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17 Fourier, Laplace, and Mellin

Transforms
17.117.4 Integral Transforms
17.11 Laplace transform
The Laplace transform of the function f(x), denoted by F(s), is dened by the integral
F(s) =
_

0
f(x)e
sx
dx, Re s > 0.
The functions f(x) and F(s) are called a Laplace transform pair, and knowledge of either one enables
the other to be recovered.
If f is summable over all nite intervals, and there is a constant c for which
_

0
|f(x)|e
c|x|
dx
is nite, then the Laplace transform exists when s = + i is such that c.
Setting
F(s) = L[f(x); s]
to emphasize the nature of the transform, we have the symbolic inverse result
f(x) = L
1
[F(s); x] .
The inversion of the Laplace transform is accomplished for analytic functions F(s) of order O
_
s
k
_
with
k > 1 by means of the inversion integral
f(x) =
1
2i
_
+i
i
F(s)e
sx
ds,
where is a real constant that exceeds the real part of all the singularities of F(s). SN 30
17.12 Basic properties of the Laplace transform
1.
8
For a and b arbitrary constants,
L[af(x) + bg(x)] = aF(s) + bG(s) (linearity)
2. If n > 0 is an integer and lim
x
f(x)e
sx
= 0, then for x > 0,
L
_
f
(n)
(x); s
_
= s
n
F(s) s
n1
f(0) s
n2
f
(1)
(0) f
(n1)
(0) (transform of a derivative)
SN 32
1107
1108 Integral Transforms
3.
11
If lim
x
_
e
sx
_
x
0
f() d
_
= 0, then
L
__
x
0
f() d; s
_
=
1
s
F(s) (transform of an integral) SN 37
4. L
_
e
ax
f(x); s

= F(s + a) (shift theorem) SU 143


5. The Laplace convolution f g of two functions f(x) and g(x) is dened by the integral
f g(x) =
_
x
0
f(x )g() d,
and it has the property that f g = g f and f (g h) = (f g) h. In terms of the convolution
operation
L[f g(x); s] = F(s)G(s) (convolution (Faltung) theorem). SN 30
17.13 Table of Laplace transform pairs
f(x) F(s)
1 1 1/s
2 x
n
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
n!
s
n+1
, Re s > 0 ET I 133(3)
3 x

, > 1
( + 1)
s
+1
, Re s > 0 ET I 137(1)
4 x
n
1
2

_
n +
1
2
_
s
n+
1
2
, Re s > 0 ET I 135(17)
5 x
1/2
(x + a)
1
, |arg a| < a
1/2
e
as
erfc
_
a
1/2
s
1/2
_
,
Re s 0 ET I 136(25)
6
_
x for 0 < x < 1
1 for x > 1
1 e
s
s
2
, Re s > 0 ET I 142(14)
7 e
ax
1
s + a
, Re s > Re a ET I 143(1)
8 xe
ax
1
(s + a)
2
, Re s > Re a ET I 144(2)
9a
e
ax
e
bx
b a
(s + a)
1
(s + b)
1
,
Re s > {Re a, Re b} AS 1022(29.3.12)
continued on next page
Table of Laplace transform pairs 1109
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
9b
11
e
ax
+ e
bx
+ e
cx
(a b)(b c)(c a)
a, b, c distinct , = c b,
= a c, = b a
(s + a)
1
(s + b)
1
(s + c)
1
,
Re s > {Re a, Re b, Re c}
10
11
ae
ax
be
bx
b a
s(s + a)
1
(s + b)
1
,
Re s > {Re a, Re b} AS 1022(29.3.13)
11
e
ax
1
a
s
1
(s a)
1
, Re s > Re a
12
e
ax
ax 1
a
2
s
2
(s a)
1
, Re s > Re a
13
_
e
ax

1
2
a
2
x
2
ax 1
_
a
3
s
3
(s a)
1
, Re s > Re a
14 (1 + ax)e
ax
s
(s a)
2
, Re s > Re a
15
1 + (ax 1)e
ax
a
2
s
1
(s a)
2
, Re s > Re a
16
2 + ax + (ax 2)e
ax
a
3
s
2
(s a)
2
, Re s > Re a
17 x
n
e
ax
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . n!(s a)
(n+1)
, Re s > Re a
18
_
x +
1
2
ax
2
_
e
ax
s
(s a)
3
, Re s > Re a
19
_
1 + 2ax +
1
2
a
2
x
2
_
e
ax
s
2
(s a)
3
, Re s > Re a
20
1
6
x
3
e
ax
(s a)
4
, Re s > Re a
21
_
1
2
x
2
+
1
6
ax
3
_
e
ax
s
(s a)
4
, Re s > Re a
22
_
x + ax
2
+
1
6
a
2
x
3
_
e
ax
s
2
(s a)
4
, Re s > Re a
continued on next page
1110 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
23
_
1 + 3ax +
3
2
a
2
x
2
+
1
6
a
3
x
3
_
e
ax
s
3
(s a)
4
, Re s > Re a
24
ae
ax
be
bx
a b
s(s a)
1
(s b)
1
, Re s > {Re a, Re b}
25
_
1
a
e
ax

1
b
e
bx
+
1
b

1
a
_
a b
s
1
(s a)
1
(s b)
1
, Re s > {Re a, Re b}
26 x
1
e
ax
, Re > 0 ()(s + a)

