Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32

More information on the European Defence Agency is available at: www.eda.europa.eu ISBN: 978-92-95075-13-9 ISSN: 1831-9513 doi: 10.

2836/19546 European Defence Agency, 2013 For reproduction or use of this material, permission must be sought directly from the copyright holder. Responsible editor : Eric Platteau Printed in Belgium

Introduction
The European Defence Agency collects defence data on an annual basis. The Ministries of Defence of the Agencys 27 participating Member States (pMS)1 provide the data. EDA acts as the custodian of the data and publishes the aggregated figures in this booklet. The data are broken down, based on a list of indicators approved by the Agencys Ministerial Steering Board. This list has four sections, represented in the headings of the booklet: General: macro-economic data to show how defence budgets relate to GDP and overall government spending. Reform: major categories of defence budget spending personnel; investment, including R&T; operation and maintenance and others to show what defence budgets are spent on. European collaboration: for defence equipment procurement and R&T to show to what extent the Agencys pMS are investing together. Deployability: military deployed in crisis management operations to show the ratio between deployments and total military personnel. In November 2007, the Ministerial Steering Board approved
1. All EU Member States except Denmark. Data in this publication does not include Croatia which became the 27th EDA Member State on 1 July 2013. 3

four collective benchmarks for investment: Equipment procurement (including R&D/R&T): 20% of total defence spending European collaborative equipment procurement: 35% of total equipment spending Defence R&T: 2% of total defence spending European collaborative defence R&T: 20% of total defence R&T spending These benchmarks are collective: they apply to the total sum spent by all pMS together. They are voluntary: turning them into national targets is optional. There are no timelines for realising these benchmarks. In its final section, this brochure provides the results of the collective benchmarks. The definitions used for the gathering of the data and some general caveats are listed at the end of the brochure.

EDA pMS Aggregated Defence Data 2012


The figures refer to the total for all EDA 26 pMS1 and if not otherwise stated, they are nominal. Total defence expenditure continues to decrease
In 2012, total defence expenditure of the 26 EDA pMS amounted to 189.6 billion - a reduction of 1.1 billion or 0.6% compared to 2011. It represented approximately 1.50% of their total GDP and 3.04% of their total government expenditure, both values being the lowest since 2006. In real terms2, total defence expenditure has been decreasing since 2006. During the period from 2006 to 2011, it dropped by 21 billion or almost 10% and between 2011 and 2012 it reduced further by almost 3%. comprising equipment procurement and R&D expenditure, increased by over 5% in 2012 to reach the same level it was in 2006 ( 39.0 billion or 20.6% of total expenditure). But the two components of investment moved in different directions: while equipment procurement increased by 17% to 34.2 billion (18.0% of total expenditure), close to the highest level achieved in 2010, R&D expenditure experienced the sharpest decrease since 2006 (-38%) and amounted to 4.8 billion (2.5% of total expenditure), half its 2006 value. As for R&T3, after a slight increase in 2011, it reduced to 1.93 billion (1.02% of total expenditure), both being the lowest values since 2006.

Equipment procurement increases, but R&D expenditure reduces


Personnel-related expenditure decreased by almost 3% from 2011 to 2012 and reached its lowest level since 2006 ( 95.7 billion). Nevertheless, it continues to account for over 50% of total defence expenditure. The second biggest component operation and maintenance expenditure also decreased by almost 3% and accounted for 23.7% ( 44.8billion) of total defence expenditure. On the other hand, after a sharp decrease in 2011, defence investment,

Collaboration: increases in procurement but decreases in R&T


2012 data shows a significant decrease in collaborative expenditure. This is partially due to the fact that one EDA pMS was not able to provide data on collaboration this year. If aggregated data of the 25pMS for which collaborative figures are available is compared, between 2011 and 2012 collaborative equipment procurement increased by

1. Data in this publication does not include Croatia which became the 27th EDA Member State on 1 July 2013, and Denmark which is not an EDA Member State. 2. In order to measure real growth and ensure a real comparison between years, inflation needs to be taken into account. Thus, data from 2006 to 2011 has been inflated to 2012 economic conditions (Source of deflator: European Commission ECFIN based on weight of EU 27). 3. R&T is a subset of R&D which includes only basic research, applied research and technology demonstration, leaving out expenditure for demonstration or development for which a decision to procure has been taken.

