurement based on the meter and the gram. Conversion a change in the form of a quantity, a unit, or an expression without a change in the value. Unit of measurement any fixed quantity, amount, distance, etc. used as standard. Work Activity in Fish Culture that Needs Calculation Feed formulation is the process of mixing together various ingredients at right proportion to produce a nutritionally balanced diet. Calculating the right proportion of ingredients is emphasized by using the Pearson Square method. In the example that follows, diet composition is given as g/100 g or as %:

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Diet with two ingredients (Example I) Balance a 30% protein diet with the following ingredients: fish meal (60% crude protein) rice bran (8% crude protein) Use Pearsons Square Technique 1. Draw a square and place to desired protein level of the diet at the middle. 2. At the left side of the square, place the two ingredients and their protein content. 3. Subtract the protein content of each ingredient from the desired protein level of the feed formulation. Place the difference at the corner of the square diagonally opposite the ingredient. Take absolute value only, that is, ignore positive and negative signs. 4. Take the sum of the numbers at the right of the square. Fish meal 60% 22 parts

30

Rice bran 8% (22 52 ) 100 = 42.31% (30 52) 100 = 57.69 % The diet formula is: Fish meal = 42.31 g Rice bran = 57.69 g 100.00 gram diet

30 parts 52 parts

To check if the desired level of protein was met, multiply the weight by protein content of each feed ingredient and sum up: Fish meal 42.31 g 0.60 = 25.39 Rice bran 57.69 g 0.08 = 4.61 30.00 g protein Therefore, a 100 g diet with 30% protein, 57.69 g rice bran and 42.31 g of the fish meal are needed.

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SYSTEM AND UNIT OF MEASUREMENT AND CONVERSIONS USED IN FISH CULTURE


To convert English Inches Inches Feet Feet Yard Pint Quarts Gallons Ounces Pounds To convert Metric unit Meter Meter Centimeter Millimeter GENERAL CONVERSION TABLE Into Multiply by Metric unit LENGTH Centimeters 2.54 Millimeters 25.4 Centimeter 30.48 Millimeters 304.0 Meters 0.914 VOLUME Liter 0.473 Liter 0.946 Liter 3.787 MASS(Weight) Grams 28.35 Kilograms 0.4536 MEASUREMENT CONVERSION TABLE Into Multiply by English unit Feet 3.281 Yard 1.094 Inch 0.394 Inch 0.039 Table 1: Using Conversion Table

OTHER UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS AND CONVERSIONS Length English units 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 nautical mile 1 acre Metric units 10 millimeter (mm) 10 cm 10 dm 1000 m Equivalents 1 foot 1 statute mi 1 nautical mi 1 centimeter 1 meter 1 kilometer

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

12 inches 3 feet 5280 feet 1.1516 statute mile 208.71 feet 1 1 1 1 centimeter (cm.) decimeter (dm.) meter (m.) kilometer (km.)

0.3048 meters 1.60935 kilometers 1.853 kilometers 0.3937 inches 3.28 feet 3.280.83 feet 14

Volume/capacity Metric unit 1 centiliter (cl.) 1 deciliter (dl.) 1 liter (L) 1 dekaliter (dkl.) 1hectoliter (hl.) 1 kiloliter Weight Metric units 1 centigram (cg) 1 decigram (dg.) 1 gram (g.) 1 dekagram (dkg.) 1 hectogram (hg.) 1 kilogram (kg) 1 metric ton

= = = = = =

10 milliliters (ml) 10 centiliters 16 deciliters 10 liters 10 dekaliters 10hectoleters

= = = = = = =

10 milligram (mg.) 10 centigrams 10 decigram 10 grams 10 dekagrams 10 hectogram 1000 kilograms

Calculating Materials Needed in Constructing Fish Tanks Finding the area Finding volume

Computation on finding the needed CHB 1. Find the area in square inches dimension of fish tank. 2. Find also the aggregate area in m2/ft2 of the proposed fish tank. Sample Problem: If you construct a rectangular tank 5 meters long, 1.5 meters wide and 1 meter high, how many hollow blocks are needed to finish the job? STEP 1. Convert meter into feet 1m = 100 cm 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 12 inches 1m = 1 ft 12 inch 1 inch 2.54 cm 100 cm = 3.28 ft 1m

STEP 2. Find the aggregate area Area (lengths) =LxW L=5.0 m W=1.0 m = 5.0 m (3.28 ft/m) 1.0 m (3.28 ft/m) = 16.40 ft 3.28 ft = 53.79 sq. ft. 15

Total area of L1 and L2 = 107.58 sq. ft. Area (widths) = 1.5 m (3.28 ft/m) 1.0 m (3.28 ft/m) = 4.92 ft 3.28 ft = 16.14 sq. ft.

Total area of W1 and W2 = 32.28 sq. ft. Total area of wall = 139.86 sq. ft or 13.0 m2 STEP 3. Compute for the number of CHB Area of 1 CHB ( 4x8x16) = 0.66 ft x 1.33 ft. Area = .879 ft2 No. of CHB = 139.86 ft2 / 0.879 ft2 = 159 pcs. or 160 pcs. *Note: This sample of calculating materials needed in constructing fish tank is taken from (Competency-Based Learning Materials for Third Year) LET US REMEMBER Making calculation for a certain project facilitates the completion of any work activity. Calculation is to ascertain by computing. Accurate calculation is attained through mastery of the different unit of measurements, conversions, and basic mathematical operations.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test A. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write this in your test notebook. 1. Calculation means a. to ascertain by estimating. b. to ascertain by computing. c. to ascertain by visualizing. d. to ascertain by converting. 2. A system of measurement based on meter and gram is a. Algebraic system c. Metric system b. English system d. Mathematical system 16

3. To convert 1 inch to centimeters, multiply 1 inch by a. 30.48 c. 25.4 b. 2.54 d. 28.3 4. What is the equivalent of 1 metric ton to kilogram? a. 500 kgs c. 1500 kgs b. 1000 kgs d. 2,000 kgs 5. If there are 3.281 in 1 meter, how many feet are there in 5 meters? a. 16.405 c. 16.054 b. 16.504 d. 16.540 B. By using ratio and proportion, calculate the amount of chicken manure used to fertilize these following areas of fishpond. The application rate is 750 kgs. 1. 250 sq. m 2. 650 sq. m 3. 750 sq. m 4. 1,200 sq. m 5. 5,000 sq. m LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Balance of 27% protein diet with the following ingredients: fish meal (60% crude protein) and corn meal (11% crude protein). 2. Convert metric units to English units for the following units of measurement. a. Length b. Volume of capacity c. Weight 3. Calculate the number of CHB used as wall of a fish tank measuring 5m.x1mx1m. RESOURCES Tools Calculator Measuring instruments for a. Volume b. weight REFERENCES Velasco, R.A. Handbook of construction Estimate http. Lien. Wikipedia.org/wiki/calculation 17 Materials Paper and pencil

ANSWER KEY Lesson 1 Pre-Test


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. b a b b c b c a b a

Post-Test
1. b 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. c 6. b 7. c 8. a 9. b 10. a

Lesson 2 Pre-Test A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b c b b a 18.75 kgs 48.75 kgs 56.25 kgs 900.0 kgs 375 kgs Post-Test A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b c b b a 18.75 kgs 48.75 kgs 56.25 kgs 900 kgs 375 kgs

B.

B.

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


SECOND YEAR

Unit of Competency: Module No.: 4

APPLY BASIC FIRST AID Module Title: APPLYING BASIC FIRST AID

TABLE OF CONTENTS

What Is This Module About?................................................................ 2 What Will You Learn? .......................................................................... 2 LESSON 1. Assessing The Situation ...................................................................... 3 What Is This Lesson About? ............................................................. 3 What Will You Learn? ....................................................................... 3 What Do You Already Know? ............................................................ 3 Let Us Study .................................................................................... 4 Let Us Remember ............................................................................. 8 How Much Have You Learned? ......................................................... 8 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................... 9 Resources ........................................................................................ 9 References ....................................................................................... 9 LESSON 2. Applying Basic First Aid Techniques .................................................. 10 What Is This Lesson About? ........................................................... 10 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 10 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 10 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 11 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 17 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 18 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 18 Resources ...................................................................................... 19 References ..................................................................................... 19 LESSON 3. Communicating Details Of Incidents ................................................. 20 What Is This Lesson About? ........................................................... 20 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 20 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 20 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 21 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 23 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 23 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 24 Resources ...................................................................................... 24 References ..................................................................................... 24 Answer Key ....................................................................................... 25

MODULE IV QUALIFICATION TITLE : UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MODULE TITLE NOMINAL DURATION : : AQUACULTURE NC II APPLY BASIC FIRST AID APPLYING BASIC FIRST AID 20 hrs.

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? This module covers the knowledge, skills and right attitudes required with the provision of essential first aid in recognizing and responding to an emergency using basic life support measures. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this module, you should be able to: 1. assess the situation; 2. apply basic first aid technique; and 3. communicate details of the incident.

