Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

Quality Management


Acknowledgement Task 1 1.1 Define quality in terms of business and services provision 1.2 Define quality in terms of customer satisfaction.. 1.3 #$plain %o& quality management can be measured.. Task 2

02 03

04-0 0!-0" 10

2.1 Describe t%e rationale underpinning four quality sc%emes commonly adopted by commercial operations. 11-1' 2.2 (dentify t%e main similarities and differences bet&een four quality management systems.. 1 2.3 #$plain t%e importance of communication and record )eeping in quality sc%emes Task 3 3.1 *sses t%e information made available to customers and t%e importance given to effective mar)eting. 20 3.2 #valuate t%e benefit of user and non-user survey in determining customer needs 21 1!-1"

3.3 #$amine t%e met%ods of consultations employed in one quality sc%eme to encourage participation by under-represented groups 22-23 3.4 (nvestigate t%e value of complains procedure at t&o different centers and analy+e %o& eac% is used to improve quality 24-2' Task 4 4.1 (dentify t%e role of self assessment in order to determine an organi+ation,s current -state of %ealt%,. 2 4.2 #$plain t%e stages staff consultation necessary for effective implementation of a quality sc%eme. 2!-2. British College of Applied Studies Page 1

Quality Management
4.3 Propose ne& system or modifications to e$isting system t%at could improve service quality 2"-30




different quality improvement.

0%is assignment concerns about quality management5 investigate four management sc%emes5 quality control and quality management

#$amine t%e concept of quality management in a business and services conte$t (nvestigate four different quality management sc%emes appropriate to commercial operations #$plore a range of quality controls and assess t%eir benefits to t%e customer *pply principles of quality management to improve t%e performance of an organi+ation

(n accomplis%ing t%is assignment ( %ave obtained information from (nternet5 lecturing notes and t%e 6oo)s. During t%e assignment period ( %ave read lot ne&s articles and ( tried for my level best to do t%is assignment &it% in s%ort period of given time.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 2

Quality Management


( &ould li)e to t%an) 7r.*+lan for %is continuous support and guidance in t%e preparation of t%is study. 8it%out %is support5 all my efforts could %ave been s%ort-sig%ted. *nd a number of friends %ad al&ays been around to support me morally. ( &ould li)e to t%an)s t%em as &ell. *nd also ( &ould li)e to t%an) my family members for supporting me to get enoug% in formations for t%e assignment.

9inally5 ( am responsible for any errors t%at remain in t%is *ssignment

British College of Applied Studies

Page 3

Quality Management

Task 1
1.1 Define quality in terms of business and ser ices !ro ision.
6efore ( clarify t%e question5 it is muc% appropriate to give definition of t%e quality. 8%en &e tal) about quality t%ere several division meant by quality gurus. #d&ard Deming5 :osep% ;uran5 P%ilip 4rosby5 s%igeo s%ingo5 )aoru is%i)&a5 <os%io )ondo5 and peter Druc)er. 0%e business meanings of quality %ave developed over time. =arious interpretations are given belo&> 1. I"# $%%%& ?Degree to &%ic% a set of in%erent c%aracteristics fulfills requirements.? 0%e standard defines requirement as need or e$pectation. 2. "i' "igma& /umber of defects per million opportunities 3. ()ili! *. +rosby& ?4onformance to requirements.? 0%e requirements may not fully represent customer e$pectations@ 4rosby treats t%is as a separate problem. 4. ,ose!) -. ,uran& ?9itness for use. 9itness is defined by t%e customer. . .enic)i Taguc)i/ &it% t&o definitions> a.?3niformity around a target value. 0%e idea is to lo&er t%e standard deviation in outcomes5 and to )eep t%e range of outcomes to a certain number of standard deviations5 &it% rare e$ceptions. b. ?0%e loss a product imposes on society after it is s%ipped.?0%is definition of quality is based on a more compre%ensive vie& of t%e production system. !. American "ociety for 0uality& ?* sub;ective term for &%ic% eac% person %as %is or %er o&n definition. (n tec%nical usage5 quality can %ave t&o meanings> a. 0%e c%aracteristics of a product or service t%at bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs@ b. * product or service free of deficiencies. .. (eter Drucker& ?Auality in a product or service is not &%at t%e supplier puts in. (t is &%at t%e customer gets out and is &illing to pay for. ". 1. 2dwards Deming& concentrating on ?t%e efficient production of t%e quality t%at t%e mar)et e$pects5 and %e lin)ed quality and management> ?4osts go do&n and productivity goes up as improvement of quality is accomplis%ed by better management of design5 engineering5 testing and by improvement of processes. British College of Applied Studies Page 4

Quality Management

BAuality is defined by t%e customer. * quality product or service is one t%at meets customer requirements. /ot all customers %ave t%e same requirements so t&o contrasting products may bot% be seen as quality products by t%eir users. 9or e$ample5 one %ouseo&ner may be %appy &it% a standard lig%t bulb - t%ey &ould see t%is as a quality product. *not%er customer may &ant an energy efficient lig%t bulb &it% a longer life e$pectancy - t%is &ould be t%eir vie& of quality. Auality can t%erefore be defined as being fit for t%e customerCs purpose. 3ow quality can be create in business 7ar)et researc% involves a business in finding out &%at its customers &ant and e$pect. (t can be carried out &it% a small group of customers5 as)ing t%em to provide detailed information about products and services. 0%e researc% s%ould reveal &%at t%e customerC vie& of quality is and &%et%er t%ey are getting it. 1btaining lots of information from a small panel of customers is called qualitative researc%. 7ar)et researc% can also be carried out &it% large numbers of customers t%roug% questionnaires. 0%is is called quantitative researc%. 8or)ing to best practice standards is anot%er &ay an organi+ation can create quality. 6D( &or)s &it% industry specialists to create t%ese standards. 0oday companies &orld&ide are see)ing certification for t%eir security management systems. 0%e most successful organi+ations are t%ose t%at give customers &%at t%ey &ant. Datisfied customers are loyal to t%ose suppliers t%ey feel best understand t%eir requirements. *s a result t%ey &ill ma)e repeat purc%ases and &ill recommend a business to t%eir friends.

1)at are t)e benefit from working wit) quality "tandardi4ation Dtandards protect consumersC fundamental rig%t to safety5 t%e rig%t to be informed and t%e rig%t to c%oose. 0%ese rig%ts relate to products5 services5 processes and materials. Dtandardi+ation promotes effective researc% and development5 and ma)es products easier to use. Dtandardi+ation relies on all sections of society being involved in standards5 providing an opportunity for everyone to s%are )no&ledge and ma)e t%eir voice %eard.