, Re s > Re a ET I 144(3)
27 xe
x
2
/(4a)
, Re a > 0 2a 2
1/2
a
3/2
se
as
2
erfc
_
sa
1/2
_
ET I 146(22)
28 exp (ae
x
) , Re a > 0 a
s
(s, a) ET I 147(37)
29
8
x
1/2
e
a/(4x)
, Re a 0
1
2

1/2
s
3/2
_
1 + a
1/2
s
1/2
_
exp
_
(as)
1/2
_
,
Re s > 0 ET I 146(26)
30
8
x
1/2
e
a/(4x)
, Re a 0
1/2
s
1/2
exp
_
(as)
1/2
_
,
Re s > 0 ET I 146(27)
31
8
x
3/2
e
a/(4x)
, Re a > 0 2
1/2
a
1/2
exp
_
(as)
1/2
_
,
Re s 0 ET I 146(28)
32 sin(ax) a
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Ima| ET I 150(1)
33 cos(ax) s
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Ima| ET I 154(3)
34 |sin(ax)|, a > 0 a
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
coth
_
s
2a
_
,
Re s > 0 ET I 150(2)
continued on next page
Table of Laplace transform pairs 1111
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
35
11
|cos(ax)|, a > 0
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
_
s + a cosech
_
s
2a
__
,
Re s > 0 ET I 155(44)
36
1 cos(ax)
a
2
s
1
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
,
Re s > |Ima| AS 1022(29.3.19)
37
ax sin(ax)
a
3
s
2
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
,
Re s > |Ima| AS 1022(29.3.20)
38
sin(ax) axcos(ax)
2a
3
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
2
,
Re s > |Ima| AS 1022(29.3.21)
39
xsin(ax)
2a
s
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
2
, Re s > |Ima| ET I 152(14)
40
sin(ax) + axcos(ax)
2a
s
2
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
2
,
Re s > |Ima| AS 1023(29.3.23)
41 xcos(ax)
_
s
2
a
2
_ _
s
2
+ a
2
_
2
,
Re s > |Ima| ET I 157(57)
42
cos(ax) cos(bx)
b
2
a
2
s
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Ima|, |Imb|} AS 1023(29.3.25)
43
_
1
2
a
2
x
2
1 + cos(ax)

a
4
s
3
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Ima|
44
_
1 cos(ax)
1
2
axsin(ax)

a
4
s
1
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
2
, Re s > |Ima|
45
_
1
b
sin(bx)
1
a
sin(ax)

a
2
b
2
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Ima|, |Imb|}
46
11
_
1 cos(ax) +
1
2
axsin(ax)

a
2
s
1
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
2
_
2s
2
+ a
2
_
, Re s > |Ima|
continued on next page
1112 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
47
a sin(ax) b sin(bx)
a
2
b
2
s
2
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Ima|, |Imb|}
48 sin(a + bx) (s sin a + b cos a)
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
, Re s > |Imb|
49 cos(a + bx) (s cos a b sin a)
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
, Re s > |Imb|
50
_
1
a
sinh(ax)
1
b
sin(bx)

a
2
+ b
2
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Imb|}
51
cosh(ax) cos(bx)
a
2
+ b
2
s
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Imb|}
52
a sinh(ax) + b sin(bx)
a
2
+ b
2
s
2
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
_
s
2
+ b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Imb|}
53 sin(ax) sin(bx) 2abs
_
s
2
+ (a b)
2

1
_
s
2
+ (a + b)
2

1
,
Re s > {|Ima|, |Imb|}
54 cos(ax) cos(bx) s
_
s
2
+ a
2
+ b
2
_ _
s
2
+ (a b)
2

1
_
s
2
+ (a + b)
2

1
,
Re s > {|Ima|, |Imb|}
55 sin(ax) cos(bx) a
_
s
2
+ a
2
b
2
_ _
s
2
+ (a b)
2

1
_
s
2
+ (a + b)
2

1
,
Re s > {|Ima|, |Imb|}
56 sin
2
(ax) 2a
2
s
1
_
s
2
+ 4a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Ima|
57 cos
2
(ax)
_
s
2
+ 2a
2
_
s
1
_
s
2
+ 4a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Ima|
58 sin(ax) cos(ax) a
_
s
2
+ 4a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Ima|
59 e
ax
sin(bx) b
_
(s + a)
2
+ b
2

1
, Re s > {Re a, |Imb|}
continued on next page
Table of Laplace transform pairs 1113
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
60 e
ax
cos(bx) (s + a)
_
(s + a)
2
+ b
2

1
,
Re s > {Re a, |Imb|}
61 x
1
sin(ax) arctan(a/s), Re s > |Ima| ET I 152(16)
62 x
1
[1 cos(ax)]
1
2
ln
_
1 + a
2
/s
2
_
,
Re s > |Ima| ET I 157(59)
63 sinh(ax) a
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a| ET I 162(1)
64 cosh(ax) s
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a| ET I 162(2)
65 x
1
sinh(ax), Re > 1
1
2
()
_
(s a)

(s + a)

,
Re s > |Re a| ET I 164(18)
66 x
1
cosh(ax), Re > 0
1
2
()
_
(s a)