10% while European collaboration increased by 16.5% and accounted for 95.5% of total collaborative equipment procurement. As for R&T, expenditure on collaborative projects and programmes decreased by almost 15% during the same period. European collaborative R&T expenditure experienced an even sharper decrease of 38% and accounted for 67.6% of total collaborative R&T expenditure.

operations decreased by 8% to 10.8 billion or 5.7% of total defence expenditure. Operations costs per military deployed also marginally decreased for the first time and stood at 217000 in 2012.

Progress made on one out of four collective benchmarks


In 2007, EDA pMS agreed on a set of four collective benchmarks for investment. There is no obligation in terms of timeline or adoption of these benchmarks into national targets. In 2012, only one of the four indicators made progress towards the benchmarks. Due to an increase in defence equipment procurement expenditure, the proportion of investment (equipment procurement and R&D) of total defence expenditure increased from 19.4% to 20.6% thus exceeding the agreed target of 20%. After an increase in 2011, the share of R&T expenditure in total defence expenditure decreased to its lowest level since 2006: 1.02% (the benchmark is 2%). Due to incomplete collaborative data, it is not possible to measure progress towards the two other benchmarks: European collaborative equipment procurement as a percentage of total equipment procurement (the benchmark is 35%) and European collaborative defence R&T as a percentage of total defence R&T (the benchmark is 20%).

Number of military personnel continues to drop while expenditure and investment per military increases
2012 saw the sixth consecutive reduction in military personnel (77.5% of total staff working in defence, the lowest ratio since 2006) and decreased by 6.3% to 1.45 million. On the other hand, the number of civilian personnel increased for the first time since 2006 by 12.8% to 422 315. Whilst military personnel numbers reduced, defence expenditure per military increased by over 6% reaching 130 457. Defence investment per military also increased by over 12% and stood at 26 821.

Reduction in troops deployed and in costs of operations


As regards deployed operations outside the EU territory, similarly to the last three years, the average number of troops deployed decreased both in absolute terms (from 53 744 to 49 550) and as a share of military personnel (from 3.5% to 3.4%) and is now at its lowest level since 2006. For the first time since 2006, costs related to deployed

GENERAL - Macro Economic Data


GDP, Overall Government Expenditure and Total Defence Expenditure

14 000 12 000 10 000


Billions of Euros
+6.7% s 12 072 s 11 316

+1.7% s 12 272

-5.6% s 11 584

+4.0% s 12 046

+3.0% s 12 411

+2.0% s 12 653

8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0


2006
s 201 +1.5% s 204 -1.3% s 201 -3.6% s 194 -0.3% s 194 -1.5% s 1911 -0.6% s 190 s 5 303 +4.2% s 5 525 +3.7% s 5 729 +2.3% s 5 858 +3.2% s 6 047 +0.4% s 6 072 +2.6% s 6 232

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

GDP Overall Government Expenditure Defence Expenditure


1. Revised data.

GENERAL Macro Economic Data


GDP, Overall Government Expenditure and Total Defence Expenditure real comparison1

14 000 12 000 10 000


Billions of Euros
s 12 178

+3.9% s 12 650

+1.5% s 12 835

-4.1% s 12 304

+1.6% s 12 503

+1.6% s 12 705

-0.4% s 12 653

8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0


2006
s 216 -1.2% s 214 -1.5% s 211 -2.1% s 206 -2.6% s 201 -2.8% s 195 -2.9% s 190 s 5 707 +1.4% s 5 790 +3.5% s 5 992 +3.9% s 6 222 +0.9% s 6 276 -0.9% s 6 216 +0.2% s 6 232

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

GDP Overall Government Expenditure Defence Expenditure


1. In order to measure real growth and ensure a real comparison between years, inflation needs to be taken into account. Thus, data from 2006 to 2011 has been inflated to 2012 economic conditions (Source of deflator: European Commission ECFIN based on weight of EU 27). 7

GENERAL Macro Economic Data


Defence Expenditure in Current and Constant1 Prices

220
s 216

215 210
Billions of Euros

s 214 s 211 s 206

205 200 195 190 185


2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20112 2012

s 204 s 201 s 201

s 201 s 195 s 194 s 194 s 191 s 190 s 190

Current Prices Constant Prices (2012)


1. Data from 2006 to 2011 has been inflated to 2012 economic conditions (Source of deflator: European Commission ECFIN based on weight of EU 27). 2. Revised data.