LESSON 1.
ASSESSING THE SITUATION WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with ways of assessing the situation in a certain workplace. This includes safety measures and precautions and ways of controlling hazards. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. identify physical hazards to oneself and to others health and safety; 2. minimize risk and casualty to oneself and for others; 3. assess casualtys vital signs and physical condition; and 4. identify signs on safety and precautionary measures. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Assessing the Situation. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test Alternative Response Test Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect. 1. Require and encourage workers to promptly report health and safety concerns to supervisors/teachers. 2. Consider the hazards associated with given tasks only. 3. The best way of controlling hazard is to redesign the work process, substitute a safer chemical for hazardous chemical or buy new equipment. 4. Workplace safety and health practice for all industries is not essential. 5. Hazards with a risk of serious injury and hazards to which workers are exposed frequently or for long periods of time are your top priority for control. 6. Protecting the workers through personal protective equipment is a practical way of reducing the risks in a workplace. 7. The primary cause of an accident is failure to observe safety practice. 3

8. Information from workers past accidents and near accidents is not necessary in reviewing workplace hazards. 9. Informing the supervisor or the teacher on every hazardous incident in a workplace is important. 10. Completion of the accident investigation report is not necessary in the first aid procedure. LET US STUDY First aid refers to medical attention that is usually administered immediately after the injury occurs and at the location where it occurred. It often consists of a one-time, short-term treatment and requires little technology or training to administer. First aid can include cleaning minor cuts, scrapes or scratches; treating a minor burn; applying bandages and dressings; using non-prescription medicine; draining blisters; removing debris from the eyes; massaging; and drinking fluids to relieve heat stress. Let Us Define First Aid an emergency treatment for injury or sudden illness, before regular medical care is available Hazard anything that has the potential to cause harm OHS stands for Occupation Health and Safety Risk the odds that the hazard will actually cause any harm Physical hazards are caused by: Noise Vibration Energy Weather Heat Cold Electricity Radiation Pressure Safety awareness First aid training not only provides you with knowledge and skill to give life support and other emergency care but also helps you develop safety awareness and habits that promote safety at home, at work, during recreation, and on the streets and highways. In the promotion of safety awareness, it is important to closely relate three terms: cause, effect, and prevention. Cause A primary consideration in determining the root cause of an accident is human failure. Human failure involves mental or physical 4

conditions of fatigue, inattention, functional handicaps of body.

impatience,

and

structural

or

The possibility of mechanical malfunctions or structural failures as contributing causes of accidents also require consideration. Faulty designs or engineering may create a built-in hidden hazard. Manufacturing or construction procedures could lack the quality control necessary to ensure safe performance or use. The raw material may contain some inordinate defect. When the in-depth study of an actual or hypothetical accident situation identifies all the causative factors, it becomes possible to determine what can be done to eliminate, control, or avoid the hazards. Effect However, long-range-possible permanent-effects are also involved in many situations. Permanent disability can make it difficult for a person to enjoy a fully active and productive life. The economic and social structure of the family unit is frequently disrupted. In an accident, mental anguish brought on by knowing that one may have contributed to anothers death or disability can linger on through lifetime. When analysis carefully considers both immediate and long-range or permanent effects of injury or sudden illness, it becomes obvious why every possible effort should be taken to eliminate, control, or avoid a situation that is hazardous to oneself or to others. Prevention A better understanding of the overall accident problem is developed if all the circumstances surrounding various types of accidents are carefully studied, including the broad range of first aid care that may be required. With such understanding, a person is likely to think and act more carefully, thoughtfully, and wisely. He tends to become more concerned for his own personal safety, as well as for that of others. He is likely to become genuinely interested in creating a safer environment on the highway, in the home, at the work, in school, and at play. He will have a more responsible attitude toward accident prevention. The causes of an accident indicate what accident-prone conditions and activities require attention. The effects of accident indicate why such conditions and activities deserve concerted attention. Preventive measures should include a consideration of how these conditions and activities can be eliminated, controlled, or avoided. Factors to consider when reviewing workplace hazards: Information from workers, past accidents, and near accidents Accidents in similar workplaces Workers Compensation Board claims workers health and safety concerns Occupational health committee minutes 5

New or modified jobs New equipment or work processes The possibility of exposure to hazardous substances and agents Product literature and information from suppliers New scientific information about risk of illness from working with substances at work Consider the hazards associated with tasks, equipment, and material. Conduct a job safety analysis (or a similar assessment) for all hazardous jobs.

Require and encourage workers to promptly report health and safety concerns. This is a proactive way of preventing accidents. You should have a system in place that: requires and encourages workers to report concerns to supervisors; protects workers from reprisals if they do raise concerns; requires supervisors to ensure workers report concerns; and requires supervisors to promptly correct concerns and documents what was done. Determine the nature of the risk associated with each hazard and assess the following situations: 1. Is there a risk of permanent disability? 2. Is there a risk of temporary disabling injury? 3. Is there a risk of minor disabling injury? 4. Then estimate the level of risk: How often and for how long are workers exposed to each hazard? How common are workplace accidents associated with each hazard? Hazards with a risk of serious injury and hazards to which workers are exposed frequently or for long periods of time are your top priority for control. How must hazards be controlled? How you control a hazard will depend on the circumstances. You must consider the seriousness of the risk and what controls are reasonable and practical in the circumstances (in the act, this is called reasonably practicable). The regulations may provide guidance in the minimum standards to be met. You should also consider best practices recommended by your industry. Hazard control must follow three steps: 1. Eliminate hazards posed by equipment, materials or work processes at the source. You may redesign the work process, substitute a safer chemical for a hazardous chemical, or buy a new equipment. These methods are often the best ways of controlling hazards. 6

2.

If it is not reasonable and practical to eliminate hazards, use engineering or other controls. Machine guards and noise enclosures are examples. If it is still not reasonable and practical to reduce the risks through these methods, protect the workers through personal protective equipment, training, supervision, and so forth.

3.

The person(s) responsible for risk assessment and control should be prepared to explain to workers, management, and the occupational health officer the extent of the risk associated with a hazard and the effectiveness of the chosen control(s). First Aid Procedures Minor First Aid Treatment See the emergency action plan for first aid kit locations. Inform your supervisor/teacher. Administer first aid treatment to the injury or wound. If a first aid kit is used, log the supplies used on the accident investigation report. Access to a first aid kit is not intended to be a substitute for medical attention. Provide details for the completion of the accident investigation report.

Non-Emergency Medical Treatment For non-emergency work-related injuries/illnesses requiring professional medical assistance management must authorize treatment. If you sustain an injury requiring treatment other than first aid: inform your supervisor/teacher; and provide details for the completion of the accident investigation report. Emergency Medical Treatment For severe injuries/illness requiring emergency treatment: seek immediate assistance and inform your supervisor/teacher; use emergency telephone numbers and instructions posted next to the telephone in your work area to request assistance and transportation to the local emergency care provider; and provide details for the completion of the accident investigation report.

Workplace safety and health practices for all industries include, but are not limited to the following: 1. Explanation of the employer's IIP Plan, emergency action plan, and fire prevention plan, and measures for reporting any unsafe conditions, work practices, injuries, and when additional instruction is needed. 2. Uses of appropriate clothing, including gloves footwear and personal protective equipment. 3. Information about chemical hazards to which workers could be exposed and other hazard communication program information. 4. Availability of toilet, hand washing and drinking water facilities. 5. Provisions for medical services and first aid including emergency procedures. 6. Provision of specific instructions to all workers regarding hazards unique to their job assignment. LET US REMEMBER It is very important to use appropriate clothing, including gloves, footwear and PPE in the workplace for ones safety. Require and encourage workers/students to promptly report health and safety concerns to prevent accidents.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post test Alternative Response Test Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect. 1. Require and encourage workers to promptly report health and safety concerns to supervisors/teachers. 2. Consider the hazards associated with given tasks only. 3. The best way of controlling hazard is to redesign the work process, substitute a safer chemical for hazardous chemical or buy new equipment. 4. Workplace safety and health practice for all industries is not essential. 5. Hazards with a risk of serious injury and hazards to which workers are exposed frequently or for long periods of time are your top priority for control. 6. Protecting the workers through personal protective equipment is a practical way of reducing the risks in a workplace. 7. The primary cause of an accident is failure to observe safety practice. 8

8. Information from workers past accidents and near accidents is not necessary in reviewing workplace hazards. 9. Informing the supervisor or the teacher on every hazardous incident in a workplace is important. 10. Completion of the accident investigation report is not necessary in the first aid procedure. LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. How do you control hazards in your workplace? 2. What procedures must be done in giving first aid treatment, non-emergency treatment, and emergency treatment? RESOURCES Materials 1. Personal protective equipment (PPE) 2. First aid kit 3. CBC 4. Learning guide 5. Signs on safety measures and precautions REFERENCES American National Red Cross. Advanced First Aid and Emergency Care. Double day and Company, Inc. Garden City, New York. http://www.summitholdings.com/safety/safetyPrograms/ga/firstA idProcedures.doc http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/87590ADADF3B-463B-8D8B4BA71763388F/0/gen_firstaid_smb_4351.pdf -

