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Evaluation of impact of Advertisement in awareness and demand of the


commodity product: Glass

By

Dev Masand
PGDM (HR)

Sinhgad Institute of Management


Vadgaon, Pune

June, 2009
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Evaluation of impact of Advertisement in awareness and demand of the


commodity product: Glass

By

Dev Masand
Under the guidance of

Mr. Alok Agarwal


Zonal Head- West Zone Prof.
M.M. Marathe
(Sales & Marketing) College Project
Guide
Asahi India Glass Ltd.

Mr. Shailesh Ranjan


Area Manager (Head Office)
(Sales & Marketing)
Asahi India Glass Ltd.

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Sinhgad Institute of Management


Vadgaon, Pune
June, 2009

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Certificate of Approval
We approve this Summer Project Report titled " Evaluation of impact of Advertisement
in awareness and demand of the commodity product: Glass " as a certified study in management
carried out and presented in a manner satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite for
the award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management ( HR) for which it has been submitted.
It is understood that by this approval we do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement
made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein but approve the Summer Project Report
only for the purpose it is submitted.

Summer Project Report Examination Committee for evaluation of Summer Project Report

Name Signature

1. Faculty Examiner

2. PGDM Summer Project Co-coordinator

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Certificate from Summer Project Guides

This is to certify that Mr. Dev Masand a student of the Post Graduate Diploma in
Management (HR), has worked under our guidance and supervision. This Summer Project
Report has the requisite standard and to the best of our knowledge no part of it has been
reproduced from any other summer project, monograph, report or book.

Faculty Guide Organizational Guide


Designation Designation
SIOM Organization

AddressDate

Date

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am elated to extend my gratitude to the management of Asahi India Glass Ltd. for
providing me an opportunity to undertake the summer internship program in their organization.
The knowledge gained from the organization during the project is of immense help that enables
me to understand the practical applications of the Business concepts in consonance with
academic learning.
I owe sincere thanks to my Project Guide Mr. Alok Agarwal-Zonal Head ( Sales &
Marketing- Mumbai) for guiding me towards every step in completion of this project.

And a special thanks to Mr. Shailesh Ranjan, Mr. Anish, Mr. Sumeet for sharing their
knowledge.
I would like to thank Mr. Milind Marathe for guiding me at every step during Summer
Internship.

And in the end I would like to thank all the House owners, Dealers Sales Executive team
and drivers without whom this project would definitely have been incomplete.

Dev Masand
PGDM(HR)
SIOM

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Table of Contents
Table of Figures.............................................................................. ............................5
List of Tables.............................................................................. ................................5
Abbreviation....................................................................................................... ........5
Abstract...................................................................................................................... 5
Industry Overview..................................................................................... .................5
Float Glass Industry in India....................................................................................5
User Segments................................................................................................... ....5
Major Producers......................................................................................................5
New Entrants..........................................................................................................5
Current capacity versus demand in India................................................................5
Future Prospectus...................................................................................................5
Current Scenario................................................................................ .....................5
Market Share.................................................................................................... .......5
Company Profile........................................................................................ .................5
Vision and Mission............................................................................................... ....5
Vision................................................................................................ ...................5
Mission........................................................................................................ .........5
Guiding principles...................................................................................................5
Collaborators......................................................................................................... ..5
SBU’S................................................................................................ ......................5
AIS Auto Glass..................................................................................................... .5
AIS Glass Solution.............................................................................. ..................5
AIS Float Glass................................................................................. ....................5
Market Research........................................................................................................5
Background.................................................................................................. ...........5
Introduction............................................................................................................ .5
Problem Formulation.............................................................................. .................5

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Literature Review.................................................................................... ................5


Gaps in The Literature.........................................................................................5
Time Frame....................................................................................... .........................5
The Research Problem............................................................................................5
Research Objective..............................................................................................5
Null hypothesis....................................................................................................5
Alternative hypothesis.........................................................................................5
Scope of The Study................................................................................ ..............5
Research Design.....................................................................................................5
Research Methodology.................................................................................... .....5
Sample size......................................................................................................... .5
Research Instrument..................................................................................... .......5
Tool of Data Analysis (SPSS)................................................................................5
Results and Conclusion..............................................................................................5
Recommendations.....................................................................................................5
REFERENCES............................................................................................. ..............5
Appendix -1........................................................................................................ .....5

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Table of Figures
Figure 1: Domestic Float Glass Sales..........................................................................5
Figure 2 : Sales Growth of Float Glass........................................................................5
Figure 3 : Company wise capacity of production........................................................5
Figure 4 : Break-up of Capacity..................................................................................5
Figure 5 : Domestic Market Share..............................................................................5
Figure 6: Awareness of Glass brands..........................................................................5
Figure 7: Glass advertisement saw by people............................................................5
Figure 8: Awareness Vs Particular brand....................................................................5
Figure 9: Whether go for buying............................................................................. ....5
Figure 10: Purchase of glass................................................................................. ......5
Figure 11: Importance of brand..................................................................................5
Figure 12: Awareness Vs whether go for buying........................................................5
Figure 13: Time Taken at Retail Counter.....................................................................5
Figure 14: Preference for particular brand..................................................................5
Figure 15: Decision to choose any brand...................................................................5
Figure 16: Influencer of Recommendation..................................................................5
Figure 17: Ad recall....................................................................................................5
Figure 18: Ad influence on action...............................................................................5
Figure 19:Parameters for buying glass.......................................................................5
Figure 20: Awareness of application of glass..............................................................5

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List of Tables
Table 1 : Domestic Float Glass Sales.........................................................................5
Table 2 : Total Capacity..............................................................................................5
Table 3 : Break-up of Capacity.................................................................................. ..5
Table 4 : Market Share........................................................................................... .....5

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Abbreviation

SGG SAINT GOBAIN GLASS INDIA LIMITED

AIS ASAHI INDIA GLASS LIMITED


GGL GUJRAT GUARDIAN LIMITED
MODIGUARD GUJRAT GUARDIAN LIMITED
TPD TONNES PER DAY
MT METRIC TONNES
Ad ADVERTISEMENT

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Abstract

Asahi India Glass Ltd. (AIS) is the largest integrated glass company in India, manufacturing a
wide range of international quality automotive safety glass, float glass, architectural processed
glass and glass products.
AIS is jointly promoted by the Labroo family, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Japan and Maruti Suzuki
India Ltd. AIS have the following three Strategic Business Units (SBUs):
• Automotive Glass Unit – AIS Auto Glass
• Float Glass Unit – AIS Float Glass
• AIS Glass Solutions Ltd – AIS Glass Solutions
The Indian Glass Industry is still at nascent stage and it is rapidly developing. The glass industry
is very organized. The business environment is getting more competitive by the entry of new
players beside the three major companies as Saint Gobain, AIS and Modiguard.
Problem statement
The impact of advertisement on the demand of commodity product specifically Glass is to find
out. India is the only country where glass as commodity product is being advertised on TV. But
their effectiveness in impacting consumers mind for using more glass is not clear. How the ad
affects the market share and perception of the glass in the mind of consumers is to be figured
out.
Scope of the Study
The study will be conducted in India with limited scope of A and B class cities where 80%
(building material) commodities are sold. Primary focus of the study will be on Glass. The most
of the survey is limited to Mumbai and nearby city around it.

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Literature survey
This is the most researched topic and various methods were adopted to check the effectiveness
of advertising by different researchers. But that previous research has not specifically measured
the impacts of advertising and brand value, and their joint effect, on firm performance for the
glass kind of commodity product. We could not find the study which talks the likeable attributes
in commodity products like glass. What exactly customers are looking for in a glass? By
examining the effects of advertising and brand value, our work contributes to the existing
literature.
The Research Problem
The research problem is to find out the impact of advertisement on demand of commodity
product specifically glass.
Research Objective
Based on the problem statement, the research objectives are:
• To find out whether consumers are really involved in Glass buying decision if yes then to
what extent?
• To find out, Are consumers really aware of any Glass or cement Co, brand or Glass
products?
• To find out Does advertising has any impact in the minds of consumers?
• Can the advertising be measured or connected with a equation to the top and bottom line
of the company.
Research is going to be descriptive as well as applied in order to achieve the desired objectives.
The null hypothesis and the research hypothesis has been developed keeping assumption that the
research will be specifically for the commodity product glass and keeping all the factors
affecting the glass busying constant other than advertisements.
The null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis is prepared to prove the research objectives.

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After the research study we should be able to judge the above hypothesis by accepting or
rejecting it. The result will tell us about the effectiveness of the advertisement on glass
(commodity product) and should also explain the awareness on the different glass brands.
The Research Design
Research is going to be descriptive as well as applied in order to achieve the desired
objectives. Most of the objectives will be derived from the primary data after the survey. Focus
group, stratified sampling technique in A and B class cities particularly Mumbai and its nearby
cities will be surveyed.
Research approach
In this study, both sample survey and statistical approaches will be applied to collect data and
establish the relationships between variables of interest.
Sources of data
Both secondary (documents and records) and primary (a sample survey of customers and
channel partners in this case) data sources will be used in this work.
Research instrument
The structured questionnaire will be used for the survey. The SPSS tool is being used for the
analysis purpose. The complete research study will be done in 8 weeks parts.

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Recommendations
• The commodity market has very less involvement of the end consumers in the buying
process , hence the company should push dealers and retailers through different schemes
, gifts and by giving them awards of “Best Retailer of the Year” and “Best Dealer of the
Year” awards. The visibility at the retail counter should be increased by giving them pad,
cutting tools to carpenters via retailers having AIS inscribed on it.

1. The companies can provide booklet containing samples of glass to carpenter to push their
products and increase their brand awareness. They can organize some kind of training on
new design to carpenters. They should distribute danglers, calendars to retailers shop.

2. They can put their videos on “You tube “to increase the awareness. The company should
project their positioning statement “See More, See Clear “in their advertising media.

3. The company can direct its advertisements through different channels towards these
functional benefits of glass. They should organize meets and exhibition with retailers,
The mode of communications like PR, sponsorships to events will be good method to
create the awareness.

4. The advertisements activities should be targeted on the middle segment. The awareness
can be increased by through tie-ups with the social society/community like BMC and
CARE to increase the awareness level among the middle income category.
5. They can also have the tie-ups with the known builders and architects to advertise their
brands on their websites. Different festivals should be targeted for the awareness.

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Industry Overview
Float Glass Industry in India
India with more than one billion people, one sixth of the world’s total population has
become an attractive destination for investment in Glass Industry for some time, it
contributes around (6 %) one sixteenth of the world’s total Gross Domestic Product. It is
one of the largest economies of the world that had a middle-class consumer market in
excess of 300 million people. With increasing purchasing power and development of
service sector, India is definitely on the radar of all the glass manufacturing companies.
Float glass Industry in India is relatively new; the first float glass plant was established as
recently as 15 years back. In this period India has emerged an important player in float
glass production and today there are six float lines in operation and five new lines are at
different stages of completion. It goes without saying that the rapid increase in demand
during the late 1990s due to construction activities, in addition to provoking a cutback in
exports, charmed some international firms which now are the major producers of float
glass in the country.
India had been using sheet and lower quality float glass through ages. Secondary
processing was negligible with the majority of glass being installed in basic, monolithic
form such as casting glasses. Until 1992, only sheet glass was being manufactured in the
country, with a limited quantity of float glass being imported. In 1993, the first float glass
plant was set. Since then new varieties of float and sheet glass capacities have been
added. Against decades of old practice of casting glass in sheets over plain surfaces, the
technology of float glass had brought about a significant change in the production and
use of glass. The switch from low quality sheet glass with limited range and thickness to
the sophisticated float glass took place in just a decade.
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Totally, the flat glass industry grew by about 90% between 2000 and 2007, resulting in a
compound annual growth rate of 11%. The per capita consumption of glass, which was
0.41 kg in 1999, reached 0.80% kg in 2007. The demand for flat glass in India has
increased at an average rate of 12 percent to 15 percent each year for the past five years.
Respective market share of float and sheet glass is 89 percent and 11 percent. However,
the greater proportion of sheet and lower-quality float capacity will gradually phase out
and be replaced with high-quality float. The two main consuming sectors of flat glass in
India are the construction and automotive industries, both of which have been
experiencing hyper growth for the last five years.

User Segments
Eighty-three percent of the glass produced is used in the construction industry, 15 percent
in the automotive industry and 2 percent in miscellaneous industries such as furniture and
photo frames. The automobile industry, four-wheelers, has registered 18.6 percent growth
between January and November 2007. The construction sector is growing around 12
percent per annum. India exports about 13,000 tons of glass per month to the Middle
East, African countries, Europe and South America. The rapid increase in the demand for
flat glass in the domestic market has resulted in a cutback in exports by as much as 60
percent in the last couple of years.

Major Producers
The major producers of float glass in India are three foreign joint ventures and an Indian
company:
Asahi India Glass Ltd Taloja, Maharashtra, Roorkee, UP; Asahi India’s two plants
produce 500 tons and 750 tons per day. Asahi India Glass Ltd. It started operations in
December 1994. It started off as a joint venture between the Tatas and Asahis of Japan.
With the exit of the Asahis in 2003, it was taken over by Asahi India Safety, the
automotive glass manufacturing company. The merged entity is known as Asahi India

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Glass Ltd. The company started a new float plant with a 750-ton capacity on Jan. 1, 2007
at Uttaranchal in North India.
Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd., Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu; Saint-Gobain’s two
plants produce 550 tons and 700 tons per day. It started operations in 2000 and is India’s
largest capacity float plant.It is a 100 percent subsidiary of the Saint-Gobain Group
Gujarat Guardian Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat, Gujarat Guardian, the first company to
set up float glass plant in India produces 550 tons per day; It is a joint venture between
Guardian Industries International Corp. of the United States and India’s Modi Group.
Triveni Glass in Allahabad produces 200 tons of float glass per day. It’s a mini float plant
based on Chinese float-glass technology.

New Entrants
Other than these four established players, a few domestic companies too are venturing in
Float glass production; there float lines are at various stages of completion. All the three
new players are related to glass industry.
Gold Plus Glass Limited- Gold Plus glass is a New Delhi based glass processor, and has
a significant market share in processing glass industry, announced that it’s Roorkie based
latest float glass manufacturing plant of Gold Plus, would start production in June, 2008.
The furnace may be fired on any suitable day in June; 2008.The estimated cost of this
project is approximately Rs.400 Crores in the first phase. The capacity of this float glass
production line would be 460tonnes per day. This float glass production line will produce
clear and green tinted glass from 2 to 19mm thickness. Most of the machineries for this
plant are from Europe and America and Yaohua Glass Group of China.
Sejal Glass – another prominent manufacturer of value added glass, based in Mumbai
( Western Coast) has ambitious plans to set up a Float Line. The factory site is at
Bharuch, for which the construction has already begun and production will commence
from March 2009. The plant will undertake manufacturing of Clear and Tinted Glass
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HNG Float glass - Hindustan National Glass company, the leading manufacturer of
container glass in India, made the announcement of setting its float glass plant in Dec.
2007, in Halol, Gujarat. Capacity of this line will be 600 Ton/day and is expected to be
on stream by middle of 2009. In its press release the company stated that equipments
would be sourced from European suppliers.