+ (s + a)

,
Re s > |Re a| ET I 164(19)
67 xsinh(ax) 2as
_
s
2
a
2
_
2
, Re s > |Re a|
68 xcosh(ax)
_
s
2
+ a
2
_ _
s
2
a
2
_
2
, Re s > |Re a|
69 sinh(ax) sin(ax) 2a
3
_
s
4
a
4
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Ima|} AS 1023(29.3.31)
70 cosh(ax) cos(ax) 2a
2
s
_
s
4
a
4
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Ima|} AS 1023(29.3.32)
71 sinh(ax) + axcosh(ax) 2as
2
_
a
2
s
2
_
2
, Re s > |Re a|
72 axcosh(ax) sinh(ax) 2a
3
_
a
2
s
2
_
2
, Re s > |Re a|
continued on next page
1114 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
73 xsinh(ax) cosh(ax) s
_
a
2
+ 2a s
2
_ _
a
2
s
2
_
2
, Re s > |Re a|
74
_
1
a
sinh(ax)
1
b
sinh(bx)

a
2
b
2
_
a
2
s
2
_
1
_
b
2
s
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Re b|}
75
cosh(ax) cosh(bx)
a
2
b
2
s
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
_
s
2
b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Re b|}
76
a sinh(ax) b sinh(bx)
a
2
b
2
s
2
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
_
s
2
b
2
_
1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Re b|}
77 sinh(a + bx) (b cosh a + s sinh a)
_
s
2
b
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re b|
78 cosh(a + bx) (s cosh a + b sinh a)
_
s
2
b
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re b|
79 sinh(ax) sinh(bx) 2abs
_
s
2
(a + b)
2

1
_
s
2
(a b)
2

1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Re b|}
80
8
cosh(ax) cosh(bx) s
_
s
2
a
2
b
2
_ _
s
2
(a + b)
2

1
_
s
2
(a b)
2

1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Re b|}
81 sinh(ax) cosh(bx) a
_
s
2
a
2
+ b
2
_ _
s
2
(a + b)
2

1
_
s
2
(a b)
2

1
,
Re s > {|Re a|, |Re b|}
82 sinh
2
(ax) 2a
2
s
1
_
s
2
4a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a|
83 cosh
2
(ax)
_
s
2
2a
2
_
s
1
_
s
2
4a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a|
84 sinh(ax) cosh(ax) a
_
s
2
4a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a|
85
cosh(ax) 1
a
2
s
1
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a|
continued on next page
Table of Laplace transform pairs 1115
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
86
sinh(ax) ax
a
3
s
2
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a|
87
_
cosh(ax)
1
2
a
2
x
2
1

a
4
s
3
_
s
2
a
2
_
1
, Re s > |Re a|
88
_
1 cosh(ax) +
1
2
axsinh(ax)

a
4
s
1
_
s
2
a
2
_
2
, Re s > |Re a|
89 x
1/2
sinh(ax)
_

1/2
/4
__
(s a)
3/2
(s + a)
3/2
_
,
Re s > |Re a|
90 lnx s
1
ln (Cs) , Re s > 0 ET I 148(1)
91 ln(1 + ax), |arg a| < s
1
e
s/a
Ei(s/a), Re s > 0 ET I 148(4)
92 x
1/2
ln x (/s)
1/2
ln (4Cs) , Re s > 0 ET I 148(9)
93 H(x a) =
_
0 for x < a
1 for x > a
(Heaviside step function)
s
1
e
as
, a 0
94 (x) (Dirac delta function) 1
95 (x a) e
as
, a 0
96

(x a) se
as
, a 0
97 Si(x)
_
x
0
sin

d
1
2
+ si(x) s
1
arccot s, Re s > 0 ET I 177(17)
98 Ci(x) ci(x)
_

x
cos

d
1
2
s
1
ln
_
1 + s
2
_
, Re s > 0 ET I 178(19)
99
8
erf
_
x
2a
_
s
1
e
a
2
s
2
erfc(as),
Re s > 0, |arg a| < /4 ET I 176(2)
continued on next page
1116 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
100 erf
_
a

x
_
as
1
_
s + a
2
_
1/2
,
Re s >
_
0, Re a
2
_
ET I 176(4)
101 erfc
_
a

x
_
s
1
_
s + a
2
_

1
2
_
_
s + a
2
_
1/2
a
_
,
Re s > 0 ET I 177(9)
102
8
erfc
_
a

x
_
s
1
e
2a

s
,
Re s > 0, Re a > 0 ET I 177(11)
103
8
J

(ax), Re > 1 a

_
_
s
2
+ a
2
s
_

_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
,
Re s > |Ima|, ET I 182(1)
104 xJ

(ax), Re > 2 a

_
s +
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
_ _
s +
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
_

_
s
2
+ a
2
_
3/2
,
Re s > |Ima|, ET I 182(2)
105
J

(ax)
x
a

1
_
s +
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
_

,
Re s |Ima| ET I 182(5)
106 x
n
J
n
(ax) 1 3 5 (2n 1)a
n
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
(n+
1
2
)
,
Re s > |Ima| ET I 182(4)
107 x