GENERAL Macro Economic Data


Defence Expenditure as % of GDP and as % of Overall Government Expenditure

4.0% 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0%

3.79%

3.69% 3.52% 3.31% 3.20% 3.14% 3.04%

1.78%

1.69%

1.64%

1.68%

1.61%

1.5% 1.0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

1.54%

1.50%

20111

2012

Defence Expenditure as a % of Total General Government Expenditure Defence Expenditure as a % of GDP


1. Revised data. 9

10

GENERAL Macro Economic Data


Expenditure per Capita

30 000 25 000 20 000


Euros
+6.2% s 24 648 s 23 217 +1.1% s 24 910 -6.1% s 23 398 +3.8% s 24 280 +2.8% s 24 959 +1.7% s 25 374

15 000
s 10 881 +3.7% s 11 281

+3.1% s 11 628

+1.8% s 11 833

+3.0% s 12 187

+0.2% s 12 212

+2.3% s 12 497

10 000 5 000 0
2006
s 413 +1.0% s 417 -1.9% s 409 -4.1% s 392 -0.5% s 390 -1.7% s 3831 -0.9% s 380

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

GDP per Capita Government Expenditure per Capita Defence Expenditure per Capita
1. Revised data.

REFORM Defence Expenditure Breakdown


Defence Expenditure Breakdown in absolute values

120
s 110.6 -4.2% s 106.0

+1.1% s 107.2

100 80 60 40 20
s 8.2 s 43.4 s 38.9 +8.1% s 46.9 +7.7% s 41.9 -7.8% s 43.2 +0.3% s 42.0

-8.2% s 98.4

+0.3% s 98.7

-0.1% s 98.5

-2.8% s 95.7

Billions of Euros

+2.0% s 44.1 -2.6% s 40.9

-1.0% s 43.7 +4.8% s 42.9

+3.6% s 45.2 -13.8% s 37.0

-2.8% s 44.8 +5.4% s 39.0

+13.9% s 9.3

-4.3% s 8.9

+19.5% s 10.7

-21.8% s 8.4

+19.2% s 10.0

+0.5% s 10.0

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20111 2012

Personnel Operation and Maintenance Investment (Equipment Procurement and R&D) Other expenditure (including Infrastructure)
1. Revised data.

11

12

REFORM Defence Expenditure Breakdown


Defence Expenditure Breakdown in absolute values real comparison1

120 100 80 60 40 20

s 119.1

-6.7% s 111.1

+0.9% s 112.1

-6.8% s 104.5

-2.0% s 102.4

-1.5% s 100.9

-5.1% s 95.7

Billions of Euros

s 46.7 s 41.9

+5.2% s 49.1 +4.8% s 43.9

-8.0% s 45.2 +0.1% s 43.9

+3.6% s 46.8 -1.1% s 43.5

-3.2% s 45.3 +2.4% s 44.5

+2.1% s 46.3 -15.0% s 37.8

-3.2% s 44.8 +3.0% s 39.0

s 8.8

+10.9% s 9.8

-4.4% s 9.3

+21.4% s 11.3

-23.6% s 8.7

+17.6% s 10.2

-1.9% s 10.0

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20112 2012

Personnel Operation and Maintenance Investment (Equipment Procurement and R&D) Other expenditure (including Infrastructure)
1. In order to measure real growth and ensure a real comparison between years, inflation needs to be taken into account. Thus, data from 2006 to 2011 has been inflated to 2012 economic conditions (Source of deflator: European Commission ECFIN based on weight of EU 27). 2. Revised data.

REFORM Defence Expenditure Breakdown


Defence Expenditure Breakdown in percentages

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

s 201 Bln 4.1% 19.4%

s 204 Bln 4.6% 20.5%

s 201 Bln 4.4% 20.9%

s 194 Bln 5.5% 21.1%

s 194 Bln 4.3% 22.1%

s 191 Bln 5.2% 19.4%

s 190 Bln 5.3% 20.6%

21.6%

23.0%

21.5%

22.7%

22.6%

23.7%

23.7%

55.0%

51.9%

53.2%

50.7%

51.0%

51.7%

50.5%

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

20111

2012

Personnel Operation and Maintenance Investment (Equipment Procurement and R&D) Other expenditure (including Infrastructure)
1. Revised data.