Current capacity versus demand in India


An excess capacity of raw glass in the industry was experienced in the beginning of
2006. This excess capacity could become larger in the years to come if current
investment plans see the light of day. In 2007, the excess capacity was four times that of
2006, and in 2008 it could be six times that of 2006. This is assuming demand continues
to grow at the current double-digit pace. It is interesting to note that the cumulative profit
of flat-glass manufacturers in India is still in the red.

Future Prospectus
The construction and automotive industries are the most important consuming sectors,
almost 80 million square feet of land in India is earmarked for shopping malls, taking
into consideration Special Economic Zones and Corporate offices, there is an immense
opportunity in Indian Glass industry. Nowadays, taking climate, safety, sound
attenuation, energy conservation and aesthetics into consideration, builders are opting for
more glass in their construction. The glass revolution is also taking place in the
automotive industry which is predicted to grow at more than 15% till 2012. Anyway, it
isn’t all roses for Indian glass industry, problems like the overcapacity of raw glass (and a
projected surplus of processed glass); Chinese competition (in spite of anti-dumping
duties) and the lack of codes of standards threaten Indian glass industry. As far as
overcapacity concerned, analysts say that the supply will far exceed demand at least until
2009. Excess capacity, increased competition and the development of a regulatory
framework are the real future challenges for the Indian glass industry.

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Current Scenario
The domestic glass industry and trade has been progressing at a consistent impressive rate of
growth of 12-13% per annum during the last nine years. However this progress has come to a
rude halt in the fourth quarter of the current financial year 2008-2009 and the rate of growth has
turned negative. During the last financial year 2007-08 all the three float glass manufacturing
companies operating in the country – SGG, GGL and AIS had combined sales of 2043 tonnes
per day of float glass on an average. However , during the fourth quarter ( January- March ) of
the current financial year 2008-2009 this has slide to 1885 tonnes per day on an average having a
negative growth rate of -8.38%( Glass Yug magazine, January Edition- 2009).

Year MT/Day %Growth


2000-01 886 2.66
2001-02 980 10.6
2002-03 1106 12.85
2003-04 1310 18.44
2004-05 1427 8.93
2005-06 1402 14.22
2006-07 1695 20.89
2007-08 2043 20.46
2008-09 ( Jan-Mar) 1885 -8.38
Table 1: Domestic Float Glass Sales

The float glass sales trend shows that from past nine years sales was increasing continuously, but
due to economic slowdown and recessionary condition it has decreased in the beginning of
2008-09 turning into negative growth rate in the sales .

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Figure 1: Domestic Float Glass Sales

Figure 2 : Sales Growth of Float Glass

The total capacity of including all the major float glass companies in India comes 4650 tonnes
per day. Out of which the three major companies like Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. has 1400
tonnes per day, Asahi India Glass Ltd. with 1200 tonnes per day and Gujarat Guardian Ltd. with
550 tonnes per day. The other three companies Gold Plus Float Glass Industry Ltd., H.N.G Float
Glass Ltd. and Gold Plus Float Glass Industry Ltd. have corresponding capacity of 550, 550 and
400 tonnes per day.
Total Capacity ( in tonnes per day)
Manufacturers Capacity( in tonnes per day)
Gujarat Guardian Ltd. 550
Asahi India Glass Ltd. 1200
Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. 1400
Gold Plus Float Glass Industry Ltd. 400
Sejal Architectural Glass Ltd. 550
H.N.G Float Glass Ltd. 550
Total Capacity 4650
Domestic Sales on an average/day 1885
Export sales on an average/day 350
Domestic + Exports 2235
Extra Supplies or Stocks 2415

Table 2 : Total Capacity

Figure 3 : Company wise capacity of production

So far as the concern of export sale, SGG and AIS are the performing extremely well by
recording export sales of more than 700 tonnes per day on an average while the export figure for
GGL is negligible as its production capacity is limited to 500 TPD. The total capacity gets

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absorbed mostly in domestic market with 1885 mostly whereas export sales per day are 350
TPD. The extra supplies or stocks are 2415 tonnes per day.

Break-up of Capacity ( in tonnes per


day)
4
Total Capacity 650
1
Domestic Sales on an average/day 885
Export sales on an average/day 350
2
Extra Supplies or Stocks 415
Table 3 : Break-up of Capacity

Figure 4 : Break-up of Capacity

Market Share
The SGG has the highest market share of 38.89%, whereas AIS stands second with 31.52 %
market share. The GGL has 23.23% market share and the Gold plus float glass Industry Ltd.
covers 6.37% market share.

Float Glass : Market Share ( Domestic


Market )
Market
Manufacturers Share
Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. 38.89%
Asahi India Glass Ltd. 31.51%

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Gujarat Guardian Ltd. 23.23%


Gold Plus Float Glass Industry Ltd. 6.37%

Table 4 : Market Share

Figure 5 : Domestic Market Share

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Company Profile
AIS is the largest integrated glass company in India, manufacturing a wide range of international
quality automotive safety glass, float glass, architectural processed glass and glass products.
AIS has a strong strategic position in the Indian glass industry. AIS is a leader in auto glass and
architectural processed glass segments and has prominent position in Float glass market.
AIS is jointly promoted by the Labroo family, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Japan and Maruti Suzuki
India Ltd. The promoters jointly hold 55.24% of paid up equity capital of AIS, with remaining
44.76% held by public.
Being a widely held listed public company with close to 62,000 shareholders, AIS remains
committed to maintain the highest standards of corporate governance and shareholder
accountability. The equity shares of AIS are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and
National Stock Exchange (NSE) in India.
AIS is transforming itself from being a manufacturer of world-class glass and glass products to a
solutions provider by moving up the value chain of auto glass and architectural glass and
providing design, products and services that make glass more versatile and user-friendly.
AIS have the following three Strategic Business Units (SBUs):
• Automotive Glass Unit – AIS Auto Glass
• Float Glass Unit – AIS Float Glass
• AIS Glass Solutions Ltd – AIS Glass Solutions
AIS Auto Glass is India's largest manufacturer of world class automotive safety glass and is, in
fact, one of the largest in the field in Asia. It meets over 80% automotive glass requirement of
the Indian passenger car industry.
AIS Float Glass is the leading manufacturer of international quality float glass in the country.
Prior to its merger with AIS, it was known as Floatglass India Ltd.

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AIS Glass Solutions is a value addition in the architectural glass business of AIS, addressing the
following segments:
• Architectural Processing and Glass solutions
• Product and Knowledge development
• Glass Services – Sales & Marketing
The market and technology leader in the Indian Glass Industry, AIS continues to add to its
customer base and service offerings, while maintaining and enhancing product quality
Its ongoing efforts, to provide high quality products and reliable and excellent service to its
customers, are the key factors for AIS’s sustained success and leadership position in the Indian
glass industry.
AIS recorded gross sales and operating profits of Rs. 11742 millions and Rs. 2046 millions
respectively for the year ended 31st March, 2008.

Vision and Mission

Vision
AIS’s Vision is to “SEE MORE”
This byline captures AIS’s culture:

• It describes AIS products and services which delight its customers by helping them see
more in comfort, safety & security.
• It expresses AIS’s corporate culture of merit and transparency.
• It defines the quality of AIS’s people to want to see, learn, and do more, in depth and
detail to transcend the ordinary.

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Mission
AIS’s Mission is “JIKKO” – Execution for Excellence
With major investments in place, the time is now to reap the benefits by execution for excellence

Guiding principles
All actions of AIS are driven by the following guiding principles:

• Creation of value for Shareholders


• Customer Satisfaction
• Respect for Environment
• Use of Facts
• Continuous Improvement
• Strengthening of Systems
• Upgradation of Human Potential through education and training
• Social Consciousness

Collaborators
Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., Japan
Asahi Glass Co. Ltd, Japan, was established in 1907. Today, it is one of the leading glass
producers of the world. AGC has a global network of over 350 subsidiaries and affiliates in
Japan and 20 and above other countries. The group’s operations comprise of flat glass,
automotive glass, and have recently diversified into display glass, chemicals, electronics and
energy.
AGC has evolved as a top multinational glass manufacturer with a leading share of the global
market in most key glass products. AGC group is the largest glass manufacturer of the world
with 12% global market share in the flat glass segment and 30% global market share in the

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automotive glass segment. It has further captured the top share in CRT glass, TFT display glass
and PDP glass in the display field as well.
For the year 2007, the AGC Group has recorded net sales of 1681 billions of yen, and with
Operating Net Income of 69 billions of yen.

SBU’S

AIS Auto Glass


OVERVIEW
AIS Auto Glass is the most reputed and trusted supplier in Indian automotive glass industry
having over 21 years of technological expertise and is the largest manufacturer of world-class
automotive safety glass in India.
AIS Auto Glass has been awarded the prestigious Deming Application Prize, 2007, certifying the
outstanding performance improvements achieved by it through application of Total Quality
Management (TQM).
Today, AIS Auto Glass has a ‘body of knowledge’ to be able to deliver ‘cutting edge’ auto glass
solutions and value addition to its customers, most of whom are global and demanding players.
AIS Auto Glass is overwhelmingly the ‘first choice’ supplier for most automotive manufacturers
in India. Hence, AIS Auto Glass is either the sole or a leading supplier of auto glass to most
passenger car manufacturers in India, supplying about 80% of their auto glass requirement.
Apart from supplying to OEMs in India, AIS Auto Glass has significant presence in the domestic
after-market with a market share of 43%. It also exports auto glass to the after-markets in Europe
and Pakistan.
AIS Auto Glass has state-of-the-art plants located at Rewari-Haryana, Roorkee-Uttrakhand
(North India) and Chennai- Tamil Nadu (South India) with a combined capacity to produce 2.81
million car sets per annum.

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Product Range
AIS Auto Glass is India's largest manufacturer of automotive safety glass. The unit
manufactures the full range of automotive safety glass, which includes:
• Laminated Windshield
• Tempered Glass for Side and Backlites
• Silver Printed Defogger Glass
• Antenna Printed Backlites
• Black Ceramic Printed Flush Fitting Glass
• Encapsulated Fixed Glass
• Solar Control Glass
• IR Cut Glass
• UV Cut Glass
• Reflective (PET) Windshield
• Water Repellant Glass
• Glass Antenna
• Extruded Windshield
Clients

AIS Auto Glass : Share of Business


Customer SOB (%)
Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. 100
International Cars and Motors 100
Reva Motors 100
Honda Motors 100
Ford India 99

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Toyota Kirloskar Motors 99


Fiat India 83
Hyundai Motors 72
General Motors 67
Volvo India 57
Mahindra & Mahindra 52
TATA Motors 24
Piaggio 22
Hindustan Motors 17
Eicher Motors 13
Swaraj Mazda 5
Force Motors 1

Market Position

• Sole supplier to almost the entire Indian passenger car industry, with a current market
share in excess of 80 %.
• Significant presence in the after-market with a market share of over 43%.
• Exporting auto glass to after-market in Europe and Pakistan.

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AIS Glass Solution


AIS Glass Solutions is the face of the architectural glass processing business of AIS. As a
separate business unit, AIS Glass Solutions focuses on offering innovative architectural glass
solutions to customers.
AIS Glass Solutions aims at raising per capita consumption of glass in the country to bring it at
par with the other developed countries in the world. It disseminates knowledge for increased
awareness of the use and application of architectural glass through innovative offerings.
AIS Glass Solutions has been supplying a wide range of high quality architectural processed
glass, comprising of toughened glass, laminated glass, insulated glass units and value added
glass products. It also caters to the project segment, meeting glass and related requirements of
construction projects.
Its product portfolio includes:
• AIS Strong glass - impact resistant glass.
• AIS Security glass - burglar resistant glass.
• AIS Acoustic glass - sound resistant glass.
• Glass products like shower enclosures, tabletops, shelves.
The state-of-the-art architectural glass processing facilities are located at Taloja (West India),
Chennai (South India), Rewari and Roorkee (North India). The Roorkee facility is the largest
architectural glass processing facility in the country.

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AIS Float Glass


OVERVIEW
AIS Float Glass is a premier manufacturer of international quality float glass and value-added
glass like reflective glass and mirror.
AIS Float Glass has state-of-the-art glass manufacturing plants located at Taloja near Mumbai
(West India) and Roorkee (North India) with a total production capacity of 1,200 tons per day
(TPD). Its newly commissioned unit at IGP Roorkee has manufacturing facilities for float glass,
superior quality heat reflective glass and new generation environment friendly mirror.
PRODUCT RANGE
AIS Float Glass offers a diversified product range of float glass in thickness of 2 mm - 12
mm in different shades and tints of clear, green, grey, bronze and blue in varying sizes. Its
product portfolio includes world-class range of international quality Supersilver heat-
reflective glass, the world’s finest quality "Environment Friendly" copper & lead free
premium AIS Mirrors, AIS Décor lacquered glass & AIS Krystal Frosted glass for interior
applications.