LESSON 2.
APPLYING BASIC FIRST AID TECHNIQUES WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with the application of basic first aid techniques. This includes first aid principle, first aid management, ways of caring casualty and first aid assistance. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. provide first aid management in accordance with established first aid procedures; 2. reassure casualty in a caring and calm manner and make her/him comfortable using available resources; 3. seek first aid assistance from others in a timely and appropriate manner; 4. monitor and respond casualtys condition in accordance with effective first aid principles and work place procedures; 5. record accurately details of casualtys physical condition, changes in conditions in line with organizational procedures; and 6. finalize casualty management according to casualtys needs and first aid principles. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Applying Basic First Aid Techniques. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test Alternative Response Test Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect. 1. The first aider deals with the whole situation, the injured person, and the injury or illness. 2. Young children and students with communication difficulties are sometimes unable or unwilling to describe the onset of illness or the nature of injury and pain. 10

3. Preventing first aid will protect health, improve safety, and increase productivity. 4. One way to slow the build-up of heat when wearing personal protective equipment is to use special cooling garments. 5. Controlled bleeding may lead to a condition known as shock. 6. Untreated shock from bleeding will almost always cause death. 7. If you hold one hand above your head and the other at your side, the lower hand will be pale while the higher one is red. 8. When using pressure points, make sure you are pressing on a point closer to the wound than the heart. 9. An ill person is often irritable, moody and hard to deal with. 10. People work slower and less efficiently when they are suffering from heat stress. LET US STUDY First aid is the immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available or is delayed. It includes well-selected words of encouragement, evidence of willingness to help, and promotion of confidence by demonstration of competence. The person giving first aid, the first aider, deals with the whole situation, the injured person, and the injury or illness. He knows what not to do as well as what to do; he avoids errors that are frequently made by untrained persons through well-meant but misguided efforts. He knows, too, that his first aid knowledge and skills can mean the difference between life and death, between temporary and permanent disability, and between rapid recovery and long hospitalization. Let Us Define Elevate to lift up; raise a certain thing. Heat stroke a serious failure of the bodys heat regulation mechanisms resulting from excessive exposure to intense heat and characterized by high fever, dry skin, collapse, and sometimes convulsion or coma. Hypothermia a subnormal body temperature.

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First aid Management Anyone can and must provide first aid in the following manners: 1. Ensure the safety of yourself and others. Be alert to dangers at the scene. 2. Call for help. Do not hesitate to call the Emergency Services if you believe that it is in the best interest of the casualty to do so. 3. Call ambulance. To call ambulance, say the address you are calling from, the persons condition and the specific location. Basic First Aid Techniques: A. Preventing heat stress Preventing heat stress will protect the persons health, make him safe and increase his productivity. One should prevent and treat heat illness before it threatens his life; otherwise, it can impair his function resulting to less efficiency. Key elements for controlling heat stress are:

Drink one glass of water every 15 to 30 minutes work, depending on the heat and humidity. This is the best way to replace lost body fluid. Read medication labels to know what causes the body to react to the sun and heat. Avoid alcohol and drugs as they can increase the effects of heat. Build up tolerance for working in the heat. Heat tolerance is normally built up over a one to two week time period. Take breaks to cool down. A 10 - 15 minute break every two hours is effective. Adapt work and pace to the weather. Provide heat stress training to workers and supervisors. Manage work activities and match them to employees' physical condition. Use special protective gear, such as cooling garments and cooling vests on "early entry" workers.

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B. Heat stroke first aid Move the victim to a cool place. Remove heavy clothing; light clothing can be left in place. Immediately cool the victim by any available means. Such as placing ice packs at areas with abundant blood supply (neck, armpits, and groin). Wet towels or sheets are also effective. The cloths should be kept wet with cool water. To prevent hypothermia continue cooling the victim until the temperature drops to 102 degrees Fahrenheit. Fig. 1 Cooling Vest Keep the victim's head and shoulders slightly elevated. Seek medical attention immediately. All heat stroke victims need hospitalization. Care for seizures if they occur. Do not use aspirin or acetaminophen. C. Heat exhaustion first aid Move the victim to a cool place. Keep the victim lying down with legs straight and elevated at 8-12 inches. Cool the victim by applying cold packs or wet towels or cloths. Fan the victim. Give the victim cold water if he or she is fully conscious. If no improvement is noted within 30 minutes, seek medical attention. When possible, schedule heavy tasks and work requiring protective gear for cooler, morning or evening hours. Prolonged, extreme hot temperatures mandate the postponement of non-essential tasks. Most protective garments limit sweat evaporation (but not sweat production) and chemical-resistant suits can cause rapid dehydration if sweat is not replaced. One way to slow the buildup of heat when wearing PPE is to use special cooling garments.

If the temperature is above 70 degrees Fahrenheit: Cooling vests may be useful when pesticide handlers are wearing chemicalresistant suits and are either doing heavy or moderate work for a prolonged period. If the temperature is above 80 degrees Fahrenheit: Working in chemical-resistant suits for more than a half hour without taking frequent water and rest breaks is unsafe. Cooling garments and frequent breaks are recommended.

Powered air-purifying respirators and supplied-air respirators generally feel cooler than other types of respirators because breathing resistance is minimized and the airstream has a cooling effect.

13

D. Ways to Control Bleeding

1. Direct Pressure
The first step in controlling a bleeding wound is to plug the hole. Blood needs to clot in order to start the healing process and stop the bleeding. Just like ice won't form on the rapids of a river, blood will not coagulate when it's flowing. The best way to stop it is to put pressure directly on the wound. If you have some type of Fig. 2 Exerting direct pressure to gauze, use it. Gauze pads hold control bleeding the blood on the wound and help the components of the blood stick together, promoting clotting. If you don't have gauze, terrycloth towels work almost as well. If the gauze or towel soaks through with blood, add another layer. Never take off the gauze. Peeling blood soaked gauze off a wound removes vital clotting agents and encourages bleeding to resume. Uncontrolled bleeding may lead to a condition known as shock. Shock is essentially a decrease in blood flow to the brain and other important organs. Untreated, shock from bleeding will almost always cause death. The most important step in treating shock is to control bleeding. However, if the victim is already showing signs of shock, it's important to take the necessary steps to stabilize the victim until help arrives.

2. Elevate Above the Heart


Gravity makes blood flow down easier than it flows up. If you hold one hand above your head and the other at your side, the lower hand will be red while the higher one is pale. The second step to control bleeding is to use this principle. Elevate the wound above the heart. By elevating the wound, you slow the flow of blood. As the blood slows, it becomes easier to

Fig. 3 Elevate above the heart to control bleeding

14

stop it with direct pressure. Remember, it must be above the heart and you must keep direct pressure on it.

3. Use Pressure Points


Pressure points are areas of the body where blood vessels run close to the surface. By pressing on these blood vessels, blood flow will be slowed, allowing direct pressure to stop bleeding. When using pressure points, make sure you are pressing on a point closer to the heart than the wound. Pressing on a blood vessel further from the heart than the wound will have no effect on the bleeding.

Fig. 4 Use pressure points to control bleeding

Common pressure points: Arm between shoulder and elbow - brachial artery Groin area along bikini line - femoral artery Behind the knee - popliteal artery Remember to keep the wound elevated above the heart and keep pressure directly on the wound. POINTS TO CONSIDER DURING AN ACCIDENT 1. Dont panic. Stay calm and do the right things. You can help the victim by doing a few basic first aid steps. 2. Remove additional hazards. Shut off the equipment and remove any other hazards. Shout for help, but dont wait for a response. 3. Check airway. Is the victim breathing? Ask if he/she is OK. Ask for a deep breath. 4. Check breathing. If no verbal response is given, and the victim is not breathing, check mouth and throat for blockage. If this does not help, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). If victim can respond, ask "Where do you hurt? Does your neck hurt?"

15

CPR In Three Simple Steps: a. Call. Check the victim for unresponsiveness. If there is no response, call the emergency office and return to the victim. In most locations the emergency dispatcher can assist you with CPR instructions. b. Blow. Tilt the head back and listen for breathing. If not breathing normally, pinch nose and cover the mouth with yours and blow until you see the chest rise. Give 2 breaths. Each breath should take 1 second. c. Pump. If the victim is still not breathing normally, coughing or moving, begin chest compressions. Push down on the chest 11/2 to 2 inches 30 times right between the nipples. Pump at the rate of 100/minute, faster than once per second. 5. Check circulation. Expect a lot of blood in some injuries. Direct your attention to the major source of injury. 6. Control bleeding. If the injured part is not entrapped in equipment and is vigorously bleeding, immediately apply a tight pressure bandage and a splint. 7. Check spine. Check for signs of back injury, such as back pain, paralysis or position. 8. Splint any fracture. If the injured part is not entrapped in equipment and is not vigorously bleeding, apply a bandage and an air splint to control bleeding. 9. Get help. If you discover the accident away from immediate help, assist the victim first and then obtain help. Phone or radio a neighbor and have the neighbor contact others for help. Be sure to report the exact location of the accident. Return to the victim.

