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Welding Terminologies

Vocabulary Term American Welding Society

Definition AWS. A professional organization that supports the welding industry and promotes welding and related processes. A condition resulting from the interaction of an electric current and the magnetic field the current induces. Arc blow can cause excessive spatter, incomplete fusion, and porosity. American Welding Society. A professional organization that supports the welding industry and promotes welding and related processes. A gap or break in the surface of a weld parallel to the weld axis that may be along the centerline of the weld or near the weld toes. A centerline crack is also called a longitudinal crack. Curving inward like the inside of a bowl. An electrode that conducts electricity to the arc but also melts into the weld as a filler metal. Curving outward like the exterior of a circle or sphere. A discontinuity characterized by a break or gap in the surface of a weld. Cracks can be classified as longitudinal, transverse, crater, and heat affected zone. A gap or break in the surface of a weld that occurs at the crater of a weld because welding was improperly terminated. Crater cracks are also called star cracks. An irregularity in the specified and expected composition of a weld that exceeds the part design's tolerances. A defect is a rejectable discontinuity. An irregularity in the specified and expected composition of a weld. A discontinuity is not always a defect. A disfigurement that signals that a weld joint was not prepared properly. The distance from the weld face perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes that arcs in and toward the weld joint. The distance from the weld face perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes that arcs out and away from the weld joint. Excess convexity has a greater potential for weld failure, causing

arc blow

AWS

centerline crack concave consumable convex crack

crater crack

defect

discontinuity distortion excess concavity

excess convexity

Vocabulary Term

Definition longitudinal cracking and crater cracking.

excess penetration

A discontinuity characterized by an excess of weld metal on the back side of the joint. Excessive heat, slow movement, and poor joint alignment can cause excessive penetration. The use of more weld metal than is required to fill a groove weld joint. Excessive reinforcement creates high concentrations of stress at the weld toes. A device that determines whether or not a fillet weld is within specified tolerances. A fillet gage is a specific kind of weld gage. A type of weld that is triangular in shape and joins two surfaces at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint. Fillet welds are the most common types of welds. A cold gap or break in the surface of a weld that forms in the heat-affected zone of a base metal. Heat affected zone cracks are also called underbead cracks. A predetermined stopping point in the fabrication process at which the weld must be inspected. Hold points are used between passes of multi-layer welds to assure a weld is properly cleaned between passes. The lack of complete integration between the weld metal and adjoining weld beads. Incomplete fusion is caused by faulty operator technique, improper preparation of the base metal, insufficient welding heat, lack of access to the adjoining beads, and improper joint design. A discontinuity characterized by an unpenetrated and unfused area in a joint that occurs when weld metal does not extend through the thickness of the joint. Incomplete penetration can result from insufficient welding heat, improper joint design, and improper lateral control of the welding arc. A force from within the material of an object that attempts to deform that object. In a weldment, internal stress is caused by thermal expansion and contraction as the weld metal cools and solidifies. A specific temperature range of the base material. The interpass temperature should not fall below the preheat temperature. A gap or break in the surface of a weld parallel to the weld axis

excessive reinforcement

fillet gage

fillet weld

heat affected zone crack

hold point

incomplete fusion

incomplete penetration

internal stress

interpass temperature longitudinal crack

Vocabulary Term

Definition that may be along the centerline of the weld or near the weld toes. A longitudinal crack is also called a centerline crack.

melt-through

The visible reinforcement of a weld root that happens when a joint is welded from only one side.

The evaluation of a weld, or material to be welded, that does not non-destructive examination affect the servicability of the weld or material. Non-destructive examination costs less because the part is not destroyed. overlap The protrusion of unfused weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root. Overlap is almost always unacceptable in a welded part. A document that includes the specifications for a part's production. A discontinuity characterized by the appearance of tiny voids or bubbles on a weld bead, resulting from trapped gases in a material. Excessive porosity can weaken a weld. A specific temperature to which the base material is heated prior to welding. The point at which fusion should occur between the weld metal and adjoining weld beads. The root opening provides access to the root of a weld. The first layer of a multi-layer weld. The root pass is the most critical layer of a weld because it is susceptible to slag inclusion and cracking. A discontinuity resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in some welding processes. Slag inclusion can affect the strength and integrity of a weld in its final application. The design parameters that set the limits of acceptable deviation for a part's intended application. Specifications are also called specs. The design parameters that set the limits of acceptable deviation for a part's intended application. Specs are also called specifications. A gap or break in the surface of a weld that occurs at the crater of a weld because welding was improperly terminated. Star cracks are also called crater cracks.

part drawing

porosity

preheat temperature

root opening

root pass

slag inclusion

specifications

specs

star cracks

Vocabulary Term

Definition A gap or break in the surface of a weld perpendicular to the weld axis that may be completely within the weld metal or may extend from the weld metal into the base metal. Excess hydrogen, an excessively strong weld metal, and high levels of residual stress result in transverse cracks. A cold gap or break in the surface of a weld that forms in the heat-affected zone of a base metal. Underbead cracks are also called heat affected zone cracks. A groove melted into the base metal at the weld toe or weld root that is left unfilled by weld metal. The groove concentrates stress on the weld, and could be a defect if outside the part's tolerances. The extension of a weld face or root surface of a groove weld below the adjacent surface of the base metal. Underfill results from the failure of a welder to completely fill the weld joint. The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which the welding was done. A device that determines whether or not a weld is within specified tolerances. Some weld gages are designed for specific weld types like the fillet weld gage. The point at which the back of a weld intersects the surfaces of the base metal. Small particles of nonmetallic material that are expelled during the fusion of the weld and base metals. Weld spatter is considered a serious discontinuity if it interferes with the servicability of the part or with an additional operation, like painting. The point at which the weld face and the base metal meet. Weld toes can experience cracking and undercut. A welded joint.

transverse crack

underbead crack

undercut

underfill

weld face

weld gage

weld root

weld spatter

weld toe weldment

Welding Types: Arc Welding Consumable Electrode Method Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG) or (GMAW) Flux Cored Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Non Consumable Electrode Method Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) Carbon Arc Welding Plasma Arc Welding Oxy-Fuel Welding Oxy Acetylene Welding Oxy Hydrogen Welding Resistance Welding Spot Welding Seam Welding Flash ,Upset, Percussion Welding Solid State Welding Forge Welding Friction Welding Ultrasonic Welding Hot Iso static Welding Other Welding Thermite Welding Electro Slag Welding