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## CHAPTER ----------------------------------------------THE FLEXURE AM SHEAR DESIGN OF CORBEL BRACKET!

11.1

INTRODUCTION
Corbel or bracket is a reinforced concrete member is a short-haunched cantilever used to support the reinforced concrete beam element. Corbel is structural element to support the pre-cast structural system such as pre-cast beam and pre-stressed beam. The corbel is cast monolithic with the column element or wall element. This chapter is describes the desian procedure of corbel or bracket structure. Since the load from precast structural element is large then it is very important to make a good detailing in corbel.

11.2

BEHAVIOR OF CORBEL
The followings are the major items show the behavior of the reinforced concrete corbel, as follows : & The shear span/depth ratio is less than 1.0, it makes the corbel behave in two-dimensional manner. & Shear deformation is significant is the corbel. & There is large horizontal force transmitted from the supported beam result from long-term shrinkage and creep deformation. & Bearing failure due to large concentrated load. & The cracks are usually vertical or inclined pure shear cracks. & The mode of failure of corbel are : yielding of the tension tie, failure of the end anchorage of the tension tie, failure of concrete by compression or shearinga and bearing failure. The followings figure shows the mode of failure of corbel.

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## 11.3 SHEAR DESIGN OF

11.3.1 GENERAL Since the corbel is cast at interface of the corbel friction reinforcement

CORBEL
different time with the column element then the cracks occurs in the and the column. To avoid the cracks we must provide the shear perpendicular with the cracks direction.

ACI code uses the shear friction theory to design the interface area. 11.3.2 SHEAR FRICTION THEORY

In shear friction theory we use coefficient of friction ^ to transform the horizontal resisting force into vertical resisting force. The basic design equation for shear reinforcement design is : <K > Vu where : Vn Vu ^ = nominal shear strength of shear friction reinforcement = ultimate shear force = strength reduction factor (^ = 0.85)
[11.1]

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Vu

FIGURE 11.1 SHEAR FRICTION THEORY nominal shear strength of friction reinforcement is :

## The shear TABLE 11.1 SHEAR FRICTION REINFORCEMENT STRENGTH

VERTICAL SHEAR FRICTION REINFORCEMENT

Vn
Vn Avffv^ Af

Avf

Vn
f

Avf

^ Avf

fv^

fv

A

Af Vn

Af

## Vu/ '4* Avf fv M

Vu/

fv

where : Vn Avf Fv M = nominal shear strength of shear friction reinforcement = area of shear friction reinforcement = vield strength of shear friction reinforcement = coefficient of friction

## TABLE 11.2 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

METHOD

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

Concrete Cast Monolithic Concrete Placed Against Roughened Hardened Concrete Concrete Placed Against unroughened Hardened Concrete Concrete Anchored to Structural Steel The value of X is :

## 1.4X 1.0X 0.6X 0.7X

X = 1.0 normal weight concrete X = 0.85 sand light weight concrete X = 0.75 all light weight concrete

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## <u *<K0.2f'c)bwd <u <^(5.50)bwd

where : <u fc
bw

: : : :

ultimate shear force concrete cylinder strength width of corbel section effective depth of corbel

11.3.3

## STEP - BY - STEP PROCEDURE

The followings are the step - by - step procedure used in the shear design for corbel (bracket), as follows : & Calculate the ultimate shear force Vu. & Check the ultimate shear force for the following condition, if the following condition is not achieved then enlarge the section. <u <<K0.2f'c)bwd <u <<K5.50>wd & Calculate the area of shear friction reinforcement Avf. VERTICAL
SHEAR FRICTION

INCLINED
SHEAR FRICTION

Af Avf

A
Avf

- < Avf ~ fy L

Af Avf

v _A
-*
fy L

## <u/ > /9 v fy (sin af + cos af)

& The design must be follows the basic design equation as follows : * <u

11.4

## FLEXURAL DESIGN OF CORBEL

11.4.1

GENERAL

The corbel is design due to ultimate flexure moment result from the supported beam reaction Vu and horizontal force from creep and shrinkage effect Nu.

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## FIGURE 11.2 DESIGN FORCE OF CORBEL

11.4.2

T ENSION REINFORCEMENT

The ultimate horizontal force acts in the corbel Nuc is result from the creep and shrinkage effect of the pre-cast or pre-stressed beam supported bv the corbel. This ultimate horizontal force must be resisted bv the tension reinforcement as follows :

A n

Nuc f

[^

## Minimum value of Nuc is 0.2Vuc.

The strength reduction factor is taken 0.85 because the major action in corbel is dominated by shear.

11.4.3

FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT

## FIGURE 11.3 ULTIMATE FLEXURE MOMENT AT CORBEL

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## The ultimate flexure moment Mu result from the support reactions is

Mu Vu (a) + Nuc (h - d) where : Mu Vu a Nuc h d = ultimate flexure moment = ultimate shear force = distance of Vu from face of column = ultimate horizontal force at corbel = height of corbel = effective depth of corbel

[113]

The resultant of tensile force of tension reinforcement is : Tf Affv where : Tf Af fv = tensile force resultant of flexure reinforcement = area of flexure reinforcement = vield strength of the flexure reinforcement

[11.4]

The resultant of compressive force of the concrete is : Cc 0.85f'c ba(cos p) where : Cc fc b a = compressive force resultant of concrete = concrete cvlinder strength = width of corbel = depth of concrete compression zone