16

10. Transportation. If the victim must be moved to reach medical help, special precautions must be taken. This is especially true if you suspect: a neck or back injury; multiple injuries; or upper leg injuries. Support the victim preferably on something flat. Do not change the person's position, especially in a back or neck injury. Tie the victim in place to prevent any movement and proceed cautiously. Casualty Care Caring for a patient requires the home nurse to respond not only to his/her physical needs but also the psychological aspects. When a person is ill, his/her activities are limited. This is the reason why patients feel frustrated and get depressed. They are often irritable, moody and hard to deal with. A CASUALTYS PLEA "I'm frightened and in pain. PLEASE .." 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Treat me as a person not just as an injury. Talk to me and listen to what I have to say. Remember my hearing is the last sense to go and the first to return if I become unconscious. Call me by name. Reassure me - kind words a sympathetic touch. Be aware of my modesty. Be aware of my comfort - the glare of the sun on a hot day, lying on a cold, wet surface. So easy to alleviate. Don't discuss problems in front of me - I trust you and have confidence that you can help me - don't destroy my faith. Treat me gently but firmly. Be honest but tactful with me. Warn me of what you are about to do - I'll be ready for the discomfort. Try to shield me from horrific sights. Let me find my own comfortable position. Let me help myself if I can. Get someone to sit and comfort me. Try and understand how I feel. And Please, Please don't leave me if I am dying.

LET US REMEMBER Keep the wound elevated above the heart and keep pressure directly on the wound. The most important in treating shock is to control bleeding.

17

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test Alternative Response Test Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect. 1. The first aider deals with the whole situation, the injured person, and the injury or illness. 2. Young children and students with communication difficulties are sometimes unable or unwilling to describe the onset of illness or the nature of injury and pain. 3. Preventing first aid will protect health, improve safety, and increase productivity. 4. One way to slow the build-up of heat when wearing personal protective equipment is to use special cooling garments. 5. Controlled bleeding may lead to a condition known as shock. 6. Untreated shock from bleeding will almost always cause death. 7. If you hold one hand above your head and the other at your side, the lower hand will be pale while the higher one is red. 8. When using pressure points, make sure you are pressing on a point closer to the wound than the heart. 9. An ill person is often irritable, moody and hard to deal with. 10. People work slower and less efficiently when they are suffering from heat stress. LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Demonstrate the three ways on how to control bleeding. 2. Determine and apply the first aid in preventing heat stress, heat stroke and heat exhaust.

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RESOURCES Materials Cooling vest Personal protective equipment (PPE) First aid kit CBC Reference materials REFERENCES http://firstaid.about.com/ http://www.cdc.gov/nasd/menu/topic/firstaid.html http://medi-smart.com/fa-cpr.htm

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LESSON 3.
COMMUNICATING DETAILS OF INCIDENTS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with ways of communicating details of incidents. This includes communication system, ways of determining casualtys condition and rules on emergency services. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. request appropriate medical assistance using relevant communications media and equipment; 2. convey accurately details of casualtys condition, management activities, and emergency services/relieving personnel; and 3. prepare reports to supervisor in a timely manner, presenting all relevant facts according to established company procedures; WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Communicating Details of Incidents. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test Alternative Response Test Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect. 1. Accidents happen anytime and anywhere. 2. Seeking medical assistance can involve calling an ambulance. 3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be done when the victim breathes fast. 4. It is more effective to totally integrate health and safety into normal work procedures. 20

5. If the victim must be moved to reach medical help, do not change the persons position, especially in a back or neck injury. 6. Panic when someone is in danger. 7. If you discover the accident away from immediate help, assist the victim first and then obtain help. 8. If the injured part is not entrapped in equipment and is not vigorously bleeding, apply a bandage and an air splint to control bleeding. 9. History of the event, medical history of the casualty and symptoms are the factors to consider when calling for medical assistance. 10. Check mouth and throat for blockage if no verbal response is given and the victim is not breathing. LET US STUDY Accidents happen anywhere and anytime. The first response to an accident is the most important. The right response to an accident is more important than an immediate, incorrect one. Often times, first aid give at the scene can improve the chance of survival and recovery of the accident victim. The sooner the victim receives advanced medical care, the better. When approaching the accident scene, assess the apparent injury of the victim as well as the potential danger to yourself and the victim. Your safety must be the primary concern. You are needed to go for help, and rescuers do not need more victims to care for. Stay calm at an accident scene. Shut off equipment and remove other potential hazards at an accident scene. Know how to respond to accidents where a limb is severed. Let Us Define Casualty anyone who was hurt or killed in an accident. Incident something that happens as a result of or in connection with something more important. Deciding when to call for medical assistance First aid is exactly what its name implies a first level of assistance. Further medical assistance should be sought if the first aider determines if needed. Seeking medical assistance can involve calling for an ambulance. In a less urgent circumstance, it can mean informing the childs or students emergency contacts that the first aiders training 21

indicates that advice from a medical practitioner is advisable. Assessing the need for further assistance is sometimes difficult. The following information can be used: 1. History of the event. When casualties have been subjected to great violence, as in car crashes or falls from heights, it can be assumed that they are critically injured until proven otherwise. The same can be said regarding casualties who have been exposed to fire or explosions, electrical injury, chemical injury or where poisoning is suspected. In all of these cases, it is reasonable to call for the help of ambulance personnel. 2. Medical history of the casualty. When a child or student has a known medical condition, the service should have an on site health support plan. This should include guidelines about when the individual requires more than a standard first aid response. 3. Symptoms. If pain is severe and persistent, or if there is persistent shortness of breath, which is unrelieved by the usual measures undertaken, it is reasonable to call for ambulance assistance. How must information be communicated to workers? Workers must understand the risks of the job to prevent accidents and how risks are to be avoided. Methods of communicating information about hazards 1 Make sure anyone at risk or anyone responsible for ensuring the safety of others understands the risks and how they can be controlled. 2 Implement safe work procedures and make compliance a condition of employment. 3 Make supervisors responsible and accountable for ensuring that workers understand and use safe work procedures. 4 Educate workers on the risks, the use of hazard controls, and safe work procedures. Start health and safety education right away by orientating new workers and workers transferred to new jobs. Make sure workers receive additional training when new equipment or procedures are implemented and when there is inadequate safety performance. 5 Require subcontractors to implement safe work procedures and educate their workers. It is more effective to totally integrate health and safety into normal work procedures than it is to have one procedure for safety and another for production or customer/client service. 22

LET US REMEMBER Workers/students have to understand the risks of the job, and how these risks are to be controlled. Information such as history of the event, medical history of the casualty and symptoms are the factors when to call for medical assistance.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test Alternative Response Test Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if incorrect. 1. Accidents happen anytime and anywhere. 2. Seeking medical assistance can involve calling an ambulance. 3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be done when the victim breathes faster. 4. It is more effective to totally integrate health and safety into normal work procedures. 5. If the victim must be moved to reach medical help, do not change the persons position, especially in a back or neck injury. 6. Panic when someone is in danger. 7. If you discover the accident away from immediate help, assist the victim first and then obtain help. 8. If the injured part is not entrapped by equipment and is not vigorously bleeding, apply a bandage and an air splint to control bleeding. 9. History of the event, medical history of the casualty and symptoms are the factors to consider when calling for medical assistance. 10. Check mouth and throat for blockage if no verbal response is given, and the victim is not breathing.

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LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Demonstrate the cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 2. Demonstrate the steps to be undertaken at an accident through role playing. RESOURCES Materials Media materials (telephone, mobile phone) Personal protective equipment (PPE) First aid kit CBC Learning guide REFERENCES http://medi-smart.com/fa-cpr.htm www.chess.sa.edu.au

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ANSWER KEY Lesson 1 Pre-test: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True False True False True 6. True 7. True 8. False 9. True 10. False Post-test: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True False True False True 6. True 7. True 8. False 9. True 10. False

Lesson 2 Pre-test: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True True False True False 6. True 7. False 8. False 9. True 10. True Post-test: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True True False True False 6. True 7. False 8. False 9. True 10. True

Lesson 3 Pre-test: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True True False True True 6. False 7. True 8. True 9. True 10. True Post-test: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. True True False True True 6. False 7. True 8. True 9. True 10. True

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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL


SECOND YEAR

Unit of Competency:

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Module No.: 5 Module Title:

CONDUCT PRE-OPERATIONAL AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES CONDUCTING PRE-OPERATIONAL AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES 1

What Is This Module About?................................................................2 What Will You Learn? ..........................................................................2 LESSON 1. Preparing Tools, Equipment And Aquaculture Facilities .......................3 What Is This Lesson About? ............................................................. 3 What Will You Learn? ....................................................................... 3 What Do You Already Know? ............................................................ 3 Let Us Study .................................................................................... 4 Let Us Remember ............................................................................. 9 How Much Have You Learned? ......................................................... 9 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 11 Resources ...................................................................................... 11 References ..................................................................................... 11 LESSON 2 Determining Water Parameters ..........................................................12 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 12 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 12 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 13 Let Us Remember ........................................................................... 27 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 27 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 28 Resources ...................................................................................... 28 References ..................................................................................... 28 LESSON 3. Securing Pond Facilities ....................................................................29 What Is This Lesson About? ........................................................... 29 What Will You Learn? ..................................................................... 29 What Do You Already Know? .......................................................... 29 Let Us Study .................................................................................. 31 How Much Have You Learned? ....................................................... 33 Let Us Apply What You Have Learned ............................................. 34 Resources ...................................................................................... 34 References ..................................................................................... 34 Answer Key ....................................................................................35

MODULE V
QUALIFICATION TITLE : UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MODULE TITLE : AQUACULTURE NC II CONDUCT PRE-OPERATIONAL AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES CONDUCTING PREOPERATIONAL AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES 140 HOURS

NOMINAL DURATION

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? This module covers the knowledge, skills and right attitudes in preparing tools, equipment, and aquaculture facilities, determining water parameters and securing pond facilities. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing the module, you should be able to: 1. prepare tools, equipment and aquaculture facilities. 2. determine water parameters. 3. secure pond facilities.