6usinesses t%at do not focus on quality &ill quic)ly find t%at t%ere are costs to be paid. #$amples of t%ese costs include &aste due to products being badly made and t%erefore not

British College of Applied Studies

Page 5

Quality Management
being able to sell t%em. 0%e reputation of a business &ill quic)ly deteriorate as a result of poor quality &or). (t is very important for 3E businesses to be associated &it% quality. 0oday5 t%ere is greater competition from abroad. Dtandards are continually c%anging so it is important for businesses to )eep up. 9or e$ample5 (D1 "001 &%ic% is outlined in Dection 45 started out originally as a 6ritis% Dtandard5 6D '!'0 in 1"!". (t &as developed as an international standard and became )no&n as (D1 "001 in 1".!. 0oday5 t%e latest edition F2000G %as been adopted by more t%an 4005000 organi+ations across t%e globe. 8%en customer buys a product5 t%ey &ill &ant to )no& a lot of information about its specification. 1bvious information t%at you &ill be loo)ing for include> . *asic A!!roac) 0A7 requires si$ basic concepts> 1. * committed and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom organi+ational support. 2. *n un&avering focuses on t%e customer5 bot% internally and e$ternally. 3. #ffective involvement and utili+ation of t%e entire &or) force. 4. 4ontinuous improvement of t%e business and production process. '. 0reating suppliers as partners. . #stablis% performance measures for t%e processes (s it safeH Does it do &%at ( &antH Does it meet t%e required standardsH

British College of Applied Studies

Page 6

Quality Management

1.2 Define quality in terms of customer satisfaction.

Definition of +ustomer 0%ere are t&o distinct types of customers i.e. e$ternal and internal. (nternal customers are &it%in t%e company-t%e colleagues &or)ing toget%er for delivering a service or product for t%e e$ternal customer. 8e &ill5 %o&ever5 remain restricted to t%e e$ternal customers %ere. *n e$ternal customer may be an individual or an enterprise t%at %ires or purc%ases t%e product or service from anot%er person or business in e$c%ange of money. 1ne of t%e most important factors for t%e success of an enterprise is its customers. 8it%out t%em5 a business cannot e$ist. 6ut to capture customers5 a business must try to find out &%at people &ant5 %o& muc% and %o& often t%ey &ill buy and %o& t%eir post-purc%ase satisfaction &ill be ensured. 4ustomers can be categories into t&o types 2nd customers screen television -people li)e you and me5 loo)ing to buy an iPod or plasma

#rgani4ational customers I for e$ample5 a company recording audio 4Ds &ould buy in blan) 4Ds5 record music to t%em and sell t%em on as a finis%ed product.

Define customer satisfaction 4ustomer satisfaction is not an ob;ective statistics but more of a feeling or attitude. (f a customer is %appy &it% a product or a service it %as %ired or purc%ase t%ey &ill pay t%eir bills promptly5 &%ic% greatly improves cas% flo&-t%e lifeblood of any organi+ation. 4ustomers t%at are satisfied &ill increase in number5 buy more5 and buy more frequently. 0%e degree to &%ic% customer e$pectations of a product or service are met or e$ceeded. 4orporate and individual customers may %ave &idely differing reasons for purc%asing a product or service and t%erefore any measurement of satisfaction &ill need to be able to ta)e into account suc% differences. 0%e quality of after-sales service can also be a crucial factor in influencing any purc%asing decision. 7ore and more companies are striving5 not ;ust for customer satisfaction5 but for customer delig%t5 t%at e$tra bit of added value t%at British College of Applied Studies Page

Quality Management
may lead to increased customer loyalty. *ny e$tra added value5 %o&ever5 &ill need to be carefully coasted. Ad antage of customer satisfaction T)e customer loyalty business model is a business model used in strategic management in &%ic% company resources are employed so as to increase t%e loyalty of customers and ot%er sta)e%olders in t%e e$pectation t%at corporate ob;ectives &ill be met or surpassed. * typical e$ample of t%is type of model is> quality of product or service leads to customer satisfaction5 &%ic% leads to customer loyalty5 &%ic% leads to profitability. 1ord5of5mout) mar)eting is per%aps t%e most valuable sales tool a company can employ. <et itCs also one of t%e most difficult to put in motion. (t requires a great product or service5 of course. 6ut t%ereCs also a need to identify and encourage ent%usiasts suc% as D%aefer &it%out ma)ing t%em feel used. <ou must also learn &%at motivates people to tal) about a product.

+ustomer (erce!tion of 0uality

1ne of t%e basic concepts of t%e 0A7 p%ilosop%y is continuous process improvement. 0%is concept implies t%at t%ere is no acceptable quality level because t%e customer,s needs5 values5 and e$pectations are constantly c%anging and becoming more demanding. 6efore ma)ing a ma;or purc%ase5 some people c%ec) consumer maga+ines t%at rate product quality. During t%e period 1".0 to 1"..5 t%e quality of t%e product and its performance ran)ed first5 price &as second5 and service &as t%ird. During t%e period 1"." to 1""25 product quality remained t%e most important factor5 but service ran)ed above price in importance. *n *merican Dociety for Auality F*DAG survey on end user perceptions of important factors t%at influenced purc%ases s%o&ed t%e follo&ing ran)ing> 1. Performance 2. 9eatures 3. Dervice 0%e factors of performance5 features5 service5 and &arranty are part of t%e product or service quality@ t%erefore5 it is evident t%at product quality and service are more important t%an price. *lt%oug% t%is information is based on t%e retail customer5 it appears5 to : some e$tent5 to be true for t%e commercial customer also. (erformance Performance involves ?fitness for use? a p%rase t%at indicates t%at t%e product and service is ready for t%e customerCs use at t%e time of sale. 1t%er considerations are a ailability5 &%ic% is t%e probability t%at a product &ill operate &%en needed@ reliability5 &%ic% is freedom from failure over time@ and maintainability5 &%ic% is t%e ease of )eeping t%e product operable. 6eatures British College of Applied Studies Page !

Quality Management
(dentifiable features or attributes of a product or service are psyc%ological5 time oriented5 contractual5 et%ical5 and tec%nological. 9eatures are secondary c%aracteristics of t%e product or service. 9or e$ample5 t%e primary function of an automobile is transportation5 &%ereas a car stereo system is a feature of an automobile.

"er ice *n emp%asis on customer service is emerging as a met%od for organi+ations to give t%e customer added value. Jo&ever5 customer service is an intangible it is made up many small t%ings5 all geared to c%anging t%e customerCs perception. (ntangible c%aracteristics are t%ose traits t%at are not quantifiable5 yet contribute greatly to customers at is faction. Providing e$cellent customer service is different from and more difficult to ac%ieve t%an e$cellent product quality.

#ac% industry could add to t%is list according to t%e nature of t%e business and t%e specific relations%ip &it% t%e customer. 4ustomer satisfaction measurement variables &ill differ depending on &%at type of satisfaction is being researc%ed. 9or e$ample5 manufacturers typically desire on-time delivery and ad%erence to specifications5 so measures of satisfaction ta)en by suppliers s%ould include t%ese critical variables. 4learly defining and understanding customer satisfaction can %elp any company identify opportunities for product and service innovation and serve as t%e basis for performance appraisal and re&ard systems. (t can also serve as t%e basis for a customer satisfaction surveying program t%at can ensure t%at quality improvement efforts are properly focused on issues t%at are most important to t%e customer.

British College of Applied Studies

Page "

Quality Management

1.3 2'!lain )ow quality management can be measured.

