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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Inductor Energy Storage • Both capacitors and

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Inductor Energy Storage

• Both capacitors and inductors are energy storage devices

• They do not dissipate energy like a resistor, but store and return it to the circuit depending on applied currents and voltages

• In the capacitor, energy is stored in the electric field between the plates

• In the inductor, energy is stored in the magnetic field around the inductor

energy is stored in the magnetic field around the inductor Lecture 8 ENG1030 Electrical Physics and
energy is stored in the magnetic field around the inductor Lecture 8 ENG1030 Electrical Physics and

Lecture 8

ENG1030 Electrical Physics and Electronics

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Energy Storage Formula • We write P

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Energy Storage Formula

• We write

P

=

IV

• and since energy

=

E

I

Á Ê

Ë

=

L

t

dI ˆ

˜

dt

¯

Ú Pdt

Compare with capacitor

E =

1

2

CV

2

E

=

0

t

Ú

0

IL

dI

dt

dt

=

I

t

Ú

I

0

LIdI

=

L

È I

Í

Î

2

2

˘

˙

˚

I

t

I 0

• and, assuming the initial current I 0 =0 and the final current I t =I, we have

Lecture 8

E =

1

LI

2

2

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Series Inductors V1 V2 VN L 1

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Series Inductors

V1

V2

VN

L 1

L 2

L N

V

V

=

V

1

=

L

1

=

( L

1

+

dI

dt

+

V

2

+

L

2

+

L

2

+

+

dI

dt

V

N

+

+

L

N

)

+ L

dI

dt

N

dI

dt

V L Equiv

V

V L Equiv

L Equiv

V L Equiv
V L Equiv
V L Equiv
V L Equiv
V L Equiv
 

V =

L Equiv

dI

 

dt

\ L

Equiv

= L

1

+ L

2

+

+ L

N

• So inductors in series add like resistors in series

Lecture 8

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IN

I2

I1

V

V

I

IN I2 I1 V V I School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Parallel Inductors

and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any
and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any
and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any
and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any
and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any
and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any

L 1

L 2

L N

Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r
Engineering 15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r

L Equiv

15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r on
15/05/01 Parallel Inductors L 1 L 2 L N L Equiv For any inductor r on

For any inductor r on the left

V

=

L

r

dI

r

dt

I

r

=

1

L

r

t

Ú

0

Vdt

[

+

I

r

(0)

=

0 assumed]

I =

1

L

Equiv

t

Ú

0

Vdt

I =

Ê

N Á

 Á

Á

Ë

1

r =

1

L r

ˆ

t ˜

˜

˜

0

Ú Vdt

¯

N

= Â

r = 1

1

L r

Á Ê

t

Á Ú

Vdt

0

ˆ

˜

˜

˜

Á

Ë ¯

1

Equiv

N 1

i

= 1

i

L

=

 L

• So inductors in parallel add like resistors in parallel

Lecture 8

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Behaviour of Simple RL Circuits • Consider

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Behaviour of Simple RL Circuits

• Consider that the switch has been in the position shown for a long time so that no current is flowing.

• The switch moves to the other position at time t=0. What is the behaviour of the voltage, v, across the inductor?

Lecture 8

R

i

V

s

V s
V s
V s
V s

L

v

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Simple RL Circuit Initially, there will be

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Simple RL Circuit

Initially, there will be no current through the inductor because the inductor will create a voltage to oppose a step change in current. Hence a voltage of V s will initially appear across the inductor. As the current increases, the voltage across the inductor will decrease. Eventually, a steady current of V s /R will be reached and v will fall to zero.

Lecture 8

R

i

V

s

V s
V s
V s
V s

L

v

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Analysis of RL Circuit • Assume the

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Analysis of RL Circuit

• Assume the inductor is not storing energy at t=0 (no current)

• KVL for this circuit yields

V s =

Ri

+

L

di

dt

We know the solution has the form

( ) =

i t

I

A

+

I

B

e

-

t

t

Initial and final boundary values yields

Lecture 8

I

initial

=

I

A

+

I

B

=

0;

I

final

=

I

A

=

V

s

R

ENG1030 Electrical Physics and Electronics

t V - s i t ( ) = - V s e t (*)
t
V
-
s
i t
( )
=
-
V s e
t
(*)
R
R

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering 15/05/01 Final Solution • Now we just need

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

15/05/01

Final Solution

• Now we just need to determine the time constant t

• Differentiating (*) yields

di

dt

=

1

t

V

s

R

-

t

e t

=

1 Ê V

s

t

ˆ

i ˜

Á -

R

Ë ¯

Backsubstitution into the KVL equation yields

Lecture 8

V

=

Ri

+

s

V

s

-

Ri

=

t

=

L

R

 

L

Ê

Á

t

L

R t

Ë

V

s

R

(

V

s

 

ˆ

-

i

˜

 

¯

-

Ri

)

i(t)

=

V

Ê

 

R

ˆ

-

t

˜

s

R

Á

1

e L

Á

-

˜

¯

Ë

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Current Characteristics 15/05/01 If we plot normalised current

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

Current Characteristics

15/05/01

If we plot normalised current (fraction of final current I 0 =V s /R) through the inductor against time expressed in multiples of the time constants, t =L/R, we obtain the following graph.

t

1 0.9 0.8 98.2% 95.0% 0.7 86.5% 0.6 0.5 63.2% 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
1
0.9
0.8
98.2%
95.0%
0.7
86.5%
0.6
0.5
63.2%
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
Current

Time

99.3%

After t=t we obtain 63.2% of the final current. After t=5t, we obtain 99.3% of the final current

Initial slope is I 0 /t. This is a quick way to estimate t on an oscilloscope.

Lecture 8

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School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Voltage Characteristics 15/05/01 Similarly, If we plot normalised

School of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

Voltage Characteristics

15/05/01

Similarly, If we plot normalised voltage (fraction of supply voltage, V s ) across the inductor against time expressed in multiples of the time constant, t =L/R, we obtain the following graph.

After t=t we obtain 36.8% of supply voltage. After t=5t, we obtain 0.6% of the supply voltage

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 36.8% 0.5 0.4 13.5% 4.98% 0.3 1.83% 0.2 0.6% 0.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
36.8%
0.5
0.4
13.5%
4.98%
0.3
1.83%
0.2
0.6%
0.1
0
0
t
1
2
3
4
5
Time
Lecture 8
ENG1030 Electrical Physics and Electronics
Voltage

Initial slope is V s /t. This is a quick way to estimate t on an oscilloscope.

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