13

14

REFORM Investment Breakdown


Defence Equipment Procurement and R&D/R&T1 Expenditure in absolute values

45 40 35
Billions of Euros
s 38.92

s 41.90 +7.7% s 32.24 s 29.13 +10.7%

s 42.02 +0.3% s 33.27 +3.2%

s 40.92 -2.6% s 32.52 -2.3%

s 42.87 +4.8% s 34.31 +5.5% s 36.96 -13.8% s 29.17 -15.0% s 38.97 +5.4% s 34.16 +17.1%

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

s 9.79

s 9.66 -1.3%

s 8.75 -9.5% s 2.48 -2.5%

s 8.40 -4.0% s 2.26 -8.9%

s 8.56 +1.9% s 2.08 -8.0%

s 7.79 -9.0% s 2.15 +3.4%

s 2.66

s 2.54 -4.3%

s 4.81 -38.2% s 1.93 -10.0%

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Total Investment Equipment Procurement R&D R&T


1. R&T is a subset of R&D.

REFORM Investment Breakdown


Defence Equipment Procurement and R&D/R&T as % of Total Defence Expenditure
80.6% 79.5% 79.1% 78.9%

14.5% 4.9% (1.32%) 19.4%


2006

15.8% 4.7% (1.24%) 20.5%


2007

16.5% 4.3% (1.23%) 20.9%


2008

16.8% 4.3% (1.16%) 21.1%


2009

77.9%

80.6%

79.4%

17.7% 4.4% (1.07%) 22.1%


2010

15.3% 4.1% (1.13%) 19.4%


20111

18.0% 2.5% (1.02%) 20.5%


2012
15

Defence Equipment Procurement


1. Revised data.

R&D (Includes R&T)

Other Defence Expenditure

16

REFORM Personnel
Number of Military and Civilian Personnel

2 500 000

2 425 169 -5.4% 2 294 274 -2.6% 484 827 -5.7% 457 392 -5.2% 2 234 487 -6.2% 2 094 872 -4.1% 433 780 -1.7% 426 335 -8.6% 389 719 -3.9% 2 009 907 -4.2% 1 925 465 -2.6% 374 427 +12.8%

2 000 000

1 875 343 422 315

1 500 000

1 000 000

1 940 342 -5.3% 1 836 882 -2.0% 1 800 707 -7.3% 1 668 537 -2.9% 1 620 188 -4.3% 1 551 038 -6.3% 1 453 028

500 000

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Military Personnel Civilian Personnel

REFORM Expenditure per Military


Defence Expenditure and Investment (Equipment Procurement and R&D) per Military

140 000 120 000 100 000 80 000


Euros
s 103 654 +7.2% s 111 136 +0.6% s 111 850 +4.0% s 116 324 +2.7% s 119 455 +2.9% s 122 9251

+6.1% s 130 457

60 000 40 000 20 000 0


2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
s 20 058 +13.7% s 22 812 +7.9% s 26 458 +12.6% s 26 821

+2.3% s 23 333

+5.1% s 24 522

-9.9% s 23 829

Defence Expenditure per Military Defence Investment per Military


1. Revised data. 17

18

REFORM Outsourcing
Outsourcing absolute values and percentages

93.0% Total outsourcing: 14.1 bln

92.9% Total outsourcing: 14.5 bln

94.0% Total outsourcing: 12.0 bln

92.7% Total outsourcing: 14.1 bln

7.0%
2006

7.1%
2007

6.0%
2008

7.3%
2009

92.1% Total outsourcing: 15.4 bln

93.0% Total outsourcing: 13.4 bln

92.7% Total outsourcing: 13.8 bln

7.9%
2010

7.0%
2011

7.3%
2012

Outsourcing

Remainning Defence Expenditure

EUROPEAN COLLABORATION Equipment Procurement


National and Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement absolute values

s 34.2

30 25 20 15 10 5 0
s 0.58 s 6.7 s 6.08 s 29.1 s 22.47

s 32.2 s 25.40

s 34.3 s 33.3 s 25.20 s 32.5 s 24.29 s 28.15 s 26.61 s 29.2 s 21.26

Billions of Euros

s 6.8 s 6.11

s 8.1 s 7.07

s 8.2 s 7.14

s 7.7 s 7.29

s 7.9 s 6.0 s 7.34 s 5.74

s 0.74

s 1.00

s 1.09

s 0.41

s 0.57

s 0.27

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

20121

National Defence Equipment Procurement European Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement Other Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement
1. Partial: one pMS not able to provide data. 19

