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# 1

## Section A: Pure Mathematics [35 Marks]

1 The points P(4,12) and Q(6,48) lie on curve C, y =
1
4
x
3
x.
(a) Find the equation of the normal to curve C at P, giving your answer in the form
ax + by = c, where a, b and c are integers. [3]
(b) Find the set of values of x for which the curve C is strictly decreasing. [2]
(c) Find the exact area of the region bounded by the curve C and the line PQ. [3]
Solutions*

y =
1
4
x
3
x
y' =
3
4
x
2
1
When x = 4, y' = 11
Equation of the normal is
y 12 = (x 4)/11
x + 11y = 136

y' =
3
4
x
2
1 < 0
x =
2
3
(roots)
The required values are
2
3
< x <
2
3

Or 1.15 < x < 1.15
6
3
4
1
d
4
x x x
| |

|
\

=
6
4 2
4
1 1
16 2
x x
(

(

= 63 8
= 55
Area of trapezium
=(12+48)(64)/2
=60
Area of required region
= 60 55
= 5
Equation of PQ is
Y = 18x 60

Q
P
4 6
x
y
O

2
2 Oil is poured into a container at a rate of 60 m
3
s
1
. The volume, V m
3
, of the oil in the
container is given by V = ln (0.01x
3
+ 3.2x
2
+ 4.5x) where x m is the depth of the oil in the
container. Find the rate of increase in the depth of oil when x = 10. [3]
Solutions*
V = ln(0.01x
3
+ 3.2x
2
+ 4.5x)
d
d
V
x
=
2
3 2
0.03 6.4 4.5
0.01 3.2 4.5
x x
x x x
+ +
+ +

When x = 10,
d
d
V
x
=
71.5
375
=
143
750
= 0.1906666666

Given
d
d
V
t
= 60.
By chain rule,
d
d
V
t
=
d
d
V
x

d
d
x
t

60 = (0.1906666666)
d
d
x
t

d
d
x
t
= 60/0.1906666666 = 315 (3sf)

314
98
143
or
45000
143

3 (a) A curve C is given by the equation g(x) =
6
3
ax
b x

## . Find the values of a and b for which

y =
1
3
and x = 2 are equations of asymptotes of C. Sketch the curve C, showing clearly
the asymptotes and axial intercepts. [4]
Solutions*
(a)
b 3x = 0 b = 3x = 6
6
3
ax
b x

=
6 /
( / ) 3
a x
b x

3
a

=
1
3
as x i.e. a = 1
b = 6, a = 1

Shape &
Axial
intercepts

Asymptotes

0
x
y
x = 2
y =
1
3

1

6

3
(b) Given that f(x) =
1
1 3x
, find
(i) f ( )d x x

. [2]
(ii) f ' (x). Hence obtain the exact value of m for which f ' (m) =
3
16
. [4]
Solutions*
(b)f(x) =
1
1 3x
= ( )
1
2
1 3x

f ( )d x x

= ( )
1
2
1 3 d x x

=
( )
( )
1
2
1 3
1
3
2
x
(
(

(
| |
(

|
(
\
+ c =
2
1 3
3
x + c

f(x) =
1
1 3x
= ( )
1
2
1 3x

f ' (x) =
1
2
( )
3
2
1 3x

(3) =
3
2
( )
3
2
1 3x

f ' (m) =
3
2
( ) ( )
3
2
1 3 m

=
3
16

( ) ( )
3
2
1 3 m

=
1
8

( ) ( )
3
2
1 3 m = 8
1 3m = ( )
2
3
8 = 4
m = 1

4
4 (a) Find in exact form, the range of values of m for which (3x 2m)
2
> x
2
5 for all real
values of x. [3]
(b) Without using a calculator, solve the simultaneous equations
3
x + 2y
= 27
ln x + ln (x + y) = ln 5 [4]

Solutions*
(a)(3x 2m)
2
> x
2
5
9x
2
12xm + 4m
2
> x
2
5
8x
2
12mx + 4m
2
+ 5 > 0