Auality management can be measured to %ave t%ree main components> quality control5 quality assurance and quality improvement. Auality management is focused not only on product quality5 but also t%e means to ac%ieve it. Auality management t%erefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as &ell as products to ac%ieve more consistent quality. 0uality control Auality engineering is used in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or e$ceed customer requirements. 2efer to t%e definition by 7erriam-8ebster for furt%er information. 0%ese systems are often developed in con;unction &it% ot%er business and engineering disciplines using a cross-functional approac%. Auality control is t%e branc% of engineering and manufacturing &%ic% deals &it% assurance and failure testing in design and production of products or services5 to meet or e$ceed customer requirements

0uality assurance5 A* for s%ort refers to planned and systematic production processes t%at provide confidence in a productCs suitability for its intended purpose. 2efer to t%e definition by 7erriam-8ebster for furt%er information. (t is a set of activities intended to ensure t%at products Fgoods andKor servicesG satisfy customer requirements in a systematic5 reliable fas%ion. A* cannot absolutely guarantee t%e production of quality products5 unfortunately5 but ma)es t%is more li)ely. 0&o )ey principles c%aracteri+e A*> ?fit for purpose? Ft%e product s%ould be suitable for t%e intended purposeG and ?rig%t first time? Fmista)es s%ould be eliminatedG. A* includes regulation of t%e quality of ra& materials5 assemblies5 products and components@ services related to production@ and management5 production and inspection processes. (t is important to reali+e also t%at quality is determined by t%e intended users5 clients or customers5 not by society in general> it is not t%e same as Ce$pensiveC or C%ig% qualityC. #ven goods &it% lo& prices can be considered quality items if t%ey meet a mar)et need.

0uality im!ro ement British College of Applied Studies Page 1#

Quality Management
0%ere are many met%ods for quality improvement. 0%ese cover product improvement5 process improvement and people based improvement. (n t%e follo&ing list are met%ods of quality management and tec%niques t%at incorporate and drive quality improvement

Task 2
2.1 Describe t)e rationale under!inning four quality sc)emes commonly ado!ted by commercial o!erations.
Auality sc%emes must significant for every organi+ation. #very origination s%ould adopt any quality sc%emes t%eir organi+ation. *s business management student &e s%ould %ave clear )no&ledge of quality sc%emes. 0%ere are four main quality sc%emes in t%e current &orld most originations %ave been using. Let,s ta)e loo) 7ain four quality sac%ems I"# -alcolm baldrige 3"++( ,a!anese 7s

*nd our country quality a&ard DLD

1. I"# 8(nternational 1rgani+ation for Dtandardi+ation9 0%ere are more t%an enoug% (D1 standards to confuse any organi+ation t%atCs loo)ing to get certified. 0oday5 t%ere are over 1 5000 standards being used by certifying bodies to assess5 monitor and audit any organi+ation see)ing to improve its quality management system. Jere is a s%ort e$planation on &%at t%ese standards are and t%eir specific usages> I"# "tandards (D1 standards contain t%e metrics or specifications required in order to ac%ieve t%e guidelines or criteria specified under t%at series. 0%ese standards are referred to as (D1 series in order to refer to groups of standards used for quality management and assurance. *n (D1 standard is identified as t%e (D1 series and its version. 9or e$ample - (D1 "001>200'. 0%is indicates t%at t%e (D1 standard in place is (D1 "001 &it% t%e 200' version. Jere are some of t%e most popular (D1 standards applied for> I"# $%%% British College of Applied Studies Page 11

Quality Management
0%is is a very popular (D1 series5 ranging from (D1 "001 to (D1 """". (D1 "000 is t%e quality management system used by companies t%at engage in production. (D1 standards in t%ese series include> I"# 14%%% 0%is series is t%e system used to implement standards in environmental management5 specifically in a production environment. * fe& standards in t%ese series include> (D1 14001 I standard for general environmental management (D1 "001 2equirements 4ommon 0L "000 2equirements FAD2G M 6oo) 1 Jard&are Dpecific 2equirements Doft&are Dpecific 2equirements Dervices Dpecific 7easurements

4ommon 0L "000 7easurements FAD7G M 6oo) 2 Jard&are Dpecific 2equirements Doft&are Dpecific 2equirements Dervices Dpecific 7easurements

2. -alcolm baldrige
8%o &as 7alcolm 6aldrigeH 7alcolm 6aldrige &as Decretary of 4ommerce from 1".1 until %is deat% in a rodeo accident in :uly 1".!. 6aldrige &as a proponent of quality management as a )ey to t%is country,s prosperity and long-term strengt%. Je too) a personal interest in t%e quality improvement act t%at &as eventually named after %im and %elped draft one of t%e early versions. (n recognition of %is contributions5 4ongress named t%e a&ard in %is %onor. 8%at is t%e 7alcolm 6aldrige /ational Auality *&ardH 0%e 6aldrige *&ard is given by t%e President of t%e 3nited Dtates to businessesM manufacturing and service5 small and largeMand to education5 %ealt% care and nonprofit organi+ations t%at apply and are ;udged to be outstanding in seven areas> leaders%ip@ strategic planning@ customer and mar)et focus@ measurement5 analysis5 and )no&ledge management@ &or)force focus@ process management@ and results. T)e *aldrige +riteria 0%e 6aldrige performance e$cellence criteria are a frame&or) t%at any organi+ation can use to improve overall performance. Deven categories ma)e up t%e a&ard criteria> :eaders)i!Me$amines %o& senior e$ecutives guide t%e organi+ation and %o& t%e organi+ation addresses its responsibilities to t%e public and practices good citi+ens%ip. "trategic !lanningMe$amines %o& t%e organi+ation sets strategic directions and %o& it determines )ey action plans. British College of Applied Studies Page 12

Quality Management
+ustomer and market focus #$amines %o& t%e organi+ation determines requirements and e$pectations of customers and mar)ets@ builds relations%ips &it% customers@ and acquires5 satisfies5 and retains customers. -easurement/ analysis/ and knowledge management e$amines t%e management5 effective use5 analysis5 and improvement of data and information to support )ey organi+ation processes and t%e organi+ation,s performance management system. 1orkforce focus #$amines %o& t%e organi+ation enables its &or)force to develop its full potential and %o& t%e &or)force is aligned &it% t%e organi+ation,s ob;ectives. (rocess management #$amines aspects of %o& )ey productionKdelivery and support processes are designed5 managed5 and improved.

Results #$amines t%e organi+ation,s performance and improvement in its )ey business areas> customer satisfaction5 financial and mar)etplace performance5 %uman resources5 supplier and partner performance5 operational performance5 and governance and social responsibility. 0%e category also e$amines %o& t%e organi+ation performs relative to competitors. 9or many organi+ations5 using t%e criteria results in better employee relations5 %ig%er productivity5 greater customer satisfaction5 increased mar)et s%are5 and improved profitability. *ccording to a report by t%e 4onference 6oard5 a business members%ip organi+ation

3. ,a!anese 7s
0%e 'D Process5 or simply ?'D?5 is a structured program to systematically ac%ieve total organi+ation5 cleanliness5 and standardi+ation in t%e &or)place. * &ell-organi+ed &or)place results in a safer5 more efficient5 and more productive operation. (t boosts t%e morale of t%e &or)ers5 promoting a sense of pride in t%eir &or) and o&ners%ip of t%eir responsibilities.