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Application Of AIS Glass


With its wide product range and its status as the undisputed quality leader, AIS Glass is
the natural choice in most of the application segments:
Window Glazing: AIS Float Glass’s superior strength, high optical clarity, distortion
free, smooth surface and bigger sizes give design flexibility, making it the natural choice
for all window glazing applications.
Curtain walls: Availability of AIS Tinted Float & AIS Heat Reflective Glass in various
shapes and sizes enable you to design the latest in curtain walls. Besides modern
expression, it reduces the overall dead weight of the building, allows faster construction
and requires less expensive maintenance. The heat-absorbing / heat-reflective
characteristic reduces the air-conditioning load substantially, thus saving precious energy.
Partition Walls: Due to its inherent strength and availability in large sizes, AIS Float
Glass can be extensively used for partitions. Glass partitions add to the aesthetics of the
room and give a feeling of spaciousness.
Doors: AIS Float Glass is extensively used in doors and entrances, exuding beauty and
elegance.
Shop-Fronts: Brilliantly clear and transparent shop-fronts made of Float Glass provide a
distinct image to a showroom.
Decorations: Modern expression, transparency, easy maintenance and non-
inflammability of AIS Float Glass makes it an indispensable material for display cabinets
Shop, partitioning, screening and designing modern and high-class Showrooms and
Shopping Malls.
Furniture: AIS Float Glass, due to its versatility, is ideal for furniture, tabletops, shelves,
cabinets, showcases and sliding doors of large almirahs and cupboards etc.
Balustrades: The use of AIS Float Glass in balustrades gives a graceful effect to the
staircases.
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Mirrors: AIS Float Glass gives perfect reflected images when mirrored. Also AIS
Mirrors, are world-class quality mirrors, being copper & lead free and corrosion
resistant.
Automobile Safety Glass: AIS Float Glass Unit is the single largest supplier to the OEM
segment. Its European Green glass is used extensively in almost all premium cars.
Special Applications: AIS Float Glass can be further processed to be used for skylights,
atriums, museums, art galleries, aquariums, lifts, dance floors etc.
MARKET POSITION
AIS Float Glass enjoys 38.89 % market share in the Indian float glass market.
CLIENTS
The diversified product portfolio of AIS Float Glass includes float glass in varying sizes,
shapes and thickness. AIS's quality products make it the preferred choice of a wide range
of clients including

• Automotive Safety Glass Manufacturers


• Processors
• Dealers and Retailers
• Architects
• Interior Decorators
• Builders
• Aluminium Fabricators
• Carpenters
• Furniture Manufacturers
• Household Consumers
With glass finding applications in an array of arenas, the client base of AIS Float Glass is
an ever-expanding one.

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Advantages of Float Glass over its Counterparts


Fuel Efficiency
The fuel efficiency is enhanced significantly in a float glass plant. Whereas in a sheet
glass plant, the best fuel efficiency is limited to 0.3 MT of furnace oil per tonne of glass, in the
float process, 0.18 to 0.20 MT of furnace oil is required to melt 1 tonne of glass.
Quality
Owing to the greater degree of quality control in the furnace conditions, the final product
is free from body defects such as waves, stones etc. The reason for this lies in the process itself:
the molten glass is formed on a bed of molten tin, improving the accuracy of glass immensely.
In the other processes, the molten ribbon of glass is drawn out mechanically between rollers,
making it vulnerable to variations in thickness. Thus the float process offers better quality.

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Control
Because the product passes horizontally from one chamber to another, a greater degree of
inspection and quality control can be exercised unlike the other process where the glass is pulled
up against the force of gravity.
Variety
The float glass can be manufactured with thickness upto 19mm, to be used for applications such
as tabletops; furniture etc.This is not possible in sheet glass, as the glass would become brittle at
such high thickness.

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Market Research
Background
In the present era of cut throat competition there is a very little scope left out for the
companies to create differentiation in the products to compete, hence need to start brand
building exercise by way of creating perceived images of superiority over the competition . This
starts with the various kind of activities to be undertaken by the companies to create brand ,
among them one way is advertising. Indian commodity market ( in the building material
segment )such as cement, steel, aluminum, Glass has adopted various methods to enhance the
demand for their products, they have simultaneously invested sizeable amount of money in
advertising to sell their products and increase their market share. VARIOUS consultants and
advertising agencies were hired to create a difference but, “have they been successful in their
efforts to create demand or make any kind of impact on the demand or sale due to advertising or
mass media campaigns. Lots of subjective discussions (simply based on individual feelings and
selected market researches to show the positive impact, which can easily be contradicted by any
other agency or market research) have taken place and actually not yielded any results or
tangible benefits which can distinctively be observed or verified. Whenever organizations try to
establish a relationship between the advertising and the Top line, bottom line then efforts are put
in to de link it so that it goes to the expenses part rather than become a part of the cost. There is a
need to re-examine and evaluate the impact of advertising on the demand of commodity
products and see what exactly consumers are looking for. Once companies understand that
branding is a necessary (and profitable) part of doing business, the next logical question is —
how do you brand?
Tactically speaking, there are numerous ways to go about branding. The look and feel of
the communications, the balance of advertising versus public relations versus grassroots, the

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media used, etc., all reflect tactical aspects of the branding process. However, these are only
vehicles used to brand, and do not inherently lend themselves to developing a brand, per se. To
ensure a good, successful brand is the methodology used to develop and/or refine the brand in
the first place. In other words, just like a building, a good brand starts with a strong foundation.
Sound branding practice begins with addressing five key attributes present in any effective
brand: uniqueness, relevance, credibility, sustainabiiity, and practicality.
Uniqueness
The average American is exposed to approximately 3,000 advertising messages per day.
That means everything from the logo on your watch, to product placement in television and
movies, down to traditional commercials and print ads. And all this static is in addition to
children, family, job and various other aspects of everyday life that are constantly vying for
attention. To break through all of the clutter, a brand has to stand out, has to be memorable — it
has to be unique.
Relevance
This attribute seems like a no-brainer, but it is an important check-off. If a brand is
positioned in a way that has no bearing in the life of the audience, then how can the audience be
expected to develop an affinity for the brand?
Credibility
Things can be true, but not necessarily believable. For instance, Kia brand automobiles
could spend hundreds of millions of dollars on the development of a luxury car that rivals BMW
in every aspect. However, it is a good bet that such an endeavor would fail. At the very least, Kia
could only command a fraction of the retail price of BMWs. The Kia brand has successfully
positioned itself as a low-cost automobile maker. People would simply not believe the company
had produced a car that was on par with BMW. The lessons here — don’t let your business stray
from your brand. Once credibility in your brand is lost, it is near impossible to regain it. Just see
Arthur Andersen, WorldCom or Enron.
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Sustainability
This factor represents the most significant difference between advertising and pure
branding. An advertising campaign is finite, while a brand should theoretically be credible and
relevant forever. The core values inherent in a brand should reflect core human values. For
example, Nike's core value is achievement. McDonald's core value is convenience. Citibank’s
core value is financial security. These values will be as relevant as in 2055 as they are in 2005,
which gives the brand consistency, staying power, and the ability to build consumer loyalty.
Advertising remains one of the cornerstones of marketing communications. However,
determining its impact on a firm’s performance continues to be a difficult proposition for many
marketing and advertising managers. Although firms in the USA spent over $230 billion on
advertising in 2001 (Coen, 2002), a clear link Between advertising expenditures and financial
performance remains somewhat Uncertain in many cases. One common belief is that
advertising creativity is an Essential element of advertising success (El-Murad and West, 2004;
Smith and Yang, 2004) and may lead to an improved financial performance, that is, as firms
focus more resources and develop more creative advertising, they will realize marginal benefits
in the form of higher sales, an increased market share and higher future earnings. While
seemingly reasonable, this particular belief fails to provide much more than an anecdotal basis
for determining the effects of advertising on a firm’s bottom line. While providing some useful
insights, these mostly academic studies typically failed to take into consideration the myriad of
other variables that also affect advertising effectiveness (e.g. differentiating message, repetition
and recall).

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Introduction
Can Advertising Contribute?
On the heels of what seems to be a never-ending series of attacks on advertising, two
new studies purport to reveal more evidence of its diminishing impact. For several years,
respected industry leaders have been assailing both advertisers and their agencies for lack of
performance. Some experts, such as Sergio Zyman, former advertising head at Coca-Cola, claim
that ad agencies have abandoned their basic responsibility to sell the brands they're paid to
advertise. Others, including noted author Al Ries, have gone even further, contending that
advertising's business building capabilities now pale in comparison to the "buzz" public relations
can generate. (See "Is Advertising Dead?" Adding fuel to this fire are two recently released
studies. The first, by Yankelovich Partners, maintains that the effectiveness of ad campaigns has
been declining markedly. It cites as evidence the apparent growth in consumers' negative
perceptions of advertising. According to Yankelovich, about 6 in 10 U.S. consumers report that
they now feel more negatively about advertising than they used to. Furthermore, they claim to
"avoid buying products that overwhelm them with advertising and marketing."
The second study, recently released by Deutsche Bank, is based on a more wide ranging
analysis of sales and marketing spending data. It concludes that TV advertising delivers, in most
cases, a negligible return on investment (ROI) for mature package-goods brands. According to
the Deutsche Bank data, only 3 of 18 major brands competing in established product categories
(ranging from beer to detergent and from snacks to toothpaste) could demonstrate financial
returns that exceeded the company's investments. In the other 15 cases, the companies were
simply spending more money than they were making. No bang for the buck Reports such as
these have caused consternation among advertisers and the agencies they've enlisted to create
and deliver sales-building and business-enhancing messages. Wall Street analysts and company
boards are increasingly expecting and demanding accountability for marketing expenditures. If,
as the Deutsche Bank data contend, major advertisers such as Coca-Cola, Heinz, and Colgate are
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realizing no tangible business benefits from their expenditures, then ad money will likely be
reallocated to other, higher-return uses. The dilemma, of course, is to identify what those
alternatives might be. According to the Deutsche Bank report, the solution is not an increase in
trade-promotion spending, as this tactic also falls short when it comes to ROI. So where are
companies to turn? What are these studies telling today's brand marketers? Perhaps, as some
have suggested, the solution is simply "better advertising." The argument is that the money is
squandered -- not because all Advertising is wasteful, but because too many companies have
been lured into creating ad campaigns that just don't work. Either marketers are employing the
wrong media mix (for example, relying on expensive and inefficient TV commercials), or they're
relying on the wrong selling strategies (such as creating messages that have little or no potential
impact). Does a company's advertising just need to "work harder"? Or is the real problem that
today's advertisers are heading in the wrong direction, and as a result, are making no apparent
progress toward meeting their ROI challenge? It appears that far too many companies operate
under an incomplete or erroneous model of how advertising can best contribute to building a
healthier brand. Consequently, they fail to hold their ads -- and their ad agencies -- accountable
for the end results they should be delivering.
Consider the Yankelovich study, which apparently equates "liking" advertising with its
impact. The study suggests that if people say they're feeling increasingly negative toward
advertising, then that means that advertising has increasingly less impact. This argument would
imply that the solution for enhancing the return on advertising expenditures would be to make
the ads more entertaining and fun to watch, hear, or read. But should that be the goal? Is
advertising's real purpose to entertain -- or to sell? As experts from David Ogilvy to Sergio
Zyman have pointed out, advertising's objective is not to be "fun to watch." Entertaining
consumers is not the reason companies invest billions of dollars in ads. Customer acquisition or
customer retention? What should advertising's goal be? What are the appropriate objectives for
today's marketers to pursue? These are the questions that marketers must answer as they rethink
their targets and reexamine their strategies. Some time ago, companies began shifting their

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emphasis from customer acquisition to customer retention. That's because myriad published
studies have emphasized what has now become a management mantra: It costs a lot less to keep
a customer than it does to acquire a new one. (See "The Constant Customer" and "Maximizing
Return" in See Also.) Yet the goals that many companies set for their advertising have remained
essentially the same as they were decades ago, when brands were being launched and the aim
was to attract new customers. What are these stated objectives? What do today's marketers
demand of their ad agencies? They want agencies to build brand and advertising awareness,
increase consumers' positive attitudes toward identifiable purchase motivators, and boost the
number of customers who state a positive intention to buy the brand.
But these measures all derive from a time past, when package-goods companies were
defining what marketing was all about (the "Four Ps" of product, place, promotion, and price)
and focusing on building brand share for frequently purchased, low-involvement consumer
products. And they were pursuing these goals through advertising that was designed and
executed to increase the brand's profile and make it more "top of mind." But those outcomes are
not the hallmarks of increased customer retention. Rather, they are indicators of the potential for
customer acquisition. As several Gallup Organization studies have pointed out, the health of a
company's customer relationships is reflected in the nature and depth of the emotional
connections that have been forged between the brand and the customer. (“Beyond Customer
Loyalty”) Brand awareness is an insensitive and even inappropriate indicator of the strength of a
company's customer relationships.
However, that may be exactly why the Deutsche Bank study has concluded that
advertising typically doesn't work for mature brands in mature categories. What should the role
of advertising be for brands such as Coke and Heinz? Should their ads focus on increasing the
awareness of these already-familiar names? Or should they seek to deepen and extend brand
relationships by enhancing the engagement of their current customers? The problem with
attacking the issue of advertising that reportedly doesn't work is that too many companies are
still defining what works according to an outmoded customer acquisition model. They are
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looking at what it takes to generate trial, and that's a mistake. In a world that's now strongly
focused on customer retention, advertising must be designed, crafted, and held accountable for
its ability to enhance the customer relationship, not just initiate it. This means that company
marketers -- at least those who are marketing established brands -- must rethink not just what
they're spending, but what they're doing, what they're saying, and how they're monitoring their
progress. Unless advertisers and their agencies reexamine where they're heading and reconsider
what they're striving to achieve, marketers will continue to read bleak and scary reports about
advertising's lack of impact and effectiveness. Ad expenditures, already clearly in jeopardy, will
decline. And the real promise and potential of advertising will, sadly, continue to be left
unrealized.
Marketers are too willing to concede that their products have reached commodity status.
That's a major reason why advertising effectiveness has suffered mightily. Here's the problem:
When companies treat their brands the same as their competitors', they no longer focus on
attributes of the brand itself as reasons to buy it. Instead, they talk about the people who buy the
product, or they make fun of the advertising -- anything to keep from admitting that their
product purportedly has no real advantage over the next guy's. So, when advertising is forced to
get away from concentrating on what makes it most effective and efficient -- tangible and
meaningful product benefits -- the result is likely to be disappointing.
It's amazing how sophisticated marketers make this mistake. The contention is that they are
selling their products short; that their products have advantages that can be exploited by great
advertising if only their custodians would look harder for the hidden gems buried deep within
the product -- or maybe just under the surface.
Although the agency is only too happy to oblige, the client is clearly the place to lay the
blame. After all, if the top guys at Miller Brewing Co. had insisted that their agencies dig out
and exploit attributes of their beers, instead of the weird people who drink their beers, they
would be gainfully employed today.

