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WELDING AND NON

DESTRUCTIVE
TESTING





Power Management Institute
Noida
IME/06
(Restricted Circulation Only)

CONTENTS


SI. NO. TITLE PAGE NO
1.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON WELDING TERMS AND
DEFINITION
1
2. POWER SOURCE FOR ARC WELDING 15
3. THE SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING PROCESS 20
4. GAS SHIELDED ARC WELDING PROCESS 33
5.
WELDABILITY OF CARBON MANGANESE, LOW ALLOY
STEEL & STAINLESS STEEL
64
6. THERMAL TREATMENT 81
7. WELD IMPERFECTION 91
8. DESTRUCTIVE TESTING 118
9. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING 122
10.
FIELD APPLICATION IN A THERMAL OF WELDING
TECHNOLOGY POWER STATION
165
11. SAFETY IN WELDING
211

PMI, NTPC 1
1. General Introduction on Welding Term and
Definition


GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Welding is the best process to join metals. It is the only way to join permanently
two or more pieces of metal to make them act as one piece. Historical
development of welding can be traced back to ancient times, but the modern
welding process used today began just before the end of last century. Sir
Humphrey Davies of England is credited with providing a foundation for modern
welding with two of his discoveries. One was the discovery of acetylene and the
second was the production of an arc between two carbon electrodes. These two
discoveries lead to development of method for generating local high temperatures.
Although, today it is possible to make welds between metals without increase in
temperature by some special techniques but most of the process call for an
increase in temperature locally so that metal melts, bridges the gap and on
solidification becomes united. Therefore welding is a heat dominated technology.

WELDING PROCESSES & CLASSIFICATION

There are well over 35 different processes in use today and many new ones are
being developed. The classification of these processes or the broad grouping can
be done taking into consideration

Factors like source of heat, type of shielding, manual, automatic, semiautomatic
etc. Since the common factor in most of the welding processes is heat, so the way
in which the metal is heated becomes the point of distinction between the
processes, and can be conveniently used for classification. The American welding
society defines a welding process as a material joining process which produces
coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable with or without application of
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pressure or by the application of pressure alone and with or without the use of filler
material.

The different welding processes are broadly grouped under following heads:

Thermo Chemical:

In this type of process heat required to fuse the joint is provided by an exothermic
reaction. The example of this type is the common gas welding in which heat is
generated by combustion of acetylene gas.

Electric Resistance :

Resistance welding processes bring the fusion of two metallic parts with the heat
obtained from the resistance of the metal to the flow of electric current through
them. After the two surfaces are heated they are pressed together to make the
joint. Various welding processes using this method of heat generation are spot
welding, seam welding using welding of sheet metals. Another important process
making use of electrical resistances is the electric slag welding. This process
employs the electric resistance heating of a bath of molten slag carried over the
weld pool.

Arc Welding:

These are the most widely used processes for day to day welding. The arc welding
group includes eight specific popular processes each different from other in some
respect of other. In these processes the coalescence of metals is brought about by
heating them with an arc formed between the positive and negative electrode and
with or without application pressure or filler metal. All the arc welding processes
can further be subdivided into two sub groups (A) Flux shielding arc welding
processes and (B) Gas shielded arc welding processes.

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Solid Phase Welding;

These are the processes in which the two sides of a joint are brought into intimate
atomic contact either by mechanical deformation of by atomic diffusion or by a
combination of cold pressure welding applicable only to ductile metals such as
aluminum and copper uses mechanical deformation at room temperature. Hot
pressure welding is similar, but uses heat to render the metal ductile. Explosive
welding impacts the parts coverings local deformation and possibly heat at the
interface. Friction welding employs rubbing at the interface to generate heat cause
deformation. Various forms of pressure butt welding, so called because they can
join bars, tubes, sections end to end, use heat generated by flame, electric
induction, electric resistance across the joint.

ELECTRIC ARC AND ARC PHYSICS

In arc welding an arc is generated between anode and cathode and the heat
generated by this arc is used for welding. In the arc processes there are two basic
types of welding arcs. One uses the non- consumable electrodes and the other
consumable electrodes. The non- consumable electrodes does not melt in the arc
and the filler metal is not carried across the arc stream. Example of this type of
process is the Gas Tungsten arc welding. In the consumable electrode welding
process the electrode melts in the arc and is carried across the arc gets deposited
by filler metal.

Arc action can best be considering the DC tungsten electrode arc is connected as
shown in the figure .on the left the tungsten arc is connected for direct current
electrode negative. When the arc is started the electrode becomes hot and emits
electrons. The emitted electrons attracted Towards the positive pole, travel through
the arc gap and raise the temperature of the argon Shielding gas atoms by
colliding with them. The collisions of electron and atoms. Produce thermal ion is
action of some of the atoms of the shielding gas. The positively charged gaseous
atoms arc attracted to the negative electrode where their kinetic ( Motion ) energy
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is converted to heat. This heat keeps the tungsten hot enough for electron
emission of electrons from The surface of the tungsten electrode ( cathode ) is
known as thermonic emission. Positive ions Also cross the arc. They travel from
positive pole ( the work in this case ) to the negative pole (electrode tungsten in
this case.) The largest portion of current flow approximately is via electron flow
rather than the flow of positive ions. The continuous feeding of electrons into the
welding circuit from the power source account for the continuing balance between
electrons and the ions in the arc. The electrons colliding with the work creates
intense localized heat which produces melting and deep penetration of the base
mental. When the polarity of the tungsten electrode is changes and made positive
reverse process takes place as show on the right side of the figure. Heat in this
case is concentrated at the tungsten electrode, and wide melted area with shallow
penetration.

ARC REGIONS

The arc length between the electrodes and the work piece divided in three regions.
There are three area which are basically identified in an arc column. These are
cathode area, plasma area anode area.

The anode area is the area adjacent to the anode. The temperature in this region
is the highest among the three regions. The very high temperature is a result of the
electron impingement upon anode. The collision of the fast moving electrons with
the gas atoms account for the heat in the plasma region as the central region. The
area adjacent to the cathode is called the cathode region. The heat generated in
this area is due to the ionic bombardment on the cathode. The cathode. The
cathode region, is generally area of medium heat. It is anode area and roughly one
third is available in the cathode region.

In the consumable electrons welding- arc, the electrode is melted and molten metal
is carried accress the arc. A uniform arc length is maintained between the
electrode and the base metal by feeding the electrode into the arc as fast as it
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melts. The arc atmosphere has a great effect on the polarity of maximum heat. In
the shielded metal arc welding the arc atmosphere depends on the types and
composition of the coating of the electrode.

The forces that cause metal to transfer across the arc are similar for all
consumable electrode arc welding process. The type of metal transfer dictates the
usefulness of welding process. It effects the welding position that can be used,
depth of the weld penetration, stability of the welding pool, weld contour etc. the
type of transfer depends upon current density polarity of electrode, electrode size
etc. the other important factors affecting the metal transfer are the surface tension
of the metal droplets and the weld pool, gravitational forces acting electro magnetic
forces in the plasma stream.

Three types of metal transfer occur in metal arc welding depending upon the
factors mentioned above. These are spray transfer, dip transfer and globular
transfer in spray type transfer the metal is transferred from the electrode to the
weld paddle in axial stream of fine droplets. the sizes















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Of the droplets vary but are of smaller diameter than that of the electrode. This
type of spray occurs at high current density. Maximum deposition rates, and high
heat inputs are obtained using this mode of metal transfer. This type of metal
transfer is generally limited to down hand or flat position welding.

In dip transfer at the start of the cycle, the end of the electrode melts into a small
globule of liquid metal. Next the molten globule advances towards the work piece
creating short circuits. At this stage the metal transfer is by gravity and surface
tension, and arc is extinguished. Then the current rises up and by nature of
magnetic pinch force common to high current densities the electric contact is
broken and the arc is reignited. With the arc renewed, the cycle begins again.
Frequency of arc extincted and resignation varies from 20 to 200 times per second.
This type of transfer usually occurs at low current densities. During short circuiting
the current rises up rapidly which causes expulsion of wire from the puddle,
resulting in weld spatler. In order to reduce this effect, an inductor is added in the
secondary circuit of the power supply.

Globular transfer occurs at voltage and current densities intermediate between the
conditions for spray and shot circuit. In this type of transfer a relatively large droplet
increases till gravity forces overcome the surface tension.












PMI, NTPC 7
TERMS AND DEFINATIONS

1. All- weld metal test specimen: A test specimen wherein the portion
being testing is composed wholly of weld metal.

2. As- welded: the condition of weld metal, welded joints and weldments
after welding prior to any subsequent aging , thermal, mechanical and
chemical treatments.

3. Axis of a weld: a line through the length of a weld , perpendicular to
the cross- section at its center of gravity.

4. Back Gouging : the forming of bevel or broove on the other side of a
partially welded joint to assure complete penetration upon subsequent
welding from the side.

5. Backhand Welding: A welding technique wherein the the welding torch
or gun is directed opposite to the progress of welding.

6. Backing: material, weld (metal, asbestos, carbon, granular flux, gas etc.)
backing up the joint during weldings.

7. Backing filler metal: in the from of a ring strip or consumable insert,
fused in a single welding joint.

8. Backing pass: A pass made to deposit a backing weld.

9. Backing Ring: Backing in the from of a ring, generally used is the
welding of piping.

10. Backing weld: Backing in the from of a weld.

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11. Backstep sequence: a longitudinal sequence wherein the weld bead
increments are deposited is the direction opposite to the progress of
welding the joint.

12. Block sequence: A combined longitudinal and build up sequence for a
continuous multiple-pass weld wherein separated lengths are completely
or partially built up in cross- section before intervening lengths are
deposited.

13. Boxing: The operation of continuing a fillet weld around a corner of a
member as an extension of the principal weld.

14. Braze Welding: A method of welding whereby a weld is made using a
filler metal, having a liquidus above 800
0
F (427
0
C) and below the
solidus of the base metals. The filler metal is not distributed is the
joint by capillary attraction.

15. Build up sequence: The order in which the weld beads of a multiples-
pass well are deposited with respect to the cross- section of the
joint.

16. Cascade Sequence: A combined longitudinal and building up sequence
wherein weld beads are deposited in overlapping layers, (in manual
shielded metal are welding a backstep sequence is normally used).

17. Concavity: The maximum distance from the face of the a concave fillet
weld perpendicular to a line joining the toes.

18. Continuous Sequence: A longitudinal sequence wherein each pass is
made continuously from one end of the joint to the other.

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19. Convexity: The maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld
perpendicular to a line joining the toes.

20. Corner Joint: A joint between two members located approximately at
right angles to each other in the from on an L.

21. Crater: In are welding, a depression at the termination of a weld bead
or in the weld pool beneath the electrode.

22. Crater Crack: A crack in the crater of a weld bead.

23. Double-Flare-Bevel-Groove-Weld: A type of groove weld.

24. Double-Flare-Veo-Groove-Weld: A type of groove weld .

25. Face Reinforcement: Reinforcement of weld at the side.

26. Faying Surface: That surface of a member which is in conbtact or in close
proximity with another member to which it is to be joined.

27. Forehand Welding: A welding technique wherein the welding torch or
gun is directed toward the progress of welding.

28. Full Fillet Weld: A fillet weld whose size is equal to the thickness of
the thinner member joined .

29. Fusion Zone: The area of base metal melted as determined on the
cross-section of a weld.

30. Groove Face: The surface of a member included is the groove.

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31. Groove weld: a weld made in the groove between two member to be
joined. The standard types of groove welds are as follows:

Square- Groove Weld
Single - Vee-Groove Weld
Single - Bevel- Groove Weld
Single - U- Groove Weld
Single - J- Groove Weld
Single - Flare-Vee-Groove Weld
Single - Flare-Bevel-Groove Weld
Double Vee- Groove Weld
Double U Groove Weld
Double - J Groove Weld
Double - Flare- Vee- Groove Weld
Double- Flare Bevel Groove Weld
Double - Bevel- Groove Weld

32. Heat Affected Zone: That portion of the base metal which has not
been melted, but whose mechanical properties of microstructure have
been altered by the heat of welding, brazing, soldering or or cutting.

33. Pipe Welding: The position of a pipe joint wherein the exis of the the
pipe is approximately horizontal and the pipe is not rotated during
welding.

34. Fillet Weld: The position of welding wherein if welding is performed
on the upper side approximately horizontal surface and against an
approximately vertical surface

35. Groove Weld: The position of welding wherein the axis of the weld
lies in an approximately vertical plane.

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36. Horizontal Rolled Position:

Pipe Welding: The position of a pipe joint wherein welding is
performed in the flat position by rotating the pipe.

37. Incomplete Fusion: Fusion which is less than complete.

38. Interpass Temperature: In a multiple - pass weld, the temperature
(minimum or maximum as specified) of the deposited weld metal before
the next pass is started.

39. Joint Penetration: The minimum depth a groove or flange weld
extends from its face into a joint, exclusive of reinforcement.

40. Lead Angle: The angle that the electrode makes in advance of a line
propendicular to the weld axis at the point of welding, taken in a
longitudnal plane.

41. Leg of a Fillet Weld: The distance from the root of the joint to the tee
of the fillet weld.

42. Longitudinal Sequence: The order in which the increments if a
continuous weld are deposited with respected to its length.

43. Melt-Thru: Complete joint penetration of weld metal in a joint welded
from one side, with visible root reinforcement.

44. Overhead Position: The position of welding wherein welding is performed
from the underside of the joint.

45 Partial Joint Penetration: Joint penetration which is less than complete.

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46. Progressive Block Sequence: A block sequence wherein successive
blocks are complete are completed progressively along the joint, either
from one end to other or from the center of the joint toward either
end.

47. Protective Atmosphere: A gas envelope surrounding the part to the
brazed or welded wherein the gas composition is controlled with
respected to chemical composition, dew point, pressure, flow rate, etc.
example are inert gases, combused fuel gases, hydrogen, vacuum.

48. Reinforcement Of Weld: Weld metal in excess of the specified weld
size.

49. Root Penetration: The depth groove weld extends into the root of a
joined measured on the centerline of the root -section.

50. Root Reinforcement: Reinforcement of weld at the side other than that
from which welding was done.

51. Selective Block Sequence: A block sequence wherein successive
blocks are completed in a certain order selected to create a
predetermined stress pattern.

52. Slag Inclusion: Non- metallic solid material entrapped is weld metal or
between weld metal and base metal.

53. Stress Relief Heat Ireatment : Uniform heating of a structure or portion
thereof to a sufficient, below the critical, range, to relieve the major
portion of the residual stresses, followed by uniform cooling, (Note-:
terms normalizing, annealing,etc. are misnomers for this application .

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54. Stringer Bead: A type of weld bead made without appreciable transverse
oscillation.

55. Theoretical: The distance from the beginning of the root of the joint
perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right- triangle that can be
inscribed within one fillet- weld cross- section.

56. The shortest distance from the root of a fillet weld to its.

57. Tee Crack: A crack in the heat- affected zone generally not extending to
the base metal.

58. Undercut: A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe the toe
or root of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal.

59. Vertical Position: The position of welding wherein the axis of the weld is
approximately vertical.

60. Pipe Welding: The position of a pipe joint wherein welding is performed in
the horizontal position and the pipe may or may not be rotated.

61. Wandering Sequence: A longitudinal sequence wherein the weld bead
increments are deposited at random.

62. Wander Block Sequence : A block sequence wherein successive blocks
are completed at random after several starting blocks have been
completed.

63. Weld: A localized coalescence of metal wherein coalescence is
produced either by heating to suitable temperatures, with or without. The
application of pressure, or by the application of pressure along, and with or
without the use of filler metal. The filler metal either has a melting point
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approximately the same as the base metals or has a melting point
below that of the base metals but above 800
0
F (427
0
C).

64. Weld Metal: That portion or a weld which has been melted during
welding.

65. Weldment: An assembly whose component parts are joined by welding.

66. Work Angle : The angle that the electrode makes with a line perpendicular
to the weld axis at the point of welding taken in a transverse.





PMI, NTPC 15
2. Power Source for Arc Welding


GENERAL

The arc welding process requires current sufficient in amount to produce melting of
base metal and filler metal a proper voltage to maintain an arc. The voltage
requirement is from 17 to 45 volts and currents requirement is from 10 to 500
ampr AC or DC normally.

The voltage supplied for industrial purpose is too high to use directly. Therefore
means are incorporated on an arc welding power supply to reduce the high
input voltage down to a suitable range(20 to 80 volts). Transformer, generator, as
transformer rectifier provide the facility of reducing 230/440 volts power to the
voltage required for arc welding process.

Welding Generators

The welding generators are mainly used for high quality welding which require
direct current. They are mostly driven by induction motor which are connected
to 400v, 3 phase, 50 cycles main. Some times they are coupled to diesel
engines so that they can be used in places where there is no power. In both
cases the primer movers are made to run at constant speed.

Welding generator have three primary viz; field coils, armature and Commutator.
An electromagnetic force is induced is a coils, moving inside a magnetic field.
The field is produced by passing a direct current through the field coil. The
armature is rotated by a prime mover at constant speed inside this field. As a
result an alternating current is produced and this is fed to the commutator. The
a.c. power is packed up by the carbon brushes which ride on the surface of the
commutator and convert the a. c. power to direct current.

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The transformer consist essentially of two magnetically coupled electrical circuits.
The first circuits to which energy is supplied from an AC supply system is
called primary winding and the second, from which the energy of same form
and frequency but of a different voltage is delivered to the load, is called
secondary winding. It is obvious that the transformer is a alternating
current power supply.

Rectifiers are used to change the A.C. supply obtained from transformer into
D.C. supply. A suitable circuits of semi conductors made of selenium or silicon is
incorporated after the transformer to give a D.C. output.

A comparative statement of the three power sources is given below with
advantage of each.

WELDING POSSIBLE CURRENT OUTPUT COMMENTS
MACHINES
COMMERCIALLY
AVAILABLE DC AC AC/DC

Transformers - Capital cost low
- Running cost low.
- Most widely used

Transformer -Capital cost high
Rectifiers - Running cost is higher
than transformer
- Suitable for wider
range of electrodes

Generator Motor - Capital cost similar to the
Driven transformer rectifier.
- Running cost is more
expensive than
transformer rectifier
- Smooth current output

Generator Engine - Capital cost higher
Driven - Expensive running cost
- Used for field work.

One of the important criteria for selection of the power source is duty cycle, A
welding power supply is called upon to deliver output during limited periods only for
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manual welding. The welder after consuming one electrode this time the
welding power supply is allowed to idle. So it is not essential the power
supply should given rated current all the time is on. The amount of time is
expressed as a percentage. This percentage is called duty cycle.



Thus a 60% duty means that the power supply can deliver rated load output
for 6 minutes out every 10 minutes. A 100% duty cycle power supply can
produce rated output continuously without exceeding the established temperature
limit. For manual welding the power sources are rated generally at 60% duty
cycle and for semiautomatic and automatic processes the rating is usually 100%.

In the above paragraphs various welding power sources have been described
taking into consideration their constructional features and the type of current
output they give. One more important point which will have to be taken in to
consideration while selecting a power source is its volt-ampre characteristics of
a power source is obtained by measuring and plotting the output voltage of the
machine. The obtained by measuring and plotting the output voltage of the
machine. The voltage & current output measuring circuits consist of a pure
resistance load which is varied from minimum or no load to maximum or short
circuits. Readings are taken which when plotted on a graph give a volt-ampre
characteristic of a power source.

There are two basic types of power sources expressed by their volt-ampre
output characteristics. One is the constant current in which the volt ampre
characteristics curve is drooping type. The other type is know as the constant
voltage type and has a relatively flat voltage ampere curve. Both of these terms are
slightly misleading since neither power source produces a absolute
constant current nor constant current nor constant voltage output. The fig.
Shows both the types of curves (fig.2)

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The constant voltage curve is essentially flat but with a slight drop. This may be
adjusted slightly up or down to change the voltage, however it will never rise to as
high as open circuit voltage of the constant current power source. This is one
reasons that the constant voltage power source is not used for manual shielded
metal are welding with covered electrodes. It is mostly used for automatic & semi-
automatic welding.

It is know that short arc has lower voltage and long arc has higher voltage. With a
short arc, the power source produces more current and with longer arc the power
arc the power source produces less current. This is true in both the case constant
voltage and constant current power sources. The figure shows the arc curves
super imposed on the power source curve. The inter section of arc gives the curve
and source curve operating point of the welding machine. It can be noted from the
figure that in a C.C. power source when the arc length changed the corresponding
change in current value is not much. In manual welding the arc length changes
depending on the welder and it is not possible to keep the arc length constant. So
in manual welding it is not desirable that the corresponding change in the current
value should not change drastically. This is the reason that constant power
sources are more popular for all type of manual welding processes.
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The C.V. power source produces substantially the same voltage at no load and at
rated or full load. If the load in the same voltage at no load and at rated or full
load. If the load in the circuit changes, the power source automatically adjusts its
current output to satisfy the requirements. This power source assures a self
regulating arc based on the fixed rate of feed wire. A small change in arc voltage
(arc length ) results in a relatively large change in welding current. Therefore any
decrease in arc length greatly increase the melt off rate of the wire and this brings
back the arc length to normal. (Ref. Fig.3)

WELDING CURRENT AMPERS
FIG NO. 3
VOLT AMPERE SLOPE Y/S WELDING OPERATION

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3. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process
(SMAW)

GENERAL
The shielded metal arc welding is a process where-in-coalscence is produced by
heating with an electric arc between a covered metal electrode and the work.
Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering. Pressure is not
used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode.

Prinicipal of operation:

The shielded metal arc
welding process shown
by figure 4 consist of an
arc between a covered
electrode and the base
metal. The arc is initiated
by momentarily touching
the electrode to the base
metal. The heat of the
arc melts the surface of
the base metal to forms
a molten pool at the end
of the electrode. The
melted electrode metal is transferred across the arc into the molten pool and
becomes the deposited metal. The deposit is covered by slag which comes from
the electrode coating. The arc and the immediate area is enveloped by an
atmosphere of protective gas produced by the desintegration of electrode coating.
Most of the electrode core wire is transferred across the arc however, small
particles escape from the weld area as spatter.

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Shielded metal arc welding process is one of the most popular arc welding
processes. It has maximum flexibility and can weld many metal in all positions from
near minimum thickness. The investment for equipment is very small and most
welders have the necessary skill to use the process. It is used in manufacturing
operations and widely used in the field work for construction and maintenance. The
manual method of applying shielded metal arc welding process is most common
and represents 99% of all the use of the process. The automatic method is used
and is called gravity welding but has limited application. The manual shielded arc
welding process has all position capabilities as shown in fig. 5. Welding in the
horizontal, vertical and overhead positions depends on the type and size of the
electrode and welding current and the welders skill.







PMI, NTPC 22
Figure 6 shows the circuit diagram for
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). It shows
the welding cable used to conduct welding
current from the power source to arc. The
electrode lead forms the other side. They are
attached to the respective work and
electrode terminals of the welding machine.
Welding can be accomplished with either
alternating current (AC) or direct current with
electrode negative (this is also refered as straight polarity) or electrode positive
(reverse polarity).

They are two equipments i.e. the power source and the electrode in the above
circuit which are very imported and a little detail study regarding these equipment
is essential. The power source is the heart of the shielded metal arc welding
system. Its primary is to provide electric power of proper current and voltage to
maintain a controllable and stable welding arc. The normal current range is form 25
amps. To 500 amps. Using conventional size electrodes. The arc voltage varies
from 15 to 35 volts. For manual SMAW the output characteristics of the power
source must be of a constant current type.

Detailed description of the various types of power sources and their uses is given
in the chapter on Power Sources.

Next important item is the consumable electrode. The consumable electrode for
SMAW consist of a bare wire of suitable composition covered with a coating called
flux. The selection of covered electrode for specific work is based on the electrode
useability and the composition and properly of deposited weld metal. In order to
properly select an electrode it is better to understand the basic function of coating,
the basic of specifying a particular electrode and the deposited weld metal
properties.

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Electrode Coating:

Flux coating for the shielded metal are welding electrode is to provide one or more
of the following characteristics:

1. Gas from the decomposition of certain ingredients of the coating to shield
the arc from atmosphere.

2. Deoxiders for scavenging and purifying the deposited weld metal.

3. Slag formers to protects the deposited weld metal with slag from
atmospheric oxidation.
4. Ionizing elements to make the arc more stable and to operate with
alternating current.