[11.5]

The horizontal equilibrium of corbel internal force is : X H 0 ^ Cc Ts 0.85f'c ba(cos p) Affv Affv a ------------ 0.85f'c b(cos p) The flexure reinforcement area is :
[11.7]

[116]

Af _ Mu

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Af

M u

Affy

0.85f'c b(cos p)

## Cos p value can be calculated based on the Tan p value as follows

[11.8]

where : a jd

distance of Vu from face of column lever arm Based on the equation above we must trial and error to find the reinforcement

area Af. For practical reason the equation below can be used for preliminary :
Af Mu

[11.9]

f (jd) Mu f (0.85d)

Af

area of flexural reinforcement ultimate flexure moment at corbel : yield strength of the flexural reinforcement : strength reduction factor (* = 0.9)
:

## FIGURE 11.4 DISTRIBUTION OF CORBEL REINFORCEMENTS

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From the last calculation we already find the shear friction reinforcement Avf, tension reinforcement An and flexural reinforcement Af. We must calculate the primary tension reinforcement As based on the above

## TABLE 11.3 DISTRIBUTION OF CORBEL REINFORCEMENTS

CASE

As

PRIMARY REINFORCEMENT

CLOSED STIRRUP

Ah 1
As

LOCATION

## > "3Avf + An > Af + An

As

= 3 Avf + An = Af + An

3" II

As

As

<

Id 3 Id 3

Ah = ?Af reinforcements.

= area of primary tension reinforcement = area of shear friction reinforcement = area of tension

The 2, the

reinforcement = area of flexure reinforcement = horizontal closed stirrup = effective depth of corbel

reinforcements is taken which is larger, case 1 or case distribution of the reinforcements is shown in the figure

## above. 11.4.5 LIMITS OF REINFORCEMENTS

The limits of primary steel reinforcement at corbel design is : A where : As Avf An Af Ah d p = -As > 0.04 bd fy f'

[11.10]

where : As b d

area of primary tension reinforcement width of corbel effective depth of corbel The limits of horizontal closed stirrup reinforcement at corbel design is

Ah > 0.5(AS - An) where : As An 11.4.6 = area of primary tension reinforcement = area of tension reinforcement STEP - BY - STEP PROCEDURE

[11.11]

The followings are the step - by - step procedure used in the flexural design for corbel (bracket), as follows :

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## & Calculate ultimate flexure moment Mu.

Mu = Vu (a) + Nuc (h -

## An = n f & Calculate the area of flexural reinforcement Af.

_ Mu f f (0.85d)

& Calculate the area of primary tension reinforcement As CASE As PRIMARY REINFORCEMENT Ah

CLOSED

STIRRUP LOCATION id 3 id 3

1 2

As As

## > "3Avf + An > Af + An

As

_ 3 Avf + An _ Af + An

Ah

_ 3 Avf

1 1

As

Ah _ 3 Af

& Check the reinforcement for minimum reinforcement. A f' p_ -As > 0.04 bd fy Ah > 0.5(As - An)

11.5 APPLICATIONS
11.5.1 APPLICATION 01 - DESIGN OF CORBEL

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PROBLEM Design the flexural and shear friction reinforcement of corbel structure above.
MATERIAL Concrete strength = K - 300 = Grade 400 Steel gradecvlinder strength = f'c 0.83 x 30 24.9 MPa Concrete

## P1 0.85 DIMENSION b h Concrete d cover

= 200 = 400 = 30 = 370 mm mm mm mm

DESIGN FORCE Vu 150000N Nuc 0.2Vu 0.2 x 150000 30000 N Mu Vu (a) + Nuc (h - d) 150000(100) + 30000(400 - 370) 15900000 Nmm

LIMITATION CHECKING <^(0.2f'c)bwd 0.85(0.2x 24.9)200x 370 313242 N <^(5.5)bwd 0.85x5.5x200x 370 345950 N Vu 150000 < ^(0.2f'c)bwd 313242 < ^(5.5)bwd 345950 SHEAR FRICTION REINFORCEMENT M 1.4X 1.4 x 1.0 1.4
Vu 150000/
Avf

## -085 315 mm2

TENSION REINFORCEMENT An Nc
30000

f vM

400 x 1.4

88 mm

FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT Mu 15900000 ... 2 Af r-^r ------------------ 1 -------------- r 140 mm f f (0.85d) 0.9 x 400(0.85 x 370)

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## PRIMARY TENSION REINFORCEMENT CASE As (mm2)

PRIMARY REINFORCEMENT

CLOSED STIRRUP

(mm2) As - 298

Ah (mm2)

LOCATION

(mm) id 3 247

1
As

2
> 3 Avf + An 2 As >|-(315) + 88 > 298
As

1
Ah -

3 Avf 1

> Af + An

## The reinforcement of the corbel are : As - 298 mm Ah -105 mm

2 2

CHECK FOR AS MINIMUM AND AS MAXIMUM f' 24 9 pmin - 0.04-^ - 0.04^^- - 0.00249 Fmin A 298 p-AA^ - bd 200 x 370 fy 400 * OK

## Ah-min - 0.5(As - A n ) - 0.5(298 - 88)- 210 mm Ah - 105 < Ah-min - 210 ^

Ah - 210 mm

The final reinforcement of the corbel are : As - 298 mm Ah - 210 mm CORBEL REINFORCEMENT
2 2

SKETCH OF REINFORCEMENT

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