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The agencies, of course, were glad to be let off the hook. It's hard work to come up with
an advantage that can give a product an edge and convey that advantage in a meaningful,
creative and entertaining way. How much easier to ignore the product altogether and focus on
the lifestyles of the consumers who use the product. That way, you can say anything you
want.It's easy to go down the road that says most products are the same. You see that most often
when companies are floundering.
Kellogg Co. is a sad case in point. Its troubles started when the cereal companies
drastically lowered the prices on their products, giving consumers the impression that they were
all the same. (Kodak did the same thing with its film.)
When that line of thinking takes hold, management starts looking for non-product-related
things to talk about. So now, the head marketing guy at Kellogg concedes that, because "the
functional benefits are the same" from brand to brand, Kellogg is intent on creating a personality
for each brand -- and a relationship with its consumers.
If the "functional benefits" of a brand are all the same, how can the brand's personality be
distinct, other than by fabricating it out of whole cloth? A brand's uniqueness comes out of its
real and tangible product advantages.
“The moral of the story is that few consumer products are commodities unless their
owners concede that they are”. And because so many companies today are making that
concession, smart marketers have a terrific new weapon at their disposal.
Marketing is at the top of the list because this is the area where rigorous financial
evaluations have not been used extensively to justify the expenditures within a firm.
Manufacturing costs have been reduced from 50 per cent to 30 per cent, and general
management costs have also declined as a proportion of the total corporate costs from 30 per
cent to 20 per cent, but in contrast to manufacturing and general management costs, marketing
costs have increased significantly from only 20 per cent of the total corporate costs 50 years ago
to 50 per cent today. In spite of the huge marketing expenditures, managers frequently do not
have concrete measures or knowledge of what is obtained in return from a significant investment
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in marketing. Moreover, many have doubted that definite quantitative measurements of


marketing effectiveness could ever be made

Problem Formulation
The impact of advertisement on the demand of commodity product specifically Glass is
to be find out. India is the only country where glass as commodity product is being advertised on
TV. The huge amounts of investment in ads are happening in the industry. But their effectiveness
in impacting consumers mind for using more glass is not clear. Do the advertisements help the
company in commanding more market share, has become the main issue. The connection of ad
to the top and bottom line of the company is not yet established clearly for the commodity
product such as glass. The perception of consumers towards glass is still very traditional as that
of fragile nature etc. The relationship between glass buying behavior and the awareness towards
the brand among the commodity glass market is to be figured out. All these issues are the
rationale behind choosing this research study.

Literature Review
RIEDESEL (2002) COMMENTS that the modeling of company sales and income as a function
of three types of media spending using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) by Luo and Donthu
(2001) is questionable. He acknowledges that the relationship between media spending and
company sales may be reciprocal, but the impact of sales on media spending is more direct than
vice versa. First, there are numerous marketing, management science, econometrics, and
advertising studies that have established the causal relationship from media spending to sales
volume ( Aaker and Carman, 1982; Feinberg, 2001; Mesak, 1999; Simon and Arndt, 1980;
Stewart, 1989). Danaher and Rust (1994) theoretically propose that optimal level of media
spending can be achieved by maximizing the advertising productivity/efficiency. Following this
school of research, we believe that the amount spent on different media such as broadcasting,
print, and outdoor can be treated as DEA inputs, while sales and income as DEA outputs.

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Second, while some firms may be using a fixed percentage of previous sales as current
media spending budget, the approach is ad hoc and not supported by science. One hopes that
many firms are actually setting advertising budget based on future sales goals. However,
irrespective of how advertising budgets are set, advertising expenditure may or may not be
efficient (given level of advertising may produce different levels of sales) and DEA can be used
to investigate this.
It is not the setting of the budget that creates sales but the spending of the budget. If sales
fall below or above projected levels, real-time changes have to be made in spending. DEA can
be used to model such contemporaneous spending/sales data.
Finally, a pure empiricist may argue that DEA is a correlation technique used to analyze the
relationship between two sets of variables.
In conclusion, advertising theory dictates that media spending be treated as inputs and sales be
treated as outputs. Media spending should reflect sales goals. Irrespective of how advertising
budgets are arrived at, inefficiencies exist in advertising and that inefficiency can be
benchmarked using DEA. ( Mehir Kumar Baidya and Partha Basu Measurement and Analysis
for Marketing 2008) did one study with the aim to check the impact of individual marketing
efforts (advertising, sales force , promotion, distribution and price) on sales and overall customer
satisfaction for a brand by taking into consideration both the financial and non financial aspects
of the measurement. The return on- investment (ROI) has been calculated for each effort on the
basis of sales The findings suggest that all the marketing efforts have significant positive impact
on sales except price. Moreover, all the marketing efforts have significant positive effects on
overall customer satisfaction for the brand. Furthermore, among all the marketing efforts the
adjusted ROI is the highest for sales force. These results will assist the managers in allocating
the resources to different marketing efforts in a better manner, so as to improve the effectiveness
of marketing expenditures.
Stone and Duffy , and Basu and Batra used the judgmental and mathematical
(ADSPLIT) models to frame the relationship between sales and advertising expenditures. Both
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studies used response function to allocate marketing budget to advertising as well as to different
brands.
Effects of sales promotion : (Bawa and Shoemaker) performed a study to identify the influence
of sales promotion activities on customers ’ brand choice behaviour. The authors found that sales
promotion activities have short-term and long term positive effects on the brand choice
behaviour of customers. In the same direction, Jones made an attempt to examine the short term
and long-term impact of sales promotion activities on sales by a multivariate technique
Regression model estimation indicates that the short-term effect is more prominent than the
long-term.
The author found that the effect of a low price on attracting buyers depends on the level
of advertising. The high advertising plan produces sales 50 per cent above the low plan at the
base price. At the middle price it was 34 per cent, and at the highest price with the high
advertising level it was only 11 per cent.( Effectiveness of marketing expenditures © 2008
Palgrave Macmillan Ltd 0967-3237 Vol. 16, 3, 181–188 Journal of Targeting, Measurement and
Analysis for Marketing 183).
Customer Satisfaction Studies: Anderson analysed a database matching the CSI with
ROI, and the productivity of each company covered by the Swedish Customer Satisfaction
Barometer (SCSB) from 1989 to 1992. Regression model estimation indicates that the
coefficient for the direct relationship between the customer satisfaction and ROI is positive and
significant. Similarly, Ittner and Larcker 12 extend this study by using stock price as a dependent
variable and CSI as an independent variable. The authors found that the estimated regression
coefficient is 7.36. This shows that customer satisfaction has a positive impact on shareholder
value.
Advertising remains one of the cornerstones of marketing communications. However,
determining its impact on a firm’s performance continues to be a difficult proposition for many
marketing and advertising managers. Although firms in the USA spent over $230 billion on

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advertising in 2001 (Coen, 2002), a clear link between advertising expenditures and financial
performance remains somewhat uncertain in many cases. One common belief is that advertising
creativity is an essential element of advertising success (El-Murad and West, 2004; Smith and
Yang, 2004) and may lead to an improved financial performance, that is, as firms focus more
resources and develop more creative advertising, they will realize marginal benefits in the form
of higher sales, an increased market share and higher future earnings. While seemingly
reasonable, this particular belief fails to provide much more than an anecdotal basis for
determining the effects of advertising on a firm’s bottom line. In addition, while positive returns
are expected, this type of unsubstantiated claim has become unacceptable as more marketing
managers are being asked to validate the links between traditional marketing variables and
financial performance (Jedidi et al., 1998).

Although the search for the true value of advertising has led to the completion of
numerous experimental and econometric studies, evaluating the effectiveness of specific
advertising campaigns continues to be problematic for practitioners and academics alike. For the
most part, past studies have tended to focus on a handful of ‘executable devices such as the use
of humor, sex, and celebrity presenters’ (Stewart and Furse, 2000, p. 85). While providing some
useful insights, these mostly academic studies typically failed to take into consideration the
myriad of other variables that also affect advertising effectiveness (e.g. differentiating message,
repetition and recall). Exceptions to these fairly limited studies are practitioner studies that rely
on an experimental design and use single-source data (e.g. Eskin, 1985; Lodish et al., 1995).
Such studies are able to estimate advertising performance by tracking the actual purchasing
behaviour of a sample of consumers (via retail scan cards). However, while providing useful
insights, many of these experiments were not well documented in terms of methodology
(Stewart and Furse, 2000) and were very expensive, technically difficult to conduct and relied
heavily on the ability for tracking exact consumer purchasing patterns carefully. While both

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categories of studies have helped to extend our general understanding of how advertising affects
firms’ performances, more research is needed.
Consequently, a number of empirical studies have recently been conducted in order to
extend our understanding of the links between specific aspects of a firm’s advertising function
and various financial performance measures (e.g. market share, profitability and stock price).
While market share and profitability continue to demand attention as managers attempt to link
their decisions to financial outcomes directly, many researchers have opted for a more unique
approach and have begun to examine the impact of specific marketing and advertising decisions
on expected future earnings (as manifested in higher or lower abnormal stock returns).
Specifically, researchers have explored the links between stock price and the use of celebrity
endorsers (e.g. Ohanian, 1991; Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995; Mathur et al., 1997; Farrell et al.,
2000), corporate sponsorship and the marketing of sporting events (e.g. Miyazaki and Morgan,
2001; Tomkovick et al., 2001), changing a company’s name (Horsky and Swyngedouw, 1987)
and changing a firm’s advertising slogan (Mathur and Mathur, 1996). However, while some
progress has been made in this area, more research is needed.
Managerial relevance. Jointly examining weight and content effects on market response
can be extremely appealing to brand managers who try to strike a balance between copy and
weight and may ultimately help them achieve higher advertising efficiencies. The results of
MacInnis et al. are encouraging, since they suggest that media expenditures are not a waste of
money when combined with the appropriate type of copy appeal (in their case emotional) in
mature markets. Similarly, the implications of the study by Chandy et al. [3] may help managers
in copy-changing decisions depending on the maturity of the market they compete. The
approach suggested in Reference [7] can be used when advertising appeals are ambiguous and
need to be inferred by examining their effects on response.
Long-term effects and hysteresis

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Although the long-term effectiveness of advertising has long been a popular subject of
academic research with the Koyck model being the main methodological tool (e.g. Reference
[8]), in recent years new paradigms in the study of long-term advertising effects have emerged.
Most notably, Dekimpe and Hanssens [9, 10] proposed the use of ‘persistence modelling’ to
study long-term advertising effects. Applying vector auto-regressive (VAR) models to data from
evolving markets, Dekimpe and Hanssens essentially redefine what should be considered as
‘long term’ and contrast it with the more traditional Koyck modelling approach. Koyck models
may be applied to stationary markets but their advertising effects cannot be permanent (and thus
really ‘long term’), because market performance in these markets reverts to its mean. In
evolutionary
markets, however, market performance can exhibit permanent increases and if such increases
can be attributed to advertising spending then advertising effects may be considered long term.
More specifically, Dekimpe and Hanssens [9] estimated a VAR model using home-improvement
chain sales and advertising data.
A relevant, but not identical, approach to measuring long-term effectiveness of
advertising is to examine whether it causes hysteresis, a concept introduced in the marketing
literature by Simon [12]. Hysteresis suggests that a temporary increase in advertising
expenditures can lead to a permanent increase in market performance (sales). The critical
assumption in the econometric modelling of hysteresis is that there is not a one-to-one
relationship between advertising and market performance, since decreasing advertising to its
previous level would not affect sales but increasing advertising from the same level would. In
other words the ‘sales path’ is different for decreases from, than for increases to any level of
advertising spending. Hanssens and Ouyang [13] empirically examined hysteresis in the
computer printer market. They distinguish between full hysteresis, where temporary changes in
advertising cause permanent changes in sales without needing additional spending to maintain
the new high sales levels, and partial hysteresis, where some maintenance advertising is needed.

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Their empirical results provided evidence for partial hysteresis caused by print media
advertising.
The studies by Mela et al. [14] and Jedidi et al. [15] offer an alternative approach to
studying long-term advertising effects. The first study looks at the effects of quarterly
advertising expenditures on quarterly price sensitivities, while the second examines the
cumulative effects of advertising on choice and quantity and their short-term pricing and
promotion sensitivities.
Advertising effects on stability of performance
While recent research has addressed the issue of advertising effects in evolutionary
markets, the question remains whether advertising has a significant impact on mature markets.
The results reported in Reference [5] are encouraging as they suggest that increased advertising
effort can increase sales in mature markets. However, the ‘maintenance’ role of advertising in
mature markets (see Reference [33]) should also be investigated. In other words, whether
advertising contributes to the stability of a brand’s performance, since many markets especially
for frequently purchased goods are mature The issue may be of greater importance for big
brands that would like to maintain leadership in a market but it could also be important for
smaller ‘niche’ brands that enjoy a healthy profit margin and are satisfied with their market
position. There are two possible approaches to modelling advertising effects on stability of
performance. One is to examine the effects of advertising on the variance in the performance
(sales or share) of a brand across time. If advertising is expected to increase performance
stability, it should decrease variance in performance. To make comparisons meaningful across }
It should also be acknowledged that recent research has started examining the effects of
advertising/marketing expenditures on financial metrics (see for example Reference [29]). kFor
example, P&G, Unilever and GM are the top three media spenders worldwide. Although they do
introduce new products annually, they also support a lot of mature brands.(Copyright # 2005

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John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Appl. Stochastic Models Bus. Ind., 2005; 21:351–361 358 D.
VAKRATSAS)
The specification of advertising effects on the variance of performance should follow
from the specification of advertising effects on the mean performance (e.g. Reference [34]),
which may complicate matters. Furthermore, showing that advertising contributes to lower
variance in performance may not easily convince managers to continue investing in advertising
since performance variance is not explicitly linked to profitability.
An alternative approach to evaluate advertising’s ‘maintenance’ role would be to look
fordifferential effects of increases and decreases in advertising. In other words, a mature brand’s
performance may be resistant to advertising increases (due to ‘ceiling’ effects) but may be
sensitive (declining) to advertising decreases (due to lack of critical support). The implication
then would be that although advertising does not lead to increased performance, it helps
maintain it as declining advertising spending would result in deterioration of brand performance.
This is conceptually the opposite of hysteresis, where brand performance is resistant to
advertising decreases, as it focuses on losses in performance as a result of lower advertising
investment. Both approaches to measuring maintenance effects need sufficient variability in the
data in order to produce reliable results (see Reference [35]), which may be difficult to attain as
such studies should be carried in mature markets where managers may not change status quo
advertising practices.
Europe shows that advertising recall is lower in countries with higher levels of television
advertising. Specifically, yfield and Nazaroff (2003) report that in Denmark, where there are
only 80 average television exposures per week per person, the Millward Brown awareness index
is 150 (compared with the U.K. benchmark of 100).1 However, in Italy, where there are 300
average exposures per week per person, the awareness index drops to only 50. Thus, an effect of
increasing advertising levels is to decrease the recall of all advertisements. In addition, academic
studies have found lower ad recall and recognition in the presence of too much advertising from