?'D? &as invented in :apan5 and stands for five :apanese &ords t%at start &it% t%e letter CDC> Deiri5 Deiton5 Deiso5 Dei)etsu5 and D%itsu)e. 0able 1 s%o&s &%at t%ese individual &ords mean. *n equivalent set of five CDC &ords in #nglis% %ave li)e&ise been adopted by many5 to preserve t%e ?'D? acronym in #nglis% usage. 0%ese are> Dort5 Det Fin placeG5 D%ine5 Dtandardi+e5 and Dustain. Dome purists do not agree &it% t%ese #nglis% &ords I 0%ey argue t%at t%ese &ords %ave lost t%e essence of t%e original ' :apanese &ords.
,a!anese Term "eiri 2nglis) 2qui alent Tidiness -eaning in ,a!anese +onte't 0%ro& a&ay all rubbis% and unrelated materials in t%e &or)place

British College of Applied Studies

Page 13

Quality Management
"eiton #rderliness Det everyt%ing in proper place for quic) retrieval and storage 4lean t%e &or)place@ everyone s%ould be a ;anitor Dtandardi+e t%e &ay of maintaining cleanliness Practice C9ive DC daily - ma)e it a &ay of life@ t%is also means CcommitmentC

"eiso "eiketsu ")itsuke

+leanliness "tandardi4ation Disci!line

"eiri I Put t%ings in order. *rrange5 sort. Eeep only t%e essential items I Discard t%e unessential ones. "eiton I Proper arrangement. Det in order. 0%ere s%ould be a place for everyt%ing and everyt%ing s%ould be in t%eir place. 0%ey s%ould be reac%ed easily &%en needed. "eiso I 4lean. Eeep t%ings clean and polis%ed so t%at you &ould love to &or) &it% t%em. 0%is cleaning s%ould be a part of daily &or) I not after t%ings get messed upN "eiketsu I Purity and Dtandardi+ation. 1perate in consistent fas%ion to yield consistent results. ")itsuke I Dustaining t%e discipline. 7aintaining and revie&ing standards. 1nce t%e previous 4D %ave been establis%ed5 t%ey become a ne& &ay to operate. 6ut if t%ere is a suggested improvement or a ne& tool5 t%en a revie& of t%e 4D is appropriate. /o& let,s see our country quality Dtandardi+ation

4. ":"
Product certification5 &%ic% is popularly )no&n as t%e ?DLD 7ar) Dc%eme?5 is a sc%eme t%at gives a t%ird party guarantee on quality of a product. 0%is sc%eme enables t%e DLD( to grant permits to local as &ell as overseas manufacturers producing goods conforming to Dri Lan)a Dtandards to mar) t%e ?DLD? mar) on t%eir products. Dri Lan)a Dtandards (nstitution *ct /o. of 1".45 and t%e regulations made t%ere under empo&er t%e Dri Lan)a Dtandards (nstitution to issue suc% permits to manufacturers.

0%e Product 4ertification Dc%eme is essentially voluntary in nature. Jo&ever5 certification of 20 products locally manufactured or produced %ave been mandated t%roug% t%e Directions issued by t%e 4ommissioner of (nternal 0rade under t%e 4onsumer Protection *ct /o. 1 of 1"!". F0%e 4onsumer Protection *ct %as been repealed by t%e 4onsumer *ffairs *ut%ority *ct /o. " of 2003. Jo&ever t%is regulation remains unc%anged.G

British College of Applied Studies

Page 14

Quality Management
0%e 4ertification 7ar) on a commodity or product signifies t%at t%e commodity or product is consistently manufactured in accordance &it% t%e relevant Dri Lan)a Dtandard Dpecification and could be be purc%ased &it% a reasonable assurance of quality. 4ompliance &it% t%e requirements of t%e specification is assured t%roug% regular monitoring of t%e quality assurance system and audits carried out by qualified *uditors of t%e (nstitution. 0%e general policy of t%e (nstitution is to administer t%e 4ertification 7ar)s Dc%eme in suc% a manner t%at t%e responsibility of compliance &it% t%e relevant standard lies &it% t%e manufacturer. 0o secure t%is5 a suitable quality assurance system consistent &it% t%e guidelines prescribed by t%e (nstitution s%ould be adopted by eac% permit %older. Je is responsible for t%e documentation and t%e implementation of t%e quality system and t%e continued effectiveness of t%e quality system &ill be verified by t%e qualified officers of t%e (nstitution at regular intervals.

*enifits of ":" -ark DLD mar) is a ma;or mar)eting tool for t%e promotion of sales. 0o differentiate products %aving t%e DLD mar) from ot%er products #n%ance competitiveness. Definite advantage over manufacturing establis%ments &%o does not %ave DLD mar) 2educe customer complaints Dtate sector &ill loo) for DLD mar)ed products5 t%ereby increase t%e mar)et s%are (mage of t%e company &ill be improved. 0%ereby improving t%e morale of &or)ers. Productivity improvement. Dince t%e standard incorporate customer and legal requirements5 products &ill be more acceptable 4ustomer-7anufacturer-DLD( relations%ips en%ance continuously.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 15

Quality Management

2.2 Identify t)e main similarities and differences between four quality management systems.
3ow does t)e *aldrige Award differ from I"# $%%%; 0%e purpose5 content5 and focus of t%e 6aldrige *&ard and (D1 "000 are very different. 0%e 6aldrige *&ard &as created by 4ongress in 1".! to en%ance 3.D. competitiveness. 0%e a&ard program promotes quality a&areness5 recogni+es quality ac%ievements of 3.D. organi+ations5 and provides a ve%icle for s%aring successful strategies. 0%e 6aldrige *&ard criteria focus on results and continuous improvement. 0%ey provide a frame&or) for designing5 implementing5 and assessing a process for managing all business operations. (D1 "000 is a series of five international standards publis%ed in 1".! by t%e (nternational 1rgani+ation for Dtandardi+ation F(D1G5 Oeneva5 D&it+erland. 4ompanies can use t%e standards to %elp determine &%at is needed to maintain an efficient quality conformance system. 9or e$ample5 t%e standards describe t%e need for an effective quality system5 for ensuring t%at measuring and testing equipment is calibrated regularly and for maintaining an adequate record-)eeping system. (D1 "000 registration determines &%et%er a company complies &it% its o&n quality system. 1verall5 (D1 "000 registration covers less t%an 10 percent of t%e 6aldrige *&ard criteria.