LESSON 1.
PREPARING TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND AQUACULTURE FACILITIES WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals on how to prepare tools, equipment and aquaculture facilities. This includes the proper ways of maintaining equipment, tools and materials for aquaculture operation, ways of monitoring equipment and facilities, determining good quality of equipment, tools and materials, procedures in preparing aquaculture facilities and ways of reporting defective tools, equipment and facilities. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. check and clean tools, equipment and aquaculture facilities. 2. check harvesting tools, net cages and frames for damage and repair. 3. inspect aquaculture facilities and perform repairs. 4. conduct pond preparation in accordance with organizational standard procedure. 5. clean and disinfect tools following the standard procedure. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Preparing Tools, Equipment and Aquaculture Facilities. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test A. Read and understand the questions below then select the correct answer. 1. Harvesting tools, net cages and frames should be _______ after use. a. cleaned c. stored b. checked d. all of the above 2. Which factor is not included in maintaining equipment, tools and materials in aquaculture operation. a. farm tools, equipment and materials are checked and cleaned after use. 4

b. harvesting tools and equipment are checked for damage and repair c. farm tools, equipment and materials must be branded d. inspect aquaculture facilities and perform repair 3. __________ is a great factor in determining the quality of equipment, tools and equipment. a. Durability c. Appearance b. Low-cost d. All of the above 4. What is used for scooping fish out of the water? a. scoop net c. bucket b. basin d. weighing scale 5. It is necessary to _________ the tools, equipment and facilities before using in operation. a. check c. keep b. dispose d. store B. Identify whether each item is: a. tool b. equipment the letter of your answer in your quiz notebook. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. bucket water pump thermometer scoop net nets c. facility. Write

6. screens 7. pond 8. weighing scale 9. basin 10. gate

LET US STUDY All tools, materials and equipment needed in the aquaculture activities should be readily available before operation. Let Us Define Pond draining the total elimination of water, fish stocks including predators and unwanted species. Pond washing the letting in and out of filtered water in the pond after poisoning. Aeration the process of adding oxygen in the pond. When you are purchasing new tools and equipment, consider the price and quality. Quality tools and equipment need safekeeping and maintenance. Maintaining farm tools and equipment on a regular basis assures that they will be readily be used for farm works. Following the proper ways of monitoring the maintenance of tools, equipment and facilities in aquaculture will ensure efficiency, effectivity and serviceability. 5

1. Clean the tools and equipment used and check them for any damage. 2. Ensure that the tools and equipment are properly guarded 3. Use the appropriate tools for the job. 4. Read the manual before using new tools and equipment. 5. Harvesting tools, net cages cast net and frames are checked for damage and repair. 6. Follow instructions on safe procedures in using tools, equipment and aquaculture facilities. 7. Farm equipment and facilities are checked according to their use. 8. Store tools safely to prevent damage and unauthorized use. Checking Harvesting Tools, Net Fish Cages and Frames Kinds of Harvesting Tools: 1. Seine a. cover nets b. cast nets c. pull or drag nets d. gill nets 2. Harvesting Containers: a. pale b. buckets c. styrofoam boxes

Pointers to consider in maintaining harvesting tools, net cages and frames in working condition 1. Before harvesting, seine meshes should be inspected for any damage. Torn meshes should be patched or mended. 2. Harvesting containers should be checked for any damage, replace any damage containers. 3. Net cages and frames should be in good condition during fish culture operation. Mend or patch torn meshes. Frames should be replaced if destroyed. Inspecting Aquaculture facilities a. Fishpond Before stocking, fishpond should be prepared. Leaks and seepages should be checked and repaired. Water control structures should be screened properly in order to prevent the entry of fish enemies. Wind and wave breaker should be installed to protect dikes from erosion. b. Fish pen and fish cage. 6

For daily and routine work, check loose twine and torn meshes of the nets and repair immediately by mending or patching. Remove by brushing bio-fouling organisms such as fresh water algae, sponges, and debris that set on the nylon net as soon as they are detected. Plenty of accumulated fouling organisms obstruct good water circulation. Check the net screen everyday for wear and tear as there might be possible damages that lead to the escape of fish stock. Dive occasionally and inspect the condition of nettings and other materials submerged under water. c. Fish tanks Tanks for fish culture be ready for operation. Check accessories such as water pump, aeration system, electricity, and other life support system to the fish. They should be in good operation when needed in a production cycle Conducting pond preparation Pond preparation is conducted in accordance with organizational standard procedure. Procedures in pond preparation 1. Total draining of fishpond- to eliminate old stocks, predators and unwanted species, total draining of fishpond is important. 2. Pond poisoning or pesticide application- to be sure that all predators and unwanted species are eliminated; it is recommended to poison the pond. Poison or pesticides are applied by spraying it all over the pond bottom.

Figure 1. Pond draining

It is advised not to spray poison in a totally drained pond, because it is difficult to wash the pond when the poison sticks to the soil.

3. Pond washing- after all the old stocks and unwanted species died, pond washing is done by letting filtered come in and out of the pond. The effect of poison will be gone easier by pond washing. 4. Leveling of pond bottombottom of the pond is leveled to remove excess mud and dirt. It also facilitates harvesting specially during seining.

Figure 2. Pond Poisoning

5. Sun drying of pond bottom- in old ponds, it is better to expose the pond bottom to sunlight and allow the soil to crack. The toxic gases evaporates and eliminates faster in a sun dried pond bottom. 6. Screening of water inlet and outlet- before filling the pond with water, fine mesh screen is installed in water inlet to avoid entrance of unwanted species and to water outlet to prevent escape of fish after stocking. 7. Filling-in water- pond is ready to be filled-up with water to Figure 3. Pond screening the favorable depth. After all the inlets and outlets are installed with screen. 8. Application of lime- if the pond becomes acidic, application of lime is recommended. 9. Basal fertilization- growth of natural food in the pond is produced through basal fertilization. Organic fertilizer is applied by broadcast method all over the pond bottom. Combination of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer is also applied by hanging or platform method. When the natural food is already present in the pond, the pond preparation is completed. Ways of Identifying Defective Tools, Equipment and Facilities Before beginning a work in a farm, be sure you are authorized to perform the work and inspect tools and equipment. If a procedure is potentially hazardous to others in the area, warn fellow workers accordingly. Use warning signs or barriers, as necessary. 8

Notify your farm manager or supervisor if you notice any unsafe conditions such as the following: defective tools or equipment improperly guarded machines oil, gas and other leaks Inform other fellow workers if you have seen any unsafe work practice, however, be careful not to distract a person who is working with power tools.

Figure 4. Commonly used farm tools and equipment

Safety check Do not use tools and equipment that have been tagged as faulty. Make sure that you understand and observe all legislative and personal safety procedures when carrying out the tasks. If you are unsure of what these are, ask your farm manager. Points to note: Lock out and tag out procedures that have been developed to prevent avoidable and unnecessary workshop accidents. The tag notifies other users that the tool or component is dangerous to use. Any equipment that is found to be faulty needs to be identified so that other users are not put at risk. Write the fault, the date and your name on the tag, Attach the tag to the tools. Smaller equipment should also be tagged and placed in a location where is not forgotten. Basic workshop tools that are broken or worn should be replaced. Make sure to tag the tool as faulty or broken and do not use it until you buy a replacement. Then discard the tool. 9

Other tools that have been identified as faulty, due to failure parts, should also be tagged and set aside. The tool can be used again after the repair has made. LET US REMEMBER Tools and equipment are checked and cleaned. Make sure that you understand and observe the safety procedures when carrying out the tasks. Consciousness in doing task is very important

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test A. Read and understand the questions below then select the correct answer. 1. Harvesting tools, net cages and frames should be _______ after use. a. cleaned c. stored b. checked d. all of the above 2. Which factor is not included in maintaining equipment, tools and materials in aquaculture operation. a. farm tools, equipment and materials are checked and cleaned after use. b. harvesting tools and equipment are checked for damage and repair c. farm tools, equipment and materials must be branded d. inspect aquaculture facilities and perform repair 3. __________ is a great factor in determining the quality of equipment, tools and equipment. a. Durability c. Appearance b. Low-cost d. All of the above 4. What is used for scooping fish out of the water? a. scoop net c. bucket b. basin d. weighing scale 5. It is necessary to _________ the tools, equipment and facilities before using in operation. a. check c. keep b. dispose d. store 10

B. Identify each item as (a. tool b. equipment c. facility) which are necessary in preparing pre-operational aquaculture activities. Write only the letter of the corresponding category for each of the following items. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. bucket water pump thermometer scoop net nets 6. screens 7. pond 8. weighing scale 9. basin 10. gate

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. By following the standard procedures, each student will perform the actual checking, cleaning and storing of tools and equipment. 2. Inspect and write a report in the condition of tools, equipment and facilities based on the checklist given: Y N CRITERIA 1. Are tools and equipment stored in proper storage area when not in use? 2. Are defective tools, equipment and facilities need repair? 3. Are tools, equipment and facilities kept clean? 4. Are tools and equipment used kept in good condition? 5. Are tools and equipment ready to dispose?

