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# A transmission line of length more than 160 Km and line voltage higher 100 kV then it is called: Long Transmission

line

If the overhead transmission line is loaded with the loading equal to the surge impedance, then the voltage at receiving end is: Equals to the sending end

The value of charging current at the receiving end of the transmission line is: Zero

The square root of the ratio of line impedance to its shunt admittance is called: Surge impedance of the transmission line

If the receiving end voltage is greater than the sending end voltage, regulation of transmission line is: Negative

What is Ferranti Effect

A long transmission line draws a substantial quantity of charging current. If such a line is open circuited or very lightly loaded at the receiving end, Receiving end voltage being greater than sending end voltage in a transmission line is known as Ferranti effect. All electrical loads are inductive in nature and hence they consume lot of reactive power from the transmission lines. Hence there is voltage drop in the lines. Capacitors which supply reactive power are connected parallel to the transmission lines at the receiving end so as to compensate the reactive power consumed by the inductive loads. As the inductive load increases more of the capacitors are connected parallel via electronic switching. Thus reactive power consumed by inductive loads is supplied by the capacitors thereby reducing the consumption of reactive power from transmission line. However when the inductive loads are switched off the capacitors may still be in ON condition. The reactive power supplied by the capacitors adds on to the transmission lines due to the absence of inductance. As a result voltage at the receiving end or consumer end increases and is more than the voltage at the supply end. This is known as Ferranti effect.

Series capacitors are placed at different places along the line while shunt reactors are often installed in the stations at the ends .    Both the inductance & the capacitance are distributed along the length of the line. When a capacitive current flows through the line inductance there will be a voltage rise along the line. As this voltage drop affects the sending end voltage. and especially on underground cable circuits where the shunt capacitance is greater than with a corresponding overhead line. the capacitance to earth draws a current through the line. So are the series resistance and the admittance to earth. the receiving end voltage becomes greater. there is a voltage drop along the line due to the series inductance and the series resistance. unloaded transmission line?   The Ferranti Effect occurs when current drawn by the distributed capacitance of the transmission line itself is greater than the current associated with the load at the receiving end of the line. To stabilize the line voltage the line inductance can be compensated by means of series capacitors and the line capacitance to earth by shunt reactors. When the line is loaded. Therefore. When the line is energized but not loaded or only loaded with a small current. As inductive load is added. The Ferranti Effect is not a problem with lines that are loaded because line capacitive effect is constant independent of load. How to Reduce Ferranti Effect: Shunt Reactors and Series Capacitors:  The need for large shunt reactors appeared when long power transmission lines for system voltage 220 kV & higher were built. while inductance will vary with load. there is a voltage rise along the line (the Ferranti-effect) In this situation. the Ferranti effect tends to be a bigger problem on lightly loaded lines. This effect is due to the voltage drop across the line inductance (due to charging current) being in phase with the sending end voltages. The Ferranti Effect will be more pronounced the longer the line and the higher the voltage applied.Why does voltage rise on a long. The characteristic parameters of a line are the series inductance (due to the magnetic field around the conductors) & the shunt capacitance (due to the electrostatic field to earth). the VAR generated by the line capacitance is consumed by the load. which may be capacitive.

The material in the gaps must also be stable to avoid escalating vibration amplitudes in the end. which have non-magnetic gaps inserted between packets of core steel. causes the Ferranti effect Loads can be divided in three types: resistive load. like windings. Sometimes a small extra winding for local electricity supply is inserted between the main winding & yoke. The main terminal is at the middle of the limb height. Shunt reactors contain the same components as power transformers. Long submarine cables for system voltages of 100 KV and more need shunt reactors. & the winding consists of two parallel-connected halves. capacitive load and capacitive load. iron loss & additional loss) cannot be separated by measurement. tank. the winding are normally designed with graded insulation in the earthed end. When energized the gaps are exposed to large pulsation compressive forced with a frequency of twice the frequency of the system voltage. The insulation distance to the yokes can then be made relatively small. The same goes for large urban networks to prevent excessive voltage rise when a high load suddenly falls out due to a failure. When the reactor neutral is directly earthed. For this reason the design of the core must be very solid. The loss in the various parts of the reactor (12R. It is thus preferable. In this way. These may have 3. & the modulus of elasticity of the non-magnetic (& non-metallic) material used in gaps must be high (small compression) in order to avoid large vibration amplitudes with high sound level consequently. 3-phase reactors can also be made.         of line. in order to avoid corrections to reference temperature. The neutral of shunt reactor may be directly earthed. to perform the loss measurement when the average temperature of the winding is practically equal to the reference temperature. bushings and insulating oil and are suitable for manufacturing in transformer factories. earthed through an Earthing-reactor or unearthed. Shunt reactors may also be connected to the power system at junctures where several lines meet or to tertiary windings of transformers. while in a 5-limbed core the phases are magnetically independent due to the enclosing magnetic frame formed by the two yokes and the two unwound side-limbs. In a 3-limbed core there is strong magnetic coupling between the three phases.or -5-limbed cores. The peak value of these forces may easily amount to 106 N/m2 (100 ton /m2). So the power requirement changes in to two type’s . Testing of reactors requires capacitive power in the test field equal to the nominal power of the reactor while a transformer can be tested with a reactive power equal to 10 – 20% of the transformer power rating by feeding the transformer with nominal current in short –circuit condition. The main difference is the reactor core limbs. core. Transmission cables have much higher capacitance to earth than overhead lines. Normally we are familiar with resistive loads but most of the loads connected with the transmission lines are inductive in nature. one below & one above the main terminal. the voltage difference between the ends of the line is reduced both in amplitude and in phase angle.

Nominal T representation of a medium transmission line In the nominal T model of a medium transmission line the lumped shunt admittance is placed in the middle. and each half with value Y ⁄ 2 is placed at both the sending and the receiving end while the entire circuit impedance is between the two. The power factor can be corrected by introducing capacitors in parallel with the transmission lines. . Then reactive power requirement is zero or very low but the capacitors keep on supplying reactive power which will be added on to the transmission lines and ultimately increasing the receiving end voltage. the lumped series impedance is placed at the middle of the circuit where as the shunt admittances are at the ends. to get the required reactive power some steps are taken and some changes are made in the transmission lines. So. and for this reason it is known as the nominal π representation of a medium transmission line. real power. It is mainly used for determining the general circuit parameters and performing load flow analysis. The term Ferranti effect describes the phenomenon when the receiving end voltage is greater than the sending end voltage. Hence the main cause of this phenomenon is when the transmission line is at no load or lightly loaded condition and then the receiving end voltage is higher. The most common of them is the power factor correction. Power generated by the power plants supplies the actual power through the transmission lines. These capacitors will supply the required reactive power to the network. while the net series impedance is divided into two equal halves and and placed on either side of the shunt admittance. The shape of the circuit so formed resembles that of a symbol π. The circuit so formed resembles the symbol of a capital T. Now suppose the transmission lines are at no load or in very lightly loaded condition. the total lumped shunt admittance is divided into 2 equal halves. As we can see from the diagram of the π network below. and hence is known as the nominal T network of a medium length transmission line and is shown in the diagram below.*resistive or * reactive (capacitive/inductive) power. How medium transmission lines are represented? Nominal π representation of a medium transmission line In case of a nominal π representation.

.Why prefer nominal pi circuit over nominal T circuit in transmission line modeling? Nominal Pi is used for the transmission line modeling as it makes the Y matrix representation more accurately and in actual sense and we get a conditioned matrix.