Is t)e *aldrige Award a <.". ersion of ,a!an=s Deming award; 0%e basic purposes of bot% a&ards are t%e same> to promote recognition of quality ac%ievements and to raise a&areness of t%e importance and tec%niques of quality improvement. Jo&ever5 t%e 6aldrige *&ard> focuses more on results and service5

British College of Applied Studies

Page 16

Quality Management
relies upon t%e involvement of many different professional and trade groups5 provides special credits for innovative approac%es to quality5 includes a strong customer and %uman resource focus5 and Dtresses t%e importance of s%aring information. 8%y &as /(D0 selected by 4ongress to manage t%e a&ard and &%at is t%e role of *DAH /(D0 is a non-regulatory agency of t%e 3.D. Department of 4ommerce. /(D0 develops and promotes measurements5 standards5 and tec%nology to en%ance productivity5 facilitate trade5 and improve t%e quality of life. /(D0 &as selected by 4ongress to design and manage t%e a&ard program because of its role in %elping 3.D. organi+ations compete5 its &orldreno&ned e$pertise in quality control and assurance5 and its reputation as an impartial t%ird party. *DAMt%e *merican Dociety for AualityMassists /(D0 &it% t%e application revie& process5 preparation of a&ard documents5 publicity5 and information transfer. *DA is a professional5 non-profit association serving more t%an .05000 individual and !00 corporate members in t%e 3nited Dtates and 2 ot%er nations.

2.3 2'!lain t)e im!ortance of communication and record kee!ing in quality sc)emes.

0%e importance of free-flo&ing fort%rig%t communications5 bot% do&n&ard from management to employees and up&ard from employees to management5 can %ardly be overemp%asi+ed. 8%et%er it,s to support morale and productivity among t%e &or)force or to assure t%at management ta)es advantage of employee input5 good communications are essential. 8%ere do&n&ard communication is poor5 rumors and misinformation &ill fill t%e vacuum. 8%ere up&ard communication is poor5 employee grievances &ill fester driving do&n morale and productivity and increasing vulnerability to union organi+ing. 0%e follo&ing c%ec)lists of suggested ve%icles for up&ard and do&n&ard communication can %elp you gauge &%et%er your organi+ation is performing as &ell as it mig%t &it% respect to internal communication. <!ward +ommunications Oeneral manager,s routine staff meeting &it% supervisors> (n addition to production issues5 t%ese staff meetings s%ould also include topics of interest to employees &it% respect to business developments5 company affairs5 and any ot%er topics t%at and any ot%er topics t%at s%ould be communicated by supervisors to ran) and file. Oeneral 7anager,s routine meeting &it% non-supervisory employees> (n addition to production issues5 t%ese meetings s%ould emp%asi+e issues t%at involve pay and benefits5 problems5 complaints5 rumors5 and questions. British College of Applied Studies Page 1

Quality Management
Dupervisor,s routine meeting &it% employees> 3pper management s%ould ensure t%at supervisors %ave routine meetings t%at cover topics beyond production t%at are of interest to employees. (n many environments5 t%ere is a tendency for supervisors to overloo) t%ese important communications ve%icles &%ile under pressure to produce. #mployee ne&sletter for %ome delivery> 0%e spouse s%ould become involved in events and conditions to give t%e entire family a sta)e in and appreciation of t%e employee,s ;ob. /e&sletters for supervisors> Dubscriptions to appropriate ne&sletters t%at provide supervisors &it% information on %o& to do t%eir ;obs better and %o& to %andling employees and ;ob problems. 1r create a regular supervisor ne&sletter internally. 6ulletin board program> #very attempt s%ould be made to ma)e t%e bulletin board a viable source of informationMin most cases bulletin boards fall into disuse. #mployee %andboo)> Jandboo)s s%ould be publis%ed in an attractive5 easy-to-use format so t%at t%ey are readily usable by employees as a source of information. Dupervisor,s %andboo)> 0%is document can serve as a training aid as &ell as communication tool.

Downward +ommunications

2outine discussion meetings bet&een employees and t%eir supervisors> Dupervisors s%ould be trained in tec%niques for generating discussion among employees and in %o& to feed t%e information Bup t%e lineP on a routine basis. FDupervisors also need to be trained to feed information bac) do&n to employees.G Dupervisor,s appraisal of individual employees> Periodic appraisal by eac% supervisor on eac% employee under %is or %er supervision5 including specific and focused questions &%ic% t%e supervisor must ans&er about eac% employee &it% a met%od for passing t%is information Bup t%e lineP in order to fi$ a Bstatus appraisalP on eac% employee. 7anager,s appraisal of individual supervisors> *gain5 use focused5 specific questions5 recogni+ing t%at &ea)5 arbitrary5 unfair5 or e$cessively %ars% supervisors are a prime cause of employee discontent and acting out@ be sure t%is information goes Bup t%e lineP in order to correct supervisory problems. *ttitude surveys> *nnual5 anonymous questionnaires given to employees@ use customi+ed5 specific questions t%at &ill alert management to trouble spots. British College of Applied Studies Page 1!

Quality Management
#mployee suggestion program> 9or employees and family members5 give monetary a&ards or ot%er forms of recognition for accepted suggestions. Orievance procedure> Jave a non-adversary system &%ere employees feel unin%ibited in bringing t%eir complaints and grievances past t%eir immediate supervisors. 1pen door policy> #ncourage employees to as) questions and ta)e t%eir concerns to anyone in t%e company. #$it intervie&s> #very employee &%o leaves t%e company s%ould be intervie&ed and t%eir comments on &or)ing conditions and morale recorded.

T)e main focus of business communications is to& Oive out information@ 7a)e your ideas understood (nitiate some action@ D%are ideas5 attitudes5 beliefs@ #stablis% lin)s &it% ot%er people.


*ll t%e above ve%icles are effective. 6ut more important t%an any specific ve%icle for up&ard or do&n&ard communication is t%e commitment by top management and t%e supervisory staff to t%e ongoing importance of communication to t%e success of t%e business mission. 0%is must be implemented t%roug% regular5 consistent effort by management at all levels.

Record kee!ing #veryone in business must )eep records5 especially t%ose t%at &ill come in %andy &%en itCs time to t%in) about ta$es on t%e business. Oood records &ill %elp you do t%e follo&ing>

7onitor t%e progress of your business. <ou need good records to monitor t%e progress of your business. 2ecords can s%o& &%et%er your business is improving5 &%ic% items are selling5 or &%at c%anges you need to ma)e. Oood records can increase t%e li)eli%ood of business success.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 1"

Quality Management
Prepare your financial statements. <ou need good records to prepare accurate financial statements. 0%ese include income Fprofit and lossG statements and balance s%eets. 0%ese statements can %elp you in dealing &it% your ban) or creditors and %elp you manage your business. 2emember5 an income statement s%o&s t%e income and e$penses of t%e business for a given period of time. * balance s%eet s%o&s t%e assets5 liabilities5 and your equity in t%e business on a given date.

(dentify t%e source of receipts. <ou &ill receive money or property from many sources. <our records can identify t%e source of your receipts. <ou need t%is information to separate business from non-business receipts and ta$able from nonta$able income.

Eeep trac) of deductible e$penses. <ou may forget e$penses &%en you prepare your ta$ return unless you record t%em &%en t%ey occur.