RESOURCES Facilities Pond Gate Filter nets Pipe Screen Slabs Drainage system REFERENCES Calmorin L. P,Calmorin M.A. Intruduction to Fishery Technology De Guzman I,A. Suratos C.P. Technology and Home Economics Equipment weighing scale refractometer water pump Tools scoop net basin buckets thermometer

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LESSON 2.
DETERMINING WATER PARAMETERS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with determining water parameters. This includes ways of monitoring water parameters, procedures in changing water and water analysis interpretation. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. monitor water parameter in accordance with the requirement of species to be stocked. 2. suit water parameter to species needs. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Determining Water Parameters. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-Test Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. A simple instrument used in predicting dissolved oxygen in the pond. a. thermometer c. DO (dissolved oxygen) meter b. pH meter d. refractometer 2. The device that tells whether the pond water is acidic, alkaline or neutral is called ________. a. pH meter c. salinometer b. thermometer d. secchi disc 3. Which of the following water parameters is not included in monitoring the water environment for growing fish? a. temperature c. water supply b. salinity d. dissolved oxygen 4. pH scale ranges from 0-14. If the water pH ranges below 7, the reaction is a. base c. neutral b. acid d. alkaline 12

5. A circular metal or wooden device painted alternately black and white attached to graduated pole or rope that used to measure the transparency of water. a. Thermometer c. Secchi disk b. Refractometer d. pH meter 6. If dissolved oxygen reaches low levels, fish will show signs like a. gasping for air at the surface c. swimming alone b. eating actively d. all of the above 7. Which of the following factors may cause turbidity in the pond water? a. rising waste c. planters b. soil erosion d. all of the above 8. Management technique in preventing problems with dissolved oxygen depletion. a. fertilization c. feeding b. acclimatization d. avoid overstocking 9. Water temperature is measured by using a. secchi disk c. DO meter b. refractometer d. thermometer 10. An ideal range of pH for the growth of fish is a. 4 c. 6 b. 4-5 d. 6.5-9 LET US STUDY The aquatic environment is composed of a myriad of variables. Fish culturists must know those variables that potentially stress the fish in order to explain the causes of fish culture problem. Those aspects of water quality that may cause poor growth or death of fish should be their major concern. Let Us Define Water quality parameters the sources and losses profile in the environment, which affect fish and other aquatic organisms; remedies of poor water quality. Water transparency the condition of water with the presence of silting and non-silting suspended particles. Suspended inorganic matter the colloidal clay and coarse suspensions of soil particles Suspended organic material the colloidal or suspended remains of organisms in various stages of decay, living plankton, fungi, bacteria 13

Water Quality Parameters 1. 2. 3. 4. Temperature Dissolved oxygen pH Inorganic nitrogen -ammonia -nitrite -nitrate 5. Gases (hydrogen sulfide, methane,etc.) 6. Turbidity (clay, plankton) Temperature Absorption of solar energy and its dissipation as heat have profound effects on the thermal structure, water mass stratification, and circulation patterns of water environment. Fish are cold-blooded and dependent upon water temperature in which they live. Every fish species has an ideal temperature range within which it grows quickly. This is called the optimum temperature range, and it means that this fish grows best at temperatures within that range. In a fish pond, the fish should live at their optimum to grow well. Since fish have different temperature requirements, the fish culturist must choose the ones which will grow best in the temperature range of the pond. Common pond fishes and their optimum temperature ranges Common Name Tilapia Gourami Tawes Common carp Grass carp Eel Silver carp Rohu Mrigal Catla Scientific Name Oreochromis mossambicus Osphronemus goramy Puntius javanicus Cyprinus carpio Ctenopharyngodon idellus Anguilla japonica Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Labeo rohita Cirrhinus mrigal Catla catla Water Temperature (oC) 25 - 35 24 - 28 25 - 33 20 - 25 25 - 30 20 28 25 30 25 30 25 30 25 30

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Monitoring Water Quality for fish culture Measurement of water temperature Water temperature is measured using water thermometer. The instrument is dipped in the body of water at different depth. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Oxygen is a gas that fish, animals and human beings need in order to breathe through respiration. It is the process of taking oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide. Fish will not grow well when the oxygen supply is low, and they will die if the oxygen level gets too high.
DO

Figure 1. Laboratory thermometer

DO is one of the most important water quality parameters. Factors affecting oxygen solubility Atmospheric pressure. Oxygen solubility is inversely related to altitude, the major factor that affects atmospheric pressure. Temperature. As temperature increases the solubility of oxygen in water decreases. This explains why cold water contains more oxygen than warm water Salinity. The solubility of oxygen decreases by roughly 5% for each 9,000 mg/l increase in salinity. At 15oC, the solubility of oxygen in sea water is 2.3 mg/liter less than in pure water. However, for fresh waters the influence of salinity on the solubility of oxygen may be ignored.
Pressure, Temperature, Salinity Figure 2. Relationship Of Oxygen Solubility With Pressure Temperature And Salinity

How is Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentration expressed? mg/l or ppm per cent saturation oxygen tension - represents the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere required to hold a certain concentration of oxygen in the water. 15

Principal Sources of Dissolved Oxygen 1. Atmospheric Oxygen The diffusion of oxygen into natural waters is slow, except under conditions of strong turbulence, so the most important source of oxygen comes from photosynthesis by aquatic plants. 2. Phytoplankton photosynthesis Light CO2 + H2O Nutrients Dissolved Oxygen Losses 1. respiration of fish and negative diffusion 2. respiration of benthos and other aquatic organisms 3. respiration of plankton 4. chemical oxidation Causes of oxygen depletion 1. phytoplankton die-offs 2. sudden destratification of ponds may also cause oxygen depletion
Figure 3. Water sample of dissolved oxygen
18 16

C6H12O6 + 6O2

Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 10 12 3 6

Time (hour)

Figure 4. Relationship of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations over time

Effects of Dissolved Oxygen to Fish DO conc.


(ppm)

Effect Fish would die if exposed for long periods Lethal to fish if exposure is prolonged Fish survive, but growth slow for prolonged exposure Desirable range 16

< 0.3 0.3 - 1.0 1.0 - 5.0 >5

Dissolved oxygen management techniques 1. Projection method to predict minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) during the night

10 9 8

8 mg/l

measured values

D.O. (mg/l)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6 mg/l projected value 2 mg/l

8 p.m.

12 midnight

4 a.m.

2. Flushing of high DO water into low DO pond water is effective and inexpensive, provided an adequate supply of high DO water is available. Sources of such water include nearby streams, wells, ponds or coastal waters. Flushing by gravity flow is the least expensive, but not often available.

Figure 5. Flushing of water

3. Mechanical aeration emergency aeration a. Paddlewheel aerators - circulates and splashes water into the air; generally considered the most effective b. Floating sprayer types - pumps water from below the surface and spray it into the air c. Air blowers - injects air either at one point in the ponds or through a perforated pipe d. Venturi aerators - sucks air into a pipe through which the low DO water is pumped

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Figure 6. Paddle wheel

Figure 7. Air form compressor

1. WINKLER METHOD standard method; laboratory analysis Advantage 1. Accurate results 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Disadvantages quite laborious needs training to get familiarize with the method chemicals are expensive laboratory is essential results are not immediate at the field

Figure 8. Collection of water sample using Kemmerer water sampler.

Figure 9. Placing water sample in BOD bottles.

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Figure 10. Addition of chemicals to fix dissolved oxygen (DO). The orange color developed after the addition of chemicals represent the amount of DO. The more intense the color is, the higher is the DO.

Figure 11. Fixed samples are brought to the laboratory for titration to determine dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration

Things needed for Winkler method

Figure 12.Kemmerer Water Sampler

Figure 13. Chemicals for dissolved oxygen (DO) fixation

Figure 14.BOD Bottle

Fig. 15. Pipette

Figure 16. Aspirators

Figure 17. Beaker

Figure 18. Titration set up

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2. POTENTIOMETER METHOD employs the use of dissolved oxygen meter Advantages 1. accurate results 2. direct measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) 3. easy to use 4. can be hooked up to a computer 5. perfect for strata sampling Disadvantages 1. expensive apparatus 2. battery operated 3. needs to calibrate with pressure in high altitude areas and salinity

Figure 19. Dissolved Oxygen meter

Figure 20. Water sampler for gas analysis

pH 1. 2. 3. 4. pH below 7, the water is considered to be acidic. pH 7, the water is neutral. pH above 7 is basic/alkaline. The measurement of hydrogen ions (H+) in water is calibrated from a scale of 1 to 14.