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competitors (Burke and Srull 1988; D’Souza and Rao 1995; Keller 1987, 1991). Increasing
advertising content on television also increases ad avoidance behavior (Danaher 1995; Lafayette
2004), such as channel switching or time-shift viewing with a personal video recorder (Green
2003).
A commonly used term to describe the presence of high levels of advertising is “clutter.”
For television, clutter is the combination of commercials and other nonprogram material,such as
program promotions and public service announcements. The increase in clutter over the past 40
years is due to both an increase in nonprogram time and an increase in the number of 15-second
commercials (Brown and Rothschild 1993; Kent 1995). The topic of increasing advertising
clutter is one of the most publicized issues in the advertising trade literature and continues to be
one of the greatest concerns facing the advertising industry (Chunovic 2003; Lafayette 2004).
Kent (1993) makes a distinction between competitive and noncompetitive clutter. Competitive
clutter, which is also called “competitive interference” (Burke and Srull 1988; Kent and Allen
1994), is clutter that arises from advertisements delivered by competing brands (within a
category) at or near the same time and place as those for a focal brand.Kent (1993, 1995) finds
that competitive clutter has a more harmful effect on ad recall than noncompetitive clutter. In
this study, we focus on competitive clutter.
Most previous research on brand advertising interference has been conducted in
laboratory settings, in which participants are exposed only to commercials and no editorial
material (Burke and Srull 1988; Keller 1991; Kent and Allen 1994), resulting in limited external
validity. Other studies of this topic have used unfamiliar brands, which Kent and Allen (1994)
show are more prone to interference effects. Finally, previous marketing studies have examined
the effect of competitive interference on recall, recognition, or brand evaluations rather than the
all-important effect on sales (East 2003, p. 19).
Advertising response models with managerial impact: an agenda for the future Faculty of
Management, McGill University, 1001 Sherbrooke St. W, Montreal, QC H3A 1G5, Canada

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ALBA, Athens, Greece.This paper discusses recent advances in advertising response models and
identifies new opportunities for managerially relevant research. First, it establishes that recent
research has shifted attention from topics such as duration of advertising effects in mature
markets and short-term advertising elasticities to issues such as combined effects of ad content
and weight and effectiveness in evolving markets. Then, motivated from recent trends in
advertising practice, it presents a research agenda consisting of four main topics: (1) new media
and forms of advertising (e.g. product placement), (2) media synergies, (3) advertising
productivity and (4) advertising effects on performance stability. Copyright # 2005 John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd. This paper has two main objectives. The first is to discuss new research findings (of
the last ten years) in advertising response research, their implications for managers and their
importance for broadening the scope of advertising research. The second objective is to propose
an agenda consisting of four new areas of research: non-traditional media, media synergies,
advertising productivity and advertising’s role in performance stability. The choice of these four
issues was based on their practical relevance and the lack of sufficient academic research to
consider them resolved. The discussion of the proposed research agenda includes suggestions for
potential methodological approaches, data requirements and measurement. Given the focus of
the paper on advertising response models, the discussion mainly concerns empirical econometric
studies that use market-based performance measures (e.g. sales, share).

Marketing managers are under increasing pressure to justify marketing spending. The
issue of quantifying the returns to marketing activities in financial terms is one of the greatest
challenges facing marketing and brand managers today. For example, Rust and colleagues (2004,
p. 76) note that marketers have not been held accountable for showing how marketing adds to
shareholder value and that “this lack of accountability has undermined marketers’ credibility,
threatened the standing of the marketing function within the firm, and even threatened
marketing’s existence as a distinct capability within the firm.”

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Brand-The initial framework, developed in the 1990s, was based on four pillars:
differentiation, relevance, esteem, and knowledge (Agres and Dubitsky 1996). Implications from
this model have helped shape thinking on various brand issues. For example, Aaker (1996, Chap.
10) uses the BAV model as one of the key inputs into formulating his “brand equity ten” and has
continued to make use of the framework to highlight the crucial role of differentiation in brand
building (Aaker 2004, p. 136; Aaker and Joachimsthaler 2000, p. 263). Y&R recently modified
its framework and introduced a fifth pillar called “brand energy.”1 The measure is based on the
Y&R survey questions reflecting the degree to which the brand is viewed as (1) innovative and
(2) dynamic.

The Pillars of the Initial Y&R BAV Model


Researchers have repeatedly established that the brand beliefs generated by an
advertisement affect consumer perception of the physical product during subsequent trial (e.g.,
Deighton and Schindler 1988; Kempf and Laczniak 2001; Kempf and Smith 1998; Marks and
Kamins 1988; Olson and Dover 1979; Smith 1993). However, those studies have typically
exposed consumers to the physical product shortly after exposing them to advertising. It is
therefore likely that in the marketplace a more extensive time lag occurs between both exposures
with beliefs decaying over time and that effects exist from perceived product physical attributes
on specific post experience brand beliefs in such cases (Kempf and Smith 1998).
Advertisement Effectiveness

The role of advertisement is to


➢ Give your customer the reason to keep buying from you
➢ Attract Must -Have customers to try your products
➢ Increase the sales and profits

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(Core customers are company’s most loyal customers who are willing to pay a fair
price for a product or service. Must-Have customers are people who could become
the core customers, but they currently do business with the competition.
Advertisement effectiveness can be checked a process call “Plus Over Normal”. To determine
the Plus over Normal results every ad is benchmarked against the normal business baseline. The
lift from the ad is sales can then be evaluated.
There are only three measures of advertising effectiveness:
➢ Did core customers increase their spending with the company after seeing my
advertising?
➢ Did any Must-Have customers start doing business with the company after seeing the
advertising?

➢ Did the ads generate a net profit?

The Effects of Advertising and Brand Value on Future Operating and Market
Performance

Li Li Eng and Hean Tat Keh


This paper examines the joint effects of advertising and brand value on the firm’s future
operating and market performance. We operationalize future operating and market performance
as future accounting returns and future stock returns, respectively. Our results show that both
advertising and brand value improve future accounting returns at the firm level. The impact of
advertising and brand value on future stock returns is minimal. We find that spending on
advertising results in better brand sales and brand profitability. Brand value is also a good
predictor of brand performance. Thus, we conclude that advertising and brand value benefit the
brand and the firm through improved accounting performance. In this paper, we investigate the
impact of advertising and brand value on future operating and market performance. Key
intangible assets such as brand value (or brand equity), product differentiation, and goodwill are

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the outcomes of investment in advertising. It is generally believed that advertising contributes to


the creation of brand value (Chaudhuri 2002; Chu and Keh 2006; Kimelman 1993; Sheinin and
Biehal 1999). Mizik and Jacobson (2003) argue that brand-based advertising can create a
comparative advantage for firms through its ability to differentiate the firm’s product. The brand
can be a formidable barrier to imitation, as brand equity is difficult for competitors to copy,
becoming an effective entry deterrence strategy. Industry observers and analysts note that many
companies continue to emphasize brand-building activities. For example, Samsung has been
rated by Interbrand, a brand-consulting firm, as the fastest-growing brand over the past few years
(“Yun Jong Yong” 2004). The CEO of Samsung, Yun Jong Yong, has been instrumental in
driving the creation of its brand value, claiming, “Our future will depend on our brand equity.”
While brand value creation is generally regarded as a “good thing,” we need to have
more concrete measures of brand value appropriation (i.e., extracting profits from brand value).
Merely knowing the effect of brand value on purchase intent (Cobb-Walgren, Ruble, and Donthu
1995) is inadequate; Chaudhuri (2002) proposes a stylized model of how brand reputation
affects the advertising–brand equity link. Using survey data, the models brand reputation as a
mediator on the effect of brand advertising, brand familiarity, and brand uniqueness on brand
equity outcomes. His results suggest that advertising directly or indirectly affects brand equity
measured as brand sales, market share, and relative price.

Second, firms spend large amounts annually on advertising and brand value creation with
the expectation of reaping returns in the future. As such, it is important to examine not only the
contemporaneous effect of advertising or brand value on firm performance, According to Low
and Mohr: “To be sure, advertising is vital to brand equity. However, advertising, per se, is not a
sacred cow that should necessarily be part of every year’s marketing allocation. Monies should
be allocated to advertising only if it has a clearly defined role within that year’s strategy for
meeting a brand’s goals” (1999, p. 72). They reached this conclusion via a qualitative study
using 21 in-depth interviews. Our review of the literature indicates that previous research has not

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specifically measured the impacts of advertising and brand value, and their joint effect, on firm
performance. By examining the effects of advertising and brand value, our work contributes to
the existing literature.
There have been numerous studies, however, on the individual effect of advertising on
the persistence of profits (e.g., Mueller 1990), implying that excess returns erode more slowly
for firms that advertise heavily. For example, Chauvin and Hirschey (1993) provide evidence
that advertising expense has a positive influence on the market value of the firm. They suggest
that spending on advertising can be viewed as a form of investment in intangible assets with
positive effects on future cash flows. When Erickson and Jacobson (1992) control for the
endogeneity between discretionary expenditures and profitability, however, they find that
advertising generates substantially lower accounting and stock market returns than indicated in
previous research. In a recent study, Chu and Keh (2006) investigate the effects of advertising,
promotion, and R&D expenses on brand value creation. They find that these lagged expenses
yield diminishing returns to brand value.

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Gaps in The Literature


1. In my limited literature survey it has come to my notice that lot of work has been done
on the packaged goods or consumer durables but unfortunately ,we could not find any
study done on the commodity products related to brand preference or advertising
effectiveness. Even if something has been done and we missed out still we feel it is an
unexplored area in India, and behavior pattern can’t be compared with any western
country. It is interesting to note that no where in the world glass is branded or advertised,
it is only in India which was started by an American company in 1994.
2. We could not find the study which talks the likeable attributes in commodity products
like glass. What exactly customers are looking for in a glass?
3. Lot of efforts have been put in by the various researchers to establish a linkages between
advertising and key performance indicators of the company but no conclusive equation
could be found out , mine also will be one more attempt for commodity products .
4. We could not find any work on the commodities, what kind of adv copy is suitable to
influence the consumers when there is no differentiator available.

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Table 5: SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

Researcher and source Subject Highlights and conclusion Gaps


Simon and Arndt (1980), advertising studies that Some firms may be using a fixed No conclusive
Aaker and Carman, 1982; have established the causal percentage of previous sales as equation could be
Stewart, 1989) Danaher and relationship from media current media spending budget, found out.
Rust (1994) Mesak, 1999; spending to sales volume the approach is ad hoc and not
Feinberg, 2001; supported by science. One hopes
that many firms are actually
setting advertising budget based
on future sales goals.
Mehir Kumar Baidya and The impact of individual All the marketing efforts have Study was conducted
Partha Basu Measurement marketing efforts significant positive effects on on Hair care product
and Analysis for Marketing (advertising, sales force , overall customer satisfaction for navratna oil and
2008 promotion, distribution and the brand. Furthermore, among all emami. Nothing
price) on sales and overall the marketing efforts the adjusted related to the
customer satisfaction for a ROI is the highest for sales force. commodity products.
brand by taking into
consideration both the
financial and non financial
aspects of the measurement
Customer Satisfaction Analysed a database Regression model estimation No relationship
Studies : Anderson from matching the CSI with indicates that the coefficient for between advertising
1989 to 1992 ROI, and the productivity the direct relationship between and market share
of each company covered the customer satisfaction and ROI
by the Swedish Customer is positive and significant.
Satisfaction Similarly, Ittner and Larcker 12
Barometer(SCSB) extend this study by using stock
price as a dependent variable a
(Stewart and Furse, 2000, p. Executable devices such as These experiments were not well Could not establish
85). the use of humor, sex, and documented in terms of the direct link.
celebrity presenters’ methodology and were very
expensive, technically difficult to

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conduct and relied heavily on the


ability for tracking exact
consumer purchasing patterns
carefully. While both categories
of studies have
Dekimpe and Hanssens Estimated a VAR model using
home-improvement chain sales
and advertising data.
Simon [12]. Long-term effects and Hysteresis suggests that a Hanssens and Ouyang
hysteresis temporary increase in advertising [13] empirically
expenditures can lead to a examined hysteresis
permanent increase in market in the computer
performance (sales). The critical printer market. They
assumption in the econometric distinguish between
modelling of hysteresis is that full hysteresis, where
there is not a one-to-one temporary changes in
relationship bet ad cause permanent
changes in sales
without needing
additional spending.

Time Frame

Literature Survey Throughout

Questionnaire Design, Pilot survey,2 week


finalization of questionnaire
Actual Survey 3 week

Data collection 1 week

Data Analysis 1 week

Report Writing 1 week

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The Research Problem


The research problem is to find out the impact of advertisement on demand of commodity
product specifically glass.

Research Objective
Based on the problem statement, the research objectives are:
Primary objectives
The following objectives have been identified:

• To find out whether consumers are really involved in Glass buying decision if yes then to
what extent?
• To find out, Are consumers really aware of any Glass or cement Co, brand or Glass
products?
• To find out Does advertising has any impact in the minds of consumers?
• Can the advertising be measured or connected with a equation to the top and bottom line
of the company.
• To find out, what attributes consumers are looking for in a glass or cement brand? Can
any value addition be done in a brand through TV advertising?
• To find out whether TV advertising can help in building brands for commanding
premium or more market shares in commodity products?

Secondary objective

To find out the advertisement effectiveness on demand of glass.

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Null hypothesis

1. There is no relationship between awareness of glass brand and income category.


2. End Consumers buying decision is greatly influenced by TV advertising and they tend to
think that it is a better Quality product.
3. End Consumers are aware of all the glass brands available in the market and they tend to
ask for a particular brand.
4. The end consumer’s decision to choose any brand is not affected, if they get impressed
by advertisement.

Alternative hypothesis

1. There is relationship between awareness of glass brand and income category.


2. End Consumers buying decision is not greatly influenced by TV advertising and they
don’t tend to think that it is a better Quality product.
3. End Consumers are not aware of all the glass brands available in the market and they
don’t tend to ask for a particular brand.
4. The end consumer’s decision to choose any brand is affected, if they get impressed by
advertisement.

Scope of The Study


The study will be conducted in India with limited scope of A and B class cities where 80%
(building material) commodities are sold. Primary focus of the study will be on Glass. The most
of the survey is limited to Mumbai and nearby city around it.

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Research Design
Research is going to be descriptive as well as applied in order to achieve the desired
objectives. The null hypothesis and the research hypothesis has been developed keeping
assumption that the research will be specifically for the commodity product glass and keeping all
the factors affecting the glass buying constant other than advertisements.

Research Methodology
In this study, both sample survey and statistical approaches will be applied to collect data and
establish the relationships between variables of interest. Sources of data: Both secondary
(Documents and Records of the company, Annual report) and primary (a sample SURVEY of
customers and channel partners (Builders, Dealers, Retailers, Architect) data sources will be
used in this work.

