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views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Gender Equality in energy sector

Training Workshop on Capturing Gender Equality Results and Implementing Impact Evaluation in ADB operations 9-10 October, New Delhi

Soma Dutta

ENERGIA International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy

Session coverage
What is the gender equality issue in the energy sector?

Good practices in promoting gender equality through energy interventions Rural electrification Community managed electrification Urban infrastructure projects

Key messages

Globally, women are disproportionately affected by energy poverty.

High levels of drudgery labor and time intensive Opportunity costs for productive activities and girl-child education Health risks such as pneumonia, heart and lung disease, burns Women have less access to productive resources in relation to men Womens control over energy related decisions: new appliances, land use. and what trees and crops are grown, how she uses her time.., her mobility Gender inequity & traditional labour divisions

Gender equality issues in energy sector: India

Continued reliance on traditional biomass for household energy has negative impacts on women: 800 million households Inadequate attention to cooking, heating and enterprise needs of women: mismatch in energy sector investments Increased access to modern energy services can be a means to promote gender equity women in electrified households read more (India) Savings of 12 hours per day in travel time for battery charging, kerosene purchase, and household activities such as grain grinding (Sri Lanka) Improved school performance, increased enrollment of girls, and safety through street lighting (Tunisia) Increased employment opportunities in electrified households(Bangladesh) Maternal health benefits from electrification of clinics (Philippines) Women are not always able to benefit from energy investments

Good practice: Gender mainstreaming at Kenya Power

Source: Presentation by Anne Owuor, Kenya Power. At Bridging the Gender Gap for Development Effectiveness in the Energy Sector, A Policy and Practitioners Meet 12-13 December, 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Kenya Power , the Organization

Population Electricity Access 29% Limited liability Company Majority Government Shareholding Mandate: Transmit, Distribute and retail electricity to customers throughout Kenya Key statistics: > 1.8 million customers >8,500 full time employees, 80% male & 20% female- full time employees. 3546 Day casuals, 90% male & 10% female

Strategies to increase connection rates

Group schemes Reviewed connection charges to flat fees when near a transformer of : single phase Ksh 32000/=and 3phase of Ksh 45000/= Easy Payment strategies Payments by instalments Revolving fund, pre-payment Enhance customer service by partnering with service providers: Barclays Bank, Post Office, Mobile- Airtel, supermarkets e-Bills (you query bills through e mail/ sms alerts)

De-centralisation of services- 62 branches Free distribution of 1.25 million bulbs to electricity customers

Institutional measures for Gender integration

Organisations 5-year Strategic Plan incorporate gender targets & timeframes Built management understanding on gender issues: a Gender Committee 4 men and 4 women (middle management), Gender Coordinator (high level) Recruitment at least 30% women Increase in intake of women at the Training School Gender issues at workplace: Kenya Powers Policy against Sexual Harassment & Discrimination and Equal Opportunity Policies gained Top Management approval in Jan 2011& Board Approval in May 2011 Awareness: Ongoing Training in various Regions to inform on the Organizations gender strategies 2 weeks paternity leave GMS Monitoring & Evaluation Framework used to evaluate progress

Rural Energy development programme (REDP) Nepal

Joint project of the government of Nepal, UNDP and the World Bank. Currently called RERL.

Development Objective: Enhance rural livelihoods through the promotion of rural energy systems, specifically micro hydro, for the sustainable development and poverty alleviation.

Installs MHPs Focus on community mobilization Provides lights in rural homes Provides training on micro enterprises for men and women NO GENDER DISCRIMINATION

Womens participation continued to be low.

No time to attend meetings Patriarchal society (speaking at meetings) No exposure/ interaction with outside world Sometimes attend training programmes, but no follow up (investment/ family support/ post training support/ marketing )

Women invited to attend meetings and training programmes. Enough to make them entrepreneurs?

Gender mainstreaming strategy in REDP

Women clearly identified as a vulnerable group Institutional spaces created at the community level for women to participate in project processes: Women Community Organizations (meeting/saving) Gender analysis mandatory

Enterprise development support Capacity building inputs (group management, skill development, income generation) Gender aware NGO selection process Gender disaggregated data collection

Gender equality results

Direct impacts Savings on expenditure on energy (kerosene/ batteries) Convenience Health benefits from reduced burning of kerosene and biomass fuels for lighting and cooking respectively Time saving and reduction in drudgery and opportunities for education/ leisure/ self development

Indirect benefits Increased awareness Enhanced skills Long term inter-generational impacts Opportunities for self development Girls education

Solar energy project: What does Gender equality mean

Meet basic needs Ease essential household activities (not income) Convenience and comfort Pumping water Lighting improves working conditions at home Electrical appliances Energy plus other inputs: training, business development, investment support Increase working hours (e.g. shops during evening hours) Refrigeration for food production and sale Power for enterprises Enhance incomes Allow women to produce more and better products Sell and earn more Empower Relate to women changing their position in society Gender equality

Make streets safer Allows participation in other activities (evening classes) Radio, TV and internet

Examples of gender sensitive practices in electrification programmes

ADB 9158 Grant: Promoting womens energy based livelihoods, building their capacities in community based electricity cooperative, involving women in awareness generation on electricity use Women as barefoot engineers (India, multi-country) Connections & bills put in womens names (SEWA India, provides legal identity and adds value to house) Consulting women about placing lights and plug points/ready board Combine provision of cooking fuels & stoves with supply of electricity (Eskom, South Africa; Botswana) Attention to recruiting & training women employees (Brazil, S. Africa, Kenya) Reserved seats for women on rural electricity cooperative boards (Bangladesh) Develop womens energy-based microenterprises (Madhya Pradesh Energy Efficiency Improvement Investment Program)

Entry points for gender equality in urban projects involving women in energy efficiency
Target women as key motivators in the delivery of energy conservation and efficiency in households and communities Include cooking energy interventions (replacing traditional biomass fuels with modern fuels as well as improving the efficiency of use through improved cookstoves/kitchen improvement etc.) as energy efficiency interventions Complement energy efficiency projects with household user education programs in the safe and efficient use of electricity Promote user education programs targeting women to raise awareness and change household behaviour patterns to improve energy conservation in households

Gender mainstreaming in energy sector projects: Entry points

DO NO HARM: Safeguard interests of both women and men Loss of ownership or use of agricultural land/ home gardens/ common lands Cultural impacts on family/society (including increase in violence, alcoholism, prostitution, rise in HIV/AIDS) Compromised safety and security due to influx of migrants Environmental costs Equal work opportunities, wage and work conditions

MEET BASIC NEEDS: Support sustainable, safe energy solutions to ease womens work burden and improve access to health services and education Water pumping Labour saving appliances Electricity for community health EMPOWER: Economically and socially Energy for womens enterprises and livelihoods (milling/ home based work) Creation of energy sector jobs Build womens capacity to participate, contribute to and make project decisions

Conducting training for women

Training venue Near home Socially acceptable place Duration Spread the trainings over a longer period and ask women to be present only for half a day Not during harvest/ sowing season Composition If possible, dont do mixed training. Women do not open up if men are around If mixed training, ensure a critical mass of women Mixed trainings during refresher trainings where women go through second round and men are in the first round. Mode Reduce dependency on written word during training: role play, open discussion, breakout groups, practical work learning by doing. Use pictures, slide shows, using charts Tamperproof communication/ learning material to carry back