Prepare your ta$ returns. <ou need good records to prepare your ta$ returns. 0%ese records must support t%e income5 e$penses5 and credits you report. Oenerally5 t%ese are t%e same records you use to monitor your business and prepare your financial statements.

Dupport items reported on ta$ returns. <ou must )eep your business records available at all times for inspection by t%e (nternal 2evenue Dervice F(2DG. (f t%e (2D e$amines any of your ta$ returns5 you may be as)ed to e$plain t%e items reported. * complete set of records &ill speed up t%e e$amination.

Task 3
3.1 Asses t)e information made a ailable to customers and t)e im!ortance gi en to effecti e marketing.

Ad ertising *dvertising plays an important role in successful business ventures. (t entails identifying and selecting t%e media t%at provide t%e greatest amount of e$posure for your business and developing effective5 yet appropriate materials for eac% medium. (t is more t%an running an ad in a local ne&spaper5 on a radio or television station or ;ust simply %anging a sign outside British College of Applied Studies Page 2#

Quality Management
your business and &aiting for t%e customers to purc%ase your product. (t requires t%at you )no& your product - t%at is5 t%e selling points - and t%at you develop literature t%at can arouse t%e customersC consciousness levels to t%e point t%at t%ey are curious enoug% to investigate it5 and t%en raises t%eir need or desire levels to t%e point t%at t%ey are &illing to purc%ase it. -ore -edia 6ormats /e&spaper5 radio5 or television ads Fne&spaper advertising is t%e least e$pensive and television advertising is t%e most e$pensive of t%ese formatsG. <ou probably &ill need professional advice and assistance &%en developing ads for t%ose media formats. 0%e follo&ing media formats you probably can do yourself> Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 6usiness cards 4lassified ads in t%e local ne&spaper Direct mar)eting 0elemar)eting Ft%is format can be e$pensive5 alsoG <ello& Pages advertising Dampling - mailing or distributing free samples of your product to t%e public. *dvertising in community-based maga+ines or ne&spapers.

8%atever media format you use5 be &illing to invest t%e money needed to develop an effective ad campaign.

3.2 2 aluate t)e benefit of user and non5user sur ey in determining customer needs.

<ser (rofile sur ey

0rying to implement %ard&are and soft&are standards but not sure &%at your #nd 3serCs requirements areH 3ser Profile survey gat%ers t%e inputs required to quantify your user communityCs usage be%avior5 critical applications5 s)ill levels R training requirements5 %ard&are and soft&are requirements. 0%e 3ser Profile survey groups tec%nology requirements by ;ob function to %elp you plan and develop common P4 platform standards lo&ering 041. British College of Applied Studies Page 21

Quality Management

0%e follo&ing e$amples provide potential uses of t%e data provided> 0%e 3ser Profile survey is ideal for planning and developing P4 computing standards to reduce t%e total cost of tec%nology F041G. Learn %o& your 3sers use t%eir computer systems including frequency5 duration and locations. Discover &%ic% applications your users deem as critical to t%eir ;ob. Dee &%at your 3sers are e$periencing in terms of system5 application and net&or) reliability. Determine %o& your 3sers perceive t%eir proficiency levels on systems and applications.

0%e 3ser Profile survey provides t%e follo&ing )inds of benefits> (mproved J8 planning - used to develop common %ard&are configuration standards lo&ering 041 of %ard&are and operational support. 2educed D8 license ris) R cost - used to develop common soft&are profilesKstandards to reduce t%e ris) and cost non required applications. 3nderstand t%e computing %abits of your 3sers in order to balance service levels and costs.

8%at do ( getH 1. 2. 3. 4. 0elep%oneKemail support during t%e data collection p%ase #lectronic templates to %elp collect necessary information Doftcopy FPD9G findings report 0eleconference to revie& findings and outcomes.

3.3 2'amine t)e met)ods of consultations em!loyed in one quality sc)eme to encourage !artici!ation by under5re!resented grou!s. <nions and 2m!loyee In ol ement
(n general5 unions support quality improvement programs but e$press concern regard- H management e$ercising too muc% control over employees. 3nion representatives ( must be involved in any program involving employees. *lt%oug% employee involvement : %as been British College of Applied Studies Page 22

Quality Management
&idely accepted5 it could be a problem if not properly addressed. (n some in-1 stances &%ere management ta)es too muc% control over employee involvement5 it could 1 be a violation of t%e /ational Labor 2elations *ct F/L2*G of 1"3'. Dome %ave argued ; t%at a la& passed to serve a good purpose in 1"3' may not be appropriate for todayCs problems. Jo&ever5 unless t%e /L2* is amended5 it is in t%e best interest of management to be sure actions ta)en &ill not violate t%e /L2*. 0eams s%ould not discuss &ages5 rates of pay5 %ours of employment5 or conditions ofS &or). (n some cases5 t%ese limitations &ill adversely affect t%e teamCs ob;ective. 6ot% management and unions must e$amine long-%eld vie&s of &%at constitutes proper union-management relations%ips. Desire for unilateral po&er must be c%anged to s%ared po&er for t%e benefit of employees and t%e organi+ation. * ;oint process of determining %o& best to proceed to effectively meet t%e competition5 especiallyT from foreign organi+ations5 is t%e only sensible solution. 7anagement must recogni+e and respect t%e unique role unions play in employee involvement. * feeling of trust must be establis%ed and a partners%ip developed bet&een management and t%e union. 0%ere are t&o &ays in &%ic% unions and management %ave c%osen to deal &it% t%e implementation of employee involvement in an organi+ation. Dome %ave c%osen to &or) 4o-operatively5 giving unions members%ip on quality councils and %aving t%em participate U fully in planning5 implementation5 and evaluation of t%e entire effort. 1t%ers %ave adopted t%e more ?traditional? mode of bargaining t%e impact and implementation actions affecting t%ose in t%e improvement team. #ac% approac% presents benefits and potential ris)s. 3nion involvement improves t%e continuous improvement process@ %o&ever5 union leaders%ip runs t%e ris) of criticism from ot%er members if it is perceived as &or)ing too closely &it% management. 0%e nature of t%e relations%ip &ill be determined by t%e bac)ground and %istory or t%e labor-management relations in t%e organi+ation and t%e &illingness of t%e union to participate. (deally5 t%e leaders%ip of t%e organi+ation &ill see) early involvement of t%e union and ma)e t%e nature of t%e involvement as specific as possible. *n e$ample of union-management cooperation is illustrated by t%e collective bargaining agreement bet&een t%e 3nited *uto 8or)ers and 9ord 7otor 4ompany. (t provides for ;oint leaders%ip in t%e quality improvement effort by ;oint committees at t%e corporate5 division5 and facility levels. 0%ese committees %ave t%e aut%ority of t%e contract to plan5 implement5 evaluate5 and e$pand quality systems as needed. 7any organi+ations can provide evidence t%at t%eir successful quality systems can be attributed to t%e unions. 3nions &ill gro& if t%ey are seen as a superior &ay to support democracy in t%e &or)place and improve t%e performance of t%e organi+ation.