Sample size
Sample size is going to be decided once strata of samples are decided in different cities.

Z 2 * (p) * (1-p)
ss =
c2

Where:
Z = Z value (e.g. 1.96 for 95% confidence level)
p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as decimal((.5 used for sample size needed)
c = confidence interval, expressed as decimal (e.g., .04 = ±4)

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Determine Sample Size

Confidence Level:
95% 99%

Confidence Interval:

Population:

Sample size needed:

Using the above formula and Sample Calculator,


(Source:- http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm) the sample size was calculated:
Where the Confidence interval = 6.37
Confidence level = 95%
Hence the sample size was calculated as 212.
Type of Respondents Number of Respondents
House Owner 120
Architect 21
Dealers 23
Retailer 21
Builder 27
Total 212

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Research Instrument
The questionnaire is divided into three categories as Category 1, Category 2, and Category 3.
Category 1 for House owner (End Consumer)
Category 2 for Architect, Retailer and Dealer
Category 3 for Builder
The questionnaire has different sets of question taking the objectives into consideration.
The first part having 5 questions for finding customer involvement in the buying process of
glass and in other commodity products.
The second part contains questions relating to customer’s thinking towards glass and its
usage/application.
The third part contains 10 questions to know about the customer’s emotional reactions towards
advertisements.
The fourth part 5 questions, which measures the different medium affecting customer’s
reactions towards the brand awareness and their influence on buying process.
The fifth part has 3 questions, which measure the perception of different brand of glass in the
mind of customer’s on different parameters such as the product quality to check the various
attributes he is looking for in a brand and the customer ’ s overall satisfaction with the brand.
All the statements of these five parts have been framed on a five-point Likert scale ranging from
‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree ’ etc.
It also has ordinal scale and Nominal scale based question based on a binary (Yes /No) response
format.
Few open ended questions are also asked to know about the specific liking towards ads.

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Tool of Data Analysis (SPSS)


The SPSS software has been used as tool for the data analysis. The following tests were
performed on the testing of hypothesis and for understanding the analysis.
1. Chi-square test
2. Correlation
3. Regression
4. Cross-Tabulation
5. Descriptive analysis
6. Discriminant analysis
7. Frequency distribution

Results and Conclusion


All the graphs having count on Y-axis and variables/parameters on X-axis have the value in
percentage of the respondents on the graph as label. They Y-axis corresponds to count and the
label on the graphs corresponds to the percentage of the respondents out of the total sample
size.
Hypothesis 1: There is no relationship between awareness of glass brand and income category.
➢ The Chi-square test is performed to check the fit between the awareness of glass brand
and the income category. For this cross-tabulation function is used.
Aware of any glass brand * Family annual income Crosstabulation

Count
Family annual income
3-5 lakh 5-7 lakh Above 8 lakh
Total
Aware of Yes 0 65 12 77
any glass No 8 9 22 39
brand
Total 8 74 34 116

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Chi-Square Tests

Asymp. Sig.
Value df (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 45.785(a) 2 .000
Likelihood Ratio 49.199 2 .000
Linear-by-Linear
3.396 1 .065
Association
N of Valid Cases
116

a 1 cells (16.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.69.

Family annual
70
income
3-5 lakh
60 5-7 lakh
Above 8 lakh

50

40
C
n
u
o
t

56.03%
30

20

18.97%
10
10.34%
6.9% 7.76%

0
Yes No
Aware of any glass brand

Figure 6: Awareness of Glass brands

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As the Chi-square tests shows the significant value < 0.05. Hence the null hypothesis is rejected.

Hence, the awareness of brand is directly related to the family income category. From graph we
see those High income categories (> 8 lakh) are well aware of brand whereas the middle income
level is not aware of glass brand specifically.

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Suggestion:
The advertisements activities should be targeted on the middle segment. The awareness can be
increased by involving into the PR activities and through tie-ups with the social
society/community like BMC and CARE to increase the awareness level among the middle
income category.
Hypothesis 2: End Consumers buying decision is greatly influenced by TV advertising and they
tend to think that it is a better Quality product.
➢ The Correlation test is used to find out the relationship between the influence of ad and
perception towards better quality product.

Crosstab

Count

Better Quality Brand


Have no Strongly
Disagree opnion Agree Agree
Total
Have seen Yes 51 0 36 2 89
the ad of No 15 1 12 3 31
glass
Total 66 1 48 5 120

Symmetric Measures

Asymp.
Std. Approx.
Value Error(a) T(b) Approx. Sig.
Interval by Interval Pearson's R .091 .094 .998 .320(c)
Ordinal by Ordinal Spearman
.091 .094 .998 .320(c)
Correlation
N of Valid Cases 120
a Not assuming the null hypothesis.
b Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

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c Based on normal approximation.

60 Better Quality
Brand
50
Disagree
40 Have no opnion
Agree
30 Strongly Agree
n
u
o

42.5%
c
t

20 30.0%

10
12.5% 10.0%
0 1.67% 0.83% 2.5%

Yes No
Have seen the ad of glass

Figure 7: Glass advertisement saw by people

As the approx. sig. value is quite high, so the null hypothesis is rejected. Here the
correlation between the advertisement of glass and the perception of better quality comes out to
be positive but as the value is only 0.091, which is very less. Hence there is such perception with
respect to commodity product like glass in the mind on end consumers even after watching TV
ads.
From the graph it is clear that the maximum people, who have seen the ads, disagree to
this fact.
Suggestion:
The company’s advertisement communication should emphasis on other attributes such
durability, variety rather than involving features showing better quality.
Hypothesis 3: End Consumers are aware of all the glass brands available in the market and they
tend to ask for a particular brand.
➢ The Correlation and cross tabulation technique is use to find the relationship between
the awareness of glass brands available in the market and their tendency to ask for a
particular brand of the glass.
72 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Aware of any glass brand * Ask for particular brand Crosstabulation

Count
Ask for particular brand
Yes No
Total
Aware of Yes 18 50 68
any glass No 0 11 11
brand
Total 18 61 79

Symmetric Measures

Asymp.
Std. Approx.
Value Error(a) T(b) Approx. Sig.
Interval by Interval Pearson's R .218 .041 1.965 .053(c)
Ordinal by Ordinal Spearman
.218 .041 1.965 .053(c)
Correlation
N of Valid Cases 79
a Not assuming the null hypothesis.
b Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.
c Based on normal approximation.

73 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Ask for particular


50
brand
Yes
No

40

30

63.29%
C
n
u
o
t

20

10
22.78%

13.92%

0
Yes No
Aware of any glass brand

Figure 8: Awareness Vs Particular brand

As the sig. value is more than 0.05 level hence the null hypothesis is rejected. Here the
correlation value is positive 0.218, which is very less. Hence there is no high correlation
between the chosen parameters, so one has no such great effect on the other. Therefore, even if
the end consumers are aware of the glass brands they don’t generally ask for it, in case of
commodity product like glass generally.

Suggestions:
As the consumers don’t ask for a particular brand, it all depends on the retailer
recommendations. Hence the company should give special discounts, gifts to promote the brand
awareness and sell at the retail counter. They should award retailers by giving “Best Retailer of
74 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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the Month/Year” and should attach discount to that, to increase the sell of their particular
branded glass.

75 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Hypothesis 4: The end consumer’s decision to choose any brand is not affected, if they get
impressed by advertisement.
➢ The Bivariate correlation technique is used between the decision to choose any brand
and the impressed by ad variable.
Correlations

Decision to
choose any Imressed by
brand ad
Decision to choose Pearson Correlation 1 .567(**)
any brand Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 71 70

Imressed by ad Pearson Correlation .567(**) 1


Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 70 89

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

As the Pearson correlation between the two variables is .567 and sig. is 0.000, hence the null
hypothesis is rejected. The variables are positively correlated and the value of correlation 0.567
is pretty good. Hence if the end consumers get impressed by ad there is likely chance for them to
those that particular brand.

Suggestions

Hence the ad content should include the parameters such as emotion, message, informative,
unique, familiar and relevant etc.

76 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Findings

1.
➢ The most of the consumers(78.3 %) don’t go for buying the commodity products
like glass, steel etc.

Whether go for buying

Yes
No

21.7

78.3

Figure 9: Whether go for buying

➢ Maximum numbers of people have not bought the glass (58.33%), hence their
involvement in the process is very low.

77 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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60

50

40

30 58.33
nP
rc
te

20 41.67

10

0
Yes No
Bought glass in past or planning to buy

Figure 10: Purchase of glass

➢ For the maximum percentage (64.2%) of end consumers the brand carries somewhat
important. Hence this potential segment of consumers can be tapped in coming futures if
the brand awareness among them is increased through the communication channel.

Importance of brand

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Not important 23 19.2 19.2 19.2
Somewhat
77 64.2 64.2 83.3
important
Important 20 16.7 16.7 100.0
Total 120 100.0 100.0

78 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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70
60
50
40
30 64.2
nP
rc
te

20
10 19.2 16.7
0
Not important Somewhat important Important

Imporatnce of brand

Figure 11: Importance of brand

➢ The end consumers are aware of brand of glass are high with 66.7%, but the rest of the
consumers are not brand conscious. Hence the companies need to increase the awareness
among them.

79 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Whether go for buying * Aware of any glass


brand Crosstabulation
60 Aware of any
Count 50
glass brand
Aware of any Yes
glass brand 40 No
Yes No
30
Total 45.83%

C
n
u
o
t
Wheth Yes 25 1 26 20 32.5%
er go No
55 39 94 20.83%
for 10
buying
Total 80 40 120 0 0.83%
Yes No
Whether go for buying
Figure 12: Awareness Vs whether go for buying

Correlations

Whether go Aware of any


for buying glass brand
Whether go for buying Pearson Correlation 1 .329(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 120 120

Aware of any glass Pearson Correlation .329(**) 1


brand Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 120 120

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

From the correlation value we find that the both awareness of brand and whether they go for
buying have positive correlation but its not high enough to affect each other.
➢ The time taken by the maximum end consumers ( 74.6%) at the retail counter is 0-15
minutes, hence it shows that they take very less time to decide upon choosing any glass
brand. Their involvement is low.

Time taken before choosing glass(at retail counter)

80 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 0-15
53 44.2 74.6 74.6
minutes
16-30
11 9.2 15.5 90.1
minutes
31-60
7 5.8 9.9 100.0
minutes
Total 71 59.2 100.0

Missing System 49 40.8


Total 120 100.0

80

60

40
74.6
nP
rc
te

20

15.5
9.9
0
0-15 minutes 16-30 minutes 31-60 minutes
Time taken before choosing glass(at retail counter)

Figure 13: Time Taken at Retail Counter

Conclusion: Hence end consumers are not directly involved in the purchase of glass.
2. Most of the end consumers (77.2%) do not ask for a particular brand while purchasing glass.
Out of which mostly customers (77.5%) ask for recommendations mostly, very few customers
take the decision to choose any brand on their own.

81 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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80

60

40 77.2
nP
rc
te

20

22.8

0
Yes No
Ask for particular brand

Figure 14: Preference for particular brand

82 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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80

60

40 77.5
nP
rc
te

20

14.1
8.5
0
On your own Ask for recommendations Ask for recommendations
sometimes mostly
Decision to choose any brand

Figure 15: Decision to choose any brand

➢ Most of the end consumer is influenced by carpenter, then retailer and lastly from
architects.
Influencer of recommendation * Specification by type and brand of glass Crosstabulation

Count

Specification by type and brand of glass


Both brand
and type Only brand Only type Nothing
Total
Influencer of Architect 16 0 2 0 18
recommendatio Retailer 12 2 8 2 24
n
Carpenter 24 0 8 3 35

Total 52 2 18 5 77

83 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Conclusion

The most of the end consumers are influenced by carpenter and retailer. But high income end
consumers contact architect for recommendation.

84 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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25 Specification by
type and brand of
glass
20 Both brand and
type
Only brand
15 Only type
Nothing
31.17%
C
n
u
o
t

10
20.78%
15.58%
5
10.39% 10.39%

2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 3.9%


0
Architect Retailer Carpenter
Influencer of recommendation

Figure 16: Influencer of Recommendation

Suggestions
The companies can provide booklet containing samples of glass to carpenter to push their
products and increase their brand awareness. They can organize some kind of training on new
design to carpenters. They should distribute danglers to retailers shop and should provide
enough booklets, pad to them. They can also distribute calendar to retailers, carpenters and
ultimately to house owners through this channel to increase their brand awareness and to push
their sales.

85 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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➢ The regression equation can be established based on the parameters seen by the
customers while buying glass.

Here the Ready to pay if influence by ad is the dependent variable , the independent
variables are colour, reputation of manufacturer, advertisement, brand name , status
symbol.

The regression holds true because the sig. value is <0.05. The regression equation can be
established like:
The Readiness to buy a brand
= -0.882+( .582)*price – (.684)* brand name-(.903)*advertisement-(.446)*status
symbol+(.541)*reputation of manufacturer+(.5984)*colour
➢ Model Summary

Adjusted R Std. Error of


Model R R Square Square the Estimate
1 .827(a) .685 .668 .216

ANOVA(b)
Sum of
Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regressio
11.409 6 1.901 40.864 .000(a)
n
Residual 5.258 113 .047
Total 16.667 119

a Predictors: (Constant), Purchase_colour Colour, Purchase_reputmanuf Reputation of manufacturer,


Purchase_ad Advertisements, Purchase_brandname Brand Name, Purchase_price Price, Purchase_statussymbol
Status Symbol
b Dependent Variable: Ready2pay_extra Ready to pay extra if influenced by Ad
Coefficients(a)
Unstandardized Standardized
Coefficients Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta
Model t Sig.

86 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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1 (Constant) -.882 .590 -1.496 .138


Purchase_price
.402 .129 .582 3.102 .002
Price
Purchase_bran
dname Brand -.296 .100 -.684 -2.962 .004
Name
Purchase_ad
-.321 .045 -.903 -7.172 .000
Advertisements
Purchase_statu
ssymbol Status -.183 .104 -.446 -1.766 .080
Symbol
Purchase_reput
manuf
.547 .074 1.541 7.438 .000
Reputation of
manufacturer
Purchase_colou
.446 .081 .598 5.481 .000
r Colour

a Dependent Variable: Ready2pay_extra Ready to pay extra if influenced by Ad

Conclusion

From the regression equation, we can say that the readiness to buy is affected by price, colour
and the reputation of manufacturer. Hence the company should give stress to these parameters in
their advertisements and at the retailer counter to increase the awareness. They should provide
hoardings to retailers and
2.