20

EUROPEAN COLLABORATION Equipment Procurement


National and Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement percentage breakdown

77.1%

78.8%

75.8%

74.7%

20.9% 2.0%
2006

18.9% 2.3%
2007

21.2% 3.0%
2008

22.0% 3.3%
2009

77.6%

72.9%

82.4%

21.2% 1.2%
2010

25.1% 2.0%
2011

16.8% 0.8%
20121

National Defence Equipment Procurement European Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement Other Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement
1. Partial: one pMS not able to provide data.

EUROPEAN COLLABORATION R&T


National and Collaborative Defence R&T absolute values

2.5

s 2.66 s 2.272

s 2.54 s 2.48 s 2.164 s 2.027 s 2.26 s 2.08 s 1.936 s 1.813 s 2.15 s 1.93 s 1.839 s 1.728

2.0

Billions of Euros

1.5

1.0
s 0.38 s 0.38 s 0.333 s 0.045 s 0.45 s 0.32 s 0.412 s 0.290 s 0.040 s 0.032 s 0.246 s 0.018 s 0.260 s 0.049 s 0.139 s 0.067 s 0.26 s0.31 s 0.21

0.5
s 0.254 s 0.130

0
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

20111

20122

National Defence R&T European Collaborative Defence R&T Other Collaborative Defence R&T
1. Revised data. 2. Partial: one pMS not able to provide data. 21

22

EUROPEAN COLLABORATION R&T


National and Collaborative Defence R&T absolute values

85.5%

85.1%

81.8%

85.7%

9.6% 4.9%
2006

13.1% 1.8%
2007

16.6% 1.6%
2008

12.8% 1.4%
2009

87.3%

85.6%

89.3%

11.8% 0.9%
2010

12.1% 2.3%
20111

7.2% 3.5%
20122

National Defence R&T

European Collaborative Defence R&T

Other Collaborative Defence R&T

1. Revised data. 2. Partial: one pMS not able to provide data.

DEPLOYABILITY Troops Deployed


Average Number of Troops Deployed

2 000 000 1 800 000 1 600 000 1 400 000 1 200 000 1 000 000 800 000 600 000 400 000 200 000 0

1 940 342 1 836 882 1 800 707 1 668 537 1 620 188 1 551 038 1 453 028

4.3% 83 310

4.2% 77 880

4.5% 80 177

4.1% 67 767

4.1% 66 313

3.5% 53 744

3.4% 49 550

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Number of Military Personnel Average Number of Troops Deployed % of Military Personnel


23

24

DEPLOYABILITY Deployable and Sustainable (Land) Forces


Number of Deployable and Sustainable (Land) Forces

500 000 450 000 400 000 350 000 300 000 250 000 200 000 150 000 100 000 50 000 0
2006
5.1% 99 7111 22.0% 426 704

24.2% 444 681

25.8% 464 574

26.6% 443 108

27.8% 450 117

27.5% 425 824

30.9% 449 702

6.0% 110 482

7.0% 125 237

6.4% 106 754

6.6% 106 402

7.1% 110 814

7.5% 108 802

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Deployable (Land) Forces Sustainable (Land) Forces % of Military Personnel


1. Revised data.

DEPLOYABILITY Operations Costs


Operations Costs per Military Deployed and Total Operations Costs

220 200 180 160


Thousands of Euros
10 407 Mln 9 826 Mln 8 667 Mln 9 653 Mln

11 700 Mln

10 761 Mln

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0


2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
79 6 613 Mln 145 111 120 157 218 217

Operations Costs per Military Deployed Total Operations Costs


25

26

BENCHMARKS
Defence Equipment Procurement and R&D Expenditure as % of Total Defence Expenditure

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20111 2012 Benchmark
80.6% 79.5% 79.1% 78.9% 77.9% 80.6% 79.4% 80.0% 19.4% 20.5% 20.9% 21.1% 22.1% 19.4% 20.6% 20.0%

Defence Equipment Procurement and R&D Expenditure Other Defence Expenditure


1. Revised data.

BENCHMARKS
European Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement as % of Total Equipment Procurement