Apply b
2
4ac < 0,
(12m)
2
4(8)(4m
2
+ 5) < 0
144 m
2
128 m
2
160 < 0

16 m
2
160 < 0
m
2
10 < 0
(m 10)( m + 10) < 0

10 < m < 10
(b) 3
x + 2y
= 27 x + 2y = 3
ln x + ln (x + y) = ln 5 x (x + y) = 5
(3 2y) (3 2y + y) = 5
9 9y + 2y
2
= 5
2y
2
9y + 4 = 0
(y 4) (2y 1) = 0
y = 4 or 0.5
When y = 4, x = 3 2(4) = 5 (reject as ln(x + y) is undefined)
When y = 0.5, x = 3 2(0.5) = 2

5
5 In an experiment, the population of bacteria, in millions follows an exponential growth
modelled by f(t) = 36e
0.1t
+ 5e
0.05t
, t 0. The time t, in hours, is taken to be zero at the start of
the experiment.
(i) What will be the population of bacteria after 5 hours? [1]
(ii) When will the population double from the initial population size? [2]
(iii) Find the exact rate of growth when t = 20. [2]
(iv) Suppose the amount of nutrients consumed by the bacteria, in g, after t hours is given by
0
1
d
2 1
t
t
t +

. Find the exact time taken if 0.001 kg of nutrients was consumed. [2]
Solutions*
(i) f(t) = 36e
0.1t
+ 5e
0.05t
, t 0
When t = 5, f(5) = 36e
0.1(5)
+ 5e
0.05(5)

f(5) = 28.2552 = 28.3 millions(3sf)

(ii) f(0) = 36e
0.1(0)
+ 5e
0.05(0)
= 41
f(t) = 36e
0.1t
+ 5e
0.05t
= 2(41) = 82
Using GC, t = 55.9 h

(iii) f(t) = 36e
0.1t
+ 5e
0.05t
, t 0
f ' (t) = 3.6e
0.1t
+ 0.25e
0.05t
, t 0
f ' (20) = (3.6e
2
+ 0.25e
1
) millions/h

(iv)
0
1
d
2 1
t
t
t +

= 1
[ln(2t+1)/2]
0
t
= 1
ln(2t+1) = 2
t = (e
2
1)/2 h

6
Section B: Statistics [60 Marks]

6 C and D are events such that P(C D) =
113
140
, P(C D) =
1
4
and P(C D) =
7
10
.
Find P(D) and P(C). Are events C and D independent? [5]
Solutions*
P(C D) =
7
10

P(C D) =
7
10
P(D)
1
4
=
7
10
P(D)
P(D) =
1
4

10
7
=
5
14

P(C D) = P(C) + P(D) P(C D)
113
140
= P(C) +
5
14

1
4

P(C) =
113
140

5
14
+
1
4
=
7
10

P(C) P(D) =
7
10

5
14
=
1
4
= P(C D)
events C and D are independent.

Verifying

7
7 In order to find out the willingness of local Secondary Four students doing voluntary work
after the O-level Examinations, four undergraduates, majoring in Social Studies, decide to
survey 100 local Secondary Four students. The undergraduates propose that each of them will
survey 25 students from schools in Clementi only.
(i) Name the sampling model chosen by these four undergraduates. [1]
(ii) Identify one disadvantage of their proposed method and suggest how it can be improved.
[2]
Solutions*
(i)Quota sampling
The sample is not representative
of schools in Singapore.
Survey students from number of
schools from various parts of
Singapore. This allows a wider
The sample is interviewer biased
and not random

8
8 Three white balls, five red balls and four black balls are placed in a box. All balls are of
identical size. Three balls are randomly picked and placed in bag A.
Find the probability that
(i) there are no white balls in bag A, [2]
(ii) all balls in bag A are of the same colour, [2]
(iii) there are exactly three white balls in bag A, given that at least one white ball has been
drawn and put in bag A. [3]
Suppose now bag A has exactly two white balls and one black ball and that all the remaining
balls are put in a bag B. A bag is randomly selected by tossing a fair coin and one ball is drawn
from it. Find the probability that the ball drawn is white. [2]
Solutions*
(i)P(no white balls in bag A)
=
9 8 7
12 11 10
=
21
55

(ii) P(all balls in bag A are the same colour)
=
3 2 1
12 11 10
+
5 4 3
12 11 10
+
4 3 2
12 11 10

=
3
44

(iii)Let X denotes the number of white balls drawn.
( )
P 3 1 X X =
=
( )
( )
P 3 1
P 1
X X
X
=