(ax), Re >
1
2
2

1/2

_
+
1
2
_
a

_
s
2
+ a
2
_
(+
1
2
)
,
Re s > |Ima|, ET I 182(7)
108 x
+1
J

(ax), Re > 1 2
+1

1/2

_
+
3
2
_
a

s
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
(+
3
2
)
,
Re s > |Ima| ET I 182(8)
109
8
I

(ax), Re > 1 a

_
s
_
s
2
a
2
_
_
s
2
a
2
_
1/2
,
Re s > |Re a| ET I 195(1)
continued on next page
Fourier transform 1117
continued from previous page
f(x) F(s)
110 x

(ax), Re >
1
2
2

1/2

_
+
1
2
_
a

_
s
2
a
2
_
(+
1
2
)
,
Re s > |Re a| ET I 195(6)
111 x
+1
I

(ax), Re > 1 2
+1

1/2

_
+
3
2
_
a

s
_
s
2
a
2
_
(+
3
2
)
,
Re s > |Re a| ET I 196(7)
112 x
1
I

(ax), Re > 0
1
a

_
s +
_
s
2
a
2
_
1/2
_

,
Re s > |Re a| ET I 195(4)
113 sin
_
2a
1/2
x
1/2
_
(a)
1/2
s
3/2
e
a/s
, Re s > 0 ET I 153(32)
114 x
1/2
cos
_
2a
1/2
x
1/2
_

1/2
s
1/2
e
a/s
, Re s > 0 ET I 158(67)
115 x
1
e
ax
I
1
(ax)
_
(s + 2a)
1/2
s
1/2
_ _
(s + 2a)
1/2
+ s
1/2
_
1
,
Re s > |Re a| AS 1024(29.3.52)
116
J
k
(ax)
x
k
1
a
k
_
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
s
_
k
,
Re s > |Ima|, k > 1 AS 1025(29.3.58)
117
_
x
2a
_
k
1
2
J
k
1
2
(ax) (k)
1/2
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
k
,
Re s > |Ima|, k > 0 AS 1024(29.3.57)
118 J
0
(ax) axJ
1
(ax) s
2
_
s
2
+ a
2
_
3/2
, Re s > |Ima|
119 I
0
(ax) + axI
1
(ax) s
2
_
s
2
a
2
_
3/2
, Re s > |Ima|
17.21 Fourier transform
The Fourier transform, also called the exponential or complex Fourier transform, of the function
f(x), denoted by F(), is dened by the integral
F() =
1

2
_

f(x)e
ix
dx.
The functions f(x) and F() are called a Fourier transform pair, and knowledge of either one enables
the other to be recovered. Setting F() = F [f(x); ] , to emphasize the nature of the transform, we have
1118 Integral Transforms
the symbolic inverse result f(x) = F
1
[F(); x] . The inversion of the Fourier transform is accomplished
by means of the inversion integral
f(x) =
1

2
_

F()e
ix
d.
17.22 Basic properties of the Fourier transform
1. For a and b arbitrary constants,
F [af(x) + bg(x)] = aF() + bG() (linearity)
2. If n > 0 is an integer, and lim
|x|
f
(r)
(x) = 0 for r = 0, 1, . . . , n 1 with f
(0)
(x) f(x), then
F
_
f
(n)
(x);
_
= (i)
n
F() (transform of a derivative) SN 27
3. The Fourier convolution f g of two functions f(x) and g(x) is dened by the integral
f g(x) =
1

2
_

f(x )g() d,
and it has the property f g = g f, and f (g h) = (f g) h. In terms of the convolution
operation,
F [f g(x); ] = F()G() (convolution [Faltung] theorem). SN 24
17.23 Table of Fourier transform pairs
f(x) F()
1 1 (2)
1/2
() SU 496
2
7
1
x
(/2)
1/2
i sign SU 50
3 (x) (2)
1/2
SU 496
4
8
(ax + b), a, b R, a = 0 (2)
1/2
e
ib/a
SU 517
5
_
1 |x| < a
0 |x| > a
, a > 0 (2/)
1/2

1
sin(a)
6
8
H(x) =
_
0 x < 0
1 x > 0

1
i

2
+
_

2
() SN 523
continued on next page
Table of Fourier transform pairs 1119
continued from previous page
f(x) F()
7
1
|x|
a
, 0 < Re a < 1
(2/)
1/2
(1 a) sin
_
1
2
a
_
||
1a
SN 523
8 e
iax
, a R (2)
1/2
( + a) SU 50
9 e
a|x|
, a > 0
a(2/)
1/2
a
2
+
2
SU 50
10
7
xe
a|x|
, a > 0
2ai(2/)
1/2
(a
2
+
2
)
2
, > 0 SU 50
11 |x|e
a|x|
, a > 0
(2/)
1/2
_
a
2

2
_
(a
2
+
2
)
2
SU 50
12
e
a|x|
|x|
1/2
, a > 0
_
a +
_
a
2
+
2
_
1/2
_
1/2
x(a
2
+
2
)
1/2
SN 523
13 e
a
2
x
2
, a > 0
_
a

2
_
1
e

2
/4a
2
SU 51
14
1
a
2
+ x
2
, Re a > 0
(/2)
1/2
e
a||
a
SU 51
15
7
x
a
2
+ x
2
, Re a > 0 i sign (/2)
1/2
e
a||
16
9
sin
_
ax
2
_
1
(2a)
1/2
cos
_