*enefits of 2m!loyee In ol ement (nvolving employees5 empo&ering t%em5 -and bringing t%em into t%e decision-ma)ing process provides t%e opportunity for continuous process improvement. 0%e untapped ideas5 innovations5 and creative t%oug%ts of employees can ma)e t%e difference bet&een success and failure. 4ompetition is so fierce t%at it &ould be un&ise not to use every available tool.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 23

Quality Management
#mployee involvement improves quality and increases productivity5 because

#mployees ma)e better decisions using t%eir e$pert )no&ledge of t%e process. #mployees are more li)ely to implement and support decisions t%ey %ad a part in ma)ing. #mployees are better able to spot and pinpoint areas for improvement. #mployees are better able to ta)e immediate corrective action. #mployee involvement reduces laborKmanagement friction by encouraging more effective communication and cooperation. #mployee involvement increases morale by creating a feeling of belonging to t%e organi+ation. #mployees are better able to accept c%ange because t%ey control t%e &or) environment. #mployees %ave an increased commitment to unit goals because t%ey are involved.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 24

Quality Management
3.4 In estigate t)e alue of com!lains !rocedure at two different centers and analy4e )ow eac) is used to im!ro e quality.

Im!ortance of com!laints 6y complaining up &%en customers believe t%ey %ave not received t%e service t%ey e$pected5 consumers or service users give organi+ations an opportunity to fi$ problems and restore good&ill. (f customers don,t complain5 company &ould not )no& t%ere is a problem. 4omplaints offer organi+ations an opportunity to correct problems immediately. 0%ey also provide constructive ideas for improving services5 practices and policies. 2ecogni+ing t%e importance of responding fairly and efficiently to customer disappointment5 many organi+ations %ave establis%ed effective and customer-sensitive systems for resolving complaints. (n t%e private sector5 t%ose companies &it% a positive p%ilosop%y and a reputation for fair complaint management %ave a competitive edge. +om!lains !rocedures (n order for a complaint %andling policy to &or) effectively it must be supported by a &ritten policy and procedures t%at give clear direction on complaint %andling. 0%is &ill assist staff in resolving5 conciliating and investigating all )inds of complaints from service users. (t is important t%at t%e complaint %andling policy is endorsed and supported by t%e %eads of t%e organi+ation5 as &ell as senior management5 and t%at staff are fully a&are of t%e organi+ation,s approac% to complaint %andling and t%e standards e$pected from t%em. 0%e policy and procedures s%ould be easy to understand5 &ell-publici+ed to bot% service users and staff and easily accessible.

A com!laint )andling !rocedure may contain/

%o& service user feedbac) &ill be encouraged Ffeedbac) K complaint forms K on-line forms K dedicated email address K telep%one numberG &%at complaints are accepted> verbal5 &ritten5 anonymous etc &%o is responsible for ta)ing t%e complaint Fat eac% stage of t%e processG and at &%at point t%e complaint is referred on Fat eac% stage of t%e processG %o& complaints and t%eir outcomes &ill be recorded timeframes for resolution and ot%er performance standards - including guidance on &%at %appens if t%ese are not met acceptable forms of redress and clear levels of delegated aut%ority for staff revie& and appeal mec%anisms if t%e complainant is not satisfied clarification on &%at )ind of analysis s%ould be carried out on complaint data

British College of Applied Studies

Page 25

Quality Management

%o& complaint analysis s%ould be reported including mec%anisms for reporting trends K underlying causes of concern &ays to ma)e recommendations for organi+ational c%ange to improve service delivery as a result of complaint data

If t)e com!laint is about t)e !roduct features/ 1nce t%e complaint is received aut%ori+ed person or department &ould conduct an investigation on t%e complaint to )no& &%et%er it is true or not. 1nce it is found true ne$t step &ill be finding out &%et%er t%e problem is only &it% t%e single sold piece of product or all t%e pieces of product. 2esponsible people &ill ma)e arrangements to solve or overcome t%e defect. 8%en it comes to quality t%is &ill %elp to ma)e effective developments on t%e product &%ic% increases quality. *t t%e same time competitive advantage can be gained.

If t)e com!laint is about t)e customer ser ice/ (f a complaint is received on t%e service of t%e organi+ation5 proper actions s%ould be ta)en and t%e defect must be overcome. (t is so important to identify &%et%er t%e problem is &it% an individual employee or &it% overall staffs. (f it is &it% all t%e staffs t%ere &ill be a need for furt%er trainings and ne& rules. 0%roug% t%is organi+ation &ill gain customer satisfaction &%ic% is a distinct advantage for quality.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 26

Quality Management

Task 4
4.1 Identify t)e role of self5assessment in order to determine an organi4ation=s current >state of )ealt)=

Delf-assessment is an essential activity for any organi+ation to ensure its stability in various areas. *lso a self-assessment %elps t%e organi+ations to ma)e amendments to ensure stability and efficiency. 3sually organi+ations %ave a routine set of activities to ensure stability and development. * self-assessment &ould c%ec) t%ose activities &%et%er t%ey are done or not. 0%ose activities are5

6oard members clearly understand t%eir roles and responsibilities for financial %ealt% 6oard receives and revie&s complete financial information at every meeting * computeri+ed accountingKrecord)eeping system is maintained Aualified and )no&ledgeable staff or volunteer responsible for accounting records *ll staff understands t%eir responsibilities regarding t%e financial systems Process in place to develop a &ell-considered and realistic budget 6udget is revie&ed by t%e board and approved before t%e fiscal year begins 1rgani+ation routinely budgets for an unrestricted operating surplus 9inancial reports are prepared in an accurate and timely manner Dtaff and board regularly compare financial results to budgets 2egularly plan for adequate cas% balances5 including cas% flo& pro;ections and monitoring 7aintain cas% balances or reserves appropriate for t%e organi+ation Fminimum 30 daysG 7aintain a system for trac)ing restricted or designated funds Payroll ta$ deposits are made &%en due 1rgani+ation is able to pay bills and ma)e loan payments &%en due 8ritten financial policy in place including responsibility and aut%ority for financial decisions *dequate and appropriate internal controls are in place and maintained 7aintain a system for compliance &it% all required legal and funder reporting

British College of Applied Studies

Page 2

Quality Management
*nnual financial audit For comparable annual revie&G completed and revie&ed by board 6oard and staff regularly revie& s%ort-term and long-term plans and goals

4.2 2'!lain t)e stages staff consultation necessary for effecti e im!lementation of a quality sc)eme.
(mplementing a quality sc%eme is not an easy tas) for an organi+ation. (mplementing a quality sc%eme is a very e$pensive and long term activity. *ny organi+ation &ould need dedication5 support and contribution from its staffs in order to implement t%e sc%eme effectively. 0%ere are some basic staff consultation steps for t%e implementation5 -aking t)em understand t)e im!ortance of t)e quality sc)eme 0o get %ig% contribution and dedication from t%e employees5 employees needs to be e$plained and )no&n t%e importance of t%e quality sc%eme &%ic% is going to be implemented. 0%is &ill %elp t%e employees to understand t%e impacts of t%e sc%eme on t%e &or) place5 organi+ational reputation and image. 1nce t%e employees understand t%e benefits t%ey &ould support %ig%ly to get it done. Ado!ting t)e c)ange Dtaffs s%ould be prepared to adopt t%e c%anges due to t%e implementation of ne& quality sc%eme. 1t%er&ise t%ere may negative results due to t%e implementation. Do t%e organi+ation needs an effective c%ange management. Trainings 0rainings s%ould be arranged for t%e employees to support t%e implementation effectively. 0%is &ould %elp t%e organi+ation to ac%ieve %ig% support from employees.