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 20121 Benchmark
79.1% 81.1% 78.8% 78.0% 78.8% 74.8% 83.2% 65.0% 20.9% 18.9% 21.2% 22.0% 21.2% 25.2% 16.8% 35.0%

European Collaborative Defence Equipment Procurement Other Defence Equipment Procurement


1. Partial: one pMS not able to provide data. 27

28

BENCHMARKS
Defence R&T Expenditure as % of Total Defence Expenditure

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

1.32%

1.24%

1.23%

1.16%

1.07%

1.13%

1.02%

2.0%

98.68%

98.76%

98.77%

98.84%

98.93%

98.87%

98.98%

98.0%

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

20111

2012

Benchmark

Defence R&T Expenditure Remaining Defence Expenditure


1. Revised data.

BENCHMARKS
European Collaborative Defence R&T as % of Total Defence R&T

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20111 20122 Benchmark
90.4% 86.9% 83.4% 87.2% 88.2% 87.9% 92.8% 80.0% 9.6% 13.1% 16.6% 12.8% 11.8% 12.1% 7.2% 20.0%

European Collaborative Defence R&T Other Defence R&T


1. Revised data. 2. Partial: one pMS not able to provide data. 29

30

Additional Notes on the Data

EDA receives the data from the Ministries of Defence of the 27 pMS. On occasions the data can be revised and this may have an impact on the overall aggregated figures. In order to have the most up-to-date data please check EDAs website for updates: http://www.eda.europa.eu/ Data on GDP, General Government Expenditure and Population have been collected from Eurostat. However, this data is occasionally revised which may impact some of the data calculated by EDA. The data provided is at aggregate level which can produce different figures from other sources due to rounding.

For some spending categories, a margin of error exists as accounting systems in the pMS differ. Nevertheless, the presented data represents the best publicly available figures. Comparisons are made for 2006 to 2012. It should be noted that more firm trend analysis will only be possible after several years of data-gathering. Significant changes in the exchange rates with the Euro has had a considerable impact on the 2008 data; the lower amount of defence expenditure is partly caused by significant drops of some of the pMS' currency exchange rates to the Euro.

Definitions
Data collection is based on definitions approved by the pMS. The definitions below have been shortened and edited for this publication.
Macroeconomic data: GDP, General Government Expendi ture and Population are based on data from Eurostat. Total defence expenditure is defined as total Minis try of Defence (MoD) expenditure and defence related expenditure from other sources (other Ministries special budgetary lines). Civilian personnel: the authorised strength of all civilian  personnel on 31 December of each year employed by all military establishments and the armed forces. Military personnel: the authorised strengths of all active  military personnel on 31 December of each year. P  ersonnel expenditure: all personnel-related expenditure for military and civilian personnel, including from non-MoD sources. D  efence equipment procurement expenditure: expenditure for all major equipment categories. R  esearch and Development (R&D): any R&D programmes up to the point where expenditure for production of equipment starts to be incurred. R  esearch and Technology (R&T): expenditure for basic research, applied research and technology demonstration for defence purposes. It is a subset of R&D. Investment: Equipment procurement and R&D (including  R&T) expenditure. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) expenditure: covers  O&M (spare parts and supplies) of major equipment, other equipment and supplies, and costs related to maintaining utilities and infrastructure. O  ther expenditure: all other expenditure that cannot be attributed to any of the above categories. O  utsourcing: defence expenditure for which services have been contracted at central level with service suppliers from outside the MoD and/or Armed Forces. European Collaboration (a subset of Collaboration):  agreement by at least two EU Member States Ministries of Defence for project or programme contracts. Possible nonEU partners share in such contracts is lower than 50%. Other collaborative expenditure: all collaborative expenditure that does not fall under the European Collaboration definition. A  verage number of troops deployed: average number of troops deployed throughout the year (all Armed Forces). D  eployable (land) forces: (land) forces troops prepared for deployed operations (the NATO 50% target). Sustainable (land) forces: (land) forces troops under taking or planned for sustained operations (the NATO 10% target). Operations costs: all national expenditure to cover incre mental (extra) costs linked to deployed operations outside the EU Member States territory.

31

www.eda.europa.eu
European Defence Agency Rue des Drapiers 17-23 B-1050 Brussels - Belgium www.eda.europa.eu Tel +32 2 504 28 00 Fax +32 2 504 28 15 info@eda.europa.eu

QU-AB-13-002-EN-C