2
4a
+

4
_
SN 523
17 cos
_
ax
2
_
1
(2a)
1/2
cos
_

2
4a


4
_
SN 523
18 e
a|x|
cos(bx), a > 0, b > 0 a(2)
1/2
_
1
a
2
+ (b + )
2
+
1
a
2
+ (b )
2
_
19 e

1
2
ax
2
sin(bx), a > 0, b > 0
1
2
ia
1/2
_
exp
_

1
2
( b)
2
a
_
exp
_

1
2
( + b)
2
a
__
20
9
sinh(ax)
sinh(bx)
, |a| < |b|
(/2)
1/2
sin(a/b)
b [cosh (/b) + cos(a/b)]
SU 123
21
9
cosh(ax)
sinh(bx)
, |a| < |b|
i (/2)
1/2
sinh (/b)
b [cosh (/b) + cos(a/b)]
SU 123
continued on next page
1120 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F()
22
sin(ax)
x
_
(/2)
1/2
|| < a,
0 || > a
SN 523
23
11
x
sinh x
_
2
3
_
1/2
e

(1 + e

)
2
SU 123
24
7
x
n
signx, n = 1, 2, . . . (2/)
1/2
(i)
(1+n)
n! SU 506
25
7
|x|

,
1 < < 0, but not integral
(2/)
1/2
( + 1)||
1
cos [( + 1)/2]
SU506
26
7
|x|

sign x,
1 < < 0, but not integral
i sign(2/)
1/2
sin [(/2) ( + 1)] ( + 1)
||
+1
SU 506
27 e
ax
ln

1 e
x

,
1 < Re a < 0
_

2
_
1/2
cot (a i)
a i
ET I 121(26)
28 e
ax
ln
_
1 + e
x
_
,
1 < Re a < 0
_

2
_
1/2
csc (a i)
a i
ET I 121 (27)
In deriving results for the preceding table from ET I, account has been taken of the fact that the normal-
ization factor 1/(2)
1/2
employed in our denition of F has not been used in those tables, and that there
is a dierence of sign between the exponents used in the denitions of the exponential Fourier transform.
17.24 Table of Fourier transform pairs for spherically symmetric functions
f(||r||) =
1
(2)
3/2
___
E(||k||)e
ikr
dk E(||k||) =
1
(2)
3/2
___
f(||r||)e
ikr
dr
1 f(r) =
_
2

1
r
_

0
E(k) sin(kr)k dk E(k) =
_
2

1
k
_

0
f(r) sin(kr)r dr
2 e
ar
_
2

2a
(a
2
+ k
2
)
2
3
11
e
ar
r
_
2

1
(a
2
+ k
2
)
2
4
11
1 (2)
3/2
(k)
Basic properties of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms 1121
17.31 Fourier sine and cosine transforms
The Fourier sine and cosine transforms of the function f(x), denoted by F
s
() and F
c
(), respectively,
are dened by the integrals
F
s
() =
_
2

_

0
f(x) sin(x) dx and F
c
() =
_
2

_

0
f(x) cos(x) dx.
The functions f(x) and F
s
() are called a Fourier sine transform pair, and the functions f(x) and
F
c
() a Fourier cosine transform pair, and knowledge of either F
s
() or F
c
() enables f(x) to be
recovered.
Setting
F
s
() = F
s
[f(x); ] and F
c
() = F
c
[f(x); ] ,
to emphasize the nature of the transforms, we have the symbolic inverses
f(x) = F
s
1
[F
s
(); x] and f(x) = F
c
1
[F
c
(); x] .
The inversion of the Fourier sine transform is accomplished by means of the inversion integral
f(x) =
_
2

_

0
F
s
() sin(x) d [x 0]
and the inversion of the Fourier cosine transform is accomplished by means of the inversion integral
f(x) =
_
2

_

0
F
c
() cos(x) d [x 0] . SN 17
17.32 Basic properties of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms
1. For a and b arbitrary constants,
F
s
[af(x) + bg(x)] = aF
s
() + bG
s
()
and
F
c
[af(x) + bg(x)] = aF
c
() + bG
c
() (linearity)
2. If lim
x
f
(r1)
(x) = 0 and lim
x
_
2

f
(r1)
(x) = a
r1
, then denoting the Fourier sine and cosine
transforms of f
(r)
(x) by F
s
(r)
and F
c
(r)
, respectively,
(i) F
c
(r)
() = a
r1
+ F
s
(r1)
.
(ii) F
s
(r)
() = F
c
(r1)
(),
(iii) F
c
(2r)
() =
r1