5. Alloying elements to provide special characteristics to the deposited weld
metal.

6. Iron powder to improve the deposition rate or the productivity of the
electrode.

To import the above mentioned properties to the flux certain organic and
inorganic materials in appropriate mesh size are mixed together. A paste is
formed out of this mix by adding suitable binders. This paste with good green
strength is applied to the bare metallic wire. These covered electrodes are then
dried and baked at suitable temperatures. Electrodes with three types of
coating are normally used & manufactured in India. They are :

Cellulosic Coated Electrodes:

This material is used in the flux under various brand names. It is produced by
digesting hard or soft wood or similar material, bleaching the pulp so formed
PMI, NTPC 24
and finally washing, drying and grading it into the required mesh sizes. This
graded celluslosic material is mixed with selicate binders and coated on the
bare wire to give cellulose coated electrode. While welding, the cellulose
decomposes in the arc forming carbon monoxide and hydrogen in larger
quantities. These gases rush outwards from the arc and push the atmosphere
away from the molten puddle. The gas produced, raise the arc voltage and
thereby increase. The amount of heat produced from the electricity in the arc.

The cellulose electrode has therefore, very very hot arc even at lower current
value and this together with the ases evolved from the coating at high pressure
give rise to a digging arc and deep penetration. There is very little slag formed
and this makes welding in all positions possible. This type of electrode is
extremely good for pipe welding.

Rutile Coated Electrodes:

Rutile is a crystalline form of titanium dioxide which occurs in certain rocks. It is
found mainly in beach sand. Rutile is one of the most widely used mineral in
electrode coating. It is an efficient arc stabilizer ,generally confers to good
running properties on the electrode and is a good slag former. Rutile with
silicates and a negligible amount of cellulose form the flux for the rutile coated
electrodes. Gas shielding by this type of electrodes is not much but being a
good slag former forms a thick slag easy to peel on the weld metal. The slag
covers the metal completely and takes care of refining and strengthening of the
weld metal. The penetration obtained by this electrode is medium. The
electrode can be used in all positions.

Basic Coated Electrodes:

These type of electrodes are also called low electrodes. Larger quantities of
hydrogen are generated from the cellulose coated electrodes. Hydrogen has
been found to be harmful in welding of medium carbon, low carbon, alloy and
PMI, NTPC 25
stainless steels. To avoids this hydrogen problem basic coated electrodes were
developed , which give negligible quantities of hydrogen. The flux of these
electrodes have calcium and other carbonates and fluorides. The CO2
generated from the carbonate given effective shielding to the weld metal. The
electrodes are baked at very high temperatures to remove traces of moisture
from them. The arc of low hydrogen electrodes is not harsh but the penetration
obtained is sufficient. For most welding jobs. A thick slag is formed over the
weld metal which does not peel off easily. But due to this hard, sticking slag the
weld metal is cooled slowly and exhibits good mechanical properties. Weld
metal susceptibility to cracking is reduced by these electrodes.

To the above three type of coatings various other ingredients are also added to
the flux to improve their properties. Iron powder imparts a number of desirable
operating characteristics to the electrode. It improves the stability for one. Iron
powder in the coating melts and remains unoxidised and joins the wield pool .
This increases the deposition of efficiency of 300% have been developed.
These electodes need higher currents to operate .Small quantities of alloying
elements are also added to the flux coating which melt and go into the weld
metal to enhance its properties . The alloying elements added to the coating
are Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, v, Co etc.Ther are so many different types of coatings
which can be given to different types of bare wires with different operating
positions and currents specified for each type. So to specify a particular type of
electrode there has to be some established system. The American welding
Society has established such a system for identifying and specifying different
types of electrodes. The system is the most popular and in use currently.

In setting up its classification for welding electrodes and AWS has adopted a
series of four or five digit numbers prefixed with letter E.

The first two (or three in case of five digit numbers) indicate the tensile strength
of weld metal in thousands of pounds per square inch.

PMI, NTPC 26
The third digit indicates the position in which the electrode can be
used.Numbers 1,2,3 are used in the third digit.

1. indicates : All position
2. indicates : Horizontal & flat.
3. indicates : Vertical with downward progression.

The fourth digit indicates the type of coating and welding current used for the
electrode . Numbers 1 to 8 are used in fourth digit and indicate as given below :

Fourth digit Type of coating Type of current

0. : Cellulose Sodium DC +
1. : Cellulose Potassium AC/DC +
2. : Rutile sodium AC/DC
3. : Rutile Pottassium AC/DC
4. : Rutile Iron powder AC/DC
5. : Low hydrogen Sodium DC +
6. : Low hydrogen Pottassium AC/DC +
7. : Iron Powder Iron Oxide AC/DC
8. : Iron Powder Low Hydrogen AC/DC +

(DC + indicates Dirrect current electrde positive,
DC Dirrect current electrode negative. )

Example:

E7018 indicates electrode having 70,000 pounds per square inch tensile strength
which can be used in all position weding and having iron powder low hydrogen
type of coating to be use with AC or DC + power source.


PMI, NTPC 27
Manufacture of covered Electrodes:

There are three basic parts of covered electrodes:

Core wire, the chemicals and minerals that comprise of the coating and the liquid
blinders that hardens and holds it all together. The steps required to manufacture
the electrodes are given in the flow chart.

The core wire for mild steel and low alloy steel electrodes is normally a low carbon
steel having carbon content of about 0.10% low magenese and silicon content, and
minimum of phosphrus and sulpher. Wires drown of above composition are cut to
size and used as core wire for the electrodes. Additional Alloy content of Mn,
Cr, Ni etc. wherever required are added to the flux.

Electrodes after manufacture are to be stored properly,if not they pick up moisture
from atmosphere and the coating gets damaged .They are generally packed in
cellphone packets which are air tight . These packets are to be sorted in room with
temperature and humidity control. Before use the electrodes are placed in baking
ovens three to four hours before use.Recommend storage conditions are kept is
given in the chart below:


ELECTRODE RECOMMENDED RECOMMENDED HOLDING RECONDI
CLASSIFI- STORAGE UN- STORAGE OPEN OVEN TIONING
CATION OPENED BOXES BOXES

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


E-XX10 Dry @ room temp. Dry @ room temp. Not recommend Not done
E-XX11 Dry @ room temp. Dry @ room temp. Not recommnd Not done
E-XX12 Dry @ room temp. Dry @ room temp. Not recommnd Not done
PMI, NTPC 28


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

E-XX13 Dry @ room temp. Dry @ room temp. Not recommnd Not done
E-XX14 Dry @ room temp. 150-2000 F 150-2000 F 250-3000F
E-XX20 Dry @ room temp. 150-2000 F 150-2000 F 1 Hour
E-XX24 Dry @ room temp. 150-2000 F 150-2000 F


E-XX27 Dry @ room temp. 150-2000 F 150-2000 F
E-60 or Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 150-200o F 500-600 F
7015
E-60 or Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 150-200o F 1 Hour
7016
E-7018 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 150-200o F
E-7028 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 150-200o F
E-80&9015 Dry @ room temp. 250-450oF 200-250o F 600-700o F
E-80&9016 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 200-250o F 1 Hour
E-80&9018 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 200-250o F

E-90&12015 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 200-250o F 650-750o F
E-90&12016 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 200-250o F 1 hour
E-90&12018 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 200-250o F

E-XXX-15 Dry @ room temp. 250-450o F 150-200o F 450o F
or 16
Stainless Dry @room temp. 250-450o F 150-200o F 1 Hour


PMI, NTPC 29





















PMI, NTPC 30
TIG AND MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING CONSUMABLES
(Section chart for tubes (0 3, thickness maximum)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SL. Tube Process Tube material
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carbon Carbon Mo Icr1/2 Mo 21/2 Cr Imo Cr Mov 9Cr Imo 18/8 Stainless Steel
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Carbon TIC RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo RT-309/ER NI/Cr
ARC E-7018 E-7018 E-7018 E-7018 E-7018 E-7018 E-309/E NI Cr
3
Fe
2
2. Carbon MoTIG RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo RT-1/2 Mo. RT-309/er Ni Cr
3

ARC E-7018 AL E-7018 AL E-7018 AL E-7018 AL E-7018 AL E-309/E Ni Cr Fe
3
3. Icr mo TIG RT-Icr-1/2 Mo. RT


PMI, NTPC 31
Welding Electrode

Mild Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrode used in various NTPC Projects.

Classification Brand Name Manufacturer Code Usage

1. E-6013 Overcord 1 A general purpose electrode suitable for welding.
Philips-45-x 4 Minimum Tensile Strength 45/mm
2

Norma 2

2. E-6013 (IBR) Overcord 1 Suitable for radiographic quality welds.
Medio 2 Approved under IBR for welding pressure
Parts of carbon steel tubes and plates.
Vordian 3

3. E-7016 Indothreme 2 A general purpose low hydrogen electrode
Philips 56 4 suitable for welding hardenable steels,
Universe 1 alloy steels, malleable iron & spring steels,
commonly used for marking small weld on
heavy sections.

4. E-7018 Superatherme 2 Ageneral purpose low hydrogen electrode suitable
Supercito 1 for welding make steel and high strength, high
Ferroweld-II 3 carbon or alloy steel.
Philips- 36H 4

5. E-7018 Superathreme Spl. 2 Suitable for radiographic quality welds. Approved
Tenocito 1 under IBR for welding pressure parts of carbon
Philips 36 Hspl 4 steel marerial.
Ferroweld 7018 3


PMI, NTPC 32

PMI, NTPC 33
4. Gas Shielded Arc Welding Processes

GENERAL

The two most commonly used GSAW processes are Tungsten Inert gas welding
(TIG) and the metal shielded Arc welding process (MIG). TIG welding has become
more popular manual GSAW process and is welding used in shop and site for pipe
welding. TIG welding, of ten called Gas Tungsten Arc welding, is an arc welding
process which produces coalescence of metal by heating them with an arc
between a tungsten electrode (non-consumable) and the work. Shielding of the arc
is obtained from insert gas or gas mixtures.

The TIG welding process is show by fig. 7. The arc is initiated various ways which
will be explained later. The arc develops intense heat which melts the surface of
the base metal to form a molten pool. Filler metal is not added when thinner
materials edges joints are welded. For all but thinner materials and externally fed
or cold filler wire is generally used. The filler metal is not transferred across the
arc as SMAW, but is malted by it. The arc area is protected from the atmosphere
by the insert shielding gas which flows from the nozzle of the torch. The shielding
gas displaces the air so that the oxygen and nitrogen of the air does not come in
contact with the molten metal or the hot tungsten electrode. There is little or not
spatter and no smoke. The resulting weld is smooth and uniform and requires
minimum finish.

PMI, NTPC 34
The outstanding features of TIG welding are:

1. It will make high quality welds in almost all metal and alloys.
2. Very little, if any, post cleaning is required.
3. The arc and the weld pool are clearly visible to the welder.
4. There is no filler metal carried across the arc and so there is little or no
spatter.
5. Welding can be performed in all positions.
6. There is no slag produced that mights be trapped into the weld.

The nature of arc for welding, the electron flow and the effect of polarity is
explained in the chapter Arc Characteristics. The power source used for manual
TIG welding is constant current types as the arc length varies from time to time
depending on the welder. For starting an arc some times a high frequency unit is
incorporated in the power supply. The base circuit of HF oscillator consist of step
up transformer. The secondary windings of the air cored transformer is connected
in series with the welding circuits.

The transformer supplies 3 to 5 kilo volts to the capacitor C and electric charges
set up in the capacitor discharges across the spark gap. the transfer of electric
energy between the electric field of the capacitor and the magnetic field of the
output transformer create high frequency oscillatory currents in the circuit which
are introduced into the welding line and superimposed on the welding current. In
this manner high voltage pluses or spark trains, sufficiently intense to break down
the arc gap, are made available.

Superimposed high frequency currents are available with DC TIG equipment for
arc starting only and then it is switch. For AC work the HP spark train must be
phased correctly with the arc voltage so that are reignition occurs immediately
following a negative half cycle .A.C. and D.C. currents both are used for TIG
welding. Recommended types of currents for various TIG process for various
metal are given below :
PMI, NTPC 35

METAL WELDED AC DSCP DCRP

Low carbon steel G E NR
High carbon steel G E NR
Cast Iron G E NR
Stainless steel G E NR
Heat resisting alloys G E NR
Refractory Metals G E NR
Aluminium Alloys
Up to 0.6mm thick E NR G
Over 0.6mm thick E NR NR
Castings E NR NR
Beryllium G E NR
Copper and Alloys
Brass G E NR
De. Oxided Copper NR E NR
Silicon Bronze NR E NR

Magnesium Alloys

Up to 3mm thick E NR G
Over 3mm thick E Nr NR
Castings E NR NR
Silver G E NR
Titanium NR E NR


E Excellent, G Good, NR- Not Recommended


The electrode material for TIG welding should have following properties:
PMI, NTPC 36

High melting point, low electrical resistance, good heat conductivities and ability to
emit electron easily or good electron emmisitivity. Tungsten has the above
properties and is mostly used either 100% pure or with little thorium or zirconium.

AWS - ASIM TUNGSTEN THORIUM ZIRCONIUM
CLASSIFICATION NO. % MIN. % %

EWP 99.5 - -
EWTH-1 98.5 1 -
EWTH-2 97.5 2 -
EWTH 99.1 - 0.4

The electrodes are obtained in ground finish form or clean finish forms, the latter
referring to chemical cleaning of surface impurities. Tungsten electrodes of 99.5%
purity are used for comparatively lesser critical operations. Thoriated tungsten
electrodes with 1 to 2 % thorium have higher electron emissivity, better current
carrying capacity, longer life and greater resistance to contamination. With these
electrodes arc starting is easier and also the arc is more stable. Pure tungsten
electrodes are usually preferred for AC welding of aluminium and magnesium.
They can also be used with direct current . the current carrying capacity it lower
than alloyed electrodes. Pure tungsten electrodes are generally identified by a
green colour band.

The addition of 1% to 2% thoria increases the maximum current carrying capacity
by approximately 45- 50% for a given electrodes and does not form hemispherical
bob as does the pure tungsten. Thoriated tungsten electrodes are however
preferred dc currents, as the arc wanders when used on ac Red and yellow
colour bands are used widely to distinguish 2% and 1% alloyed electrodes
respectively . the stripped electrode is pure tungsten with the addition of a
longitudinal strip of 2% thoriated alloy running through its entire length. This
electrode has the common properties of pure and thoriated tungsten electrodes. It
PMI, NTPC 37
works well on ac application such as welding of aluminium and magnesium. The
stripped tungsten is identified by blue colour band in most of the cases.

Zirconium alloyed tungsten used in ac applications because of its high resistance
to contamination as well as good arc starting characteristics. These electrodes
also form a balled end. Zirconium alloyed electrodes are recommended. These
electrodes are identified by a brown colour band.

TABLE SUGGESTED CURRENT VALUES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ELCTRODE AC BALANCED DC SP DCRP
ARGON HELIUM ARGON HELIUM ARGON
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.00 20-30 - 15-80 20-50 -
1.60 30-80 25-30 70-150 50-150 10-20
2.40 60-130 30-50 150-250 100-250 15-30
3.20 100-180 40-80 150-250 100-300 25-40
4.00 140-240 45-120 400-500 240-325 35-60
5.00 180-300 50-150 - 275-350 40-80
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE: Pure Tungsten: Use lower portion of the range EWTH: Use higher portion
of the range.

The current carrying capacity depends upon the type of shielding gas, the length of
electrode, striking out of the collect, the cooling of the holder, the position of
welding, type and polarity of current used. Larger the electrode for a specified
current the arc will become erratic and welding will be very difficult. Vice-verse,
selection of smaller diameter rods for a particular current would increase the
chances of electrodes melting.



PMI, NTPC 38
Electrode Preparation for welding

The electrodes are to be ground to the required vertex angles for getting the
desired results using different types of currents. Generally for A.C. Welding a
zirconiated rod with large vertex angle of about 90
0
is preferred. (Please see Fig.8).










RECOMMENDED ELECTRODE VERTEX ANCLE FOR 1% THORIATED DC
ELECTRODE NEGATIVE


WELDING DETAIL CURRENT RANGE VERTIX ANGLE
Full penetration welds 50-200 A 30-60
Full penetration welds with 50-200 A 90-120
Increased tolence for poor fit up.
Filler runs Less than 200A 60
Filler runs or fillets Greater than 120
With minimum currents 200A

To lengthen the life of electrode:

1. Use the prescribed current angles for each.
2. Use proper electrode strike out.
PMI, NTPC 39
3. The grinding should be done parallel to the axis of the rod. No concentric
serrations should be appearing at the ground cone tip.
4. Reserve one grinding wheel exclusively for electrode grinding to avoid
contamination.
5. The inert gas flow is to be stopped only after the rod is sufficiently cooled.
This is to avoid the possibility of oxidation of the tungsten electrode.
6. The frequent touching of the base metal by the tungsten is to be very much
avoided.

Shielding Cases

The shielding has provides the suitable ionizing atmosphere for the arc and
protects the weld pool from air contamination. Inert gases argon and helium are
used for TIG welding. Nitrogen is tried along with argon for joining copper and
copper alloys.

Argon is a heavy, inert, monoatomic gas with an atomic weight of 40. It is obtained
from the atmosphere by liquification of air, refined and transported as a liquid.
Argon can be obtained at 99.99% purity.

Helium is a light ,inert, monoatomic gas with an atomic weight of 4. All commercial
helium is extracted from natural gas. It is shipped as a gas in cylinders. Helium
may not be pure upto 99.99%.

Comparison of performance of shielding gases in TIG process

Argon: Low arc voltage: This results in less heat. Hence suitable for manual
welding of thickness less than 1.5mm.

Good cleaning action : Preferred for metals with refractory oxide skins or ferrous
alloys containing high % of aluminium.

PMI, NTPC 40
Low Gas Volume: Being heavier than air, provides better shielding with less flow
rates and affected by air drafts.

Automatic welding: May cause porosity and under cutting, with welding speeds
greater than 60cm per minute. This varies from metal to metal and can be
overcome by using helium or argon-helium mixture.

Easy arc starting: Important for welding thin metals.

Vertical & overhead welding: Preferred because of greater weld puddle control
but, provides less coverage than helium.

Welding dissimilar: Superior to helium. Ionization potential is 15.6 volts. Higher
arc density therefore, higher energy concentration.

HELLIUM

High arc voltage: This result in hotter arc. Favourable for welding thick metals
and metals with high heat conductivity.

Small heat affected zone: with high heat input and greater welding speeds HAZ
can be kept narrow.

High gas volume: Being lighter than air gas flow is 1
1/2
to 3 times more than
argon. Sensitive to air drafts but gives better coverage for overhead position
welding.

Automatic Welding: With welding speeds higher than 60cm per minutes better
weld quality is obtained depending upon the metal and thickness. Ionization
potential is 24.5 volts. Lower arc density but arc volume is more flared up and the
heat is at the centre of the arc. Deeper penetration is possible.

PMI, NTPC 41
Gas mixtures used in Tungsten arc welding: In Tungsten arc welding the
physical characteristics of the gases are conductivity, ionization and dissociation
fluence the arc geometry and heating efficiency. The composition of the gases
which determines these physical characteristics will be arrived after a close study
is made on their behaviour with the parent material (fig. 9).


THE D.C. TUNGSTEN ARC
FIG NO. 9
Gas or Gas Mixture Application
-Argon 99.5% pure Almost all material
-Argon +5% H2 (Occassionally Stainless,
up to 15% H2) Nickel and nickel alloys.
-Argon + Helium (75% Ar + Aluminium alloys.
25% He).
-Helium 99.99% pure Almost all materials.
-Nitrogen 99.9% pure Copper and some of the
common copper alloys.
-Nitrogen + Argon Copper and some of the
(85% Ar + 5% N2) copper alloys.

PMI, NTPC 42
Apart from its effect on element losses, the shielding, gas has to be chosen to
aviod porosity in the weld metal and the formation of harmful compounds by
reaction with the present metal. To quote and example, a gas shield containing
hydrogen would be unsuitable for welding aluminium because a high percentage of
hydrogen would be dissolved in the molten aluminium. Towards the freezing point,
as the mental solidifies copious quantitie of the same hydrogen may be evolved
due to its inability to sustain in -solubility, and thus gets trapped, giving rise to
porosity


TIG welding of stainless steels, Nickel and high nickel alloys may be done with
Argon and 5% Hydrogen, in same instances even upto 15% Hydrogen. The
Hydrogen helps increasing the arc heating efficiency and also reducing the amount
of oxides formed with stainless steels. The hydrogen can be tolerated in case of
stainless steels because of the relativity high solid solubility of hydrogen in the
austenite.

TIG Welding Applications

TIG welding is employed both manually and automatically to produce continuous,
intermittent and spot welds. This can be used with or without filler metals. TIG
PMI, NTPC 43
welding can be done in almost all positions. TIG is popular for its marked
performance on thin plates.

Metals that are welded using this process mainly include carbon and alloy steels,
stainless steels. Refractory metals, heat resisting alloys and alloys of copper,
nickel aluminium, magnesium, titanium and zirconium.

Metal thickness ranging from 1to 6 mm is generally joined by TIG process. The
clean and accurate weldment produced by TIG welding has promoted the process
to be used for root passes in pressure components and other crucial applications.
In aerospace work welds are made totally be multiple pass TIG welding owing to
the high quality demand there. Thin foils, where process is now making more and
better use of plasma arc welding.

MIG WELDING

INTRODUCTION

Metal insert gas welding process popularly known as MIG welding process is one
of the many Versatile, processes grouped under heading Gas metal arc welding
processes. (GMAW). Among this group, MIG welding process was the first to be
discovered. This was the result of the attempt made during 1940s to develop a
suitable welding process for aluminium and also to mechanise the same. Thus
MIG welding was introduced in 1948, primarily for welding of aluminium. With the
rapid technological advance in the years that followed, the scope of the process
enveloped many other nonferrous and ferrous materials. Today it is a weld
established semi-automatic process which can be easily mechanised or automated
with a wide range of application spanning from simple sheet metal fabrication to
sophisticated space vehicle component manufacture (figure 11).
PMI, NTPC 44

Advantages

The advantages of MIG welding process can be briefly summed up as follows:

1. Good visibility of weld & heat offered zone during welding.
2. Continuous welding with coiled failler wires.
3. No stub loss as in flux covered manual metal arc stick electrodes.
4. No. slag removal and its associated difficulties like interference with
accurate jigging and clumsy work spot.
5. High metal deposition rate.
6. no welding of ferns.
7. high quality of weld.
PMI, NTPC 45
8. high welding speed.
9. less distortion.
10. welding in all position.
11. Because of the good heat input control this process is used for nonferrous
welding with good results.

Disadvantages

Although MIG welding has many important advantages over other processes it has
its own limitations too.

1. Equipment for GMAW is sophisticated and therefore is costly.
2. In comparison with shielded metal arc welding, the Gas metal arc welding
torch has to be very near to the job. This is a constraint where accessibility
is limited.
3. Because of the higher spatter associated with GMAW the deposition
efficiency is less.
4. The absence of slag in solid wire welding processes allows a higher cooling
rate of the weld zone. Joints made with this process on hard enable steels
are susceptible to weld metal cracking.
5. In this process strong drafts reduce or eliminate the gas shielding from the
weld zone.
6. Because of the intense arc special filter glasses are required to absorb the
gamma rays emanating from the arc.
7. In India non-availability of Argon gas in required quantity at all times places
constraints on the applicability to some extent.
8. there is always certain amount of dilution that cannot be avoided. Hence
homogenous weld like those obtained in processes line Gas welding, TIG
EBW and laser is not possible.



PMI, NTPC 46
Principle of operation (MIG)

MIG welding is basically a fusion welding process employing electronic arc in
which welding is completed in single pass or in multiple passes depending upon
the material thickness and joint design. Weaving technique may or may not be
employed.

The filler metal is supplied in the form of continuous thin (up to 2.4mm diameter)
extruded wires. These are available in coiled spools.
The filler wire is generally connected to the positive polarity of a DC power source.
The work or job is connected to the negative polarity. Thus the filler metal forms
one of the electrodes and the arc is stuck between the electrodes tip and the work
piece.

An inert gas (non reactive) or gas mixture is supplied around the filler metal
electrode in a smooth and non-turbulent manner. The dynamic gas column
prevents the atmospheric air from contacting the hot molten drop lets from the
wire, the molten weld pool and a reasonable amount of heat affected zone.
(heated to intense oxidizing temperatures). The core of the gas column ionised by
the arc heat temperatures).

The heat generated by the arc depends upon the welding current voltage,
electrode stick out, inductance of the base metal melts apportion of the base
metal. The amount of metal melted depends upon the heat input per unit length of
the weld, base metal characteristics and the preheat. The molten droplet from the
wire and the melted base metal mix together to form the molten pool. This
solidifies subsequently to form the weld metal. The amount of dilution depends
upon the radio of weld metal added to the base metal melted.




PMI, NTPC 47
Metal Transfer

The formation of the molten droplet at the tip of the consumable electrode and its
transfer the arc column to the weld pool is governed by certain force acting on the
wire tip.