-ain "tages of +onsultation 1. 0%e first5 setting up5 stage Fno& completedG %as %elped to scope out t%e main issues and t%e main groups and sectors to consult. (t also ended &it% agreement amongst )ey parties on t%e format of t%e consultation.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 2!

Quality Management
2. (n early /ovember t%ere &ill be a &or)s%op for around 40 )ey sta)e%olders from specific groups and organisations. 0%e aim of t%at event is to &or) toget%er to generate a range of quite different options or c%oices for t%e future of 0%e 2ec. 0%e &or)s%op &ill also produce &%at t%ose sta)e%olders Fnot t%e consultation manager or tec%nical consultantsG believe to be t%e main arguments for and against eac% option. 3. 6efore moving on5 t%e emerging options &ill be given a quic) tec%nical evaluation on legal5 financial and ot%er aspects. 0%is &ill be provided by #rnst and <oung 4. 0%e ne$t stage is for -all,. 0%e main part of t%is &ill focus on a questionnaire as)ing people not ;ust to c%oose an option but to say -&%y,. 0%at &ay it &ill be possible to evolve and refine solutions5 pic) and mi$ from options and use ne& ideas. '. 0%ere &ill be several formats to t%e questionnaire. 1ne &ill be used &it% a statistically selected sample group Fmanaged by a specialist survey companyG and anot%er &ill go to a &ide range of groups and organisations &it%in 6at%. * t%ird &ill be available on t%is &ebsite and at ot%er locations for anybody to complete. (t &ill be available for &ee)s to allo& as many as possible to respond5 especially groups &%ic% may &is% to meet to discuss it. FPlease note> 0%e questionnaire &ill not be a CreferendumC but a ma;or guide to t%e outcome. 0%e most robust results &ill come from t%e statistically managed sample but results from t%e more open formats &ill also be given appropriate &eig%t.G . *s is often t%e case5 some )ey groups - for e$ample5 young people I may &ell not respond to t%e questionnaire format. Dpecial events may be run to ensure t%eir voices are %eard. !. *s a mi$ of optionFsG andKor ne& ideas emerges t%ey &ill be given a more t%oroug% tec%nical c%ec). (f t%ere are outstanding issues5 on planning aspects for e$ample5 t%ese &ill be e$plored in small meetings or &or)s%ops. .. *s &ell as )eeping you up to speed on progress5 reports of events5 etc on t%is &ebsite5 t%ere &ill be a %ig% profile public announcement of &%at emerges at t%e end of t%e process. ". 0%e final tas)5 &or)ing &it% t%e original )ey consultees5 &ill be to produce a full -2eport of 4onsultation, I a complete audit trail to s%o& %o& and &%y t%e result &as generated.

British College of Applied Studies

Page 2"

Quality Management

4.3 (ro!ose new system or modifications to e'isting system t)at could im!ro e ser ice quality.

"er ice 0uality

Dtrategies t%at %ave produced significant results in production are often %arder to implement in a service environment. 0%an)s to t%e teac%ings of Deming5 :uran5 andol ers5 significant strides %ave been made in manufacturing. 0%e same results %ave to slo&er in service organi+ations or service activities in manufacturing. 5 4ustomer service is t%e set of activities an organi+ation uses to &in and retain of tomersC satisfaction. (t can be provided before5 during5 or after t%e sale of t%e product e$ist on its o&n. #lements of customer service are>

#rgani4ation (dentify eac% mar)et segment. 8rite do&n t%e requirements. 4ommunicate t%e requirements. 1rgani+e processes. 1rgani+e p%ysical spaces. +ustomer +are 7eet t%e customerCs e$pectations.

Oet t%e customerCs point of vie&. Deliver &%at is promised.

7a)e t%e customer feel valued. 2espond to all complaints. British College of Applied Studies Page 3#

Quality Management
1ver-respond to t%e customer. Provide a clean and comfortable customer reception area. 4ommunication

1ptimi+e t%e trade-off bet&een time and personal attention. 7inimi+e t%e number of contact points. Provide pleasant5 )no&ledgeable5 and ent%usiastic employees. 8rite documents in customer-friendly language.

6ront5line !eo!le Jire people &%o li)e people. 4%allenge t%em to develop better met%ods. Oive t%em t%e aut%ority to solve problems. Derve t%em as internal customers. 6e sure t%ey are adequately trained. 2ecogni+e and re&ard performance.

:eaders)i! Lead by e$ample. Listen to t%e front-line people. Dtrive for continuous process improvement.

( %ave selected (D1 management standards to propose ne& modifications. Jere are t%e common principles of (D1 management standards. 4ustomer focus Leaders%ip (nvolvement of people Process approac% Dystem approac% to management 4ontinual improvement 9actual approac% to decision ma)ing 7utually beneficial supplier relations%ips

British College of Applied Studies

Page 31

Quality Management
(ro!osed new !rinci!les 2 aluation of customer ser ice skills of em!loyees Eey benefits> (ncreased effectiveness of service 6etter understanding of customers (ncreased customer satisfaction Development of employee s)ills (ncreased customer retention (ncreased customer base and mar)et s%are 6etter image for t%e organi+ation Jig% reputation Jig% customer loyalty 6etter communication &it% customers (ncreased employee retention

.ood inter relations)i! of em!loyees Eey benefits> 6etter decision ma)ing 6etter problem solving (ncreased coordination (ncreased employee retention #ffective &or) activities Jig% result in s%ort time (ncreased motivation (ncreased )no&ledge s%aring 2educed training costs

British College of Applied Studies

Page 32

Quality Management References


*nderson5 #rling D.5 and Eristoffer =. Orud5 and 0or Jaug5 and 7i)e Eatagiri5 Ooal Directed Pro;ect 7anagement> #ffective 0ec%niques and Dtrategies. Eogan Page5 2004. 9orman5 #rnest J.5 and 7ary *nne Delly5 Decision by 1b;ectives> Jo& to 4onvince 1t%ers 0%at <ou *re 2ig%t. 8orld Dcientific Publis%ing5 2001. Druc)er5 Peter5 0%e Practice of 7anagement. Jarper 6usiness5 200 0eam 6uilding fort% edition 2obert 6. 7addu$ and barb &ing field

1ebsites %ttp>KKe+inearticles.com %ttp>KK&&&.bi+ed.co.u) %ttp>KK&&&.uncommon-)no&ledge.co.u)

British College of Applied Studies

Page 33