n=0
(1)
n
a
2r2n1

2n
+ (1)
r

2n
F
c
(),
(iv) F
c
(2r+1)
() =
r1

n=0
(1)
n
a
2r2n

2n
+ (1)
r

2r+1
F
s
(),
(v) F
s
(r)
() = a
r2

2
F
s
(r2)
(),
(vi)
6
F
s
(2r)
() =
r

n=1
(1)
n

2n1
a
2r2n
+ (1)
r

2r
F
s
(),
(vii) F
s
(2r+1)
() =
r

n=1
(1)
n

2n1
a
2r2n+1
+ (1)
r+1

2r+1
F
c
(). SN 28
1122 Integral Transforms
3. (i)
_

0
F
s
()G
s
() cos(x) d =
1
2
_

0
g(s) [f(s + x) + f(s x)] ds,
(ii)
_

0
F
c
()G
c
() cos(x) d =
1
2
_

0
g(s) [f(s + x) + f (|x s|)] ds
(convolution (Faltung) theorem) SN 24
4. (i) If F
s
() is the Fourier sine transform of f(x), then the Fourier sine transform of F
s
(x) is
f().
(ii) If F
c
() is the Fourier cosine transform of f(x), then the Fourier cosine transform of F
c
(x)
is f().
(iii) If f(x) is an odd function in (, ), then the Fourier sine transform of f(x) in (0, ) is
iF().
(iv) If f(x) is an even function in (, ), then the Fourier cosine transform of f(x) in (0, )
is F().
(v) The Fourier sine transform of f(x/a) is aF
s
(a).
(vi) The Fourier cosine transform of f(x/a) is aF
c
(a).
(vii) F
s
[f(x); ] = F
s
(||) sign SU 45
17.33 Table of Fourier sine transforms
f(x) F
s
() ( > 0)
1 x
1
(/2)
1/2
, > 0 ET I 64(3)
2 x

, 0 < Re < 2 (2/)


1/2

1
(1 ) cos (/2) ,
> 0 ET I 68(1)
3 x
1/2

1/2
, > 0 ET I 64(6)
4 x
3/2
2
1/2
, > 0 ET I 64(9)
5
_
1 0 < x < a
0 x > a
(2/)
1/2

1
[1 cos(a)] , > 0 ET I 63(1)
6
_
x
1
0 < x < a
0 x > a
(2/)
1/2
Si(a), > 0 ET I 64(4)
7
1
a x
, a > 0 (2/)
1/2
_
sin(a) Ci(a) cos(a)
_
1
2
+ Si(a)
_
,
> 0 ET I 64(11)
continued on next page
Table of Fourier sine transforms 1123
continued from previous page
f(x) F
s
() ( > 0)
8
7
1
x
2
+ a
2
, a > 0 (2)
1/2
a
1
_
e
a
Ei(a) e
a
Ei(a)

,
> 0 ET I 65(14)
9 x
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
3/2
, Re a > 0 (2/)
1/2
K
0
(a), > 0 ET I 66(27)
10 x
1/2
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
, Re a > 0
1/2
I 1
4
_
1
2
a
_
K 1
4
_
1
2
a
_
, > 0 ET I 66(28)
11
7
x
_
x
2
+ a
2
_

3
2
,
Re > 1, Re a > 0

+1

2(2a)

_
+
3
2
_ K

(a),
12
x
a
2
+ x
2
, Re a > 0
_

2
_
1/2
e
a
, > 0 ET I 65(15)
13
x
(a
2
+ x
2
)
2
_
/8a
1
e
a
, > 0 ET I 67(35)
14 x
1
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
1
, Re a > 0
_
/2
a
2
_
1 e
a
_
, > 0 ET I 65(20)
15 x
1
e
ax
, Re a > 0 (2/)
1/2
tan
1
_

a
_
, > 0 ET I 72(2)
16 x
1
e
ax
,
Re > 1, Re a > 0
(2/)
1/2
()
_
a
2
+
2
_
/2
sin
_
tan
1
_

a
__
,
> 0 ET I 72(7)
17 e
ax
, Re a > 0
_
2/
a
2
+
2
, > 0 ET I 72(1)
18 xe
ax
, Re a > 0
(2/)
1/2
2a
(a
2
+
2
)
2
, > 0 ET I 72(3)
19 xe
ax
2
, |arg a| < /2 (2a)
3/2
exp
_

2
4a
_
, > 0 ET I 73(19)
20
sin ax
x
, a > 0
1
(2)
1/2
ln

+ a
a

, > 0 ET I 78(1)
21
sin ax
x
2
, a > 0
_

2
_
1/2
0 < < a
a
_

2
_
1/2
a < <
, > 0 ET I 78(2)
continued on next page
1124 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F
s
() ( > 0)
22 sin
_
a
2
x
_
, a > 0
a
_

2
_
1/2

1/2
J
1
_
2a
1
2
_
,
> 0 ET I 83(6)
23 x
1
sin
_
a
2
x
_
, a > 0
_

2
_
1/2
Y
0
_
2a
1/2
_
+
_
2

_
1/2
K
0
_
2a
1/2
_
ET I 83(7)
24 x
2
sin
_
a
2
x
_
, a > 0
_

2
_
1/2
a
1

1/2
J
1
_
2a
1/2
_
,
> 0 ET I 83(8)
25
10
cosech(ax), Re a > 0 (/2)
1/2
a
1
tanh
_
1
2
a
1

_
,
> 0 ET I 88(2)
26 coth
_
1
2
ax
_
1, Re a > 0 (2)
1/2
a
1
coth
_
a
1

_
,
> 0 ET I 88(3)
27
_
1 x
2
_
1
sin(x)
_
(2/)
1/2
sin 0
0 <
ET I 78(4)
28 e
ax
2
sin(bx), Re a > 0 (2a)
1/2
exp
_