They are:

1. Electro magnetic force called the pinch force.
2. Surface tension of the molten droplet.
3. Gravitational force.

The heat generated by the melts the electrodes tip. The molten metal is acted
uipon predominantly by one or more of the forces mentioned above, and
depending upon the welding current and voltages set the metal is transferred
across the arc.

The metal transfer can be accomplished in one of the three, distinct modes
indicated below:

1. Short circuit transfer (dip transfer)
2. Globular transfer
3. Spray transfer

A fourth mode of transfer called pulsed transfer but is predominantly a spray
transfer. Table 1 given the voltage and current ranges associated with the three
modes of metal transfer.


PMI, NTPC 48
TABLE

MODE OF SHORT GLOBULAR SPRAY
TRANSFER CIRCUIT TRANSFER TRANSFER

Current range 50-225 140-250 Above 250

Voltage range 16-22 22-28 28-45


Equipment

The schematic view of the equipment used for the Gas metal are welding is shown
in fig 12. The equipment for GMAW consists of

1. Power Source & Controls and Cables.
2. Wire & Supply System
3. Gas & Supply System
4. Welding torch.

Power source and control cables

Power source employed for MIG welding should meet the following requirements.

1. MIG welding process employs high current densities while using small
diameter wires. Depending upon the design the power source should deliver
upto 600A.

2. It should be possible to set voltage in the range of 15 to 45 volts.

3. Provision for including different inductance values in series with the welding
circuit modes.
PMI, NTPC 49
4. Water pressure switch, a protective devices for ensuring postive water
cooling of the welding torch must be available wherever applicable.

5. Provision in the system for automatically switching off the shielding gas
supply, when the welding supply is switched off should be incorporated.

6. The cable length should be as short as possible. If it is long, the voltage
drop in the cable should be measured and it should be measured and it
should be taken care of while setting arc voltage.

7. It should have good dynamic characteristics.

For MIG Welding constant voltage power sources are very popular. This is
because of the self adjusting characteristic of the welding arc associated with
these power sources. However all these types of power sources are employed
depending upon the application.
PMI, NTPC 50


PMI, NTPC 51
Principle of Operation

Constant Potential Power Sources:

The volt ampere characteristic of the constant potential power source is shown in
Figure 13.

Constant potential power sources may have a slightly droping ( as shown in fig.
13), flat or slightly raising characteristics ( fig. 14). But the one shown in fig.14 is
widely used.

As seen from figure 15 the inter section of the arc and power source
characteristics the point x, determines the stable operating condition. The voltage
across the arc is V volts and correspondingly A amperes of current w2ill be draw.
These are the conditions under which depending upon the arc length (arc voltage)
suitable amount of current is drawn to melt the filler wire at the rate at which it is
supplied. In short the melting rate and wire feed rate will be the same.

When the arc length varies the current is also varied automatically and to certain
extent instantaneously. Imagine increase arc voltage a corresponding decrease in
current takes place which in turn reduces the burn off rate. Hence the electrode tip
advances reducing the arc length and arc voltage. Similarly the arc voltage and
current are adjusted when the arc length is reduced.

This the power source characteristic is such that it maintains the set arc length and
melt off rate. This is called SELF ADJUSTING CHARACTERISTIC. Thus the
manual skill is taken off in maintaining arc length.




PMI, NTPC 52




PMI, NTPC 53
Wires Used in MIG:

MIG welding process makes use of smaller diameter continuous wires. Smaller
diameter wires are used so that high current densities can be used. Because of
this high deposition rates are achieved, The wires used in MIG welding have
diameters 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6, 2 and 2.4 mm. The popular sizes are 0.8, 1, 1.2 and
1.6, diameters.

Wires Feeding Systems :

The wire feed systems can be classified based on;

a. The way in which the wire feed system is controlled.
b. The function of the wire feed system.

The wire feed system can be differentiated by their control system as:

1. Systems which give constant rate of wire feed at a set value.
2. systems in which the wire feed is controlled by the feed back from the arc
voltage.

The classification of wire feed system based on their function can be:

1. Push systems
2. Pull systems
3. Push pull systems

Push Systems:

This is normally employed. The wire from the coiled spool is unwound and after
straightens if any is pushed through the wire conduit against the frictional forces to
the tip of the torch, Fig.16 gives a schematic view the system.
PMI, NTPC 54

Pull System:

The schematic diagram in fig. 17 indicates the arrangement the arrangement of
pull system. The wire feeder is kept near the torch head itself and is very near to
the weld than in the previous system. The wire feeder pulls the wire through the
conduit against the frictional forces and feeds the wire to the arc. This system will
increase the weight of the torch. The torch size also bigger.


Push Pull system:

This is a combination of the previous two systems. Push system is employed
before the torch and the pull system near the torch head. This helps to keep the
wire in tension and presents undue kinks or bends which increase the friction, with
this system the filler wire can be fed over a long distances ( upto 15-17 mtrs.)

PMI, NTPC 55
Torch:

Two types of welding torches are employed.

1. Gas cooled torches.
2. water cooled torches.

In the gas cooled type the heat conducted into the torch from the arc zone is
removed considerably by the flow the shielding gas itself. Nevertheless the torch
will be heated considerably if the issued continuously. Gas cooled torches are
normally desined for current ratings upto 300 amps.

Above 350 amperes the arc is of water cooled design. The cooling water removes
the heat from the contact tube area. The heat is continuously removed and hence
are sutiable for 100% duty cycle (fig.18).


PMI, NTPC 56
Cases

The shielding gas in MIG welding is an important welding parameter. Normally
Argon, or Helium which are insert gases are employed. But Helium is not available
in India. Hence Argon is the only inert gas that is being employed in India. Pure
Argon is used only for nonferrous metals. For welding ferrous metals addition of
oxygen to a maximum of 7% is found to stabilize the arc and ensures good
weldability. Table lists different shielding gases and gas mixtures with their
application.
PMI, NTPC 57

TABLE-II

SHIELDING GAS WELDING APPLICATIONS
GASES INERT TO WORK METAL
Argon Virtually all metals.
Helium AI and Cu alloys for greater heat and
Minimum porosity
75A-25 He to 25-A-75 He Same and Helium but quieter and more
controlled arc.
He + 10% A High Nickel alloys.
GASES OXIDISING TO WORK METALS
Argon + 1-2% O2 Carbon, alloy and stainless steels.
A + 3-5% O2 Carbon steels, alloys and stainless steels
using deoxidising wire.
A + 5-10% CO2 Steel using de-oxidising wire.
A + 20-30% CO2 Steel, chiefly with short circulating Arc.
A + 5% O2 + 15% CO2 Steel, using de-oxidised wire.
Carbon di-oxide Carbon and low alloy steels using a de-
Oxidising electrode wire.
GASES REDUCTING TO WORK METAL
Nitrogen Copper; very powerful arc( seldom use )
A + 25 to 30 % N2 Copper; power arc.

Welding Parameters

The end result of MIG welding is influenced by many variables. These variables
can be grouped in three categories:

PMI, NTPC 58
1. Pre-selected variables
2. Primary adjustable variables.
3. Secondary adjustable variables.

Pre- selected variable depend on the type of material being welded, the thickness
of the material, the welding position deposition rate, mechanical properties and
welding environment.

1. Type of electrodes wire.
2. Size of electrodes wire.
3. type of inert gas.
4. Gas flow rate.
5. Type of current and polarity

Primary adjustable variables:
These control the process after pre-selected variables have been determined.
They control penetration, bead width, bead height, arc stability, deposition rate and
weld quality.

1. Arc Voltage
2. Welding current (wire feed speed)
3. Speed of welding (travel speed)

These variable cause changes in primary adjustable variables which in turn cause
desired change in the end result. They are:

1. Electrodes stick out
2. Nozzle angle
3. Weaving
4. Welding techniques.

PMI, NTPC 59
Adjustments in welding parameters techniques and their effects on the weld
characteristics are indicated in Table-III.



Welding para-
Meters &
Techniques.




PENETRATION

I D

END RESULTS


MELTING REINFORCE BEAD-DILU- SPATTER
RATE MENT WIDTH TION
I D I D I D I D I D
Current & oo
Wire feed
Speed
Voltage
Travel speed
Stick out
Wire diameter
Torch angle


I D I D I D L No. effect 1 2
L L L L D I I D D I I D
L L NIL NIL D I D I I NIL NIL
D I I D I D L L D I I D
D I D I D I NIL NIL D I I
D
Back Fore - - Back Fore
Hand hand hand hand
To 250

I= Increase D=Decrease L = little effect 1& 2 depends upon voltage.

Table IV indicates the defects that occur in MIC welding, their causes and
remedies.




PMI, NTPC 60
TABLE IV

MIG WELDING PROBLEMS, CAUSES & CURES


PROBLEM CAUSES CURES

(1) (2) (3)

Difficult arc Polarity wrong ; insuff- Check polarity, try reversing.
Start icient shielding gas; check valves, increase flow
poor ground open cir- check ground-return Circuit
cuit to start switch repair

irregular wire Insufficient drive roll Increase drive roll pressure.
feed burn back pressure Check, adjust wire feed
speed.
Wire feed to flow Clean replace contact tube.
contact tube plugged
Arcing in contact tube Clean, replace contact tube,
Check line
Power circuit fluctu- Voltage. Check polarity, try
ations. Reversing.
Polarity wrong Torch Replace with higher amp.
Gun.
overheating/kinked Cut
out, replace spool. Clean
electrode wire/conduit
electrode wire shorten,
liner dirty on worn. Install push pull drive.
Drive rolls james
Conduit too long
PMI, NTPC 61


Welding cables Cables too small/Cable Check current
requirements;
Overheating connections loose. replace.Check tighten.
Check
Cables too long. current carrying capacity.

Unstable arc Cable connection loose. check current
tighten clean.
Weld joint area dirty. chemically or
mechanically.
Arc Blow Magnetic field in d-c Rearrange or split
groand
Causes arc to wander. connection. Use
brass or copper back up bars.Counteract
blow by direction of weld.
Replace magnetic work bench.
Under cut Current too high/Weld- Use lower setting.
Slow down
ing speed too high. Change angle to fill
under cut.
Improper manipulation Shorten arc length.
Gun.
Arc length too long.
PMI, NTPC 62
(1) (2) (3)

Excessively Current too high/weld- Use lower setting/up
wide bead ing speed too slow/ Shorten arc length.
Arc length too long.
Incomplete Faulty joint design Check root opening/root face
penetration dimensions/include angle.
Welding speed to rapid. Slow down welding speed.
Welding current too Increase arc length.Shorten
low. Arc length too arc length. Current faults,
long Improper welding change gun angle.
technique.
Incomplete fusion Faulty joint prepa- Check root - opening Root face
fusion ration. dimension include angle.
Arc length too long/ Shorten arc length clean,
chemically or mechanically.

Dirty welds Inadequate gas Hold gas cup closer to work.
Shielding Increase gas flow., decrease gun
angle. Check gun and cables for
air and water leaks shield arc
from drafts in gas cup. Replace
Damaged gas cup.
Dirty electrode Keep wire spool on welder
Wire covered. Keep unused wire in
Shipping containers. Clean wire
Dirty base metal as it enters wire drive.
Clean. Chemically or mechani-
cally.
PMI, NTPC 63

Porosity Dirty electrode wire
Dirty base metal See above Dirty welds
Inadequate gas shiel-
ding.
Improper technique. Change angle of gun to improve
Shielding.


(1) (2) (3)


Cracks welds Faulty design Check edge preparation and
root Spacing.
Faulty electrode Check electrode wire for
Compatibility with base
metal.
Shape of bead Change travel speed or
Shielding gas to obtain more
convex bead
Travel speed to fast Slow down
Improper technique Change angle of gun to
improve deposition.
Rigidity of joint Redesign joint, preheat
and post heat, weave bead.


PMI, NTPC 64

5. Weldability of Carbon-Manganese , Low
Alloy Steels and Stainless Steels


INTRODUCTION

Weldability is not an absoloute term but is relative. It takes different meanings
depending upon whether one is a designer, a welding Engeneer or a Metallurgist.
Perhaps the most comprehensive defenition of weldability has been evolved by
ISO as under:

A metallic substance is considered to be weldable to a stated degree by a
given process and for a given purpose, when metallic continuity can be
obtained by welding by using a suitable procedure, so that the joints comply
with the requirement specified in regard to both the local properties and their
influence on the construction of which they form part .

Generally, the term Weldability is used to signify the influence of welding on the
base material properties .Hence, the metallurgical effect of welding would have to
be studied in detail.

STRUCTURES IN WELDS

Welding involves a local application of heat in order to bring the materials to a
fused state .The local heating sets up a temperature gradient in the parent material
with the temperature reaching almost the melting point at the fusion boundary , to
the ambient temperature, some distance away from the weld.Thus a portion of the
base material heat affected zone, immediately adjacent to the fusion line, exceeds
the critical temperature for micro structural changes to set in.The nature of these
PMI, NTPC 65
changes depends on the composition of the steel and the rate of cooling in the
heat affected zone.

Use of Transformation of Diagrams

The conventional Continuous cooling Transformation Diagrams are helpful in
predicting the structure in the heat affected zone.A typical CCT curve has been
shown in Fig . 19 on

Which have been superimposed the cooling rate curves encountered during
welding.This diagram predicts that below the nose of the curve, the cooling rate
assosciated with welding would from a Martensitic structure which is the most
emenable structure for cracking in welds. The CCT curves would vary with
different compositions of steels depending on their hardenability.However, in most
steels the nose of the curve lies in the range of temperatures between 500 and
800
0
C and hence the cooling time in this temperature range is vital in determining
the hardenability of the steel. In recent times ,the use of conventional methods of
plotting CCT diagrams have been replaced by moderm methods which simulate
the actual cooling time in the HAZ of the welds is plotted against temperature and
the transformation zones are indicated .A typical curve obtained by these methods
is shown in Fig . 20. The line to in in this diagram indicates the critical cooling time
at which magnesitic transformation would occur.
PMI, NTPC 66



PMI, NTPC 67


PMI, NTPC 68
Transformation and cold cracking

It has been well established that presence of Martensite is a necessary condition
for the occurrence of cold cracking. A knowledge of the transformation diagram
and particularly the critical cooling time tc, is important in determining the welding
procedure. Thus cooling times above

t
c
produce no Martensite in the HAZ and
there is no risk of cracking .The cooling time can be controlled by selecting the
optimum welding parameters and/or preheat temperature.

Properties of Martensite

It is well known that the formation of Martensite increases the tensile strength of
the material with a loss in the ductility .The hardening effect of Martensite is again
dependent on the composition of the steel and the carbon content has the
maximum influence .Hardness of Martensite is the function of the carbon content .
While low carbon Martensite is relatively soft and ductile and hence can be
permitted, high carbon Martensite is hard and brittle and is prone to cracking .Apart
from carbon, alloying elements such as Mn, Cr, Mo, V, Ni etc. also have a
tendency to harden Martensite but with lesser severity. The effect of the alloying
elements are summarized by a factor known as carbon equivalent (C
E
). IIW
suggest the following expression for the calculation of C
E
:

C
E
= C + Mn + Cr + Mo + V + Cu + Ni
6 5 15

It is further suggested that Martensite with hardness of HV 350 may be tolerated
in the presence of hydrogen due to its adequate ductility.

EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES

Residual stresses arise in welding due to the presence of the permanent plastic
strain in the material caused due to the shrinkage of the welo metal. The residual
stresses may be formed also due to the formation of martensite in the HAZ since
PMI, NTPC 69
Martensite is associated with volume ,expansion. The volume expansion is found
to be greater with increase in carbon and /or alloy contents .Residual may also be
developed due to external restraints provided during welding . The magnitude of
the residual stresses may reach the yield point of the material unless it is
modified by subsequent stress relief treatment.

PREHEATING AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT

Preheating reduces the rate of cooling in the HAZ as could be understood very
well. In some cases, this may even avoid the Martensite .It has also been noted
that the reduced rate of cooling results in lesser stresses due to structural changes
and hence , cracking can be avoided . Another major role of pre-heating is the
increase in diffusion rate of Hydrogen and thereby avoiding cold cracking .In high
alloyed steels , the maintenance of preheat above the Martensitic start
temperature would prevent the formation of Martensite.

Post weld heat treatment is normally carried out in welded structures for the relief
of resudual stresses. In the case of highly hardenable steels , the post weld heat
treatment results in the tempering of the Martensite formed in the heat affected
zone.

WELDING PROCEDURE FOR DIFFERENT STEELS

Carbon Steels

Carbon steel is a term applied to broad range of steels containing

C - 1.70 % max ., si 0.60% max.

Alloying elements such as Cr ,Ni, Mo etc. are not added intentionally in these
steels and may be present only as tracer elements. Carbon steels are further
classified into four sub-groups as follows:
PMI, NTPC 70

a) Low carbon steel upto 0.15% C
b) Mild Carbon steel 0.15 to 0.29% C
c) Medium carbon steels 0.30 to 0.59% C
d) High Carbon steels 0.60 to 1.70% Central warehousing corporation

a) Low Carbon Steel

A large amount of steel use today is of the low carbon variety particularly in the
sheet form .As discussed earlier , such low carbon contents do not pose any
problems during welding as these steels do not harden during welding .These
steels are supplied either as rimmed , semi killed or killed steel .Rimmed steels
may pose a problem during welding due to the evolution of the gases consequent
formation of porosity. This problem can be overcome by selecting consumables
with the sufficient dioxiders (mainly silicon). A different problem may arise in the
welding of the killed variety .During welding, the oxides of Aluminum which is
present in the steel may form a refractory oxide layer at the surface causing
improper fusion ,This can be altered by selecting filler material containing
adequate Manganese and Silicon which oxides interact with the refractory oxides
and increase their fluidity.

b) Mild Carbon Steels

These class of steel is one of the most widely used variety and these steels are
normally specified by their C, Mn and Si contents and by their tensile strength.
Varying degrees of weldability are experienced when changing from low strength
to the high strength group and with varying section thickness .The requisite
strength of the steel is obtained by either increasing the Manganese contents
.From the point of view of welding it is significant o note that higher section
thickness are also associated with the higher carbon content and thus the
hardenability is increased .The use of preheat and low hydrogen technique are to
be adopted in higher thickness ranges. As a corollary, steels with lower carbon
PMI, NTPC 71
content and lower tensile values do not require any special precautions during
welding.

c) Medium Carbon Steels

The carbon content in this class of steel particularly if the carbon is on the higher
side and section thicknesses are heavy which ranges from 0.30 to 0.60% have a
pronounced influence on their weldability .Welding without precautions would
produce hardened (Martensitic) structure in the HAZ. The level of the carbon
present in this steel not only helps in the hardenability but also increases the
hardness of the HAZ to about 63 HRC which is almost the maximum that can be
reached in steels .Such a structure ,therefore ,has a strong propensity to develop
cracks .These steels require extreme precautions during welding , particularly if the
carbon is on the higher side and section thicknesses are heavy.

The precautions would be:

a) A minimum preheat of 250
o
c
b) Use of low hydrogen process
c) Post heat of 250oc for about 2 Hrs.
d) Heat treatment immediately after welding.

d) High Carbon Steels

Steels of this type containing more than 0.60% C are not normally produced as a
weldable quality steel. More often, welding is applied is applied in these steels as a
method of repair and maintenance, However, a great amount of welding is being
performed in these steels than could be imagined due to a greater awareness of
economical salvage that could offer.

There are two schools of thought on the welding procedure for these steels.

PMI, NTPC 72
1) The procedures obtained by extrapolation from the medium carbon steels
viz., . preheat, low hydrogen process, maintance of interpass temperature
and post weld heat treatment.

2) Instead of the extrapolated procedure from medium carbon steels, a high
heat input profess is advocated along with a provision of adequate
protection of molten metal and selection of low Hydrogen type
consumables. The theory behind this approach is that the selection of low
Hydrogen consumables eliminates Hydrogen which is the strongers
promoter of cracking and hence other precautions are superfluous.

Welding procedures for these steels should includes the following steps:

a) Retarded cooling rate from high heat input

b) Multi-layer welds to secure the tempering effects from each pass.

c) Tempering beads a top the reinforcement..

Although, joints using the above procedures have been produced without post
weld heat treatment, a safer approach would be to adopt post weld heat treatment,
a safer approach would be to adopt post heat treatment to improve the toughness
and ductility of the weldment.

Welding of Alloy steels

The addition of alloying elements to Iron and steels have been developed to
a) increase strength
b) improve toughness; and
c) to impart corrosion resistance.

PMI, NTPC 73
Alloy steels may be differentiated from carbon and carbon maganese steels when
the Manganese content exceeds 1.65%, Soma exceeds 0.60% or when other
elements such as Cr, Mo, Ni., etc. are added as desirable elements.

From the stand-points of welding, the alloy steels can be grouped into the following
categories:

a) Low alloy steels
b) Quenched and tempered heat treated low alloy steels
c) Low alloys steels quenched and tempered after welding
d) Chromium-Molybdenum steels
e) Stainless steels

a) Low Alloy Steels

These Steels are commonly referred to as high strength structural steels since
they were developed from structural carbon steels with small additions of alloying
element to produce a fine grained Generally the limits of other elements lie as
follows:
Mn-1.35 max; Ni-9% max: Cr-1% max: V-0.10% max.

The presence of these elements promote hardenability of these steels, one of the
basic considerations in the welding of these is the prevention of cold cracking and
precautions to avoid this cracking and precautions to avoid this cracking must be
taken. These steels can be welded by most of the commonly available processes.
Provided low Hydrogen electrodes, these steels normally do not require pre-
heating except in highly restrained joints.

b) Quenched and Tempered Steels

The steels considered in this group are quenched and tempered to yield strengths
ranging from 50 psi to 180 psi depending on their chemical composition, thickness
PMI, NTPC 74
and heat treatment. These steels combine high tensile and yield strength with
good notch toughness, ductility and weldability. The carbon content in these steels
generally do not exceed 0.22%. Specific alloying elements such as Ni, Cr, Mo, V,
B, Co etc., are added to improve the properties. The transformation behavior of
these steels have several significant features. One is that considerable time
elapses before transformation starts in the temperature range 500-800
o
C. This
assures that the quenching would produce Martensitic formation for subsequent
factor in the freedom from quench cracking characteristics. Another feature is that
at temperatures between 600 and 500
o
C, a relatively short period of time is
required to produce a bainitic structure which is essentially homogeneous and has
excellent toughness. Thus a self tempering effect is present in the steel after
welding.

The presence of alloying elements in this steel makes it prone to cold cracking and
suitable precautions have to be taken. As such, these steels are weldable by most
of the commonly used processes. High heat input is permitted in the case of heavy
section thicknesses because of the faster cooling whereas for thinner sections, the
heat input must be controlled as otherwise a complete reheat treatment of the
joints would be required to restore the properties. As discussed earlier, the normal
arc welding processes would produce sufficiently faster rate of cooling to obtain
mechanical properties of the HAZ in the as welded condition equivalent to the base
material in the quenched and tempered condition, Post weld tempering is,
therefore, unnecessary in this class of steels. In cases where stress relief
treatment is considered essential due to service requirements, the same must be
carried out at a temperatures about 50o below the tempering temperature used
during the manufacture of the steel.

c) Low Alloys Steels Quenched and Tempered after Welding

This group of steel is similar to that of the previous class except that the carbon
content is higher and lies in the range of 0.25 to 0.40%. Because of the higher
carbon content, very high strengths of the order of 200 psi can be obtained after
PMI, NTPC 75
heat treatment. However the hardenability of these steels is high carbon Martersite
formed during welding is hard and brittle. The cracking tendency in these steels is
high and maintenance of preheat, interpass temperature and post heat is a must
for these steels.

The high carbon and alloying elements present in these steels tend to increase the
solidification range and hence hot cracking tendencies are high. Control of
combined sulphur and phosphorus contents to levels lower than 0.02% is
advocated for these steels.

Since Martensitic formation cannot be avoided in these steels after welding, post
weld tempering treatment is mandatory for this class of steels.

d) Chromium-Molybdenum Steels:

The most important materials used in the petroleum refineries and thermal power
plant equipment fall in this category. The main characteristics of these steels are
their oxidation resistance and high temperature creep strength. While Chromium
contributes more to the oxidation resistance, Molybdenum contributes to the high
temperature creep strength. The Chromium contents in these steels vary from
0.5% to 12% while Molybdenum is present between 0.5% and 1.0% . The
Chromium-Molybdenum steels possess over-hardening characteristics and hence
preheat, post heat etc . are to be controlled during the welding of these steels. In
most cases , preheat and post heat temperatures below the Ms temperature would
prevent cold cracking problems. The selection of preheat and post heat
temperature also depend on the process employed for welding. When several
grades of Chromium-Molybdenum steels are to be joined at a time, fewest possible
different filler metal would case material control. Filler metal of some of slightly
higher alloy content can be used. Thus 1 Cr- Mo electrodes can be used for
joining Chromo-Moly steel containing to 1 Cr and % Mo.