➢ The Top of mind recall is the highest for SGG followed by GGL and then AIS.AIS has
maximum aided recall and unaided recall, hence its there in the mind of consumers.
Hence for top of mind recall, company should use aggressive advertisements through the
entire advertisements channel. The market share of SGG is highest which may be the
effect of its top of mind recall.

Brand recall of AIS Brand recall of SGG Brand recall of GGL


Top of Top of Top of
mind Unaided Aided mind Unaided Aided mind Unaided Aided
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count

Aware of Yes 3 24 45 61 19 0 42 11 16
any No
glass 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
brand

87 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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➢ The ad recall on TV is the highest for the SGG, followed by AIS. Out of which the SGG
has the highest top of mind recall, having strong hold in the market in terms of brand
awareness.

Ad recall of AIS Ad recall of SGG Ad recall of GGL


Top of Top of Top of
mind Unaided Aided mind Unaided Aided mind Unaided Aided
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count

Have Yes 11 3 12 84 5 0 0 0 0
seen the No
ad of 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glass

➢ The emotional, familiarity, fun, increased interest and appealing features of ads are
mostly like the end consumers which has the top of the mind recall. Hence the
companies ad should include these features in their ad by involving kids, music and
jingles so that people can connect to ad and will ask for the brand because of the
familiarity and can have the top of the mind recall in the mind of consumers.

Informative about
Appealing Increased Interest Emotional product Familiar
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Count

Imress Yes 30 5 35 0 23 12 35 0 35 0
ed by No 48 0 48 0 48 0 48 0 48
ad

celebrity emotion fun


Yes No Yes No
Count Count Count Count

Imressed by ad Yes 5 0 26 11 36 5
No 0 0 3 0 48

88 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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➢ The ad recall of China man ad of SGG is highest, followed by their ad of lady throwing
water. The AIS ad is very less remembered by the end consumers. Hence to have the
recall in the mind of consumers and for the ad to be effective, they can target the social
networking site which will be very cost effective.

80

60

40 78.3
gn
taP
rc
e

20

13.3
8.4
0
China man ad Shoaib Akhtar ad Lady throwing
water ad
Remember the ad

Figure 17: Ad recall

➢ The people are not sure about the influence of ad in taking their action. But the 30%
people choose, probably. Hence the ad influence on the action of end consumers is very
minimal in taking their action. Hence the awareness among the end consumers should be
increased by different channels. Their unsure nature can be converted to sale by pushing
retailers and carpenters recommendation.

89 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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60 Ad influences
to undertake
50 action
Probably
40 Not Sure
Definately
30 Not
n
u
o
c

44.17%
t

20
30.0%
23.33%
10

0 1.67% 0.83%
Yes No
Have seen the ad of glass

Figure 18: Ad influence on action

➢ The likelihood to purchase the advertised brand is quite high. The seen ad and the
likelihood to purchase brand is positively correlated and is significant. Hence the
company should do the advertisements , because the top of the mind recall will push
them to buy that brand.
Crosstab

Count

Likelihood to purchase advertised brand


Remains
More Often Less Often the same
Total
Have seen Yes 53 24 12 89
the ad of No 0 31 0 31
glass
Total 53 55 12 120

Symmetric Measures

90 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Asymp.
Std. Approx.
Value Error(a) T(b) Approx. Sig.
Interval by Interval Pearson's R .309 .065 3.534 .001(c)
Ordinal by Ordinal Spearman
.387 .070 4.552 .000(c)
Correlation
N of Valid Cases 120
a Not assuming the null hypothesis.
b Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.
c Based on normal approximation.

➢ Out of all the parameters while purchasing glass, aesthetics, clarity and colour have the
maximum effect in the minds of end consumers. The company should emphasize these
three things in their all advertisement channels to attract customers towards their brand.

100 100

80 80

60 60
99.2
91.7
40 40
nP

P
rc
e

n
rc
e
t

20 20

8.3
0 0.8 0
Somewhat important Very important Important Very important
Clarity Aesthetics

91 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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60

50

40

30
48.33 51.67
nP
rc
e

20
t

10

0
Important Very important
Colour

Figure 19:Parameters for buying glass

Suggestions
The ad influence is very unsure in nature. There is no high effect on purchase of that in case of
commodity product like glass. Hence the probability seems good, hence the company should
increase the awareness among the consumers because the less differentiation between the
products with respect to customers. Hence the other mode of communications like PR,
sponsorships to events will be good method to create the awareness.

➢ Perceptual Mapping
As the wilk’s lamda value is small and sig. value <0.05. Hence the following perceptual
mapping of the different brand on the asked parameters holds true.

Here the good quality, durability, wide range, international brand, trustworthy brand and
offers good discount are loaded as Function 1.
Whereas the affordable, popular. Easy availability, premium brand , attractive ad are
loaded as Function 2.

Wilks' Lambda

92 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Wilks'
Test of Function(s) Lambda Chi-square df Sig.
1 through 2 .006 614.158 22 .000
2 .313 138.186 10 .000

Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients

Function
1 2

Good Quality 4.601 -.137


Affordable -.277 .090
Durable 1.116 -.369
Popular/Well known -.826 -.732
Easily Available -.165 .683
Wide range/variety 2.049 -.345
International Brand .002 -.307
Premium brand .408 1.032
Trustworthy brand 10.345 .008
Attractive/eye catching ad -9.291 .264
Offer good discount .019 -.170

93 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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Canonical Discriminant Functions

Brand name
AIS
4
SGG
GGL
2 SGG Group
Centroid

0
GGL
tio
2 n
u
F
c

AIS

-2

-20 0 20 40 60
Function 1

Hence the AIS is more close to function 1 but SGG is far from function 1 but it gives more
emphasis on the function 2. Hence they have got the highest market share and are the leaders in
the industry. Whereas the GGL have different space in the mind of consumers by being at the
middle of both the function.

Suggestion

Hence the AIS should try to more push to the Function 2 to have more advantage like SGG. AIS
have to change their perception in the mind of consumers by giving more emphasis on their
positioning statement and by involving the function 2 in their marketing strategies.

94 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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95 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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4.

➢ The consumers are not aware usage/application of glass like safety, privacy, sound
control and energy saving.

70 40

60
30
50

40 20 39.2 37.5
64.2 nP
rc
e
30 t
nP

10
rc
e

19.2
t

20
31.7
4.2
10 0
0 4.2 Disagree Have no Agree Strongly
opnion Agree
Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Maintains Safety Maintains Privacy

96 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

70
60
50
40
70
30
nP
rc
te

20
10 16.7
9.2 4.2
0
Disagree Have no Agree Strongly
opnion Agree
Sound Control
Figure 20: Awareness of application of glass

50

40

30
45
20
nP
rc
e

33.3
t

10 19.2

0 2.5

Disagree Have no Agree Strongly


opnion Agree
Saves Electricity

Suggestions
The company can direct its advertisements through different channels towards these functional
benefits of glass. They should organize meets with retailers, should educate about these
functional benefits of glass. They should organize exhibition where they can invite builders,
architects and exhibit these benefits of glass to increase the awareness and in long term sales.

97 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

5.

➢ The brand awareness of SGG across all different advertisement communication channels
is the highest. Their awareness across end consumers is the highest. Whereas their reach
to builders, architect through meets and sales people is the highest. The shop display at
retail center is maximum

➢ The AIS in brand awareness across along all the channels is low. Their awareness across
the consumer is very low. The dealer and retailer awareness toward the brand should be
increased through more meets and interaction with the sales people.

➢ The GGL has the highest awareness through the word of mouth because of long
presence and being the pioneer in the industry.

AIS
Occupation
House Archite Build Retail Deal
owner ct er er er
(end
consumer)
Count Count Coun Count Coun
t t
ad on TV Ye 2 11 13 13 14
s
No 0 0 0 0 0
ad in magazine Ye 9 25 19 20 19
s
No 4 0 2 0 0
ad on radio Ye 0 0 0 0 0
s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Meets Ye 0 19 15 0 5
s
No 0 0 0 0 0

98 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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saw display on shop Ye


s 6 7 13 12 12
No 0 0 0 0 0
Relatives and friends (word of Ye
mouth) s 19 20 15 0 0
No 2 0 0 0 0
Ye
Mails s 0 25 17 0 4
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
actual user experience s 14 25 23 23 18
No 0 0 0 0 0

99 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

SGG
Occupation
House
owner Archite Build Retail Deal
end ct er er er
consumer)
Coun Coun
Count Count t Count t
Ye
ad on TV s 30 30 30 30 30
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
ad in magazine s 3 30 30 19 26
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
ad on radio s 9 13 16 30 26
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
Meets s 0 30 30 15 23
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
saw display on shop s 10 30 30 30 30
No 0 0 0 0 0
Relatives and freinds(word of Ye
mouth) s 4 26 24 30 27
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
Mails s 0 18 18 0 5
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
actual user experience s 12 30 30 30 30
No 0 0 0 0 0

100 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

GGL
Occupation
House
owner Archite Build Retail Deal
(end ct er er er
consumer)
Coun Coun
Count Count t Count t
Ye
0 0 0 0 0
ad on TV s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
2 30 30 30 30
ad in magazine s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
0 0 0 0 0
ad on radio s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
0 28 17 30 30
Meets s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
30 30 30 30 30
saw display on shop s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Relatives and freinds(word of Ye
30 30 30 0 12
mouth) s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
0 12 3 30 28
Mails s
No 0 0 0 0 0
Ye
26 12 3 23 27
actual user experience s
No 0 0 0 0 0

Suggestion

101 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

The AIS can also target Radio to increase its brand awareness. They can also have the tie-ups
with the known builders and architects to advertise their site on their respective websites.
The awareness can also be increased among the channel partners through regular mailers about
their products and through greetings.
The company should use hoardings/billboards at the different festival and important occasions to
increase awareness.

102 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

Recommendations
1. The commodity market has very less involvement of the end consumers in the buying
process , hence thee company should push dealers and retailers through different
schemes , gifts and by giving them awards of “Best Retailer of the Year” and “Best
Dealer of the Year” awards. The visibility at the retail counter should be increased by
giving them pad, cutting tools to carpenters via retailers having AIS inscribed on it.

2. The companies can provide booklet containing samples of glass to carpenter to push their
products and increase their brand awareness. They can organize some kind of training on
new design to carpenters. They should distribute danglers to retailers shop and should
provide enough booklets, pad to them. They can also distribute calendar to retailers,
carpenters and ultimately to house owners through this channel to increase their brand
awareness and to push their sales.

3. The company should add more emotional, familiar and attractive to catch the attention,
hence they should go for viral marketing and buzz marketing. They can put their videos
on “You tube “to increase the awareness. The company should project their positioning
statement “See More, See Clear “in their advertising media.

4. The company can direct its advertisements through different channels towards these
functional benefits of glass. They should organize meets with retailers, should educate
about these functional benefits of glass. They should organize exhibition where they can
invite builders, architects and exhibit these benefits of glass to increase the awareness
and in long term sales.

5. The ad influence is very unsure in nature. There is no high effect on purchase of that in
case of commodity product like glass. Hence the probability seems good, hence the
company should increase the awareness among the consumers because the less
differentiation between the products with respect to customers. Hence the other mode of
communications like PR, sponsorships to events will be good method to create the
awareness.

6. The advertisements activities should be targeted on the middle segment. The awareness
can be increased by involving into the PR activities and through tie-ups with the social
103 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

society/community like BMC and CARE to increase the awareness level among the
middle income category.

104 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

7. They can also have the tie-ups with the known builders and architects to advertise their
brands on their websites. The awareness can also be increased among the channel
partners through regular mailers about their products and through greetings during
festivals. The company should use hoardings/billboards at the different festival and
important occasions to increase awareness of their products and brands.

105 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

REFERENCES
Books
• Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller, Abraham Koshy and Mithileshwar Jha (13th
Edition), Marketing Management, Pearson Education.
• Neil J. Salkind ( 3rd Edition), Statistics for people who ( think they) hate
statistics, Sage publications.
• Glass yug ( November 2009) Magazine
Journal Paper
• Rick T Wilson and Brand D. Till ( 2008), ,” Journal of Advertising, vol 37, no 1
(spring 2008), pp.59-72
• Keller, Kevin L. (1987), “Memory Factors in Advertising: The Effect of
Advertising Retrieval Clues on Brand Evaluation,” Journal of Consumer
Research, 14 (December), pp.316–33.
• Roberts, Andrew (1999), “Recency, Frequency and the Sales Effects of TV
Advertising,” Harvard Business Review, 167 (January),pp.44–48.
• Simon, Julian L. and Johan Arndt (1980), “The Shape of the Advertising
Response Function,” Journal of Advertising.
• Danaher, Peter J. (1995), “What Happens to Television Ratings During
Commercial Breaks?” Journal of Advertising Research, 35 (1), pp. 37–47.
• D’Souza, Giles and Ram C. Rao (1995), “Can Repeating an advertisement
More Frequently Than the Competition Affect Brand Preference in a Mature
Market?” Journal of Marketing, 59 (April), pp. 32–42.
• AAKER, DAVID. A., and JAMES M. CARMAN. (1982), “Are You Over
advertising?” Journal of Advertising Research 22, 4 (1982), pp. 57–70.
• DANAHER PETER, and ROLAND RUST. “Determining the Optimal Level of
Media Spending.” Journal of Advertising Research. 34, 1 (1994), pp. 28–34.

106 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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• FEINBERG, FRED (2001), “On Continuous-time Optimal Advertising Under S-


shaped Response.” Management Science 47, 11 (2001), pp. 1476–87.
• LUO, XUEMING and NAVEEN DONTHU. (2001), “Benchmarking Advertising
Efficiency.” Journal of Advertising Research 41, 6 (2001), pp. 7–18.
• RIEDESEL, PAUL. “Comment on Benchmarking Advertising Efficiency.” Journal
of Advertising Research 42, 2 (2002), pp. 93.

Appendix -1
Questionnaire

Good Morning / Good Evening,

I, Dev Masand am a student of PGDM(HR) from Sinhgad Institute of


Management. I am conducting a survey for understanding the effectiveness of
advertisements on demand of commodity products (Glass). I shall be grateful; if you
could spare some time to answer the questions that I have.

I would like to assure you that all the answers given by you will be kept confidential
and will be aggregated to draw the results. Thanking you in advance.