2
+ b
2
_
/(4a)

sinh (b/2a) ,
> 0 ET I 78(7)
29
sin
2
(ax)
x
, a > 0
_

1/2
2
3/2
0 < < 2a

1/2
2
5/2
= 2a
0 2a <
ET I 78(8)
30 sin
_
ax
2
_
, a > 0 a
1/2
_
cos
_

2
/4a
_
C
_
(2a)
1/2

__
+sin
_

2
/4a
_
S
_
(2a)
1/2

_
,
> 0 ET I 82(1)
31 cos
_
ax
2
_
, a > 0 a
1/2
_
sin
_

2
/4a
_
C
_
(2a)
1/2

__
cos
_

2
/4a
_
S
_
(2a)
1/2

_
,
> 0
continued on next page
Table of Fourier sine transforms 1125
continued from previous page
f(x) F
s
() ( > 0)
32 arctan
_
x
a
_
, a > 0 (/2)
1/2

1
e
a
, > 0 ET I 87(3)
33
7
arctan
_
2a
x
_
, Re a > 0 (2)
1/2
e
a
sinh(a), > 0 ET I 87(8)
34
ln x
x
(/2)
1/2
(C+ ln) , > 0 ET I 76(2)
35 ln

x + a
x a

, a > 0 (2)
1/2

1
sin(a), > 0 ET I 77(11)
36
7
ln
_
1 + a
2
x
2
_
x
, a > 0 (2)
1/2
Ei (/a) , > 0 ET I 77(14)
37 J
0
(ax), a > 0
_
0 0 < < a
(2/)
1/2
_

2
a
2
_
1/2
a < <
ET I 99(1)
38 J

(ax), Re > 2, a > 0


(2/)
1/2
_
a
2

2
_
1/2
sin
_
sin
1
_

a
__
for 0 < < a
a

cos
_
1
2

_
(
2
a
2
)
1/2
_
+ (
2
a
2
)
1/2
_

for a < <


ET I 99(3)
39
J
0
(ax)
x
, a > 0
_
(2/)
1/2
sin
1
_

a
_
0 < < a
(/2)
1/2
a < <
ET I 99(4)
40
7
_
x
2
+ b
2
_
1
J
0
(ax),
a > 0, Re b > 0
(2/)
1/2
sinh(b) K
0
(ab)/b,
0 < < a ET I 100(12)
41 x
_
x
2
+ b
2
_
1
J
0
(ax),
a > 0, Re b > 0
(/2)
1/2
e
b
I
0
(ab),
a < < ET I 100(13)
In deriving results for the preceding table from ET I, account has been taken of the fact that the normal-
ization factor
_
2/ employed in our denition of F
s
has not been used in those tables.
1126 Integral Transforms
17.34 Table of Fourier cosine transforms
f(x) F
c
()
1 x

, 0 < Re < 1 (/2)


1/2
[()]
1
sec
_
1
2

1
,
> 0 ET I 10(1)
2
_
1 0 < x < a
0 x > a
(2/)
1/2
sin(a)

, > 0 ET I 7(1)
3
_
0 0 < x < a
1/x x > a
(2/)
1/2
Ci(a), > 0 ET I 8(3)
4
_
x
1/2
0 < x < a
0 x > a
2
1/2
C(a), > 0 ET I 8(5)
5
_
0 0 < x < a
x
1/2
x > a
2
1/2
_
1
2
C(a)

, > 0 ET I 8(6)
6
9
x
1
, 0 < < 1 (2/)
1/2
()

cos
_
1
2

_
,
0 < < 1 ET I 10(1)
7
1
x
2
+ a
2
, Re a > 0
(/2)
1/2
e
a
a
, > 0 ET I 11(7)
8
11
1
(x
2
+ a
2
)
2
, Re a > 0
(/2)
1
2
(1 + a)e
a
2a
3
, > 0 ET I 11(7)
9
_
x
2
+ a
2
_

1
2
,
Re a > 0, Re >
1
2

2
_

2a
_

(a)

_
+
1
2
_, > 0 ET I 11(7)
10
_
_
a
2
x
2
_

0 < x < a
0 x > a
,
Re > 1
2

( + 1)(a/)
+
1
2
J
+
1
2
(a),
> 0 ET I 11(8)
11
_
0 0 < x < a
_
x
2
a
2
_

1
2
x > a
,

1
2
< Re <
1
2
2
(+
1
2
)

_
1
2

_
(/a)

(a),
> 0 ET I 11(9)
12 e
ax
, Re a > 0 (2/)
1/2
a
_
a
2
+
2
_
1
, > 0 ET I 14(1)
continued on next page
Table of Fourier cosine transforms 1127
continued from previous page
f(x) F
c
()
13 xe
ax
, Re a > 0 (2/)
1/2
_
a
2

2
_ _
a
2
+
2
_
2
,
> 0 ET I 15(7)
14
7
x
1
e
ax
,
Re a > 0, Re > a
(2/)
1/2
()
_
a
2
+
2
_
/2
cos
_
tan
1
_

a
__
,
> 0 ET I 15(7)
15 x
1/2
e
ax
, Re a > 0
_
a
2
+
2
_
1/2
_
_
a
2
+
2
_
1/2
+ a
_
1/2
,
> 0 ET I 14(4)
16
7
e
a
2
x
2
, Re a > 0 2
1/2
|a|
1
e