( )
( )
P 3
P 1
X
X
=
=

=
3 2 1
12 11 10
| |

|
\

21
1
55
| |

|
\
=
1
220

34
55
=
1
136

(iv) Required probability
= ( ) ( ) P bag A and white ball P bag B and white ball +
=
1 2 1 1
2 3 2 9
| | | |
+
| |
\ \
=
7
18

9
9 A survey was conducted by the Ministry of Public Transport (MPT) in July 2009 to determine
the waiting time, denoted as X minutes, of a bus passenger. The bus company claims the mean
waiting time for each bus passenger was 30 minutes. Data from 90 randomly selected bus
passengers are collected and their waiting times are summarised as shown below:
( ) 30 x

= 90, ( )
2
30 x

= 2037.
(i) Calculate the unbiased estimate of the mean and variance of X. What do you understand
by the term unbiased estimate? [3]
(ii) An audit company suspects that the bus company is underestimating the mean waiting
time. Conduct an appropriate test at 5% level of significance. [4]
(iii) State, giving a reason, whether it is necessary for the waiting time to follow a normal
distribution for the test to be valid. [1]
(iv) A year later, MPT wants to find out if there is a change in the mean waiting time. Data
from 100 randomly selected bus passengers are collected and their waiting times has a
sample mean of 29.3 minutes and a sample standard deviation is 4.5.
Find the set of values of if MPT were to conclude that there is a change in the mean
waiting time at % level of significance. [3]

10
Solutions*
(i) x =
90
90
+ 30 = 31
s
2
=
( )
2
90
1
2037
89 90
| |
|
|
\
=
1947
89
or 21.9 (to 3 sig figs)

unbiased estimate means the mean of the estimate is expected to
equal to the parameter when collected infinitely(many times).
E() = p where is estimate and p is parameter

(ii) Test
0 1
: 30 vs : 30 H H = > and perform a upper-tailed
z-test at 5% significance level.
Under
0
H , X ~ (30,
2
90

).
As
2
is unknown, estimate with s
2
=
1947
89

The test Statistic, Z =
s
n
X
~ N(0,1).
Using GC, p-value = 0.0212644905,
Since p-value = 0.0213 < 0.05, we reject
0
H and conclude that
there is sufficient evidence at 5% significance level to say that that
the bus company is underestimating the mean waiting time.
H
1
: >
30

(iii)It is not necessary for the waiting times to follow a normal
distribution, as 90 n = is large, Central Limit Theorem states that
the sampling distribution of X is approximately normal.

(iv) Test
0
: 30 H = against
1
: 30 H .
Perform a 2-tailed Z-test at % significance level.
Under
0
H , X ~ (30,
2
100

).
As
2
is unknown, estimate with s
2
=
100
99
(4.5
2
) = 20.4545454545
The test statistic Z =
s
n
X
~N(0,1) (approximately)
x = 29.3, s
2
= 20.4545454545
Using GC, z = 1. 548 and p-value = 0.12168805432.

To reject
0
H , p-value <
100

## . 12.1 < (3 sf)

11
10 Brook News Corporation has 150 printing presses. The probability of a printing press needing
minor repair weekly is p. The number of printing presses needing minor repair weekly is
denoted by X. Given that 75Var(X) = 2{E(X)}
2
, show that p =
1
5
, [3]
(i) Find the probability that less than 28 printing presses need minor repair in a week. [2]
(ii) Find the least possible value of n such that the probability of at most n printing presses
needs minor repair weekly exceeds 0.6. [2]
(iii) Using a suitable approximation, find the probability that at most 37 printing presses
needs minor repair in a week. [3]
(iv) Find the probability that the mean number of printing presses needing minor repair
weekly is between 25.5 and 32(inclusive) over a period of 50 weeks? [3]
Solutions*
X ~ B(150, p)
E(X) = 150 p, Var(X) = 150 p(1 p)
75Var(X) = 2{E(X)}
2

75{150 p(1 p)} = 2{150p}
2

75(1 p) = 300p
1 p = 4p p =
1
5

(i)Let X denotes the random variable of the number of printing
presses that needs minor repair weekly.
1
B 150,
5
X
| |
|
\

Required probability
= ( ) P 28 X < = ( ) P 27 X
= 0.310 (to 3 sig figs)

(ii) ( ) P 0.6 X n >
Using GC, 31. n =

(iii)Since 60 n = is large, 30 5 np = > , 120 5 nq = >
( ) N 30,24 approx X
( ) ( ) P 37 P 37.5 (cc) X X = = 0.937.(to 3 sig figs) (ans)

(iv)Let X denotes the random variable of the mean number of
printing presses needs minor repair weekly

1 2 50
...
50
X X X
X
+ + +
=
Since 50 n = is large, by Central Limit Theorem,
24
N 30,
50
X
| |
|
\
approx

( )
P 25.5 32 0.998. X = (to 3 sig figs)

1125
5625

12
11 Consider the data obtained from a chemical process where the yield of the process, y, is
determined by the reaction temperature, x.