1. What is your occupation out of the following two categories? Please tick
mark.

Category I

House owner (End consumer)

Category II

Architect Retailer Dealer

Category III

Builder

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Please fill the questionnaire according to the instructions given below:-

Category I Go to SECTION I

Category II Go to SECTION II

Category II Go to SECTION III

SECTION I

1. Do you go for buying products like cement, Glass and steel or any such
commodity product?
Yes No

2. How important is the brand for buying such products for you?
1- Not Important at all , 2- Not Important, 3- Somewhat Important , 4-
Important, 5- Very Important

Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very Important

3. Are you aware of any glass brand available in the market?

Yes No

If yes, Please specify the names.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………….

4. Have you bought glass in the past or planning to buy in next one year?

Yes No

If Yes, then continue, else go to Question 5.

a. Do you ask for a particular brand while buying glass, cement or such
commodity product?
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Yes No

b. How do you decide to choose any brand of such kind of products?

On your own Ask for recommendation sometimes

Ask for recommendation mostly

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c. How do they generally recommend, if nothing is asked from your end?


Please mark according to the specification with respect to type and
brand told to you by the following people.

Influencer Architect Carpenter Retailers Builder Dealer

Specify

Both brand
and type

Only brand

Only type
Nothing

d. How much time do you take before buying the glass at the retail
counter?
0-15 minutes

16-30 minutes

31-60 minutes

More than one hour

5. What are the attributes, which according to you is important while you think
of Glass?

Aesthetics Not Important at all 1 2 3 45 Very


Important

Quality Not Important at all 1 2 3 4


5 Very Important

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Clarity Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5


Very Important

Modern Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5


Very Important

Privacy Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5


Very Important

Attractiveness Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5


Very Important

Durability Not Important at all 1 2 3 45 Very


Important

6. What do you think about the usage/application of glass for the following
purpose?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view how Strongly you feel
about the dimension.
5 - Strongly Agree, 4- Agree, 3- Have no opinion, 2- Disagree, 1- Strongly
Disagree

Maintains Safety Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Maintains Privacy Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Sound control Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Saves electricity Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

7. Whom did you/ will you consult before buying glass?

Retailers Architect Carpenter


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Builder Dealer

8. How frequently do you watch television? Please indicate out of the following
options.Choose one of the following option.

Very often (Daily) Often (3-4 days a week) Occasionally (1-


2 days a week)

Rarely (Once in a week) Never

9. Have you seen any advertisement regarding the glass in the TV?

Yes No

If Yes, then continue, else go to Question 17.

10.Which company’s ad comes to your mind first when you think of glass?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………

11.What was the Ad about?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………..

12.Did it impress you? What do you remember of the advertising? INTERVIEWR


TO NOTE DOWN VERBATIM.

Yes No …………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………

13.What did you like in the advertisements?

Message Entertainment Music


Concept Celebrity Emotion Fun

If anything else, please specify

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………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………

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14.How did you find the message of the advertisement?

Unique Yes No

Relevant Yes No

Appealing Yes No

Increased interest Yes No

Emotional Yes No

Informative about product Yes No

Familiar Yes No

Irritating Yes No

15.Which ad do you remember among the following Ads of different brands of


glass?

Kid in shower Ad China man Ad Shoaib


Akhtar Ad

Small boy Ad Lady throwing water Ad Kids


playing with a ball

16. What did you like in the advertisement?


………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………….
17. What do you/will you think about the glass, if you see any advertisements
on TV?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view how Strongly you feel
about the dimensions.
5 - Strongly Agree, 4- Agree, 3- Have no opinion, 2- Disagree, 1- Strongly
Disagree
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Trustworthy brand Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Better Quality Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly


Disagree

Preferred brand Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly


Disagree

18.How likely is it that the ad will influence you to undertake your action? Choose
among the following

Definitely Probably Not Sure Probably Not Definitely Not

19.What attributes do/will you consider while purchasing any glass brand?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view on the Importance of
the Attributes.

1- Not Important at all , 2- Not Important, 3- Somewhat Important , 4-


Important, 5- Very Important

Colour Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Price ` Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Brand name Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Advertising Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Status symbol Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

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Reputation Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important
Of manufacturer
20. If you are influenced by Ad, Will you be ready to pay extra for a branded
glass? Please select any one option showing the extent that you can pay extra
in percentage.
Yes No,

If yes, then continue, else go to Question 21

1.5% more 5-10% more 10-15% more


10% and above

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21. Through which medium you came to know about the following brands of
glass? Please tick mark.

Asahi Saint Modiguard Others


Gobain
Ad on TV
Ad in magazine
Ad on radio
Hoarding/
Billboards
Meets
Saw display in shop
Relatives and
friends
Mails/Internet
Actual user
Experience
Sales people

22.What is the likelihood of purchasing the advertised brand of commodity


products like glass, cement?

More Often Less often Remain the same

23.Do you feel that you will ask for a particular brand after seeing the ad?

Definitely Probably Don’t Know

Probably Not Definitely Not

24. Choose the options which you the different brands based on following
parameters (Rate each parameter out of 3)
(1 being the lowest and 3 being the highest)

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Attributes AIS Saint Gobain Modiguard

Is of good quality
Is affordable
Is durable
Is popular / well known
Easily available
Has a wide range/variety of glass
Is an international / world class brand
Is a premium brand
Is trust worthy / reliable
Is involved in lots of advertising
Has eye catching / attractive advertisements
Offers good discounts
Is reputed
Gives good value for money
Is a Pioneer
Is Global
Is a Leader in the Glass Category
Is Modern / stylish
Personal Details:

• What is your family annual income?

0-2 lakh per annum 3-5 lakh per annum

5-7 lakh per annum Above 8 lakh per annum

• Age: Upto 19 20-25 26-34 35-45 45+

• Gender: Male Female

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Section II- RETAILER/DEALER

1. Which BRANDS of Float Glass do you store and sell?

SGG & GGL SGG & AIS AIS & GGL All the brands
Others

2. Which brand of Float Glass do you sell the most (the brand of Float Glass
brand that is sold most often), from your shop. Please rank them from 1-4
where 1- Highest selling and 4- Lowest selling.

Modiguard Saint Gobain AIS Imported

3. Which company’s float glass is mostly preferred in the market? Please rank
them priority wise in terms of demand in the market (From 1 to 4) where 1-
Highest Priority and 4- Lowest Priority.

Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. Gujarat Guardian Ltd


(Modiguard)

Asahi India Glass Ltd. Imported

4. Do you think that the consumers are brand conscious while buying glass?
Please select a phrase that best describes your view how Strongly you
feel about the statement.
5- Strongly Agree, 4- Agree, 3- Have no opinion, 2- Disagree, 1-
Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree


5. Do they ask any particular brand when they come to you?

Yes No

6. How often do they ask for your recommendation?

Very often Often Occasionally Rarely Never

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7. What do you recommend to consumers when they come to you?

Both Brand and Type Only Brand Only Type


Nothing

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8. Which brand do you recommend the most to the consumers? Please rank
them according to your preference where 1 - stands for Recommend
Mostly and 6 - being Recommend Rarely.

Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. Gujarat Guardian Ltd


(Modiguard)

Asahi India Glass Ltd. (AIS) Gold Plus Float Glass


Industry Ltd.

Imported Others

9. How frequently do you watch TV?

Very often (Daily) Often (3-4 days a week) Occasionally (1-


2 days a week)

Rarely (Once in a week) Never

10.Through which medium you came to know about the following brands and
their products? Please tick mark.

Asahi Saint Modiguard Others


Gobain
Ad on TV
Ad in magazine
Ad on radio
Hoarding/Billboa
rds
Meets/salespeop
le
Saw display in
shop
Relatives and
friends
Mails
Actual User
Experience

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11. Do you feel that the consumers can pay extra if they are influenced by ad?

Definitely Probably Not Sure Probably Not Definitely Not

How much extra they can pay?

1-5 % more 5-10% more 10-15% more


10% and above

12. Rate the different brands based on following parameters ( Rate each
parameter out of 3 point)

(1 being the lowest and 3 being the highest)

Attributes AIS Saint Gobain Modiguard

Is of good quality
Is affordable
Is durable
Is popular / well known
Easily available
Has a wide range/variety of glass
Is an international / world class brand
Is a premium brand
Is trust worthy / reliable
Is involved in lots of advertising
Has eye catching / attractive advertisements
Offers good discounts
Is reputed
Gives good value for money
Is a Pioneer
Is a Leader in the Glass Category
Is Modern / stylish

13. Will you recommend the brands which you have used earlier?

Definitely Probably Don’t know

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Probably Not Definitely Not

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14. Have you seen the advertisement of any glass company?

Yes No

Please specify the names……………………………………………………………………


…………………………………

If No, go to Question 17

15. What do you remember about the Ad?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………….

16. How did you find the advertisement?

Unique Yes No

Relevant Yes No

Appealing Yes No

Increased interest Yes No

Emotional Yes No

Informative about product Yes No


Familiar Yes No

Irritating Yes No

17.How likely is it that the ad will influence the consumers to undertake their
action?

Definitely Probably Not Sure Probably Not Definitely Not

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18.What do they consider while purchasing glass?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view on the Importance of the
criterion ,1- Not Important at all , 2- Not Important, 3- Somewhat Important
, 4- Important, 5- Very Important

Colour Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important
Price Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very
Important

Quality Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Wide range Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Brand name Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Advertising Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Status symbol Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important
Reputation Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very
Important
Of manufacturer

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SECTION III- Builder

1. How important is the brand for buying commodity products like cement,
glass etc. for you?
1- Not Important at all , 2- Not Important, 3- Somewhat Important , 4-
Important, 5- Very Important

Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very Important

2. Have you bought glass in the past or planning to buy in next one year?

Yes No

3. Are you aware of any glass brand available in the market?

Yes No

If yes, Please specify the names.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………….

4. Whom did you/ will you consult before buying glass?

Retailers Architect Builder


Dealer No one

5. Do you ask for a particular brand while buying glass, cement or such
commodity product?

Yes No

6. How do you decide to choose any brand of such kind of products?


126 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
See More, See Clear

On your own Ask for recommendation sometimes

Ask for recommendation mostly

7. How do they generally recommend, if nothing is asked from your end? Please
mark according to the specification with respect to type and brand told to
you by the following people.

Influencer Architect Carpenter Retailers Builder Dealer

Specify

Both brand
and type

Only brand

Only type
Nothing

8. What are the attributes, which according to you is important while you think
of Glass?

Aesthetics Not Important at all 1 2 3 45 Very


Important

Quality Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Clarity Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Privacy Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

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Modern Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5


Very Important

Attractiveness Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5


Very Important

Durability Not Important at all 1 2 3 45 Very


Important

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9. What do you think about the usage/application of glass for the following
purpose?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view how Strongly you feel
about the dimension.
5 - Strongly Agree, 4- Agree, 3- Have no opinion, 2- Disagree, 1- Strongly
Disagree

Maintains Safety Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Maintains Privacy Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Sound control Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Saves electricity Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

10.Which company’s float glass is mostly preferred in the market? Please rank
them priority wise in terms of demand in the market (From 1 to 6) where 1-
Highest Priority and 6- Lowest Priority.

Saint-Gobain Glass India Ltd. Gujarat Guardian Ltd


(Modiguard)

Asahi India Glass Ltd. Gold Plus Float Glass


Industry Ltd.

Imported Others

11.How frequently do you watch television? Please indicate out of the following
options.

Very often (Daily) Often (3-4 days a week) Occasionally (1-


2 days a week)
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Rarely (Once in a week) Never

12. Have you seen any advertisement regarding the glass in the TV?

Yes No

If Yes, then continue, else go to Question 20.

13.Which company’s ad comes to your mind first when you think of glass?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………

14.What was the Ad about?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………..

15.Did it impress you? What do you remember of the advertising? INTERVIEWR


TO NOTE DOWN VERBATIM.

Yes No …………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………

16.What did you like in the advertisements?

Message Entertainment Music Concept


Celebrity Emotion Fun

If anything else, please specify

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………

17.How did you find the message of the advertisement?

Unique Yes No

Relevant Yes No
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Appealing Yes No

Increased interest Yes No

Emotional Yes No

Informative about product Yes No

Familiar Yes No

Irritating Yes No

18.Which ad do you remember among the following Ads of different brands of


glass?

Kid in shower Ad China man Ad Shoaib


Akhtar Ad

Small boy Ad Lady throwing water Ad Kids


playing with a ball

19.What did you like in the advertisement?


………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………….

20. What do you/will you think about the glass, if you see any advertisements
on TV?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view how Strongly you feel
about the dimensions.
5 - Strongly Agree, 4- Agree, 3- Have no opinion, 2- Disagree, 1- Strongly
Disagree

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Trustworthy brand Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Better Quality Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1


Strongly Disagree

Preferred brand Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly


Disagree

21.How likely is it that the ad will influence you to undertake your action?

Definitely Probably Not Sure Probably Not Definitely Not

22.What attributes do/will you consider while purchasing any glass brand?

Please select a phrase that best describes your view on the Importance of
the Attributes.

1- Not Important at all , 2- Not Important, 3- Somewhat Important , 4-


Important, 5- Very Important

Colour Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Price ` Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Brand name Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Advertising Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Status symbol Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important

Reputation Not Important at all 1 2 3 4 5 Very


Important
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Of manufacturer

23. If you are influenced by Ad, Will you be ready to pay extra for a branded
glass? Please select any one option showing the extent that you can pay extra
in percentage.
Yes No,

If yes, then continue, else go to Question 21

1.6% more 5-10% more 10-15% more


10% and above

133 | S u m m e r P r o j e c t R e p o r t
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24. Through which medium you came to know about the following brands of
glass? Please tick mark.

Asahi Saint Modiguar Others


Gobain d
Ad on TV
Ad in magazine
Ad on radio
Hoarding/
Billboards
Meets
Saw display in shop
Relatives and
friends
Mails
Actual user
Experience
Sales people

25.What is the likelihood of purchasing the advertised brand of commodity


products like glass, cement?

More Often Less often Remain the same

26.Do you feel that you will ask for a particular brand after seeing the ad?

Definitely Probably Don’t Know

Probably Not Definitely Not

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See More, See Clear

1. Rate the different brands based on following parameters (Rate each


parameter out of 3)
(1 being the lowest and 3 being the highest)

Attributes AIS Saint Gobain Modiguard

Is of good quality
Is affordable
Is durable
Is popular / well known
Easily available
Has a wide range/variety of glass
Is an international / world class brand
Is a premium brand
Is trust worthy / reliable
Is involved in lots of advertising
Has eye catching / attractive advertisements
Offers good discounts
Is reputed
Gives good value for money
Is a Pioneer
Is Global
Is a Leader in the Glass Category
Is Modern / stylish

Personal Details

• Name:

• Firm Name:

• Area:

Thank you so much for your time and efforts for filling the
questionnaire.

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