What affects pH? 1. Photosynthesis by aquatic plants removes carbon dioxide from water during daylight and causes a rise in pH. 2. Plants can continue to use the small quantities of CO2 available at pH values above 8.34, and HCO3- may be absorbed by plant cells and some of its carbon used in photosynthesis. 3. The pH of soft water ponds with heavy phytoplankton blooms may reach 9 or 10 during periods of intense photosynthesis. 4. During the night, respiratory processes release CO2 into the water and the pH declines. 5. Removal of CO2 also causes shifts in concentrations of HCO3- and CO2- during a diet cycle.

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Effects of pH to fish pH 4 4-5 < 6.5 6.5 9 11 Effect to fish acid death point no reproduction will occur slow growth desirable range for fish culture alkaline death point

What are the effects of low alkalinity? Low-alkalinity water is usually unproductive. They have low nutrient concentration, little plant growth, large variations in pH, and low fish yields. Dissolved metals such as copper, zinc and aluminum are more toxic to fish in water with low alkalinity. In water with ample alkalinity, metals form relatively non-toxic hydroxide and carbonate precipitates, and dissolved carbonate and bicarbonate complexes.

Soil Conditioning Soil acidity limits the production of national fish food by limiting the availability of plant nutrients, and in extreme case cause fish kills. To ensure fish production the control of acidity is of primary importance. Source of Acidity 1. Vegetation - areas where the original and dominant vegetation is bacauan (Rhizophora) and mangrove species production tannic acid. 2. Soil sulfides during the process of excavation and leveling of pond bottom layer of soil containing sulfur (acid zone) are disturbed or brought up and the oxidation of soil sulfides produces sulfuric acid.

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3. Run-off acid elements wash away from upland and carried into the intertidal zone. Also from fishpond dikes whose materials contain acid and washed during heavy rain. Methods of Controlling or Correcting Acidity 1. Leaching during the process of drying pond bottoms, acid forming elements are exposed to air and sunlight, and by oxidation will combine with water or form precipitates. Acidity is significantly reduced by washing or flushing pond bottoms. This process is effective in slightly acidic soil. In extremely acidic soil, it will take a longer time to correct acidity. 2. Liming Liming efficiency: The theoretical neutralizing efficiency of lime is based on that of pure calcium carbonate (CaC03), it being assigned a value of 100%. A second factor which becomes important when evaluating the actual efficiency of lime is the size of the particles. The larger the particles the slower the materials will react in the soil, and the less its actual efficiency. There are three commonly use forms of lime: a. Unslaked lime (Ca0 or quicklime), manufactured by heating crushed limestone and shells is the fastest acting form. It has an efficiency rating of 173% CaC03. Its known use is to control soil and water acidity, and pond pests and diseases. (Caution in handling). b. Slaked lime [Ca(OH)2 or Hydrated lime] also a burned lime with water added, has an efficiency rating of 135% CaC03. It is also fast acting. c. Agricultural lime (CaC03 or dolomitic lime) is crushed limestones or shells. Its theoretical efficiency is less than 100%. This material is relatively slow acting but due to comparatively low cost and eased of application it may be the best for long term control of acidity. Procedures of Lime Application. 1. Soil Analysis- the needs of pond soil analysis should be properly evaluated to determine whether lime is needed. Then the rate of application of lime requirement must be established. Knowing the proper rate of lime application is important to prevent overliming, minimize expenses, and possible loss of phosphate from the pond waters through the formation of insoluble calcium compounds 2. Application of Lime Lime is cast or spread over the drained but moist bottom. The lime should be thoroughly mixed with the soil to attain maximum effectivity. Sufficient time or about a week or two after applying the lime is allowed to lapse before the application of phosphate fertilizer. 22

Effects of liming 1. Mud pH rises and favors phosphate solubility which makes phosphorous available to plants. 2. High pH in mud and water stimulates microbial activity and rates of organic matter and nutrient recycling increase 3. Total alkalinity increases after liming because of greater concentration of bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide. When properly limed then an increase in total alkalinity caused mostly by bicarbonate resulting to an increase concentration of CO2 available for plant use. 4. Reduces turbidity. Calcium and Magnesium flocculate colloidal particles. 5. Increases fish food organisms like plankton and benthos. Devices to measure pH

Figure 21. Pen-type pH meter

Figure 22. Digital pH meter good for field analysis

Liming methods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Broadcast/Spread by boat at pond surface Soil incorporation Pump System - for hydrated lime Platform spreading Piling along shallow water edges of ponds and distributed by wind action.

Turbidity It is a term for the suspended dirt and other particles in water. Two sources of water turbidity are clay particles and plankton. Turbidity can be a problem, especially in shallow ponds, if the dirt and particles prevent sunlight from reaching the plankton, so that the phytoplankton cannot produce oxygen. A culture pond can be turbid if there are bottom feeders such as common carp stirring up the bottom mud. 23

Turbidity can also originate from a water source that has a lot of silt in it.

Uses of Secchi Disc Visibility Depth Secchi disc visibility depth (SDVD) serves as an index of plankton productivity of the water. High biotic productivity (phytoplankton) is an indication of very fertile water that is highly conducive to dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion due to high phytoplankton respiration rates and die-off. Productive tilapia ponds usually have a SDV depth between 10-30 cm.

Clay turbidity Clay turbidity is one of the problems for fertilization management in freshwater ponds. This is a common problem in newly constructed ponds. It originates mainly from a number of sources: turbid source water rainwater runoff from pond dikes that contains, clay turbidity, especially, when dikes are not covered with vegetation erosion of pond edges caused by water movement or fish grazing resuspension of bottom mud by water and fish movement.

Disadvantages of clay turbidity in the fishpond water Inhibit plankton growth by reducing light penetration and by binding with mineral nutrients from water as well as with plankton cells High turbidity usually causes acidity, low nutrient levels and reduced primary production

Techniques to correct inorganic turbidity in fertilized earthen fish ponds 1. Bales of hay should be scattered to clear up the water surface. Hay application at the rate of 0.05 kg/m3 of pond water with 25 mg/l turbidity and 0.4 kg/m3 for 200 mg/l turbidity. The hay will help to settle the mud and can then be removed easily from the pond edges. However, this method should not be used in hot weather because the hay will decay very quickly and will begin to use up oxygen in water. 2. Barnyard manure at the rate of 2,440 kg/ha. Disadvantages: often difficult to obtain difficult to apply in ponds cause poor water quality because it decomposes and exerts oxygen demand 24

If the pond water continues to have a lot of silt, the farmer should consider constructing a siltation tank. Effective means to prevent occurrence of turbidity 1. 2. 3. 4. covering the watershed and pond dikes with vegetation minimizing the free board area of pond edges increasing pond water depth altering texture of bottom soils

Thermometer In deep bodies of water such as lakes and reservoirs, it is important to take the temperature from every layer of the water. Plankton Productivity Plankton productivity can be gauged using Secchi disc. Secchi disc is a wooden device use to measure visibility of water. It is made of wood, painted black and white and suspended by a calibrated rope. The average of the depths at which the disk disappears and reappears is the Secchi disc visibility depth

Figure 23. Secchi disc visibility depth (SDVD) serves as an index of plankton productivity of the water.

Figure 24. Parts of Secchi disc

How to measure Secchi disc visibility depth? When the disc goes into the water, it will sink straight down and disappear from sight at some depth. If the disc disappears at 30 cm depth, the pond contains enough natural food (mainly phytoplankton).

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SDV depth of more than 30 cm is an indicator that there is not enough natural food and that the pond needs fertilization. If SDV depth is less than 10 cm, this means that there is too much phytoplankton in the pond and there is a good chance of a die-off that may lead to dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion.
Figure 25. Measuring secchi disc visibility depth

Some considerations when taking Secchi disc visibility are as follows: 1. clearness of the day 2. position of the sun 3. roughness of the water 4. sight of observer Formula : SDVD = {Depth1 Depth2}/2 where:

Depth 1 = depth at which disc just disappeared Depth 2 = depth at which disc just appeared

Practical way of measuring visibility depth Visibility can be measured without a disc but this requires experience. 1. The farmer sticks his arm under the water. If his hand disappears then the water is too much turbid. 2. If the entire arm from hand to shoulder can be seen, then the water is not too turbid nor is it very productive in phytoplankton. 3. If the arm disappears before the water reaches the elbow, the water is either turbid or very productive.

Figure 26. Practical way of measuring water visibility

High biotic productivity (phytoplankton) is an indication of very fertile water that is highly conducive to dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion due to high phytoplankton respiration rates and die-off.