2
/4a
2
, > 0 ET I 15(11)
17 x
1
e
x
sinx (2)
1/2
tan
1
_
2

2
_
, > 0 ET I 19(7)
18 sin
_
ax
2
_
, a > 0
1
2

a
_
cos
_

2
4a
_
sin
_

2
4a
__
,
> 0 ET I 23(1)
19 cos
_
ax
2
_
, a > 0
1
2

a
_
cos
_

2
4a
_
+ sin
_

2
4a
__
,
> 0 ET I 24(7)
20
sin(ax)
x
, a > 0
_

_
(/2)
1/2
< a
1
2
(/2)
1/2
= a
0 > a
ET I 18(1)
21
7
sin
2
(ax)
x
2
, a > 0
_
(/2)
1/2
_
a
1
2

_
< 2a
0 2a <
ET I 19(8)
22
7
e
bx
sin(ax), a > 0, Re b > 0 (2)
1/2
_
a +
b
2
+ (a + )
2
+
a
b
2
+ (a )
2
_
,
> 0 ET I 19(6)
23
sin
_
b
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
_
(x
2
+ a
2
)
2
a > 0 (b/a) (/2)
1/2
e
a
, > 0 ET I 26(29)
24
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
sin
_
b
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
1/2
_
,
a > 0
_
(/2)
1/2
J
0
_
a
_
b
2

2
_
1/2
_
0 < < b
0 b <
ET I 26(30)
continued on next page
1128 Integral Transforms
continued from previous page
f(x) F
c
()
25
1 cos(ax)
x
2
, a > 0
_
(/2)
1/2
(a ) < a
0 a <
ET I 20(16)
26 e
ax
2
sin
_
bx
2
_
, Re a > |Imb| 2
1/2
_
a
2
+ b
2
_
1/4
exp
_
a
2
/
_
4
_
a
2
+ b
2
__
sin
_
1
2
arctan(b/a)
1
4
b
2
_
a
2
+ b
2
_
1
_
,
> 0 ET I 23(5)
27 e
ax
2
cos
_
bx
2
_
, Re a > |Imb| 2
1/2
_
a
2
+ b
2
_
1/4
exp
_
a
2
/
_
4
_
a
2
+ b
2
__
cos
_
1
4
b
2
_
a
2
+ b
2
_
1

1
2
arctan(b/a)
_
,
> 0 ET I 24(6)
28
sinh(ax)
sinh(bx)
|Re a| < Re b
_

2
_
1/2
sin(a/b)
b [cosh (/b) + cos(a/b)]
,
> 0 ET I 31(14)
29
cosh(ax)
cosh(bx)
, |Re a| < Re b
(2)
1/2
cos(a/2b) cosh (/2b)
b [cosh (/b) + cos(a/b)]
,
> 0 ET I 31(12)
30 sech(ax), Re a > 0 a
1
(/2)
1/2
sech (/2a) ,
> 0 ET I 30(1)
31
_
x
2
+ a
2
_
sech
_
x
2a
_
, Re a > 0 2(2/)
1/2
a
3
sech
3
(a), > 0 ET I 32(19)
32 ln
_
1 +
a
2
x
2
_
, Re a > 0 (2)
1/2

1
_
1 e
a
_
, > 0 ET I 18(10)
33
7
ln
_
a
2
+ x
2
b
2
+ x
2
_
,
Re a > 0, Re b > 0
(2)
1/2
_
e
b
e
a
_
, > 0 ET I 18(12)
34
_
x
2
+ b
2
_
1
J
0
(ax),
a > 0, Re b > 0
(/2)
1/2
b
1
e
b
I
0
(ab),
a < < ET I 45(14)
continued on next page
Mellin transform 1129
continued from previous page
f(x) F
c
()
35 x
_
x
2
+ b
2
_
1
J
0
(ax),
a > 0, Re b > 0
(2/)
1/2
cosh(b) K
0
(ab),
0 < < a ET I 45(15)
In deriving results for the preceding table from ET I, account has been taken of the fact that the normal-
ization factor
_
2/ employed in our denition of F
c
has not been used in those tables.
17.35 Relationships between transforms
The following relationships exist between transforms, and they may be used to derive further transform
pairs from among the results given in Sections 17.1317.34. The appropriate sections of the main body
of the tables may also be used to extend the list of transform pairs.
17.351
Fourier cosine transform and Laplace transform relationship
F
c
[f(x); ] =
1

2
L[f(x); i] +
1

2
L[f(x); i] .
17.352
Fourier sine transform and Laplace transform relationship
F
s
[f(x); ] =
i

2
L[f(x); i]
i

2
L[f(x); i] .
17.353
Exponential Fourier transform and Laplace transform relationship
F [f(x); ] =

2L[f(x); i] +

2L[f(x); i] .
17.41
10
Mellin transform
The Mellin transform of the function f(x), denoted by f

(s), is dened by the integral


f

(s) =
_

0
f(x)x
s1
dx.
The functions f(x) and f

(s) are called a Mellin transform pair, and knowledge of either one enables
the other to be recovered.
The transform exists, provided the integral
_

0
|f(x)|x
k1
dx
is bounded for some k > 0, and then the inversion of the Mellin transform is accomplished by means of
the inversion integral