PMI, NTPC 76
The temperature of preheating and the extend of post heated depend on the
chemical on the chemical composition and the level of restraints in the joints.
Whereas steels. Containing upto to 2 % Cr can be safely brought to room
temperature after preheat, higher Cr Content steels require preheat and post heat
to be of a higher order to prevent cracking; the weldment should not be allowed to
cool to room temperature before subsequent post weld heat treatment.

WELDING OF STAINLESS STEELS

Stainless steels have been of utmost importance in many applications particularly
those requiring high strength coupled with good corrosion resistance. They are
being used widely in pulp mills, ship building industries, cryogenic vessels, food
and drug process equipments, petrochemicals besides nuclear and space
equipments. Initially it was called as rust less iron and keeps upto its name
without any doubt, whatsoever.

Stainless steels are basically alloys of chromium & Nickel with additions of other
element like molybdenum, cobalt, titnium, boron and columbium to suit specific
requirements.

METALLURGY OF STAINLESS STEELS

Chromium, when added in amounts exceeding 11.5% to iron makes it stainless.
In additions to this several other elements which would be discussed subsequently
are added to improve the properties of stainless steels. This Chromium forms a
stable oxide, namely Chromio oxide which is responsible for its excellent corrosion
resistance. While almost nine times more iron is used than Cromium, it should be
noted that Chromium is the one necessary added element where corrosion
resistant properties are of great importance.

Nickel is added t6o certain varieties of steels in percentages ranging from 8-22%
or some times even higher to increase corrosion resistance, reduce thermal
PMI, NTPC 77
conductivity and to improve impact values, ductility, fatigue resistance, electrical
resistance and weldability.

Molybdenum is another alloying element used to enhance the characteristics of
stainless steel. It increase creep resistance and resistance to pitting in corrosion
applications.

Carbon may be restricted to as low a level as 0.03% and can go even upto 0.3%
depending upon the specific properties required.

While the above four are the main alloying elements in stainless steels, additions
of Titanium and Niobium(columbium) provide intergranular corrosion resistance.
Sometimes even elements like nitrogen, sulphur and tungsten, which are normally
considers as impurities, high temperatures corrosion etc.

Ferrite metallurgy is another aspect of importance in stainless steels. Stainless
steels can contain anywhere between 2 and 20% ferrite. Ferrite is a magnetic form
of iron which will occur when iron, chromium, nickel, carbon, molybdenum silicon
etc., are in a certain balance. Schaeffer diagrams and modifications of it (Delong
diagram) are of practical importance in determining the effects of ferrite both
quantitatively and qualitatively and literature surveys have broadly dealt this are.

The American iron and Steel Institute has classified stainless steels into the
popularly know 200, 300 & 400 series. The 200 series consists of stainless steels
with specific amounts of chromium and its applications are restricted to the
cryogenic field.

There are about 15 types of stainless steels composed almost exclusively of
chromium and iron with controlled amounts of carbon. These usually referred to
as straight chrome stainless steels, small amounts of other elements may be
added to provide hardness, toughness, machinability, etc. Alloy wise, the only
significant difference between them is the amount of chromium that has been
PMI, NTPC 78
added to the iron, ranging from 11.5% to 29%. The 400 series are highly magnetic.
In the 400 series itself we have the martensite varieties containing 11.5% to 16%
chromium. Some of the varieties are AISI 410, 414, 416 and 420. Stainless steels
having below 17% chromium may be either martensitic or feritic; therefore, these
should be preheated. (type 440a, because and c are considered non weldable).
The ferritic stainless steels containing 18% to 27% chromium are non-
hardenable, and are usually soft and ductile, although they may become brittle
when welded. They are called ferritic because they have the same atomic
structure as iron at room temperature. AISI types 430, 442 and 446 are4 ferritic
stainless steels.

The addition of Nickel to the basic Fe-Cr alloy results in the 300 series stainless
steels often referred to as the Chrome-Nickel types. Originally it was restricted to
18% Ni with the commonly used terminology18/8 stainless steels. Modification of
the original 18/8 (308) are designated as 18/8 Cb (347), 18/8 Mo (316) and 18/8 Ti
(321). Other compositions near-about the range are also being used. (AISI 301,
302, 302B, 304, 305, 307, 309, 310, 316, 321, 347, 304L). Some of the steels in
the 300 series, contain very low amount of carbon and they are designated by the
letter L or ELC meaning extra low carbon. They include type 309 and 310 base
metals as well as type 312 which is found primarily as castings. The maximum
amount of carbon allowable in ELC stainless steel base metal and wire is 0.03%.
The low carbon improves corrosion resistance considerably. Some applications
require high carbon contents between 0.25% & 0.45% and are called the high-
carbon varieties. They are designated by letters He followings the AISI
numbers,(eg. 309 he and 310 He) used for very high temperature mechanical
properties ( nuclear piping, furnace components etc.)

SELECTION OF FILLER METAL

The filler metal mostly matches the4 number of the steel to be welded (Same AISI
Grade with of course type 309, 310 used in a few applications).

PMI, NTPC 79
Joints made of filter material number equal to that of the base metal require pre
and post-heat treatments to avoid cracks and impart ductility to otherwise hard and
brittle nugget and heat affected zones. Austenitic electrodes are advantageous in
that the weld metal remains soft and ductile, requiring only a token preheat except
for conditions of very high restraints. Then too, with austenitic electrodes, the post
weld treatment is usually undesirable.

Traditionally, lime coverings are preferred for higher quality and better crack
resistance. Recently not much difference is found between titania type and basic
types. However, lime electrodes penetrates deeper and their slag covering freezes
behind the weld puddle, making it easy for the operator to see the molten and
control it arc weld metal usually binds to both legs of the fillet as soon as arc
strikes against it. For titania covered electrodes it binds firs tone leg and the
other and this is particularly true for small diameter electrodes with low amperage;
so under such circumstance lime electrodes are preferred. Other than the
possibility to operate in A.C. titania electrodes give a smooth evenly rippled flat or
bead with good finish requiring minimum grinding and polishing. It also gives a
smooth arc with little spatter and shallow penetration coupled with easy slag
removal.

COROSION PROBLEMS IN STAINLESS STEELS

Weldment in sustenitic stainless steels may show susceptibility to intergranular
attack in certain media. In the anstabilised steels T 304 and T 316, attack occurs in
a narrow band parallel to and at some distance away from the weld, and is
referred as welding decay. In generally the attach is associated with the
precipitation of chromium carbides at the austenite grain boundaries. The location
of the attack corresponds to regions that were located during welding
temperatures, carbide precepitation is most rapid.

Many environments do not produce intergranular attack of the austenitic stainless
steels even when the steels contain heavy carbide precipitation. The most widely
PMI, NTPC 80
accepted theory of intergranular corrosion in welded austenitic steels involve the
formation of a Cr depleted zone at the grain boundary due to chromium
precipitation. The precipitated carbides are not normally attacked. However since
they contain more chromium than the matrix and their formation requires diffusion
of chromium from surrounding areas, these areas are lowered in Cr and become
less resistant to attack to certain media.

Susceptibility of weld decay can be effectively overcome by full annealing and
rapidly cooling the weldment. Unfortunately this is not always possible with
massive components or where there is danger of distortion. Alternative methods
involve use of low carbon austenitic stainless steels like AISI 304,316, with
sufficient titanium or columbium to stabilize the steel by forming relatively
insoluble carbides ( T 321, T 347 ). However, other properties of specific alloys
may preclude such compositional changes in stainless steel with duplex austenite-
ferrite strength and are reported to be helpful.











PMI, NTPC 81
6. Thermal Treatment


GENERAL

The basic reason for thermal or mechanical treatment of weldments is to restore
properties affected by the heating of welding or to improve properties for
subsequent fabrication operation or service condition .Heat treating is the heating
and cooling of a metal in its solid state under controlled condition in order to
improve its mechanical properties.

Purpose of thermal treatment is given below:

- To increase hardness and strength.
- To remove internal stresses.
- To increase ductility , toughness and softness.
- To refine the grain structure.
- To improve corrosion resistance.
- To remove cold work.
- To improve machinability.

For improvement of performance during fabrication and for better service condition
we consider in this chapter the following factors only for discussion.

- Distortion
- Pre- heating
- Post weld heat treatment

Distortion

Distortion is the change in shape , temporary or permanent of a welded part as a
result of welding . The physical laws of expansion and contraction are the principle
PMI, NTPC 82
cause of distortion. In all metals the properties of yield strength, coefficient of
expansion, elastic limit and modulus of elasticity are the functions of temperature.
In general the greater the distortion, the smaller the plastic flow or strain in the
weld metal. Conversely, the less the distortion the greater the strain in the weld
metal.

Factors Governing Distortion

- Resistance of the structure to the free contraction of the weld metal.
- Temperature gradient depending upon the rate of application of the heat.
- Rate at which heat is conducted away from its point of application.
- Coefficient of expansion of the metal which determines the total amount of
plastic movement.
- Yield strength of the base and weld metal which limit the residual forces.

Distortion control

- Stretch the metal preferably while still hot by a series of hammer blows or
peening.
- Distribute and balance the forces and stresses produced by welding
shrinkage by special welding techniques and sequences.
- Foricible restraint of parts by suitable jigs and fixtures during welding.

All the three methods given above attempt to increase the plastic flow of the weld
metal on cooling . This means that all are subject to the same limitation of cracking
of the weld metal if carried too far . Peening exerts a compressive force upon the
weld metal normal to the plane of maximum tensile stress and aids plastic flow.

PMI, NTPC 83
Pre Heating

This is the process by which the raising the temperature of the base metal or the
section of the base metal above the temperature of the surroundings before
welding.

Reasons of pre-heating

To reduce the weld metal and base metal cracking .
To improve the general weldability .
To retard the cooling rate in the weld metal and heat affected base metal.
To lower the magnitude of shrinkage stresses.
To reduce the yield strength of the present metal if heated more than
6000F.
To improve the ductility near heat affected zone (HAZ) and reduce the
hardness therein.
To reduce the distortion to certain extent.
To have the required grain size of the material.
To increase the weld speed and to keep the moisture away from the weld
zone.
To increase the diffusion rate of hydrogen and aids for its removal.

Preheating with consequent reduction in cooling rate is instrumental in producing a
desired metallurgical structure in steel. Besides reducing the temperature gradient,
preheating lowers , the thermal conductivity of iron which at 11000F is only half its
conductivity at high temperature. Low thermal conductivity results in slow
withdrawal of heat from the welded zone and correspondingly slow cooling rates.
Further an increase in base metal temperature generally increases the
superheating of the weld puddle in arc welding.

As a result, beads deposited in pre-heated joints tend to be more fluid and to
exhibit flatter or more concave surfaces that beads deposited without preheat.
PMI, NTPC 84
Methods of Pre-heating

Regular furnaces .
Use of Natural or manufactured gas.
Acetylene and bottled petroleum gas.
Electrical strip heaters.
Induction heating.
Use of oxidation resistant wire of the Nichrome or chromel type insulated
with ceramic beads.

Post Weld Heat Treatment

Types of post weld heat treatments are .
Stress relief heat treatment.
Annealing.
Normalizing.
Hardening.
Quenching and tampering.

The difference in the above operations are the temperature employed or method of
cooling. The basic difference is that while stress relief treatment is carried out
below the critical range of steel , annealing, normalizing and hardening are always
done above the critical range .Here in this chapter only stress relief heat treatment
is discussed.

Stress-Relief Treatment

Stress relief heat treatment is defined as the uniform heating of a structure to a
suitable temperature below the critical range of the base metal, holding at the
temperature of the certain specified time followed by uniform cooling.


PMI, NTPC 85
Reason for Stress Relief and its Significance

The welding process in away , similar to foundry technique, in as much that a pool
of molten metal is formed . This pool quickly solidifies and contracts . The parent
metal opposes this contraction with the result that both the plate and weld are
stressed. Because the shrinkage stresses are internal stresses which remain in the
section after welding , they are called residual stresses. Residual stresses do not
decrease with intensity of time . Some times these stresses rise to values as high
as the yield strength of the material . When combined with normal load stresses
these may exceed design stresses.

Residual stresses resulting from welding are reduced by the post weld thermal
stress relief heat treatment .The residual stresses remaining in a material after
thermal stress relief will depend upon the rate of cooling. Uneven cooling from
stress relief to ambient temperature may under much of the value of the heat
treatment and result in the additional stresses within the weldment.

The temperature reached during stress-relief treatment has a far greater effect in
relieving stresses than the length of time the specimen is held at hat temperature
.The closer the temperature is to the critical or recrystallization temperature, the
most effective it is in the removal of residual stresses provided proper heating and
cooling cycles are employed. When a thermal stress relief treatment is employed
to reduce residual stresses other important properties must be taken into
consideration. The microstructure , tensile and impact strength are among
properties affected by the stress relief treatment .

The heat affected zone, in the vicinity of welded joints are aided considerably by
post-weld thermal treatments. The properties of these zones are improved by the
reduction of residual stresses together metallurgical changes brought about by the
heat treatment . If any dissolved hydrogen is present , it will also escape during
stress relief . The necessity for post heating increases with higher carbon content,
increase in alloy content and the cross sectional thickness of the part.
PMI, NTPC 86
Heat Treatment of Welds

Heat treatment of welds shall be accomplished by a suitable heating method that
will provide the desired heating and cooling rates, the required metal temperature
and the uniformity of temperature distribution.

As far as practicable, post weld heat treatment of pipe sections or subassemblies,
particularly branch welds, should be done in a closed furnace.

But generally the field completed joints shall be post weld heat treated by heating a
circumferential band which includes the weld area using either resistance heating
or induction heating methods.

The temperature for heat treatment , rate of rise of temperature , holding time and
rate of cooling shall depend upon the material classification and shall be followed
as per different international codes applicable for this purpose ,considering its
service requirements.

Attachment of thermocouples is an important factor in heat treatment. These
thermocouples shall be placed in such a way that it covers the entire area of weld
joint and are placed at intervals as specified. These thermocouples are attached to
a temperature recorder which will record the entire heat treatment operation . The
acceptance or otherwise of the heat treatment operation shall be based on the
chart attached to the temperature recorder which will record the entire heat
treatment operation. The acceptance or otherwise of the heat treatment operation
shall be based on the chart attached to the temperature recorder which gives the
rate of rise of temperature, holding time and rate of cooling etc. and forms a
permanent record.


PMI, NTPC 87
X ray Diffraction Inspection

This inspection method determines the presence of residual stresses in metal
section with reasonable accuracy. It establishes whether residual stresses have
been reduced to proper low level by post weld heat treatment.

HEAT TREATING

Resistance Heat Treating

This procedure provides for the method of final post weld heat treatment/stresses
reliving method in accordance with the requirement of ASME section 1.

Procedure

The method used shall be locally heating of the circumferential band including
entire weld and adjacent areas of the base metal.

In cases where the vessel is post weld heat treated in sections, the heat treatment
of the final firth joint shall be performed by heating uniformly a circumferential band
having a minimum width of three times the plates thickness on each side of the
weld joint in such a manner that the entire band is brought up to the temperature
and held for the time specified on welding procedure specification.

In cases of welded joints in pipes, tubes and headers, the width of the heated
circumferential band shall be at least 3 times the width of the widest part of the
welding groove but in case less than twice the width of weld reinforcement. Prior to
any heat treatment the weldment shall be made free of grease, oil, chloride and
sulphor bearing compounds.



PMI, NTPC 88
Temperature Measuring Equipments

Calibrated time temperature recording equipments shall be used to record
temperature.

Thermocouples shall be used to give the temperature of the heated band at the
anticipated hottest and coldest locations as follows:

a) Minimum of two thermocouples per weld
b) Thermocouples located at 180 degree apart
c) Thermocouple located at top and bottom of weld
d) Thermocouple located a distance of 11/2 time the wall thickness above and
below the center line of the weld.

Temperature changes

At temperature above 600oF the maximum rate at which the temperature of the
weldment may be raised or lowered shall be the lesser of 800oF per hour or 800
divided by the maximum wall thickness in inches but need not be less than 200oF
per hour.
During heating and soaking temperature difference between any two
thermocouples on the part of the weldment shall not exceed 150oF.

Holding Time

The holding time at temperature for final post weld heat treatment shall be one
hour per inch or as specified in welding schedule.

Heating Source

The heating source shall be electrical resistance elements.

PMI, NTPC 89
The source band width shall be minimum of 3 times the wall thickness on each
side of center line of weld.

The source band shall be insulated with a minimum of one inch thickness of
mineral wool.

STRUCTURAL WELDING
PRE HEATING


METERIAL

THICKNESS
MM

MANUAL ARC WELDING
ELECTRODE

Carbon steel





1 Cr Mo Steel



2 Cr 1 Mo Steel

Quenched and Tempered
Steel


Up to 19
20-37
38-63
Above 63
Up to 8.0m

All
Up to 8.0 mm
Thickness

All

Up to 19

20-37
38-63
Above 63

None
65oC
110 oC
150 oC
More

120 oC
More


150 oC

None

65 oC
80 oC
120 oC

PMI, NTPC 90
HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
AND PRESSURE VESSELS


Preheating Post weld heat Treatment Material


Thickness
Mm
Temp
oC
Thickness
Mm
Temp.
oC

Remarks
Carbon Steel


Mo
1 Cr Mo
2 Cr-1 Mo
Austenitic

Stainless steel

Up to 25
ABOVE 25

All
All

All

None
80
o
C

80
o
C
150
o
C
200
o
C


None
Up to 19
Above 19

All
All
All
None
600-650
o
C

620-650
o
C
650-700
o
C
680-720
o
C

a) Soaking 2.5
min. per mm
thickness.

PMI, NTPC 91
7. Weld- Imperfection


INTRODUCTION

Term weld imperfections is used to denote any get material discontinuity or
condition in a weld point, whether intentional or non intentional, surface or
subsurface, harmful or non harmful, which causes a decrease in mechanical
properties. Weld imperfections may be something as apparently innocuous as an
excessive amount of weld reinforcement and the normal edge of an deposited
weld or as apparently dangerous as a crack or slag inclusion.

Normally, no attempt is made to obtain optimum mechanical properties in every
weld. It is too expensive certain imperfection are accepted for economic reasons,
and the best weld is the most economical weld that meets requirements of service
and safety. The codes and standards separate the weld imperfection into flow
which are not considered harmful and defects which are considered detrimental
to service performances.

Defects may be broadly classified into three categories.

1. Those associated with drawing or dimensional requirements like War
page, Incorrect weld size, Incorrect weld profile, Incorrect final dimension
etc.

2. Those associated with properties of weld metal or welded joint like- weld
metal, Base metal.

3. Those associated with structural discontinuities in the weld it self like-
porosity, slag inclusion, Tungsten inclusion, Incomplete fusion, Inadequate
joint penetration, undercut cracks etc.

PMI, NTPC 92
Only third type of defects are dealt here.

Following are the limitation of this discussion:

1. This discussion specifically applies to Manual metal arc welding and TIG
welding processes.
2. Only those materials known to readily permit the production of a satisfactory
welded joint will be considered.
3. Only joint designs that will produce satisfactory welded joints will be
considered.
4. Only filler metals that are capable of producing sound deposits of proper
contour properly fused to the base metal in the required position of welding
will be considered.

For each defects probable causes, correction, prevention and detection and
detection is given. In correction , it has been assumed that the defect is to be
removed . However significance of defect depend on service requirement. In
detection of the defect it has been assumed that only two methods are available
radiography and Dye penetrant test as at most of power stations site .

ARC STRIKE

A disturbance left on the surface of the base metal where a careless welder has
momentarily touched on arc welding electrode to start the arc is called an arc
strike. A number of failures by cracking initiate at abnormal structural conditions or
unsoundness produced in an arc strike .

Duration of arc strike is only about 0.2 Sec , so the base metal gets heated up and
cools down very fast . Base metal gats heated up above the lower critical
temperature (AC1), because is very short so homogenization of austenite does
not Iron carbide does not dissolve.

PMI, NTPC 93
Due to fast cooling we get higher carbon marten site than would be indicated by
average content of base metal . Also these small areas lack in deoxiding agent
and arc was not protected . For these reason , arc strike of ten harber minute
cracks, porosity , hard zones and chemical heterogeneity .

Causes

Work piece is not easily accessible to the welder .
Insulation on electrode holder is missing .
Electrode is tapped on the work piece for starting the arc .
An insulated resting place is not provided for the electrode holder when not in use
.
Loose current return clamp is used .

Correction

Arc strike areas can be light grinded so that any incipient cracking is removed .
A smooth weld bead can be deposited over an earlier accidental arc strike .

Prevention

Accessibility should be improved during stage . If possible assembly sequence can
also be modified to improve access .

Only insulated electrode holder should be used and should be inspected at regular
intervals .

Welders should be made aware that arc strike can lead to dangerous cracking.
If possible scrap of metal as a starting tab should be used, high frequency arc
starter can be used for arc starting purpose.


PMI, NTPC 94
Detection

Visual examination my reveal the cracking at be pieces of arc strike.

Magnetic test of dye penetrate testing may also reveal crack formation at the
places of arc strike . Generally Radiography is not employed for detection of arc
strike cracking .

POROSITY

porosity is used to descried the gas pockets or voids , free of any solid material,
found in welds . Gas trapped internally forms smooth wall, bright, rounded cavities
porosity occurs internally because the gas could not rise and escape through the
surface owing to lack of time and to the viscosity of the weld melt. Porosity arise
from three affects. Gases are less scluble in liquid steel at low temperature than at
high temperature. Hydrogen is a gas with which liquid steel. May become
saturated in fusion joining. During cooling form a high temperature after saturation,
the gas comes out of the solution in the form of bubbles. If the bubbles are trapped
in the growing crystals, instead of rising to the surface of the liquid melt, porosity is
formed.

Mild steel weld metal contains and oxygen. When crystallization commences, the
first crystal to freeze are low in carbon. The remaining liquid is enriched in carbon
reacts with oxygen and forms carbon monoxide may cause porosity.

Many of the material used as fluxes or constituents in electrodes covering
disspoiate when in a electrodes covering is a material which can act in this way.

Porosity can be classified into four types:

Restart Porosity
Wormholes
PMI, NTPC 95
Uniform porosity
Surface porosity

Restart Porosity

Certain class of electrodes may appear prone to deposit weld metal which contains
internal porosity only at the starting portion of the weld bead.

Causes

This may be due to delay in the establishment of fluxing and shielding react at the
start of a weld run because of non-equilibrium temperature condition.

Core of electrodes is made from rimmed steel, to secure a sound weld deposit
from this core, wire, the metal must be deoxidized. Electrodes of the high. Strength
alloy steel contain limited amount of silicon, because silicon at high level adversely
affect the toughness transition temperature. Electrode of the E100, E110, E120
series frequently contain limited ferrosilicon addition in coverings. Amount of silicon
is not adequate to properly deoxidize the first increment of to core wire melted from
electrode.

Faulty arc starting technique on the part of operator may also cause this porosity
e.g. electrodes with a lime coating is used.

Correction

The corrective area should be cut out and repaired using the original weld
procedure but attention should be paid to restart manipulative techniques.




PMI, NTPC 96
Prevention

The welder can use a scrap tab of metal to warm up the electrode and not include
this portion in the actual weld joint.

Back step technique can be used to avoid this type of porosity completely. Arc is
struck about 1 inch ahead of real starting point. Immediately upon initiation of the
arc, the electrode is moved back ward toward the real starting position taking care
to deposit the initial metal as a narrow, thin bead. Upon reaching the real starting
point the electrode travel is reversed and with a momentarily slower travel speed,
the arc is used to remelt initially deposited weld metal.

Detection

If these defects arc at the surface then with the help of magnifying glass it can be
easily detect. This type of defect appears on the radiograph as sharply defined
dark shadows of rounded counter. These defects will be at the beginning of weld
or where electrodes have been changed.

Worm holes

Worm holed can be defined as elongated blow holes that result from progressive
evolution of gas during freezing (fig. 21).









PMI, NTPC 97














Causes

High viscosity of weld metal favors worm holes by discarding the rise of bubbles.
The gas may come from gross surface contamination or from crevices formed by
the joint geometry such as the gap beneath. The vertical member of a
horizontal/vertical T joint which has been fillet welded on both sides. Worm holes
can also originate from plate laminations, if these terminate in the weld metal.

Correction

The defective area should be cut out and repaired, using the original welding
procedure after a contamination check has been made.

If worm holes have been caused by lamination it must be cut back and sealed off
with a weld.




PMI, NTPC 98
Prevention

The location of laminations should be established and the work prepared so that
welds do not pass through the laminated zone. If laminations are exposed on a
prepared joint face, they should be sealed first by local welding.

Moisture content of electrode covering should be minimized by proper storage and
rebaking before use.