Temperature (
o
C), x 5 55 60 6 7 7 8 8

(i) Calculate the correlation coefficient, and the line of regression of y on x. [3]
(ii) It was discovered that one of the results may be wrong. Give a sketch of the scatter
diagram. Giving a reason, identify a data pair which is most likely to be incorrect.
[2]
(iii) The corrected data gave the correlation coefficient as 0.9964053552. State, giving a
reason, which of the least squares regression lines, y on x or x on y, should be used to
express a possible linear relation between y and x. [1]
(iv) Using the appropriate regression line, estimate the reaction temperature when the yield is
178 g/dm
3
o
C. Comment on its reliability. [2]
Solutions*
(i) the correlation coefficient, r = 0.939
the line of regression of y on x is y = 50.4 + 1.69x

SetStatDiagnostics
M

(ii)

From the scatter diagram, x = 55, y = 160 (55,160) may be
wrong (an outlier) because the data pair is farthest from the
regression line of y on x.

Label axis &
Plot
(iii)As x is the independent variable, y on x should be used.

13

(iv) Regression line is y on x, y = 29.2 + 1.96x
178 = 29.2 + 1.96x x = 75.918 76 (to nearest
o
C)
r is close to 1 and y = 178 is within data range(interpolated)
the estimate for x is reliable.

14
12 A chef bought two kinds of fishes in a wet market. The weight of groupers and weight of
pomfrets bought are modelled as having independent normal distributions with the following
means and standard deviations.
Means (kg) Standard deviations (kg)
Weight of grouper

Weight of pomfret 1.8 0.5

The weight W, in kg, of a randomly chosen grouper has mean, kg and standard deviation,
kg.
(i) Given that P(W < 3.3) = P(W > 5.3) = 0.15, state the value of .
Show that = 0.965, correct to 3 significant figures. [3]
(ii) Find the probability that out of three randomly chosen groupers, two weigh between 3.3
kg and 5.3 kg each and one weighs more than 5.3 kg. [3]

The price of groupers is \$8.50 per kg and the price of pomfrets is \$6.30 per kg
(iii) Find the mean of the total price of four groupers and six pomfrets and show that variance
of the total price is 328.7, correct to 4 significant figures. [4]
(iv) Find the probability that the total price of four groupers and six pomfrets lies between
\$220 and \$300. [1]

15
Solutions*
By symmetry, =
3.3 5.3
2
+
= 4.3

(i) P(W < 3.3) = 0.15
3.3 4.3
P( ) Z

< = 0.15

= 1.03643338
= 0.964847349 0.965

(ii) W ~ N(4.3, 0.965
2
)
Required probability
= P(3.3 < W < 5.3) P(3.3 < W < 5.3) P(W > 5.3) 3
= (0.7) (0.7) (0.15) 3
= 0.2205

(iii) T = 8.5(W
1
+ W
2
+ W
3
+ W
4
) + 6.3(F
1
+ F
2
+ + F
6
)
Let T denotes the total price of four groupers and six pomfrets.
E(T) = 8.5(E(W
1
) + E(W
2
) + E(W
3
) + E(W
4
))
+ 6.30(E(F
1
) + E(F
2
) + E(F
3
) + E(F
4
) + E(F
5
) + E(F
6
))
= 8.5(4 4.3) + 6.30(6 1.8)
= 214.24

VAR(T) = 8.5
2
(VAR(W
1
) + VAR(W
2
) + VAR(W
3
) + VAR(W
4
))
+ 6.30
2
(VAR(F
1
) + VAR(F
2
) + VAR(F
3
) + VAR(F
4
) + VAR(F
5
) +
VAR(F
6
))
= 8.5
2
(4 0.965
2
) + 6.30
2
(6 0.5
2
)
= 269.90388876 + 59.535
= 328.659025 = 328.7

(iv)P(220 < T < 300)
= 0.375341846
= 0. 375

End of Paper