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Summary: Water quality requirements and effect in general to aquatic organisms


Parameter Level Temperature Depends on fish (oC) species pH 4-5 4 <6.5 6-9 <1 1-5 >5 5 - 25 25 - 250 > 250 Calcium hardness Carbon dioxide (mg/l) > 5 mg/l > 10 - 20 < 10
Un-ionized ammonia 0.02 (NH3-N) (mg/l) 0.4 - 3.1 (96-hr LC50) 0.40 - 2.31 (96-hr LC50) Nitrite (NO2--N) (mg/l) 12.8 - 13.1 (96-hr LC50) 8.5 - 15.4 (96-hr LC50) 1.8 6.2 0.1 Nitrate (NO3--N) (mg/l) 1000-3000 90 180

Effect on fish Below the optimum means fish growth slows

No reproduction Fish dies Slow fish growth Ideal for fish growth Lethal to fish when exposure is prolonged Slow fish growth, if exposure is prolonged Ideal for fish culture Lethal to fish because water has no enough natural food Natural food medium to optimum Rarely found; fish health not endangered Adequate for raising fish Causes nephrocalcinosis in fish; rarely results to fish mortality Tolerated by fish if DO concentrations are near saturation
Normal aquatic life Lethal to fish Lethal to crustaceans

DO (ppm)

Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)

Lethal to channel catfish and rainbow trout Lethal to shrimp 35% reduction in the growth of Macrobrachium rosenbergii 50% reduction in the growth of Penaeus juvenile generally affects most fishes affects osmoregulation; lethal effect on fish no effect on the growth of channel catfish 50% growth reduction in Macrobrachium rosenbergii Normal growth of fish

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) (ug/l) Total gas pressure (%)

<0.1

>110 (> 76 mm Hg change in pressure) <110 (< 76 mm Hg change in pressure)

Acute gas bubble disease

Chronic gas bubble disease

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LET US REMEMBER The water parameters to be monitored in the pond are temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH. The water quality requirements must be on optimum level in order to avoid slow growth or mortality of the fish.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post-test. Answer this in your test notebook. Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. A simple instrument used in predicting dissolved oxygen in the pond. a. thermometer c. DO (dissolved oxygen) meter b. pH meter d. refractometer 2. The device that tells whether the pond water is acidic, alkaline or neutral is called a. pH meter c. salinometer b. thermometer d. secchi disc 3. Which of the following water parameters is not included in monitoring the water environment for growing fish? a. temperature c. water supply b. salinity d. dissolved oxygen 4. pH scale ranges from 0-14. If the water pH ranges below 7, the reaction is a. base c. neutral b. acid d. alkaline 5. A circular metal or wooden device painted alternately black and white attached to graduated pole or rope that used to measure the transparency of water. a. Thermometer c. Secchi disk b. Refractometer d. pH meter 6. If dissolved oxygen reaches low levels, fish will show signs like a. gasping for air at the surface c. swimming alone b. eating actively d. all of the above 7. Which of the following factors may cause turbidity in the pond water? a. rising waste c. planters b. soil erosion d. all of the above

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8. Management technique in preventing problems with dissolved oxygen depletion. a. fertilization c. feeding b. acclimatization d. avoid overstocking 9. Water temperature is measured by using a. secchi disk c. DO meter b. refractometer d. thermometer 10. An ideal range of pH for the growth of fish is a. 4 c. 6 b. 4-5 d. 6.5-9 LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED 1. Collect samples of water and follow the procedures on how to measure temperature, salinity, DO, and pH. Record the data collected. 2. Check the different parameters, 3. Remove the soil seal. 4. Detach flush boards from top to bottom. 5. Let tidal water enter into the pond. 6. Close and soil seal the gate RESOURCES Tools Secchi Disc Laboratory thermometer REFERENCES Cagayan A.G. College of Fishes and Aquaculture Center. Central Luzon State University Huet, M TextBook Of Fish Culture. Breeding and Cultivation Of Fish Equipment pH meter DO meter Refractometer

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LESSON 3.
SECURING POND FACILITIES

WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals on how to secure pond facilities. This includes the different methods in up keeping facilities, preventive methods in securing aquaculture facilities and procedures in installing preventive structures. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should able to: 1. maintain and check water structures. 2. install preventive structures. 3. store the tools and equipment properly. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go through the lesson, try to answer this pre test. This will enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know about Securing Pond Facilities. Answer this in your test notebook. Pre-test Write T if the statement is correct and F if the statement is wrong. 1. Installing of nets in the water entrance is necessary to prevent the washing out of dikes. 2. Tools and equipment are kept in good condition. 3. To minimize the entrance of predators and loss of stock, install plastic sheets in the pond. 4. Bamboo fence, traps and installing of plastic sheets are the preventive measures securing aquaculture facilities. 5. Regularly check the gate. 6. Burrowing aquatic animals like crabs are eliminated through installing slabs. 7. Patch up the leak or seepage of dike with sand. 8. Install structures to prevent the entry of predators during inclement weather. 9. Weather and climate are factors of securing pond facilities. 10. Store the tools and equipment properly.

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LET US STUDY To ensure that there is no entrance of predator and the possibility of the stocked fish to escape, pond facilities must be secured. Regular check up of all the water ways is very necessary for the stocks security and safety. Let Us Define Up keeping the act of keeping the pond in good condition. Pond facilities includes gates, screens, pipes and drainage system which are inspected and secured during cultivation period. Methods in up keeping facilities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Maintain cleanliness of the top and sides of dikes. Regularly check dikes and patch up the leakages and seepages. Regularly check the gate, screen and slabs. Clean the pond; remove the debris, plastics and unwanted materials. Take out oysters and other skills that are attached to the gate. Supply canals and culvert water pipes should be clean of debris and other polluting materials. Maintain and check the water entrance. Store the tools and equipment properly.

Preventive measures to be taken to secure the aquaculture facilities 1. Creeping grasses should be planted on the top and slope of the dike for protection against soil erosion. 2. Construction of beam and placing bamboo sticks to the dike also protect the dike from wave action. 3. Placing of plastic sheets over the dike slope to prevent washing out of the dike. 4. Installing of nets inside and outside the gate to prevent the entrance of predators and loss of stocks. 5. Trees and brushes should not be allowed to grow on the dikes as the roots loosen the dike soil. 6. Weak wooden gates are totally repaired including the course and fine screens to prevent predators from entering the pond system. 7. Proper repair of dikes especially if there is leak or seepage 8. Install a fence made of nylon net, wire screen or bamboo slats on the dike around the pond to prevent the fish from escaping. 9. Trespassers are prevented to enter the aquaculture facilities.

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Procedure in installing preventive measures. 1. Fence made of nylon net. Materials needed: 1. Net- as fence 2. Bamboo poles- for braces 3. Rope or nylon-for tying purposes 4. Bamboo pegs for clipping the nets 5. Digging blade or shovel-for excavating soil 6. String- for marking purposes Procedure: 1. Clear the area and remove the debris or any material found in place. 2. Put bamboo poles on both ends of the dike and attach string which serves as marker of the path. 3. Install bamboo poles at a distance of 1 meter apart from each other up to the end of the dike. 4. Arrange the nets by inserting the lower ends of nets at the bottom and clip it with bamboo pegs to make the nets strong, firm and in proper places. 5. Put soil until the desired depth is reached. 2. Check and repair the leakages and seepages of dike Materials needed: 1. Digging blade-for making mudblocks 2. Shovel-for excavating soil Procedure: 1. Check the leak of the dike. 2. Clear the area. 3. Repair the leak completely. For the large damage 1. Clear the path. 2. Dig the area and fill up with a new mud. 3. Pile the mud and compact it hardly. 4. Allow the pile to harden then another set of pile will be placed until it leveled with the crown or top width. 3. Gate fixing/repair 1. All gates whether concrete, semi-concrete and wooden are checked every now and then for their efficiency in letting in and out of the water. 2. Weak wooden gates are totally repaired including the coarse and fine screens before the beginning of the culture period to prevent or minimize predators and pest from entering the pond system. 32

Storing tools and equipment At the end of each working day, the tools must be stored properly. First, clean the tools and equipment you used and check them from any damage. If you note any damage, tag the tool as faulty. Then store the tools and equipment. Always ensure the safe storage to prevent unnecessary accidents. LET US REMEMBER Water entrance should be maintained and checked to prevent the entrance of predators and competitors. Install nets bamboo fence and the structures during inclement weather to avoid the loss of stock. To prolong the life span of tools and equipment, store them properly.

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, lets find out how much you have learned from it by answering the post test. Answer this in your test notebook. Post Test Write T if the statement is correct and F if the statement is wrong. 1. Installing of nets in the water entrance is necessary to prevent the washing out of dikes. 2. Tools and equipment are kept in good condition. 3. To minimize the entrance of predators and loss of stock, install plastic sheets in the pond. 4. Bamboo fence, traps and installing of plastic sheets are the preventive measures securing aquaculture facilities. 5. Regularly check the gate. 6. Burrowing aquatic animals like crabs are eliminated through installing slabs. 7. Patch up the leak or seepage of dike with sand. 8. Install structures to prevent the entry of predators during inclement weather. 9. Weather and climate are factors of securing pond facilities. 10. Store the tools and equipment properly.

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LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Practicum on 1. Maintaining the water entrance 2. Proper checking of dikes 3. Checking tools needed 4. Installing of preventive structures 5. Storing of tools and equipment RESOURCES Tools Carpentry Bolo Aquaculture facilities Fishpond Tank Culvert water pipes

REFERENCES Dagoon J.D. Fisher Arts IV Tinaypan A.S. Introduction to Fishery Technology

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ANSWER KEY Lesson 1 Pre-Test A. 1. d 2. c 3. d 4. d 5. a Post-Test A. 1. d 2. c 3. d 4. d 5. a Lesson 2 Pre-Test 1. c 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. d 8. d 9. a 10. d Lesson 3 Pre-Test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. F T F T T 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T Post-Test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. F T F T T 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T Post-Test 1. c 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. d 8. d 9. a 10. d B. 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. d 10. c B. 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. d 10. c

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