Weld surface should be cleaned properly in order to remove all contaminations.
All joint shapes likely to produce cavities during welding should be eliminated.

Detection

If worm holes are at the surface of the weld then they can be detected by visual
examination. Some magnifying glass may be needed if these worm holes are very
small.

These are small diameter cavities, extending a very larger distance through the
thickness. These gas cavities does not have any metal so x-ray or ray will not be
absorbed and on radiography film we will see sharply defined dark shadows of
rounded or elongated contour depending upon the orientation of the defects. The
distance, which the cavities extend through the thickness, can be judged either by
experience or by measuring the density of the image compared with the
background density. This method is only feasible if the technique and film density
are accurately controlled. Qualitative determination of the nature of these defects
can be easily done without knowing exact depth of these defects.

Higher level of deoxidants should be used in electrode, wherever low temperature
toughness is not a criterion.

PMI, NTPC 99
All the coating, contaminants at the surface should be removed from the surface
before welding.

Detection

Surface visual examination supplemented by low poor magnification. Dye
penetration test can also be used.

Internal uniform porosity on radiograph appears as dark spot with diffuse edges.
These are uniformly distributed through out the weld run. Radiograph will show
pores at different distance through the metal and will give an impression that the
pores are more frequent and closer together than they really are. Spherical nature
of the pores gives information on their dimension on measured through the
thickness.

Surface Porosity

This type of defect is caused when gas pores breaks the surface of the weld
(fig.22)













PMI, NTPC 100
Causes

The evolution of larger quantities of gas which have been able to reach able to
reach the surface defect. The origins of surface porosity are similar to those for
uniform porosity but the degree of contamination required is much greater.
Excessive sulphur in the parent metal e.g. free cutting steel or in the consumables
can produce surface porosity.

Correction

The entire weld metal should be removed and rewelded.

Prevention

Corroded wire should not be used as filler.

Sealing air leak and excessive shielding gas flow should be avoided.

Electrode should be free from moisture. For this before use electrodes should be
rebaked and used within specified time after taking out from over.

All the coating, contamination should be removed from the welding surface before
actual welding.

If excessive sulphur content is a cause then addition of Magnese should be made
to prevent surface porosity.

Detection

Surface porosity can be detected visual examination. Some times if pores are
small then a low magnifying glass may he helpful.

PMI, NTPC 101
Dye penetration test can also be used for detecting very small pores at the
surface.

Slag Inclusion

Any particle, oxide and nonmetallic solids that are entrapped in weld metal or
between weld metal and base metal and base metal, except graphite which is a
micro structural constituent, may be regarded as a slag inclusion. During
deposition of filler metal and subsequent solidification of weld metal, many
chemical reactions occurs among the weld metal; the electrode covering material
and with the slag produced. Some of the products of these reactions are non
metallic compounds soluble only to slight degree in the molten metal. Due to their
lower specific gravity, they rise to the surface of the molten metal unless they are
restrained ( fig. 23)

Causes

In MMAW, both metal and flux coverings are churned into the weld Puddle of
crater. If globules are trapped among the growing crystals inclusions will be found
in the solid weld.

In overhead position, very short time is allowed for metal to freeze. So these weld,
tend to have more slag inclusion.

When manganese, silicon , Aluminum and other deoxiders are present, they form
complex oxides are insoluble in metal and which may be solid or molten at the melt
temperature. This may be cause for slag inclusion.

Electrode covering may chip off and drop into solidifying weld and cause inclusion.
Slag on proceeding beads through which the electrodes has failer to fuse,
particularly in undercuts and in deep furrows on each side of a weld bead saving a
pronounced convex shape.
PMI, NTPC 102
Boss of slag control because of poor manipulation technique or slag loading in
advance of the arc because of work positions.

Presence of heavy mill scale and/or rust may also cause slag inclusion.




























PMI, NTPC 103
Correction

The only corrective action can be applied is to cut the defective portion and reweld
it.

Prevention

The faster the rate of cooling, the greater is the chances of trapping slag inclusion.
So rate of cooling should be controlled.

The greater the agitation of the bath, the greater the chances of trapping slag. Slag
should be worked to the surface by controlled manipulation.

Proper preparation of the groove before each bead is deposited, using care to
correct contours that are difficult to penetrate fully with the arc, can prevent slag
inclusion.

Inter run slag removal should be improved and if the weld metal surface is likely to
causes slag traps, the irregularities should be dressed smooth.

Heavy scale on weld preparations or faces should be removed.

Detection

These occur as isolated defects, as clusters or in lines. On Radiograph isolated
slag inclusion appear as irregular shape dark images. These defects consist of
material of lower physical density than the parent metal and irregular shape
indicates that the cavity unlikely to be gas filled. The commonest form of inclusion
is the line or lines of slag. These are elongated cavities containing slag or other
foreign material. On Radiograph these will be seen as dark lines, more or less
interrupted parallel to the edge of weld. These slag line images are
characteristically sharper and less slurred in outline.
PMI, NTPC 104


TUNGSTEN INCLUSION

The gas tungsten arc welding process uses a non- consumable tungsten to
create an arc between the tungsten electrode and the work piece, and the work
piece, and filler metal may or may not be used. These tungsten inclusions
generally are undesirable, and for cortical work a limit on the size and numbers of
these inclusive is specified.

Causes

These inclusions are found due to occasional touching of electrode to the wrack
piece. molten weld metal ,may take tungsten particle from electrode to weld metal.

Correction

Defective portion of the weld metal can be gauged and rewarded

Prevention

Instead of pure tungsten ;throated tungsten of zirconium tungsten electrodes con
be used to minimize this defect.

Use of filler metal intermittently as in welding of thin material reduce tungsten
inclusion.

Detection

Tungsten inclusion can be seen by naked eye under certain circumstances. During
radiographic examination, high absorpitc characteristic of tungsten makes the
inclusion appear whiter, in contrast to the image of slag inclusions or porosity.
PMI, NTPC 105

INCOMPLETE FUSION

This term is used to describe the failure to fuse together adjacent layers of weld
metal and base metal. This failure to obtain fusion may occur at any point in the
welding groove.

Courses

Base metal or previously deposited weld metal temperature is not raised to the
melting point. Insufficient current may cause this.

Travel speed too fast and/or electrode angle incorrect may also provide low arc
energy hence result incomplete fusion.

Oxide film and scale may also prevent base metal to melt and fuse completely.

Correction

The defective area should be cut out and rewelded.

In case of incomplete fusion of root in back gauged butt welds, additional back.
Gauging may have to be used.

Prevention

The welding procedure for complete fusion should be verified by test welding.
Proper current shouls be used, to melt the base metal or adjacent layer of weld
metal, approved by tests. Weld surface should be free from any foreigner
material i.e. weld surface electrode angle and work position should be corrected
so that molten metal does not flow ahead of electrode. If possible reverse polarity
PMI, NTPC 106
should be used (electrode positive) i.e. basic coated electrode. Due to electron
bombardment from surface of base metal to electrode, cleaning action takes place.

Detection

Incomplete fusion may occur in three forms (a) lack of side will fusion (b) lack of
interim fusion (c) lack of root fusion (fig. 24)














If root is not fused properly then on radiography a dark line appears which is
precisely straight. If there is root gap this line will be broad. Commonly lack of roof
fusion occurs in conjunction with occasional isolated larges gas cuities. Lack side
well fusion may be oblique to radiographic beam. This is imaged on the radiograph
as a crack like image bat very straight

INCOMPLETE PENETRATION.

The failure of the filler metal and base metal, or the base alone if on filler metal is
used , to fuse integrally at the root of the weld (fig.25).

PMI, NTPC 107


















Causes

The failure of the root face of a groove weld to reach fusion temperature for its
ensure of the weld metal to reach the weld metal to reach the root of a fillet weld
this would leave a void that was caused by bridging of the weld metal from one
member to the other. This may be due to excessive thick root face or insufficient
root gap.

Incorrect welding condition e.g. are power input too low, incorrect electrode
diameter, Slag flooding may cause this defect. Very high speed of welding may
give rise to lack of root penetration. Use of vertical down welding when vertical up
has been specified to achieve root penetration.

PMI, NTPC 108
Failure to cut back to sound metal in a back gauging operation. Poor joint
preparation and fit up also cause this defect, because areas of base metal above
the root may first reach the fusion temperature and molten melts.

Correction

Cut out from the most accessible side and reweld. In back gauged butt welds,
addition back gauging may have to be used.

Prevention

Approved parameters used in successful weld test should be right .
Too high electrodes should not be used.
High speed of welding should be avoided.

Detection

If lack of penetration defect extends to an accessible side, Dye penetrant testing
can be used to detect this . On Radiograph this will appear as dark continuous
or intermittent line in the middle of weld.

UNDERCUT

This term is used to describe either (1) the molting away of the side wall of a
welding groove at the edge of a layer or bead , thus forming a sharp
recess in the side wall in the area to which the next layer or bead must fuse,
or (2) the reduction in base metal thickness at the line where the last bead
is fused to the surface ( e. g . at the toe of the weld ) ( fig .26 ) .




PMI, NTPC 109
Causes

Excessive speed of welding is most common cause for under cut . Filler metal
being deposited does not have sufficient time to flow to the toe and form a
proper junction .

With a specific electrode too high a current or too long an are may increase
the tendency to undercut.

Excessive weaving especially when welding in vertical position may cause
undercut. Attempting to produce a horizontal / vertical fillet with leg length greater
than 9.0mm. Incorrect welding condition e. g. Incorrect electrode angle, incorrect
shielding Gas and travel speed too slow. Magnetic are blow may also cause
under cut .

Correction

For shallow undercut, the groove can be blended out by grinding.
For deep under cut , the defect should be repaired by welding , perhaps after
grinding.

Prevention

Correct current and optimum speed of welding should be used. Orientation of
electrode should be towards weld metal especially near completion. In filler welds,
if possible, weld with the work in the flat position. Excessive weaving should be
reduced by changing to multirun technique. Termination should be done so that
they do not finish at a free edge hence reducing magnetic arc blow. If possible,
smaller die electrode should be used in final run.
PMI, NTPC 110




PMI, NTPC 111
Detection

By visual examination this can be detected. Depth of undercut can be measured
by welding gauge. On radiograph undercut will appear as a dark line, sometime
broad and diffuse, along the edge of the weld.

CRACKS

Cracking of welding joints results from localized stress that at some point exceeds
the ultimate strength of the material. When cracks occur during or as a result of
welding, little of deformation is usually apparent. Materials having considerable
ductility under uniaxial stresses may fail when subjected to biaxial or triaxial
stresses without appreciable deformation. It, because of such stresses a joint or
any portion of it, is unable to take appreciable deformation without failure additional
stresses set up in deposition of subsequent layers or in the welding of other joints
may force that pat to deform and fail.

After a welded joint has cooled, cracking is more likely to occur if the metal is
either hard or brittle. A ductile material, by localized yielding may withstand
stresses concentrations that might cause a hard or brittle material to fail. Cracks
can be classified in three ways. First, depending on the location of crack. Second,
depending on temperature of cracking as hot cracks and cold cracks. Thirdly, weld
metal cracking and base metal cracking. Following are four most pronounced
types of cracking found in weldments.
Solidification or centerline cracking
Hydrogen- Induces (HAZ) Cracking
Lamellar Tearing
Reheat cracking

PMI, NTPC 112
Solidification or centerline cracking

Centre line cracking is a linear discontinuity produced by fracture. Brittle behavior
of steel is exhibited at the end of solidification range. Cooling of the joint results in
contraction of weld metal and base metal imposes stress upon the weld metal. If
these stresses are not tolerated by weld when in a mushy stage or through
deformation when metal is completely solid then cracking will take place.

Causes

The imposition of excessive transverse strains in restrained welds. This may result
from welds having a depth to width ratio in excess of 2:1. The parent metal
composition Carbon, sulphur and phosphorous contents, has a controlling
influence on the incidence of this defect. The higher the content of carbon, sulphur
and phosphorous the greater will be the risk of cracking. High dilution from the
parent and plate and preheat May also be contributory factors.

Contaminations remaining on the parent metal, such as cutting oils may enhance
of cracking. Fillet welds having gross concavity; such welds may not be strong
enough to withstand normal contraction stresses. Large gaps between the
component parts in fillet welded joints. Inadequate filling of crackers at the end of
weld run may develop cracks because the cractor solidifies more rapidly than rest
of the bead.

Correction

Cut out defective weld length plus 5 mm beyond visible end of crack and reweld.

Prevention

Welding sequence should be planned in such a way so that to reduce thermally
induced strains. Welding parameters should be adjusted so that to produce depth
PMI, NTPC 113
to width ratio of about 1:1. Parent steels containing sulphur and phosphorous more
than 0.06% should be avoided. If sulphur content is high then Mn should also be
there in order to avoid this type of cracking. Each percent of sulphur content effect
is neutralized by about 1.75% of Mn, which forms Mn and prevents formation of
FeS. All traces of cutting oil should be cleaned.

Detection

If this crack is at the surface then it can detected by visual examination perhaps
with the help of a low magnifying glass. Dye penetrant test can also be used. The
radiographic image of a crack is dark line characteristically varying in width
blackness and wandering.

Hydrogen induced [HAZ] cracking

This type of cracking usually longitudinal in nature, occurs with in the heat affected
zone of the metal being welded, and is almost always associated with hardenable
materials. Hardness and brittleness in the heat affected zone is welded joints are
metallurgical effects that result form the thermal cycle of welding, and are among
the principal factors that tend to cause cracking.

Causes

Hardening in heat affected areas: Any microstructure that possesses low ductility
is prone to cold cracking. Martensite formation in HAZ can promote cold cracking.
If equivalent carbon content of steel is high and cooling rate is fast enough after
base metal reaches above critical temperature then formation of martensite is
favored. It has got high hardness and low ductility and causes cracking in heat
affected zone. Development of residual and reaction stresses: if multi axial
stresses are applied to a metal having limited ductility and toughness then cracking
can occur. thick section develop high triaxial stresses and relatively this section
develop high biaxial stresses. Hence thick section of base metal will be more
PMI, NTPC 114
prone to cracking. The diffusion of hydrogen form the weld metal in to hardened
heat affected zones: at high temperature solubility of hydrogen in molten metal is
high than at low temperature. As metal cools fast all hydrogen dissolved in metal is
not able to escape and remaining hydrogen forms solid solution {intestinally} of
steel. This entrapped hydrogen tries to escape through gas pockets, voids around
metallic inclusions or even discontinuities and cause cracking. Large root gaps,
low heat input and the absence or insufficient preheat may also contribute to
cracking.

Correction

Short isolated lengths of crack, where accessible form the surface can be cut out
and repaired by welding. But during repair welds should be given the correct
preheat and heat conditions to minimize the risk of further cracking. Extensive
and/or sub surface cracking may require the replacement of the affected.

Prevention

Use the correct procedures for welding steels which exhibit heat, affected zone
hardening. Welding consumables must be of hydrogen controlled type and used
under controlled conditions. Electrodes must be dried before used according to
instructions. Preheat, where applicable must be such that the full section of the
joint is raised to the required temperature. Heat input requirements must be
carefully maintained even for erection tack welds. Parent metal composition must
be with in the limits which are consistent with the welding procedure used.

Detection

This defect is contained with in the heat affected zone although they may also
extend in to the weld metal. If this defect is at the surface then visual examination
either direct or by help of low power magnification can defect it. Dye penetration
PMI, NTPC 115
can also be used to detect this defect. On the radiographic image this will appear
as fine dark line straight or wardering in direction.

Crater filler, a device which permits the welding power to be decreased in a
controlled manner by the welder to fill the crater and extinguish arc, should be
used. Reducing heat input i.e. reducing current and/or voltage or increasing
travel speed these cracks may be prevented.

Lamellar tearing

Crack in steel plates parallel to the plate surface which originate adjacent to welds.
They are not in general associated with the heat affected zone and display a
characteristic step formation.

Causes

Poor ductility in the through thickness direction of the rolled plate. The low ductility
is caused by thin zones of non metallic illusions lying beneath and parallel to the
plate surface. Thermally induced strain in restrained joints resulting in high
stresses through the thickness of the plate.

Corrections

Small areas which have experienced lamellar tearing can be completely cut out
and replaced with weld metal. When extensive lamellar is discovered complete
substitution of all defective is often only safe solution,

Prevention

Joint should be designed so that contraction imposes the minimum of strain in the
trough thickness direction. Techniques which place high ductility weld metal in the
direction of the strain are used.
PMI, NTPC 116
Detection

Lamellar tears which break the surface may sometimes be distinguished form
cracks arising form other causes by the characteristic stepped appearance.
On radiograph it will appear as dark line wandering in direction.

Reheat cracking

A discontinuity produced by separation of prior austenite grain boundaries by
creep at elevated temperatures, usually with in the heat affected zone but also
found in weld metal.

Causes

In welded plant operation at elevated temperatures a combination of residual
welding strains and low creep ductility in the steel may produce reheat cracking
along the grain boundaries. This form of cracking along grain boundaries occurs
only in steels containing alloying additions such as vanadium or molybdenum
which, when present in sufficient quantity, causes significant secondary hardening.
In the heat affected zone. This secondary hardening strengthens the prior
austenite grains so that the strains arising form both welding and working load are
transferred to the grain boundaries. Impurities in the steel such as arsenic,
antimony and Tin which diffuse in to the grain boundaries, will weaken them to the
extent that they may fail under applied strain. Severe notches such as pre-existing
cracks, tears at weld toes, lack of root fusion defects and partial penetration welds
may further enhance possibility of reheat cracking.

Correction

The weld area should be heat treated to restore heat affected zone ductility before
the defect is removed. The cut out should be carried past the ends of crack by at
PMI, NTPC 117
least 5 mm. The weld can then be repaired observing the preheat requirements
which were in force for the original welding procedure before heat treating again.

Prevention

Any notch like defects should be prevented or removed before post weld heat
treatment. Grinding the weld toes before the well cools can be beneficial. Inter
pass stress relieving may assist in the control of the incidence of this defect.

Heat treatment may need to incorporate a low temperature soak and a carefully
controlled heating rate.

Detection

Reheat crack at the surface can be detected by visual examination or by dye
penetrant test. The radiographic image of reheat crack is dark line,
characteristically varying in width, blackness and wandering.

PMI, NTPC 118
8. Destructive Testing


GENERAL

In destructive testing, the weldment or weld joint is destroyed in making the test
specimen. They are also expensive since they involve the preparation of the
material, making of the welds, the cutting and often machining of the weld test
specimens, and finally the destructive testing of the specimens. Welds and weld
metal are probably subjected to more different types of tests than any other metal
produced. Destructive tests may be chemical tests, metallorgaphic tests,
mechanical tests, or any combination thereof. This chapter will briefly describe the
various ropes of destructive test soused in the evaluation of weldments.

Chemical Analysis

Chemical examination of a metal by analyzing the chips taken out of the same will
reveal the presence of elements present and their quality.

Normally, this is being either by wet analysis or Dry analysis (special examination).

Metallographical Examination

This is essentially a study of the structural characteristics or the constitution of a
metal or an alloy in relation to its physical and mechanical properties.

a) Macroscopic Examination

This involves the visual observation of the gross structural details of a
metal, either by the unaided eye or the aid of a lower power microscope or a
binocular. Some metallic characteristic are the best determined by such
studies by magnifications under 10 X.
PMI, NTPC 119
b) Micro Examination

This involves microscopic examination of a prepared metal specimen,
employing magnification with the optical microscope from 100X to as high
as 2000X.Study by this method will be broader than micro-examination and
will give a clear picture of such structural characteristics as grain size, size
shape and distribution of secondary phases and non-metallic inclusion.

Mechanical tests in addition to their ability to determine the mechanical properties
are used to qualify welding procedures and welders. It is also used to qualify the
different welding processes and to determine if electrodes, and fillers metals meet
the requirements of the specification covering them. By, mechanical tests, the
soundness, strength and toughness of weld can be seen.

- Tensile Testing,
- Compression Testing
- Shear Testing.
- Bend tests.
- Nick-break Test.
- Impact Testing.

A great many of the machines used for tensile testing are universal testing
machines which can be employed for compression and shear testing as well as
tensile testing. Special jigs are provided as part of the equipment to carry out shear
testing of bolts and rods of different diameters. Through the compression test
ranks low on the list of routine acceptance tests for metals, there are fields in
which it can be used in order to obtain useful data, such as in plastics and
ceramics, specially designed machines for compression testing are commercially
available for carrying out the testing of concrete. The tensile testing machine
consists of a mechanism for exerting a pull on a test piece coupled to a device,
which measure the load or stress. Now a days, the self indicating type of machine
in which the load is applied to the test piece by a hydraulic force and the pressure
PMI, NTPC 120
in the system is balanced against the deflection from the vertical pendulum by a
subsidiary hydraulic ram is more popular in use. Tests for tensile strength,
percentage of elongation, elastic limit, yield point and reduction of area can be
carried out.

Bend Tests

This is one method for evaluating ductility but cannot be considered quantitative
means for predicting service performance in bending operations. Normally the
following types of bend tests are carried out.

a) Root bend test.
b) Face bend test.
c) Side bend test.

In root bend test the root of the butt weld is kept under tension while bending, and
in the face bend test is more severe than the face bend test.

When welding is done from both sides on thicker plates (normally more than
20mm), a side bend test is made where the whole weld metal section will under
tension during bending

The specimens having any such open defects exceeding 3 mm measured in any
direction shall be considered having failed. Cracks occurring on the corners of the
specimen during bending shall be discarded.

Nick-Break Teat

The nick-break test is designed to show if interior inclusion, such as gas pockets
and slag inclusions, exist and to show the degree of porosity in the weld bead. This
is a simple test in which the force may be applied by a press or the sharp blow of a
hammer on a test specimen where the weld bead is slotted at the top and bottom
PMI, NTPC 121
and placed between two supports. The intensity or the swiftness of the force to
break the piece is not important. After breaking visual inspection of the broken
piece is the main test.

Impact Testing

Impact testing determines the relative toughness of a material. Toughness is
defined as the resistance of a metal to fracture after plastic deformation has
begun. The behavior of materials under static or slowly applied loads. An important
type of dynamic loading is that which the load is applied suddenly as form the
impact of a moving mass.

The commonly used impact tests can be classified under two categories.
a) The Charpy impact test.
b) The Izod impact that.

The principal difference that exists between these two tests is in the positioning of
the test specimen. In Charpy impact test the specimen is in the form of a simply
supported beam while in Izod test it is a cantilever. An impact test is a dynamic test
in which a selected specimen machined or surface ground and usually notched is
struck and broken by a single blow in a specially designed testing machine and the
energy absorbed in breaking the specimen is measured. The energy that is
required to fracture the test piece is recorded in Kg-M force on the scale. The
tougher the material, the higher the energy absorbed by the test piece.

Unalloyed metals are rated in the order of their toughness as follows:

Copper, Nickel, Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Aluminum, Lead, Tin Cobalt, Biamuth.
Biamuth can absorb a small amount of energy before plastic deformation and
fracture, while copper is highly ductile and can withstand a great deal of plastic
deformation.
PMI, NTPC 122
9. Non Destructive Testing


GENERAL

In the advanced technological fields of construction and manufacturing, there are
lot of areas which require 100% reliability. To meet this demand for high reliability,
non destructive testing has originated and got lot of significance.

By Non-destructive testing method flaws within a material or a product is located
without destroying or defacing the product.

Major type of non-destructive testing that are being widely employed is dealt in this
chapter.

1. Visual and dimensional inspection (V.T.)
2. Hardness testing
3. Liquid penetrant flaw detection (DPT)/DPT
4. Magnetic particle flaw detection (MPT)
5. Eddy current testing (ET)
6. Ultrasonic testing (UT)
7. Radiographic examination (RT)

Visual & Dimensional Inspection

Normally inspection for welding shall be carried out in three stages as given
below:-

(a) Preliminary stage before commencement of fabrication.
(b) In process stage during welding.
(c) Final stage After welding.

PMI, NTPC 123
The completed weld and the welded fabrication as a whole should be examined
visually, preferably with the assistances of a magnifying lens or torch. It should
cover all aspects of the weld and the weldment.

(a) Weld defects occurring at the surface such as blow holes, pipes, exposed
porosity, exposed inclusions, unfilled crate, infused welds etc.

(b) Surface cracks in the weld metal or parent metal.

(c) Damages to parent metal such as under cut, burning, over heating etc.

(d) Profile defects such as excessive convexity or concavity, overlap, unequal
leg lengths, excessive reinforcement, incompletely filled grooves, excessive
penetration bead, root grooves, shrinkage grooves etc.

(e) Incorrect finish like ripple marks, uneven welds, peening marks and
excessive grinding etc.

The following types of faults may also be detected by visual examination.

(a) Distortion due to welding i.e. local shrinkage, camber, bowing, twisting &
buckling etc.

(b) Linear, angular and rotational mis-alignment of parts.

(c) Incorrect location of components.

(d) Visible dimensional error.

(e) Inspection for correct dimensions in case of fillet welds, spot welds etc.
where the size is specified using suitable gauges.

PMI, NTPC 124
Hardness Testing

General

Hardness is defined in metals as a resistance to the penetration of metallic surface
such as scratching, denting, drilling, filling or other deformation.

The types of test to determine hardness are:

(a) Static indentation tests, in which a ball, cone or pyramid is forced into the
surface of the metal being tested. The relationship of load to the area or the
depth of indentation is the measure of hardness.

(b) Rebound tests, in which an object of standard mass and dimensions is
bounced from the surface of the work piece being tested and the hight of
rebound is the measure of hardness.

The solerscope is employed in rebound tests. Static indentation hardness
testing is the more widely used of the two methods, although rebound
testing is extensively employed, particularly for hardness measurements on
large work piece or for application in which visible or sharp impressions in
the test surface cannot be tolerated.

Brinell Hardness Testing

The consists of applying a constant load usually 500 to 3000 kg on a hardened
steel ball type indentor, 10mm in dia to the flat surface of a work piece. The 500
kg load is usually used for testing non-ferrous metals is like copper and aluminum
alloys and 3000 kg load is used for harder metals like steel and cast irons. In load
is to be applied for a specific time to ensure that plastic flow of the work metal has
stopped.

PMI, NTPC 125
Hardness is evaluated by taking the two mean diameter of the indentation at right
angles and calculation the Brinell Hardness number (HB) by dividing the
applied load by the surface area of the indentation as per the following formula :

HB = L/D [D-D
2
- d
2
)

]
2

Where L = is the load in Kg.
D = is the diameter of the ball in mm
d = is the dia of indentation in mm.

It is not necessary, however to make the calculation for each test, as readymade
Brinell hardness testers are available which gives the HB reading on the dial
gauge mounted in the machine.

A tester used for routine testing is acceptable if the error does not exceed + 2.
Brinell hardness testers may be checked by periodic calibration using a proven
ring.

Indentation should not be made on a curved surface having a radius of less than 1
inch and also indentations should not be made too close to the edge of the work
piece.

Limitations

(a) Size and shape of work piece
(b) Large indentation caused to work piece
(c) Limit of hardness range

HB 16 for 500 kg load. HB 627 for 3000 kg load.


PMI, NTPC 126
Rockwell Hardness Testing

This test is simple to perform and does not require highly skilled operators and
also used for determining hardness of most metals and alloys from softest bearing
materials to hardest steels.

Rockwell hardness testing differs from Brinell hardness testing in that the hardness
is determined by the depth of indentation by the indentor.

In regular Rockwell hardness testing the minor load is always 10 kg. The major
load however can be 60, 100 or 150 kg and there are two scales called B and C
scale.

For examples, a value of 60 on the Rockwell C scale is expressed as 60 HRC, on
the B scale on 60 HRB etc.

When the diamond indenter is used readings are taken from the black divisions of
dial and for ball indenters red divisions are noted.

Limitations

Use of the diamond indenter when readings fall below 20 is not recommended
since there will be loss of sensitivity down the conical section of indenter. The C
scale should not be used on tungsten carbide as the diamond life will be
considerably reduced. A scale is the accepted scale for carbide industry.

Vickers Hardness Tester

This test follows the method of Brinell Principle for arriving at the hardness number
calculated by dividing the load by the surface area of indentation. The indenter is
made of diamond and is in the form of square based pyramid having an angle of
PMI, NTPC 127
136 between faces. The loads applied vary from 1 to 120 kg in the standard
loads are 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 & 120 kg is the maximum.

The Vickers hardness number HV is the ratio of the load applied to the indenter to
the surface area of the indentation.

HV = 2P Sin (g/2)/d
2
where P = applied load in kg.
d = dia of indentation in mm
g = 136

Scleroscope Hardness Testing

This was first invented by Albert F. Shore in 1907 and commercially first used in
USA.

This is basically a dynamic indentation hardness test, wherein a diamond tipped
hammer is dropped from a fixed height on the surface of the material tested. The
height of rebound of the hammer is a measure of the hardness of the metal. The
scleroscope scale consists of units that are determined by during the average
rebound of the hammer from a quenched to maximum hardness and intemperate
water- hardening tool steel into 100 units. Operation of this test is very simple and
a single scale accommodates the entire hardness range from the softest to hardest
metals.

Its limitations are that it must be in a vertical position for testing and sclerscope
hardness tests are more sensitive to variations in surface conditions than other
hardness tests.

Liquid Penetrant Flaw Detection (LPT)

This is also termed as liquid penetrant testing (LPT) or dye penetration test. The
principle in this simple test is that the dye applied penetrate due to its low surface
PMI, NTPC 128
tension and is drawn rapidly into extremely small surface openings by capillary
action. After application of the penetrant and removal of excess, the surface is
examined under application of a developer, producing a colour contrast making the
defects visible.

Liquid penetrant inspection requires six essential steps as given below:

(a) Surface preparation

All surfaces of a work piece must be thoroughly cleaned and completely
dried before it is subjected to this examination. Discontinuities exposed to
the surface must be free from oil, water or other contaminants fro at least
one inch beyond the area being inspected if they are to be detected.

(b) Penetration

After cleaning, liquid penetrant is applied in a suitable manner so as to form
a film of the penetrant over the surface for at least inch beyond the area
being inspected. This film should remain long enough to allow maximum
penetration of the penetrant into any surface openings that are present.

(c) Removal of excess penetrant

Next excess penetrant should be removed from the surface. The cleaning
method is determined by the type of penetrant used. Uniform removal of
excess penetrant is necessary for effective inspection, but over cleaning
must be avoided.

(d) Development

A developing agent is applied so that it forms a film over the surface. The
developer acts as a blotter to assist the natural seepage of the penetrant
PMI, NTPC 129
out of surface openings and to spread it at the edges, so as to greatly
magnify the apparent width of the flaw. The developer also provides a
uniform background to assist visual inspection.

(e) Inspection

The inspection can be done with either a normal light, with visual type dyes,
or with a black light, with fluorescent dye penetrant. With either method two
types of indications are revealed true indications or false indications. True
indications are caused by penetrant bleeding out from actual discontinuities
in the metal. The standard true flaws are cracks, cold shut cracks, fatigue
cracks which resemble to a great extent the cold shut cracks, pits; and
porosities. The large crack is represented by a line of some width. The
large crack, after the developer is applied, becomes apparent quickly. The
cold- shut crack, which is an under surface crack that is bleeding through
the surface, is represented by a line of dots and requires a few minutes after
the developer has been added to come to the surface. Porosity is
noticeable quickly in that an indication of porosity comes to the surface
almost immediately, as do indications in which the length is equal or more
than three times the width. Rounded indications are normally circular in
shape or elliptical with length less than three times the width, while linear
indications are not generally accepted, rounded indication to certain extent
will be accepted.

The false or non-relevant indications are not caused by flaws at the surface
of the metal. The major reasons for false indications are failure to follow the
correct liquid penetrant application or rought, irregular surfaces of the test
metal.
PMI, NTPC 130

(f) Cleaning

After identifying and making the flaws if any the tested surface shall be
cleaned thoroughly.

Limitations

The major limitations of liquid penetrant inspection is that it can detect only
imperfections that are open to surface; some other method must be used for
detecting sub surface defects or discontinuities. Another factor is the surface
roughness of the object being inspected. Extremely rough or porous surfaces are
likely to produce false indications.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE FLAW DETECTION (MPT)

Principle

Magnetic particle inspection is a method for locating surface and subsurface
discontinuities in Ferro magnetic materials. It depends for its operation on
the fact that when the material or part under test is magnetized , magnetic
discontinuities that lie in a direction generally transverse to the direction of the
magnetic field will cause a leakage filed to be formed at and above the surface of
the part. The presence of the discontinuity, is detected by the use of finely divided
Ferro magnetic particles applied over the surface, some of the particles being
gathered and held by the leakage field. This magnetically held collection of
particles forms and outline of the discontinuity and generally indicates its location,
size, shape and extent. Magnetic particles that are applied over a surface as dry
particles or as wet particles in a liquid carrier such as water or oil.

PMI, NTPC 131
Testing Procedure

This involves the following steps :

(a) Magnetization
(b) Power Sources for Magnetization
(c) Media of Inspection
(d) Location and inter-pretation of flaws
(e) Demagnetization

Two important methods of magnetization that are used :

(a) Circular Magnetization

Electric current passing through any straight conductor such as a wire or
bar creates a circular magnetic field around the conductor. When the
conductor of electric current is a Ferro-magnetic material, the passage of
current induces a magnetic field in the conductor as well as in the
surrounding space. A part magnetized in this manner is said to have a
circular field.

(b) Longitudinal magnetization

When electric current is passed through a coil of one or core turns, a
magnetic field is established length-wise or longitudinally within the coil. The
nature and direction of the field around the conductor that forms the turns of
the coil produce longitudinal magnetization.

Different Magnetizing Currents (Power Sources )

(a) Direct Current (DC)
(b) Alternating Current (AC)
PMI, NTPC 132
(c) Half wave rectified direct current (HWDC)

The strength direction and distribution of magnetic fields are greatly affected by the
type of current that is used for magnetization.

The merits and demerits of different types of currents:

(a) Direct Current
More sensitive than AC for detection of subsurface defects.
D.C. penetrates more than AC.
Full wave, three phase, rectified current produces results comparable to that
of direct current obtained through batteries.
Dry D.C. method enhances subsurface flaw detection.

(b) Alternative Current
Alternates at specific cycles (50 cycles/sec).
Maximum flex at the surface of the job.
Little penetration below surface.
It has advantage of stepping up or down the voltage.
Reversal of magnetic field due to AC heeps in the mobility of magnetic
particles.
Best suited for detecting surface discontinuities fatigue or (cracks in
service).

(c) Half wave rectified direct current (HWDC)
Half wave rectified single phase current provides maximum sensitivity.
The pulsating field increases the particle mobility.
HWDC help in locating deep seated discontinuities.




PMI, NTPC 133
Current Requirement

The required amount of magnetizing current of magnetizing current is affected by
the permeability of the metal, the shape and thickness of the job and the typeof
discontinuity sought (fig. 27).

ASTM RECOMMENDED PROD SPACINGS AND CURRENT VALUES

SECTION THICKNESS & CURRENT
PROD SPACING
(In Inches)
Below Above

2 to 4
4 to 6
6 to 8

200 to 300 amps.
300 to 400 amps.
400 to 600 amps.

300 to 400 amps.
400 to 600 amps.
600 to 800 amps.



PMI, NTPC 134
Media of Inspection

The different types of testing are required depending on the properties such as
magnetic, geometric mobility and visibility. The application of power or ink shall be
sufficient enough to give indication. If should not be applied in excess.

Dry Powder Testing

Dry powders of different colors suiting to the background contrast such as grey,
brown, red and black are used. Dry powder is applied using powder blower or
sprinkler. Dry powder testing is not as sensitive as the wet method for shallow and
surface defects and slower than wet method.

WET METHOD TESTING

Magnetic ink in block, brown and fluorescent are used and sprayed on the jobs.
Wet method cannot be used on hot objects.

Excellent for detection of subsurface defect.
Good mobility when used with AC or HWDC.
Gives clear indication.

REQUIREMENTS OF MAGNETIC PARTICLES FOR EFFECTIVE TESTING :

Nontoxic
Finely divided
Ferro magnetic
Free of contaminants
High permeability
Low retentiviy
High colour contrast
Correct size and mobility
PMI, NTPC 135
Inspection & Interpretation of flaws

In magnetic particle inspection there are many variations in procedure that critically
affect the results obtained. Points that are to be considered in establishing a set of
procedures for magnetic-particle inspection of a specific part must include.

type of current
type of magnetic particles
method of magnetization
direction of magnetization
amount of applied current
equipment used.

Normally as welded, as cost, and as forged surfaces are suitable for magnetic
particle testing. If the surface is rough or loose scale interferences are present,
surface is to be dressed. The surface must be free from grease, rust and thick
paint. Sand blasting, wire brushing, grinding and filling are normally used to
prepare the surface (fig. 28).

Guide to flaw interpretation

Surface defects appear sharp and distinct
Subsurface flaws appear rough and fuzzy
Width of subsurface flaw indication varies with depth.
Correct interpretation demands the skill of the operator.

CLASSIFICATION OF FLAWS

(a) Defect indication due to surface & subsurface defects
Inherent (initial solidification)
Pipe, blow holes, regregation, non-metallic inclusion internal fissures and in
got cracks.
PMI, NTPC 136


PMI, NTPC 137
Processing

Seams, lamination, cooling cracks, forging bursts, casting & welding defect,
machining tears & grinding cracks.

Service

Service cracks, fatigue cracks, corrosion and over stressing.

(b) Non-relevant indications occur due to flux leakage and because of change
in permeability.
(c) False indications are due to improper surface.


TEST SPECIMENTS

Fabricated as per American standard specification ASTM-A-275-74 and ASME-
SA-275. The specimen provides reliable indication of adequacy of magnetic field
strength at the point of application for the purpose of surface crack detection by the
electro-magnetic method.

DEMAGNETIZATION AFTER INSPECTION

All ferromagnetic materials, after having been magnetized, will retain a residual
magnetic field to some degree. This field may be negligible in magnetically soft
metals, but in harder metals it may be comparable to the intense fields associated
with the special alloys used for permanent magnets.

It is not always necessary to demagnetize parts after magnetic-particle inspection.
However, although demagnetization involves time and expense, it is essential in
many instances. Demagnetization may be easy or difficult, force, so that the
PMI, NTPC 138
strength of the retained magnetic field is not always an accurate indicator of the
ease of demagnetizing.

Reasons for Demagnetizing

There are many reasons for demagnetizing a part after magnetic-particle
inspection (or, for that matter, after magnetization for any other reason).
Demagnetization may be necessary if :

1) The part will be used in an area where a residual magnetic field will interfere
with the operation of instruments that are sensitive to magnetic fields or may
affect the accuracy of instrumentation incorporated in an assembly that
contains the magnetized part.

2) During subsequent machining, chips may adhere to the surface being
machined and adversely affect surface finish, dimension and tool life.
During cleaning operations, chips may adhere to the surface and interfere
with subsequent operations such as paining or plating.

3) Abrasive particles may be attracted to magnetized parts such as bearing
surfaces, bearing raceways, or gear teeth, resulting in abrasion or galling, or
may obstruct oil holes and grooves.

4) During some electric are-welding operation, strong electric arc-welding
operation, strong residual magnetic fields may deflect the arc away from the
point at which it should be applied.

5) A residual magnetic field in a part may interfere with remagnetization of the
part at a field intensity too low to over-come the remanent filed in the part.



PMI, NTPC 139
Reason for Not Demagnetizing

Demagnetization may not be necessary if:

1) Parts are made of magnetically soft steel having low retentivity; such parts
usually will become demagnetized as soon as they are removed from the
magnetizing source.

2) The parts are subsequently heated above their Curie point and
consequently lose their magnetic properties.

3) The magnetic field is such that it will not affect the function of the part in
service.

4) The part is to be remagnetized for further magnetic particle inspection or for
some secondary operation in which a magnetic plate or chuck may be used
to hold the part.

The last reason may appear to conflict with item 6 in the list under Reasons for
Demagnetizing. The establishment of a longitudinal field after circular
magnetization negates the circular field, because two fields in different directions
cannot exist in the same part at the same time. If the magnetizing force is not of
sufficient strength to establish the longitudinal field it should be increased, or other
steps taken to ensure that the longitudinal field actually has been established. The
same is true in changing from longitudinal and circular are applied simultaneously,
a field will be established that is a vector combination of the two in both strength
and direction. However, if the fields are impressed successively, the last field
applied, if strong enough to establish itself in the part, will destroy the remanent
field from the magnetization. If the magnetizing force last applied does not equal
or exceed the preceding one, the latter may remain as the dominant field.


PMI, NTPC 140
Advantages

The magnetic- particle method is a sensitive means of locating small and shallow
surface cracks in ferromagnetic materials. Indications may be produced at cracks
that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye, but exceedingly wide cracks
will not produce a particle pattern if the surface opening is too wide for the particles
to bridge.

Discontinuities that do not actually brack through the surface also are indicated
in many instances by this method, although certain limitations must be recognized
and understood. If a discontinuity is fine and sharp and close to the surface,
should as a long stringer of non-metallic inclusion, a sharp indication can be
produced. If the discontinuity lies deeper, the indications is less distinct. The
deeper the discontinuity lies below the surface, the larger it must be to yield a
readable indication, and the more difficult the discontinuity is to find by the method.
Magnetic-particle indications are produced directly on the surface of the part, and
constitute magnetic pictures of actual discontinuities. There is no electrical
circuitry or electronic readout to be calibrated or kept in proper operating condition.
Skilled operators can sometimes make a reasonable estimate of crack depth with
suitable powders and proper technique. Occasional monitoring of field intensity in
the part is needed to assure adequacy of field strength.

There is little or no limitation because of size or shape of the party being inspected.
Ordinarily, no elaborate preclaning is necessary and cracks filled with foreign
material can be detected.

Limitations

There are certain limitations to magnetic-partical inspection that the operator must
be aware; for instance, thin coating of paint and other non-magnetic coverings,
such as plating, adversely affect sensitivity of magnetic-particle inspection. Other
limitations are:
PMI, NTPC 141
1) This method will work only on ferromagnetic materials.
2) For best results, the magnetic field must be in a direction that will intercept
the principal plane of the discontinuity. Sometimes this requires two or
more sequential inspections with different magnetizations.
3) Demagnetization following inspection is often necessary.
4) Post cleaning to remove remnants of the magnetic particles clinging to the
surface may sometimes be required after testing and demagnetization.
5) Exceedingly large currents sometimes are required for very large parts.
6) Care is necessary to avoid local heating and burning of finished parts or
surfaces at the points of electrical contact.
7) Although magnetic-particle indications are easily seen, experience and skill
in interpreting their significance sometimes are needed.

EDDY CURRENT INSPECTION (ET)

Principle

This is based on the principles of electro-magnetic induction and is used to identity
or differentiate between a wide variety of physical, structural and metallurgical
conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metals
(fig. 29).

Applications

(a) To measure or identify such condition and properties as electrical
conductivity, magnetic permeability, grain size, heat treatment condition,
hardness and physical dimensions.
(b) To detect seams, laps cracks, voids and inclusions.
(c) To sort dissimilar metals and detect differences in their composition, micro
structure and other properties.
PMI, NTPC 142
(d) To measure the thickness of a non-conductive coating on a conductive
metal or the thickness of a non-magnetic metal coating on a magnetic
metal.

Because eddy current inspection is an electro-magnetic induction technique, it
does not require direct electrical contact with the part being inspected. The eddy
current method is acceptable to high speed inspection and it can be used to
inspect in and entire production output if desired. The method is based on indirect
measurement, and the correlation between the instrument readings and the
structural characteristics and service-ability of the parts being inspected must be
carefully and repeatedly established.

Advantages and Dis-Advantages

The advantage is that the method can be applied to many inspection problems
provided that the physical requirements of the material are compatible with the
inspection method. However the sensitivity of the method to the many properties
and characteristics inherent with a material can be a disadvantage.

The eddy current method of inspection and the induction heating technique that is
used for metal heating, induction hardening and tempering have several
similarities. Both are dependent on the principles of electromagnetic induction for
inducting eddy currents within a part placed within or adjacent to one or more
induction coils. The heating is a result of I2R losses caused by the flow of eddy
currents in the part. Changes in coupling between the induction coils and the part
being inspected and changes in the electrical characteristics of the part cause
variations in the loading and tuning of the generator.

PMI, NTPC 143

PMI, NTPC 144
Provisions of Working System

Eddy current systems very in complexity depending on individual inspection
requirements. However most of the system provide for the following functions.

Excitations of the inspection coil.
Modulation of the inspection coil out-put signal by the part being inspected.
Processing of the inspection coil signal prior to amplification.
Amplification of the signals
Detection or demodulation of the inspection coil signal
Display of signals on an oscillograph or a stripcharc recorder.
Handling of the part being inspected and support of inspection coil
assembly.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)

Principle

UT inspection is the method by which beams of high frequency sound waves are
used to detect surface and sub-surface flaws. The sound waves travel through the
material with some attendant loss of energy (attenuation) and are reflected at
interfaces. The deflected beam is detected and analysed to define the presence
and location of flaws. Most ultrasonic inspection is done at frequencies between 1
and 25 MHZ. Ultrasonic waves are mechanical vibrations; medium and velocity of
propagation depends on the elasticity of the medium.

Equipment Details

(a) An electronic signal generator of pulsar to produce alternating voltage when
electronically triggered.
(b) A sending transducer (probe or search unit) that emits a beam of ultrasonic
waves.
PMI, NTPC 145
The active element in a search unit is a piezo-electric crystal. These
crystals work on the piezo-electric effect. It implies that an electrical charge
is developed by the crystal when pressure is applied to it. Conversely when
an electrical field is applied, the crystal mechanically deforms.
(c) A couplant to transfer energy in the beam of ultrasonic waves to the test
piece.
(d) A receiving probe to accept and convert the output of ultrasonic waves form
the test piece to corresponding bursts of alternating acts as sender and
receiver.
(e) An electronic device to amplify and if necessary demodulate or otherwise
modify and signals from the receiving transducer.
(f) A display or indicating device to characterize or record the output from the
test piece. The display device may be annoscilloscipe; a chart or strip
recorder or a computer printout.
(g) An electronic clock or timer to control the operation of the various
components of the system as well as to serve as a primary reference point.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF UT

Advantages

(a) Superior penetrating power, which allows the detection of flaws deep in the
part.
(b) High sensitivity ; extremely small can be detected.
(c) Greater accuracy in determining the position of internal flaws, size
estimation, shape and orientation.
(d) Only one surface need be accessible.
(e) Fast inspection and results known instantaneously.
(f) Continuous control during the process of fabrication or production.
(g) No health hazards.
(h) Portability.
(i) Can be used for small as well as large components.
PMI, NTPC 146
Disadvantages

(a) Manual operation requires experienced technicians.
(b) Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of inspection
procedures.
(c) Parts that are rough, irregular in shape, very small and not homogenous are
difficult to inspect.
(d) Couplants are needed to provide effective transfer of wave energy.
(e) Reference standards are required both for calibrating the equipment and for
characterizing the flaws.

General Characteristics of Ultrasonic waves

General

Ultrasonic waves behave essentially the same as audible sound waves. They can
propagate in an elastic medium, which can be solid, liquid or graseous but not in a
vacuum.
On the basis of mode of particle displacement, ultrasonic waves are classified as
longitudinal waves, transverse waves, surface waves and lamb waves.

Longitudinal Waves

They travel through metal as a series of alternate compressions and rarefactions in
which the particles transmitting the wave vibrate back and forth in the direction of
travel of the waves.
The velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic waves is about 6000 m/Sec. in steel, 1500
m/Sec. in water and 330 m/Sec. in air.




PMI, NTPC 147
Transverse Waves

These are visualized readily in terms of vibrations of a rope that is shaken
rhythonically in which each particle, rather than vibrating parallel to the direction of
wave motion as in the longitudinal wave, vibrates up and down in a plane
perpendicular to the direction by propagation.

Surface Waves

These waves travel along the flat or curved surface of relatively thick solid parts.

Lamb Wave

Lamb waves are propagated in metal that is only a few lengths thick. A lamb wave
consists of a complex vibration that course throughout the material. Its
propagation depends on the density, elastic properties and structure of the metal,
and also influenced by the thickness of the metal test piece and the cyclic
frequency.

Inspection Methods

Inspection methods in ultrasonic testing can be classified in terms of both the
variables measured and the inspection technique.
The ultrasonic beam can be transmitted through the part (transmission methods)
or reflected from interfaces (Pulse each or reflection method).

(a) Pulse-Echo Method (Ref. Fig. 30)
In pulse-echo method flaws are detected and their sizes estimated by
comparing the intensity of reflected sound from an interface with the
intensity of sound reflected from a reference interface of known size or from
the back surface of a test piece having no flaws. The echo from the back
surface (Back reflection) serves as a reference point for time of flight
PMI, NTPC 148
measurements that enable the depth of some internal flaws to be
measured. It is necessary that an internal flaw reflects at least part of the
sound energy on to the receiving transducer for such depth measurements
to be made.
Pulse echo method can be used with longitudinal, shear or surface waves.
Straight beam or angle beam techniques can be used, depending upon the
test piece shape and inspection objectives.

(b) Transmission Method (Ref Fig. 31)

In transmission method two transducers one as a transmitter and other as a
receiver, are placed on either side of the test specimen.
The variation in the height of the received pulse indicates presence or
absence of a flaw, porosity etc. This method can be used for finding the
mechanical properties of the material by knowing the velocity of ultrasonic
waves, the amount of energy absorbed by it. But this method fails to
indicate the nature of flaw as well as the location of the flaw. Another
disadvantage in this method is that two opposite sides are to be accessible
and parallel.

Inspection Standards

Many of the standards and specifications for ultrasonic inspection require the use
of standard reference blocks, which may be prepared from various alloys, may
contain holes, slots or matches of several sizes, and may be of different sizes or
shapes. The following variables are to be considered which will affect the
characteristics of an ultrasonic beam.

Nature of the test piece.
Alloy type.
Grain size.

PMI, NTPC 149


PMI, NTPC 150
Effects of thermal or mechanical processing.
Distance amplitude effects.
Flaw size.
Direction of the ultrasonic beam.

Three types of standard reference blocks are ordinarily used for calibration or
reference.

(a) Area amplitude blocks provide artificial flaws of different sizes at the same
depth. Eight blocks of same dia and height and each block will have a
deep flat bottom hole of different diameters 1/64 to 8/64. The amplitude of
the echo from a flat bottom hole in the far field of a straight beam search
unit is proportional to the area of the bottom of the hole. These blocks are
used to check linearity of a pulse-echo inspection system and to relate
signal amplitude to the are of a flaw.

(b) Distance

Amplitude blocks provide artificial flaws of a given size at various depths. It
is known that the decrease in echo amplitude from a flat-bottom, hole using
a circular search unit is inversely proportional to the square of the distance
to the hole bottom.

ASIM block can be combined into various sets of area amplitude and
distance amplitude blocks. The recommended practice for fabrication and
control of steel standard reference blocks is found in ASTM-E428.

(c) International Institute of Welding IIW

Type blocks are used mainly to calibrate instruments prior to contact
inspection using an angle-beam search unit; these blocks also are useful for
PMI, NTPC 151
checking the performance of both angle beam and straight beam search
units and for evaluating instrument performance.

Applications

In its application UT requires personal attention and knowledge in the
interpretation of results than in RT. The indications on the screen may be due to
various factors, and the presence of an echo is not to be concluded as a flaw but
the origin of the echo must be explored by aiming the beam from different
directions.

Contact inspection is more widely used than immersion inspection ; not only
because it involves equipment that is portable ( allowing field inspection ) but
also because it is versatile and applicable to a wide range of situations.

In contact inspection, oil, grease or paste is spread on the surface of the part to
act as a couplant, where as in immersion inspection water is used as a couplant
which provides for good acoustic even to irregular and rough surfaces (fig. 32).

Detection of Flaws on the following

(a) Forgings Ingots, Drop forgings & machined forgings.
(b) Castings Steel castings, steel moulds & grey cast iron.
(c) Non-ferrous materials.
(d) Porcelain.
(e) Raw materials, rods and axles.
(f) Sheets.
(g) Pipes and cylinders.
(h) Welded seam testing.



PMI, NTPC 152
RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION (RT)

Principle

This is one of the NDT methods which shows the presence and nature of
macroscopic defects or other discontinuities in the interior of welds. This method
makes use of the ability of short wave length radiations such as X rays or gamma
rays to penetrate objects opaque to ordinary light. In general the shorter the wave
length, the greater the penetrating power.

Not all of the radiation penetrates the weld, some being absorbed. The amount of
this absorption is a function of the density and the thickness of the weld. Should
there be a cavity such as a blow hole in the weld interior, the beam of radiation will
have metal to pass through those in the sound weld. Consequently there will be a
variation in the absorption of the rays by the weld in the region, which produces an
image that will indicate the presence of the defect. Such an image picture is called
a radiograph.

Radiographs making use of X-ray radiation are usually called xerographs; and
radiographs made using a gamma ray are called gamma graphs.
A successful radiograph will be one which has so faithfully recorded the image that
the presence or absence of a defect in a weld is established and if present, its
size, shape and location are clearly defined.



PMI, NTPC 153




PMI, NTPC 154
Sources of Radiation

There are two types of sources which are used generally for industrial radiography.

(a) Electrical apparatus which produces X rays.
(b) Artificially produced isotopes such as Iridium 192, cobalt 60, Cesium 137
etc.

X- rays

These are electromagnetic radiations or waves which travel at very high speed and
have properties which are associated with their different wave lengths. The
shorter the wave length, the greater is the energy and penetrating power of the
radiation. With X-rays, the wave length is related to the voltage applied to the
tube, the higher the voltage shorter the wave length and the wore penetrating rays.

The X-ray tube consists of a glass bulb under vacuum, enclosing a positive
electrode or anode and a negative electrode or cathode (Ref. Fig.33). The
cathode has filament which when heated electrically emits electrons. These
electrons are directed at a very high velocity towards anode or target. The target
is generally made of tungsten. The sudden arrest of electrons when they strike the
target gives size to the emission of X-rays. Only a part of kinetic energy of the
electrons (1% at 200 KV) is converted in to X- radiation and the remaining is
transformed into heat.

X-ray units are available in numerous kilo voltage ratings ranging from 300KV for
normal installation to as high as several million volts for special works involving
heavy thick materials.

PMI, NTPC 155


Gamma Rays

Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic waves of relatively short wave
length that are emitted during the radioactive decay of both naturally occurring and
artificially produced unstable isotopes. In all respects other than their origin,
gamma rays and X-rays identical.

Many of the elements in the periodic table either have naturally occurring
radioactive isotopes, or isotopes that can be made radioactive by irradiation with a
stream of neutrons in the core of a nuclear reactor.

A disadvantage of radioisotope is caused by the fact that they constantly
disintegrate and therefore the quantity of radiation they produce continuously
lessens until the isotope must be replaced. The rate of disintegration or decay
varies with each isotope and they are rated by the length of time taken by an
isotope to decay to one half its, original strength. This is defined as its half life.
Because of its reduction in strength which is expressed in curies, the time required
for radiography is & varying factor considering the thickness of part radio graphed.
PMI, NTPC 156
Gamma-ray intensity is measured in Rontgen per hour at one meter, a measure of
radiation emission over a given period of time at a fixed distance.

Penetrating Power of X-rays

VOLTAGE RATING IN KV MAX. THICKNESS PENETRATED IN
STEEL

100 1/3
150
200 1
250 2
400 3
1000 5
2000 10
15 to 24 million 20

Output of Radio Isotopes

SL.
NO.

SOURCE SYMBOL HALF LINE

ENERGIES
MOV

PENETRATION
IN STEEL MM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Radium 226
Cesium 137
Cobalt 60
Iridium 192
Thurlium
170
Ra-226
Cs-137
Co -60
IR 192
Tm-170
Years
33 Years
5.3 Years
74 Days
127 Days
0.2 to 2.2
0.66
1.17 to 1.3
0.31 to 0.60
0.084
75-200
10-75
50-200
8-60
0.25



PMI, NTPC 157
X-rays Vs Gamma Rays

Advantage

X-RAY UNITS RADIOISOTOPES

Radiation can be shut off Small and portable.
Penetrating power (KV) is adjustable No electric power is required
adjustable and no cooling
system required.
Provides radiographs with Initial cost is less.
good contrast and sensitivity.
Can be used on all materials Access into small areas
High penetration power.

Disadvantages

X-RAY UNITS RADIA-ISOTOPES

High initial cost Emitsradiation continuously.
Less portable and access is Requires proper shielding of
limited. the source.
Requires electric power for Penetrating power cant be
operation. adjusted.
Electrical hazard due to high voltage Radiographic contrast
generally
. less than X-ray.

The principal advantage of radiography over other NDT method is that is provides
permanent records (films).


PMI, NTPC 158
Practical Radiography

Some important terms used/items required for conducting gamma radiography is
outlined below:

(a) Radiographic films

Several types of films are available for industrial radiography to meet
different conditions. Radiographic film consists of a thin, transparent
plastic sheet coated on one or both side with an emulsion of generation
approximately 0.001 thick containing very fine grains of silver bromide.
When exposed to X, Gamma, or visible light rays, silver bromide crystals
undergo a reaction that makes them more susceptible to the chemical
process (developing) that converts them to black metallic silver. If radiation
passes through the film, electrons are produced and as a result sensitive
spots are produced and when developed it produces the latent image.
Radiographs of welds are usually made with medium, fine or extra fine grain
film.
Area of high density (areas exposed to relatively large amounts of radiation)
will appear dark greys, areas of light density (areas exposed to less
radiation i.e. larger metal thickness or denser material) will appear light
grey. The density difference between any two film areas is know as
contrast.

(b) Film Density

The greater the exposure to radiation any point, the greater is the
blackening of the film. The blackness of the film is termed as its density and
this is measured by a densitometry or by comparison with film strips of
known density. Optimum density for an industrial radiograph is 2.5 to 3.5.


PMI, NTPC 159
(c) Film Processing

This is a process involving reduction of exposed silver halides in the
emulsion to silver metal by a controlled chemical action. The process
involves immersion and agitation of the exposed film in solution in the
following order :

Water
Developer
Stop bath
Fixer
Rinsing in flowing water

The main chemical action occurs in the developer and the fixer solution and
the rest play secondary role. The temperature of the processing room
should be maintained at 20
0
C (68
0
F).

(d) Penetrameters

Penetrameters or image-quality indicators are of known size and shape, and have
the same attenuation characteristics as the material in test piece. They are placed
on the test piece or on a block of identical material during set up and are radio
graphed at the same time as the test piece. The image of the penetrameter that
appears on the finished radiograph is evaluated during interpretation to assure that
the desired sensitivity, definition and contrast have been achieved in the
developed image. Sensitivity is expressed numerically) as % Sensitivity = S/T x
100.
Where S = Smallest detectable change in specimen thickness.
T = Thickness of the specimen.

PMI, NTPC 160
There are different types of penetrameters in use. Hole type penetrameters are
sensitive upto 1.4% only. But wire types can go up to 0.8% since their length
resembles a slot. Normally 2% sensitivity is specified.

Rectangular plaque type penetramenter (ASTM ASME standard) for
plaque thickness of 0.005 to 0.050.
Circular plaque type penetrameter (ASTM-ASME standard) for plaque
thickness of 0.180 or more.
Wire type penetrameters DIN standard(Deutache Industrial Norm Standard)
Square step wedge penetramenter used by British Welding Research
Association (BWRA standard).
Hexagonal and linear triangular step, step wedge penetrameter used by
French Navy (AFNORSH).

In the plaque type penetrameters 3 holes are there representating T,2T & 4 T
where T is the thickness of the plaque. For general requirement of 2% sensitivity,
2T hole should be visible in the radiograph. In contrast to the ASTM system, the
DIN system does not provide constant sensitivity; the sensitivity varies with test
piece thickness within each thickness range.

(e) Radiography Technique

Gamma RT inspection is normally done in either unidirectional i.e. using the lead
shielded camera or panoramic method i.e. source pencil is taken out of the
camera. The inspection of tubular sections involves three major techniques which
are given below (Ref. Fig.34)

Double-wall, double-image technique is mainly applicable to sections of no
more than 3 O.D. This technique produces a radiograph in which the
images of both walls of a tubular section are super imposed on one another.
The beam of radiation is directed toward one side of the section and the
PMI, NTPC 161
recording surface is placed on the opposite side, usually tangent to the
section.

Double-wall, single technique is applicable mainly to hollow cylinders and
tubular section exceeding 3 outside diameter. This technique produces
a radiographic image of only the section of the wall that is closest to the
section, so that blurring caused by geometric unsharpness in the image of
the cylinder wall closest to the source makes that image completely in
distinguishable. Only the image of the wall section closest to the film is
sharply defined.

Single-wall, single image technique is an alternative to either of the double
wall techniques and can be used only when the interior of a section is
accessible. With this technique the radiation source can be placed outside
the cylinder and the film inside the cavity, or the film outside and the source
inside.

In both sets ups only a single wall is radio graphed.














PMI, NTPC 162




PMI, NTPC 163
(f) Radiographic images of Defects in Fusion Welds


Defect

Description

Image
Porosity Gas pockets or voids. Rounded shadows of
various sizes and
densities, occurring
singly, in clusters of
scattered.
Slag
Inclusions
Slag entrapped during
welding
Elongated or irregularly
shaped shadows.
Lack of
Fusion
Lack of side fusion
root fusion or inter-
run fusion.
A dark shadow usually
elongated.
Incomplete
Penetration
Un-penetrated
Cavities at the root or
between runs.
A linear indication
straight, dark and usually
at the center of the weld.
Cracks Narrow discontinuity
Produced by tearing of the
metal when in a plastic or cold
condition.
Fine dark line, straight or
wandering.
Capillary
Pipe
A fine pipe at the fusion face
usually caused due to
laminations in the parent
material.
A straight dark but rather
diffuse shadow.
Pipe
(warm holes)
Elongated or tubular gas
pocket.
Elongated or very dark
round shadow.




PMI, NTPC 164
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Different NDT Methods to Detect various
Flaws

RT UT MPT DPT

Porosity

Excellent

Excellent

Poor 1

Unsuitable 2
Slag Inclusion Excellent Excellent Poor 1 Unsuitable 2
Lack of fusion Good Excellent Poor 1 Unsuitable 2
Lack of
penetration
Excellent Excellent Poor 1 Unsuitable 2
Cracks Fair 3 Excellent Excellent Excellent
Under cut on far
surface.
Excellent Good Unsuitable Unsuitable

Note

1) Flaws of very large size on external surface can be detected.
2) Detection only if flaws are external & surface to be clean.
3) Open cracks parallel to radiation beam only.




PMI, NTPC 165
10. Field Application of Welding Technology
in a Thermal Power Station


PERRITIC STEELS

Preheating for Thermal Cutting of ARC/Flame Gouging
Where it is necessary to employ thermal cutting or gouging on Class 1 pipe work
the follow preheats should be employed:

STEEL PREHEAT TEMPERATURE

Carbon Steel unto 0.25% C 5 C Min.
(Mild Steel)

Carbon Steel 0.26-0.40% C
(Medium Carbon Steel)

Carbon % Molyblendum and 1% 5 C Min. upto 12mm wall.
Chromium

% Molyblendum Steels 100 C Min. over 12mm wall.

2 % CR 1 Mo & % Cr Mo

% V Steels 150 C.

For thermal cutting , the preheat should be applied with an oxyacetylene or oxy-
propane torch, the relevant preheating temperature being obtained for a distance
of three times the pipe wall thickness either side of the cut. No thermal cutting is to
be carried out unless the temperature of the parent metal within 150mm of the cut
PMI, NTPC 166
is 5 C min. The preheat temperature should be measured with as temperature
indication crayon.

For 1% Cr Mo, 2 % Cr 1% Mo and %CR %Mo %V steels, at least 3mm
of metal must be removed from the flame out surfaces by matching or grinding
prior to welding.

Where are air or flame gouging are fleed for metal removal of weld repairs, then
the preheating thermo coupling, dressing and subsequent NDT arrangements
should be decided on an individual basis.

Weld Preparation - Tube and Pipe Butt Welds

The weld preparations shown not he procedures should be machined wherever
possible, ensure maximum accuracy. Care must be taken to ensure that the fusion
faces and adjacent material are free from moisture, scale ,rust, grease paint and
foreign matter. The use of proprietary protective coatings for weld preparations is
not to be recommended.

Tube and Pipe Alignments-Butt Welds
TABLE 1

Bore Diameter

Maximum Permissible difference in thermal
diameter TIG & MMA roots

Upto 100 mm
100 mm - 300 mm
Over 300 mm


0.3 mm
1.6 mm
2.5 mm



PMI, NTPC 167
TABLE - 2

Bore Diameter

Maximum Permissible difference in thermal
diameter TIG & MMA roots

Upto 100 mm
100 mm - 300 mm
Over 300 mm


0.8 mm
1.6 mm
1.6 mm


Where tube ends need to be matched to facilitate butt welding, this should be
carried out by machining.

Pre Heating for Welding

Where applicable, the preheat temperature and method of application are specified
on the welding procedure, interruptions in the welding process should be
minimized, and preheat should be maintained throughout the welding process. If
the preheat cannot be maintained or is lost due to equipment failure, the weld
should be lagged with insulating blankets to ensure slow cooling. Before welding
recommences the relevant preheat temperature must be re-applied.

Welding Operations

Where reference is made on the attached procedures to the maximum weave on
low hydrogen or basis coated electrodes being three times the electrode core wire
diameter, this may be examined. When using low hydrogen electrodes, It is
important the welder deposits straight narrow beads with a short arc, if porosity is
to be avoided, The maximum width of deposited manual metal arc weld must be
exceed the followings:


PMI, NTPC 168
TABLE - 3

ELECTRODE DIAMETER

MAXIMUM WIDTH OF DEPOSITED WELD
BEAD

2.5 mm
3.15 mm
4.0 mm
5.0 mm

8 mm
10 mm
12 mm
15 mm

It is also important the electrode baking, airing and storage requirements on the
welding procedures are strictly adhered to, and where manual metal arc welding is
employed, the wells are thoroughly destaggered and wire brushed after each run.

REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPLETED WELDS (VISUAL)

All welds must be visually examined on completion, and should meet the following
conditions

I ) They should be free from cracks.
II ) There must be complete fusion between the weld and parent material
III ) Where weld caps are ground, overheating due toe the action of grinding
shall be avoided.
IV ) There shall be no significant overlapping or undercutting at eh toes of the
welds, slight intermittent undercutting may be permitted as long as it does
not form a sharp notch.

For Undressed Welds

The toes shall blend smoothly into the parent metal, and depth of local under cut
shall not exceed 10% of the pipe wall thickness or 0.4mm whither is smaller.

PMI, NTPC 169
For Dressed Welds

The toes shall be free from undercut and other depressions, the depth of blending
not exceeding 10% of the pipe wall thickness or 0.8mm whichever is smaller.

V ) External weld re-enforcement shall not exceed the given in Table 5 and
shall be essentially symmetrical about the center line of the joint, The shape
of the weld re-enforcement may vary according to the type of electrode, the
welding technique and position, but it should be essentially smooth in
contour.

TABLE 4

Thickness of pipe over up to
& including
External Weld Re-enforcement
Maximum
---- 2.9 mm
2.9 mm 4.5 mm
4.5 mm ----

2.5 mm
3.0 mm
5.0 mm

VI ) The Stop and start of each weld run shall merge smoothly and shall not
produce crater in the weld surface.

VII ) The weld shall fuse the pipe on the root without protruding excessively into
the bore of the pipe. The maximum permissible penetration of the root bead
into the bore shall be as shown in Table 6, occasional slight excess
penetration is allowable.





PMI, NTPC 170
TABLE - 5
Normal Bore of Pipe Max. Penetration
in Bore
Max. Restriction
in Bore

Less than 12 mm
12mm to 50 mm
50mm to 100 mm
Over100 mm

0.8 mm
1.5 mm
2.5 mm
3.0 mm

1.6 mm
3.0 mm
5.0 mm
6.0 mm

TABLE- 6

VIII ) If there is complete root fusion, root concavity or sinkage at the bore is
acceptable providable that :

(a) The surface of he concavity has a smooth contour.
(b) The depth of the root concavity is less than 1.2mm.
(c) The thickness of he weld is not less hand the pipe thickness.

ix) The root bead of any concavity shall merge smoothly into adjacent surfaces.

Pre and Post Heat Treatment

Methods of heating, temperature measurement and heating rates are given on
welding procedures. The following points should be noted:

i) Gas preheating should only be used for pipes up to 100 mm OD 12mm wall.
Heating should be carried out using oxyacetylene or oxypropane
equipment, it is imperative that the relevant preheat temperature is
maintained throughout the welding operation and the welder must always
be equipped with temperature indicating crayons when gas preheating is
being carried out.

PMI, NTPC 171
ii) When electrical pre post heat treatment is specified, resistance heating
elements with suitable control equipment are to be used Thermocouple
positions for measuring and controlling the heat treatment temperature are
shown on the relevant welding procedure.

iii) Thermocouple Attachment
Thermocouple must be in metallic contact with the parts being heated. The
thermocouples should preferably be resistance or capacitor discharge
welded to the pipe. Method of fixing thermocouples via nuts are welded to
pipe are not faovoured.

iv) Instrumentation
Instrument s used for measuring and recording pre and post weld heat
treatment temperature should be calibrated at monthly intervals. Recordes
of the calibration tests for sub-contractors equipment should always be
checked.

v) Time temperature recording of heat treatment should always be retained.

Vi) Where butt welds have to be made within 5 RT of a branch weld to a header
(where R is the pipe bore radius and I the wall thickness of the pipe), it will
be necessary to apply background heat to the header body.

The Non-Destructive Testion of Completed Welds

All tube butt welds should be subjected to either radiographic or ultrasonic
examination.

Ultrasonic Examination where tube welds are to be examined ultrasonically it may
be necessary to limit the width of the weld cap, this should be agreed between all
parties prior to the commencement of welding. Where butt welds over 25 mm wall
thickness are to be examined ultrasonically, the weld gap should be ground flush
PMI, NTPC 172
with the pipes and the weld area polished for a distance 2 times the weld
thickness either side of the weld centre line to obtain a 63 CIA surface finish or
better.

Rectification of Faulty Welds

Defects shall be removed by:
(a) Grinding or chipping
(b) Machining
(c) Arc of flame gouging and grinding (with the appropriate preheat).

The NDI records must be available to the personnel carrying out the repair and the
welding Engineer must consult where there are areas of doubt on the repair
procedure. The NDI requirements of the previous section are applicable to
repaired welds.

Cold Pull

Where the effects of thermal expansion in service are counteracted by cold pull on
pipe work runs, then advice should be sought from appropriate authority on the
pre-cautions to be taken during welding and associated operations.

Welding Procedure & Qualifying Them

A welding procedure is the detailed methods and practices including all joint
welding procedures involved in production of weldment. The joint weld procedure
is the Materials, detailed methods and practices employed in the welding of a
particular joint. The written welding procedures is a manner of doing or the
detailed elements (with prescribed values or range of values) of a process or
method used to produce a specific result. In other words a welding procedure is
the step by step directions for making a specific weld.

PMI, NTPC 173
Prior to starting a weld, a detailed procedure specification shall be established and
qualified to demonstrate that welds having suitable mechanical properties and
soundness can be made by this procedure. The quality of the weld shall be
determined by destructive testing and non-destructive testing as required by code.

The majority of the welders working on structural work, piping and pressure
vessels must follow qualified welding procedures. There are two most popular
codes used internationally. Both of these require written and qualified welding
procedures. These are the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code the AWS
Structural Welding Code. Out of all ASME is widely used for piping and pressure
vessels.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX especially deals with welding
and Brazing Procedures, Welders, Brazers and Welding and Brazing Operators
Qualification.

Welding procedure Specification (WPS) shall describe all of the essential, non-
essential and supplementary essential (when required ) for each welding process
used. The WPS shall reference the supporting procedure qualification record.

Changes in WPS may be made in non-essential variables of WPS to suit
production requirements without re qualification and shall be recorded along with
essential variables either in the form of new WPS or amendment to the WPS.

Changes in essential or supplementary essential variables (when required) require
re qualification of the WPS .Essential variables are those in which a change is
considered to affect the wheelmen. They are base metal specification (p-Number),
Filler metal specification (F . No.) , preheat, PWHT etc. as defined by the code for
that type of process.

PMI, NTPC 174
Supplementary essential variables are those where notch toughness is required A
PQR is a record of variables (Welding data ) used to weld a test coupon. It also
contains the test results of the tested specimens.

The recorded data normally fall within the range of actual data that will be used in
production welds. As per ASME the procedure qualification test coupon shall be
tested for tensile and bend tests. ASME assigned P- number to base metal to
reduce to the No. of welding procedure qualification required , dependent of
characteristics such as composition mech properties and weldability

Similarly filter metals (electrodes and welding rods) are grouped into F-
numbers based on their usability characteristics (i.e. ability of welders to
make satisfactory welds).

There are other codes that relate directly to some of the above. In these
cases requirements of these codes must be followed BS 4870 part-1
(approval testing for welding procedures part 1 (The fusion welding of steel )
and in India IS7307 are also used. The welding procedure specification (WPS),
must be signed by the person making the tests on the welds and by the
person responsible for the qualified procedures.

Welders Qualification

Welder Qualification means the demonstration of welders ability to produce welds
meeting prescribed standards.

Before a welder can work on products such as pr. Vessels, piping structures
and so on the welder must be qualified. Requirement for qualification is dictated
by the specification that governess the product being welded.

In addition to specific product specification, there are legal requirements like IBR
that require all welding to be done by qualified welder.
PMI, NTPC 175

Certification under one code will not necessarily qualify the welder to weld
under a different code even though tests may be similar, Each industry has its
own welding requirements therefore, it is absolutely essential that application
code be used in qualifying the welder.

Welder of welding operators cannot be qualified or certified on their own.
Manufactures, contractors, owners or users will certify that welder is qualified
based on successful completion of specified tests in that code.

In most codes, however a welding procedure specification must first be
established and qualified before the welders themselves cab be qualified. A
welding procedure is required by most codes and is proof that the procedure
will produce satisfactory welded joints. Following this, each welder must take a
performance qualification test.

The intent of performance qualification test is to verify that welder/welding
operator can produce a sound welds by following the qualified welding
procedure. Either adiographed or 180dgree bend tested to check the
soundness.

The records of welder/welding operator performance qualification (WPQ) shall
include the essential variables as per ASME material specification (P. Nos),
position variables as per ASME material specification etc. type of test and test
results and ranges qualified (QW-452) for each welder and welding operator .

For qualifying the welders IS7310 (Approval tests for welder working to
approved welding procedures ) part-I (Fusion welding of steel ) BS 4873 and
IBR are also used.


PMI, NTPC 176
WELDING OF AUSTENITICS STAINLESS STEEL IN BOILERS (TUBES AND
ATTACHMENTS)

Scope
This standard covers manual welding and inspection practices for the
fabrication. Of austenitic stainless steel tubes and attachments used on
Reheaters and superheaters.

Sizes
The standard relates to the welding of stainless steel tubes up to 100 mm.
(4) 0D and mm (3/4 ) wall thickness.

Materials
The following group of stainless steels, is covered by this standard :
(a) 18% chromium, 12%nickel,3% molybdenum stainless steels.
(b) Niobium or titanium stabilized steel of the 18Cr. 12Ni type.

Welding processes

(a) Manual T.I.G. welding
(b) Manual metallic arc welding

Root runs Filler runs Attachments
Manual T. I .C.




Manual metalloarc
Permissible
with argon
purging or
suitable flux

Generally
not
permissible
Permissible




Permissible
Not generally
recommended



Permissible


PMI, NTPC 177
(a) The argon purge used for T.I.G. root runs should be maintained for at
least one filler run whenever possible.

(b) Argon are welding is not recommended for welding attachments, as the
geometry of tube bundles often makes adequate gas shielding difficult.
However for thin tubes ( less than 4mm thick ) it is sometimes necessary to
use T.I.G. welding to avoid burning through the tube wall. When this
situation occurs , advice should be sought from Welding Engineer.

(c) Welding procedures which use fusible inserts or blanking rings are not
suitable for tube butt welds.

(d) Before welding attachment to tubes , BHEL / NTPC (OS) should be
consulted to ensure that no adverse corrosion or thermal conditions are
likely to be encountered.

Electrodes and Consumables

The consumables to be used for welding the various combinations of austenitic
stainless steels are given as well as the British Standard Specification and AWS.
Manual T.I.G. welding should be carried out using DC electrode negative polarity
and 2% thoriated tungsten electrodes . The welding condition should fall with in
the following range :


TT





Tungsten Electrode
Wire Dia Current
Root Runs
Filler Runs
1.6 2.5 mm
1.6 2.5 mm
1.6 mm
1.6- 2.5mm
50 90 A
60 130 A
PMI, NTPC 178
The argon flow rate for T.I.G. welding should be 8-10 liters per minute. The argon
flow rate for purging tube bores should be 2 liters per minute. Where purging of the
tube bore is not practicable solar flux B may be used on the tube bore. The
instructions for use are given on the appropriate welding procedures. Most of the
manual metallic are welding electrodes suggested are best used with direct current
electrode positive polarity, the manufacturers suggested current ranges for each
size of electrode should be adhered to. Electrodes should be kept dry and stored
at a temperature of 60.C. If electrodes become damp they should be dried by
baking at 130 170. C for 3 hours immediately prior to use.

Pre and Post Heat Treatment

This is not required for butt welds in austenitic steel tubes up to 9mm thick.
However, this interpose temperature during welding should not be greater than
2500c. Ferritio/austenitic butt welds may require stress relief where this is required
it is shown on the appropriate procedure.

Recommended Weld Preparation


For butt welding tubes up to 100mm diameter, the bores of the tubes should be
sized and aligned so that the maximum difference in bore diameter is less than
0.8mm.



PMI, NTPC 179
Preparation of Tube Ends

The ends of the tubes shall be prepared by machining, grinding, or plasma arc
cutting and grinding. Iron free grinding wheels should be used.

Records

Welding stainless steel tubes and attachments in boilers, details of the welding
procedure must be retained for history and Boiler inspector purposes. This
procedure should specify :

(a) Pipe or attachment sizes.
(b) Material types.
(c) The welding processes used.
(d) Electrode type and sizes.
(e) Polarity and current range.
(f) Purging gas and flow rate.
(g) The maximum allowable interpose temperature.

Inspection

All butts and attachment welds should be subject to visual examination and where
possible dye penetrant crack detection. The weld and parent material should be
free from cracks , craters, scale, sharp notches and stray arc strikes. The weld
toes shall blend smoothly into the parent material. Weld reinforcement, concavity
and root bead dimensions shall be in accordance with BS 4677.

All butt welds should be radiographed. The radiographic technique, the type of
image quality indicator and the required sensitivity of the radiograph should be
properly prepared.


PMI, NTPC 180

Type of weld & materials: Sizes:
BUTT WELDS IN MILD STEEL TUBES UP TO 100 MM O.D.
(up to 0.25
0
C) UP TO 9 MM WALL

Joint Preparation












Preheating Requirements Welding Processes and Position

Manual TIG Welding (Electrode
Negative) for Root run and
Not required subsequent arc welding. all
positional


Welding Procedure
Root Run: 2.5 DIA 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1.6 CR 2.5 mm Dia filter wire to BS 2901 part
1 (1970) A17 or A18 High Purity Argon Shielding
8 10 Liters/Min Flow Rate Welding Currents 60-90 AMPS

PMI, NTPC 181
Filler Runs: 2.5MM Dia or 3.15 MM dia Rutile Electrode of E6012 &
B6013 Basic Electrode of E7016 &E7018.

Wire conforming to BS2901 Part 1 (1970) A17 or A18:
Philips PZ 6000
BOC Saffire Low Carbon

Electrodes Confirming to E6012 & E6013

VORDIAN

Steel Weld S Electrodes conforming to E7016 & E7018
Overcord S Supertherme
Vortex 1 Gricon Green
Philips 28 Philips 36 H
Medio Supercite, Tenacito


Post Weld Heat Treatment NOT REQUIRED

Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance
Weld bead dimensions
Weld under bead dimensions TO BE IN ACCORDANCE
Tube alignment
Radiographic/Ultrasonic assessment

Weld Consumable Storage: Low Hydrogen electrodes to be baked
2500C Min. for 2 Hrs. and stored in a
heated oven at 1200C Min. prior to use.



PMI, NTPC 182

Type of Welds & Materials: Size:

Tube and Pipe Butt Welds in All sizes
Mild Steel (up to 0.25
0
C)

Joint Preparation Thermo coupling Arrangements:





Pre heating Requirements: Up To 25 MM Welding Progress &
Wall : 50C Min. Position:
Over 25 MM Wall : 50C Min. (Root) Root Run: Manual TIC
1000C Min. (MMA) (Electrode Negative)
Filler Runs. MMA(Electrode
Positive)
All positional



PMI, NTPC 183
Welding Procedure:
TIG Root Run: 2.4 MM DIA 2% Tjoriated Tungsten Electrode
1.6 or 2.4 MM DIA Filler to BS 2901 Part 1
(1970) A17 or 18
High Purity Arson Shielding GAS 8 10 LTRS./
Min. Filler Wires conforming to BS 2901
Part 1 (1970) A17 to A18.

Filler Runs Up to 12 MM Wall
Rutile coated Electrode Q4 E6012 and E6013
Low Hydrogen Electrodes As below

Over 12 MM Wall : Low Hydrogen Electrode E7016 & 7018
Welding currents to be in accordance with
Electrode Manufacturers Recommendation with
2.5, 3.15, 4 and 5 MM Dia Electrodes to be used.

Electrodes conforming to E6012 & E6013 Electrode conforming
Vordian, Steel weld, Norma, Over cord-S to E7016 & E7018
Vorten- 1, Philips-28, Medio Supertherme, Gircon
Green, Philips- 36H, Super-
Therme (Spl. ) supercitor,
Tinacto.


Post Weld Heat Treatment: For Pipes Over 25 MM Wall Thickness:
T = Pipe Wall Thickness (MM)
580 6200C for 1 hour/25MM Wall thickness
Heating Rate : 220 * 250C/Hr Max. Cooling Rate 275 * 250C/Hr Down
To 4000C. Cool in still Air.


PMI, NTPC 184
Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:

Weld Bead
Weld Under bead To be in Accordance with BS 2633 (1973)
Tube or Pipe Alignment
Radiographic or ultrasonic
Assessment

Weld Consumable Storage: Insurance approvals:
Low Hydrogen Electrodes to be fixed
At 2500C Min.
For 2 hrs. and stored in a heated
Oven or quiver at 1.00 C Min. pricer to use.

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes:
Tube and Pipe Butt Welds Over 100MM Diameter all
In Mild Steel (Up to 0.25%) Thickness.




PMI, NTPC 185

Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
Up to 20 MM Wall 5% Manual Metallic Arc Welding
Over 20 mm Wall : 1000C Min. (Do Electrode Positive all positional
Electrical Preheat to be used
Above 20 MM Wall Thickness


Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 M Dia Rutile coated Electrode I.E. Overcors or
Medio or Vordian to E6013
Filler Runs: Up to 12 MM Rutile Coated Electrode as above or Low
Hydrogen Electrode as below
Over 12 MM Wall Low Hydrogen Electrode I.E. Supertherme
(SPL) As Per E7018
2.5 MM, 3.15 MM, 4 MM and 5 MM Dia Electrodes to be
used.

Welding currents to be in accordance with Electrode Manufactures
Recommendation.


Post Weld Heat Treatment: For Pipes over 25MM Wall Thickness
580-6200 For 1 Hr/25 MM Wall Thickness Heating Rate: 220 * 250C/
HR Max.
Cooling Rate : 275 * 250C/HR Max To 4000C Cool in
Still Air.
T = Pipe Wall Thickness (MM)




PMI, NTPC 186
Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead
Weld Under bead To be in Accordance with BS 2633 (1973)
Tube or Pipe Alignment
Radiographic or ultrasonic
Assessment
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Weld Consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals:
Low Hydrogen Electrodes to be baked
For 2 hrs at 1200C and stored in a
Heated oven or Quiver at 1200C Min.
Prior to use.

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes:
Butt Welds in Medium Carbon Upto 100 MM Diameter
Steel Tubes (0.25 0.400C) 9 MM WALL


Joint Preparation: Thermocoupling Arrangements:



PMI, NTPC 187

Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position.
1000C (Local Gas Preheat) Root Run:
Manual TIC Welding (DC Electrode
Negative)
Filler Runs: MMA (Electropositive)

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 Diameter 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
1.6 or 2.5 MM DIA Filler to BS 2901 (Part 1) 1970
Type A16. i.e. BOC Saffire Medium Carbon Steel Wire
High Purity Argon Shielding Gas 8-10 Litres /Min.
Flow Rate Welding Current : 60-90 AMPS.

Filler Runs: 2.5 MM DIA or 3.15 DIA Low Hydrogen Electrode of
E7016 & E7018 Supertherme, Cricon Green Philips 36H,
Supertherme (SPL) Supercito, Tenacito.

Post Weld Heat Treatment: 630-6700C for 30 Minutes
Heating Rate: 2200/HR Max
Cooling Rate : 2750C/HR Max Down to 4000C Cool in still air


Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be Accordance with Bs 2633
Tube or pipe Alignment
Radiographic/Ultrasonic Assessment

PMI, NTPC 188

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen electrodes to be
baked for 2 Hrs. at 2500C and
stored in a heated oven or quiver
at 1200C Min. prior to use.

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes:
Pipe Butt Welds in Medium Over 100MM O D
Carbon Steel (0.26 0.400C) Over 12 MM Wall


Joint Preparation: Thermocoupling Arrangement:




Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position.
1500C Min Root and Fill Manual Metallic Arc Welding
(Root & Fill) DC Electrode
Positive all positions

PMI, NTPC 189
Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 MM Dia Rutile Coated Electrode T.E. Philips
Queen Arc or ESAB Mildtrode (OK 46.00) To BS 639
(1976) 3821.

Filler Runs: Use Low Hydrogen Electrode Conforming To E7016 & E7018
Supertherme, Gricon Green Philips 36H, Supertherme
(SPL) Supercitor, Tenacito.
Welding Currents to be in accordance with the Electrode
Manufacturers Recommendation
2.5, 3.15, 4 and 5 MM dia Electrode to be used.


Post Weld Heat Treatment: 630-670
0
C for 1HR25MM Thickness

Heating Rate: Upto 25 MM Wall 220
0
C/HR Max.
Over 25 MM Wall 220 * 25
0
C/HR Max.
Cooling Rate : Upto 25MM Wall 275
0
C/HR Max over 25 MM Wall
275 x 25
0
C/HR Max. Down to 400
0
C then Cool in still air


Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be in Accordance
Pipe Alignment with Bs 2633(1973)
Radiographic/Ultrasonic Assessment

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen elecrodes to be
baked for 2 Hrs. at 2500C and
stored in a heated oven or Quiver
at 1200C prior to use.
PMI, NTPC 190

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes:
Tube & Pipe Butt Welds in Medium All Sizes
Carbon Steel (0.26 0.400C)





Preheating Requirements: Upto 100MM Welding Processes and Position.
OD; 9MM Wall
Root run:
Manual TIC Welding DC
Electrode Negative)
Gas Preheating with Tempilistic
may be used.
TIC Root: 1000C Min. Over 100MM OD Filler: Manual Metal Arc (DC
Or 9MM Wall Electrode Positive)
MMA Fill : 1500C Min. Electrical Pre-
Heating Should All Positional
Be used

PMI, NTPC 191
Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 MM Diameter 2% Thoriated Gungsten Electrode 1.6MM
Or 2.4MM filler to BS 2901 (Part 1) 1970 Type A 16 High
Purity Arson Shielding Gas : 8 10 litres/Min. flow rate
Welding Currents 60-95 AMPS.

Filler Runs: Use Low Hydrogen Electrode Conforming To E7016 & E7018,
Superatherme, Gircon Green, Philips 36H, Super-
Therme (SPL) Supercitor , Tencito.
Welding Currents to be in Accordance with the Electrode
Manufacturers Recommendation
2.5, 3.15, 4 and SMM dia Electrodes to be used.

Post Weld Heat Treatment: 630-670
0
C for 1 HR/25MM Thickness
Heating Rate: Upto 25 MM Wall 2200C/HR Max.
Over 25 MM Wall 220 x 25
0
C/HR Max.
Cooling Rate : Upto 25MM Wall 275
0
C/HR Max over 25 MM Wall:
275 x 25
0
C/HR Max. Down to 400
0
C then Cool in still air


Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be in Accordance
Pipe Alignment with Bs 2633(1973)
Radiographic/Ultrasonic Assessment

Weld consumable Storage: Low Hydrogen Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen elecrodes to be
baked for 2 Hrs. at 2500C and
stored in a heated oven or Quiver at 1200C
prior to use.

PMI, NTPC 192

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes:
Butt Welds in 1% Cr. % Mo Tubes Upto 100 MM O.D.
Upto 9 mm Wall

Joint Preparation :


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
Gas Preheat for 3 T Either Side
Of Weld
Preparation Check with Temperature
Indicating Crayon
1000C TIC Root
1500C MMA fill

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.4 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode 1.6MM
Or 2.4MM Dia filler to BS 2901 ( Part 1 ) 1970 Type A 32
I.E. Philips PZ6042 or BOC Saffire 1% Cr % Mo

Filler Runs: Routile Electrode to E8013-B2, Chromocord-Ti , Medio Cr Mo
Welding currents to be in accordance with Electrode
Manufacturers Recommendation 2.5MM and 3.25 DIA only
PMI, NTPC 193


Post Weld Heat Treatment: Not Required

Notes on Weld finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be in Accordance
Pipe Alignment with BS 2633 (1973)
Radiographic/Ultrasonic Assessment

Weld Consumable Storage: Low Hydrogen Insurance Approvals





















PMI, NTPC 194

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: All ODs over 9MM Wall
Tube & Pipe Butt Welds in 1% Cr
% Mo Steel

Joint Preparation:



Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
Root run:
For Tubes up to 100MM OD & 12MM Manual TIC Welding
Wall, Gas Preheat May be used, (Electrode Negative)
otherwise Electrical Preheat
must be employed. Fill: MMA (Electrode Positive)
All Positional
1000C Min. TIC Root
1500C Min. MMA Fill
PMI, NTPC 195

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.4 MM DIA 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode 1.6 or 2.4mm
DIA filler to BS 2901 Part 1 A 32 i.e. Philips PZ6042 or
BOC Saffire 1% Cr % Mo High Purity Argon Shielding Gas:
8 10 Litres/Min flow rate Welding Current : 60-95AMP.
Filler Run: Low Hydrogen Electrode to E8018-82 i.e. Crommcard,
Chromotherme 1.

Welding Currents to be in Accordance with the Electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation.



Post Weld Heat Treatment: 630-670
0
C for 1 hour/25mm Thickness
(for Pipes over 12mm Wall)

Heating Rate: Upto 25 mm Wall : 220
0
C/HR Max.
Over 25 MM Wall :220 x 25
0
C/HR Max.
T
Cooling Rate : Upto 25MM Wall 275
0
C/HR Max

25
0
C/hr.
Over 25 MM Wall : 275 T max.

Down To 4000C then cool in still Air.

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen Elecrodes to be
Baked for 2 Hrs. at 2500C and
stored at 120 C Min. Prior to use.

PMI, NTPC 196

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: Over 100mm OD
Tube & Pipe Butt Welds in 1% Cr Over 9mm Wall
% Mo Steel

Joint Preparation:


N.B. POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT
NOT REQUIRED FOR TUBES LESS
THAN 12 MM WALL
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
TIC Root Root & Fill Manual Metal ARC
1500C Min. MMA Fill Welding (Electrode Positive)
All Positions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 mm DIA Rutile Electrode to E8013-B2, Cromocord-Ti;
Medio Cr Mo
Filler Runs: Low Hydrogen Electrodes to E8018-B2, Cromocord;
Cromotherme-1
2.5 mm, 3.25mm, 4mm & 5mm DIA only
PMI, NTPC 197
Welding Current to be in accordance with the Electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation.

Post Weld Heat Treatment: 530-670
0
C for 1 hour/25mm Wall
(for Pipes over 12mm Wall)
Heating Rate: Upto 25 mm Wall : 220
0
C/HR Max.
Over 25 MM Wall :220 x 25
0
C/HR Max.

T
Down To 400
0
C then cool in still Air.

Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance :

Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be in Accordance with
Tube or pipe Alignment BS 2633 (1973)
Radiographic/ultrasonic Assessment

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen Elecrodes to be
Baked for 2 Hrs. at 2500C Min. &
stored at 1200C Min.










PMI, NTPC 198

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: Upto 100 MM O.D.
Butt Weld in 2 % 1 Mo Tubes Upto 9mm Wall



REQUIRED FOR POST WELD
HEAT TREATMENT ONLY. ALL
THERMOCOUPLE. TO INDICATE
THE RELEVENT POST WELD
HEAT TREATMENT
TEMPERATURE


Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:

Root run:
Gas Preheat Checked with Manual TIC (Electrode
Temperature indication Crayon Negative)
For 3T either side of weld
Preparation Fill MMA (Electrode Positive)

100
0
C ( TIC Root )
200
0
C ( MMA fill )

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.4 MM Dia 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode 1.6 or 2.4mm
PMI, NTPC 199
Dia filler to BS 2901 ( Part 1 ) A 33 i.e. Philips
High Purity Argon Shielding: 8-10 litres/Min.
Welding Current 60-95 AMP
Filler Runs: Rutile Electrode to B9013 B3, Cromocord -Tig Welding
Current to be in Accordance with Electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation 2.5 and 3.15MM Dia only.




Post Weld Heat Treatment: 680-7200C For 1 Hour (Electrical
Method to be used)

Heating Rate: 200
0
C/HR Max above 400
0
C
Cooling Rate: 250
0
C/Hr Max. Down to 400
0
C then Cool in still Air



Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance :

Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be in Accordance with
Tube or pipe Alignment BS 2633 (1973)
Radiographic/ultrasonic Assessment



Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals




PMI, NTPC 200

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes:
Pipe Butt Welds in 2 Cr Over 100 MM O.D.
1 Mo Steel Over 9mm Wall



THE RMOCOUPLE 1-6 TO BE
USED FOR POST HEAT
ALL THE RMOCOUPLES TO
INDICATE THE RELEVENT
TEMPERATURE

Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:

Electrical Method to be used MMA (Electrode Positive)
All positional
200
0
C Min Root and Fill

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 MM DIA Rutile Coated Electrode E9013-B, Cromocord-Ti
Filler Runs: Basic Coated Electrode Conforming to E9018-B3,
Cromocord-C, Cromotherme-2
2.5, 3.15 and 4 mm DIA only
PMI, NTPC 201
Welding Currents to be in Accordance with the Electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation.

Width of Deposited Weld Beads not to Exceed three times the Electrode
Core Wire Diameter.


Post Weld Heat Treatment: 680-7200C for 2Hrs/25mm Wall
(Min. 3 Hrs.)

Heating Rate: 100
0
C/Hr: Max. or 100 x 25
0
C/hr Max.
T

Cooling Rate: Upto 12MM Wall : 100
0
C/Hr Max Over 12 MM Wall

25
0
C/hr
50
0
C/Hr or 100 x T Max Down to

400
0
C

Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance :

Weld Bead
Weld Underbead To be in Accordance with
Tube or pipe Alignment BS 2633 (1973)
Radiographic/ultrasonic Assessment

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen Elecrodes:
to be Baked for 2 Hrs. at 250
0
C
Min. & stored at 120
0
C Min.

PMI, NTPC 202

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: All O.D. s
Pipe Butt Welds in 2 Cr
1 Mo Steel Over 9mm Wall


FOR PIPES UP TO 100MM
O.D. T.C.S 1.3
.& 6 NEED ONLY BE USED

Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
Electrical Method to be used MMA (Electrode Positive)
All positional
100
0
C Min ( TIG Root ) Filler Runs: Manual Metal Arc
Welding (Electrode Positive)
200
0
C Min. (M.M.A. Fill) All Positional

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 MM DIA, 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode 1.6 or
2.4 MM DIA. Filler to BS 2901 1970 Type A33 i.e.
Philips PZ6043 or BOC Saffire 2 Cr 1 Mo Welding
Current 60-90 AMPS, High Purity Argon Shielding
8-10 Litres/Min. Flow.

PMI, NTPC 203

Filler Runs: Basi c Coated Electrode Conforming to E9018-B3,
Cromocord-C, Cromotherme-2
2.5 MM 3.15 and 4MM DIA. Only
Welding Currents to be in Accordance with the Electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation

Width of Deposited Weld Bead not to Exceed three times the Electrode
Core of Diameter



Post Weld Heat Treatment: 680-7200C for 2Hrs/25mm Wall (Min. 3 Hrs.)

Heating Rate: 1000C/Hr: Max. or 100 * 250C/hr Max.

Cooling Rate: Upto 12MM Wall : 1000C Hr Max. Over 12 MM Wall

500C/Hr or 100 * 250C/hr whichever is smaller;
Down to 3500C then Cool in still Air.


Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead
Weld Underbead
Type Alignment To be in Accordance with BS2633
Radiographic/Ultrasonic (1973)
Assessment

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen Elecrodes: To be Baked for
2 Hrs. at 250
0
C Min. & stored at 120
0
C Min.
PMI, NTPC 204

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: All O.D. s
Pipe Butt Welds in Cr 9 mm Wall
1/2Mo ,1/2 V to be used for
Cromet Pipes & Fordings


Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:

Electrical Method to be used Root Run: Manual TIG (Electrode
100
0
C Min. ( TIG Root ) Negative)
250
0
C Min. (M.M.A. Fill) Filler Runs: Manual Metal Arc
Welding (Electrode
Positive) All Positional

Welding Procedure:
Relevant Preheat to be Obtained to 2 Hrs Prior to Welding

PMI, NTPC 205

Root Run: 2.4 MM DIA 2% Thoriated Tungsten Electrode 1.6 or 2.4 DIA
Filler to BAS 2901 1970 Type A33 i.e. Philips PZ 6043
Or BOC Saffire 2 Cr 1 Mo Welding Current 60-90 AMPS,
High Purity Argon Shielding 8-10 Litres/Min flow.
Filler Runs: Basic Coated Electrode Conforming to E9018 B3,
Cromocord-C, Cromotherme-2
2.5 mm 3.15 & 4 mm DIA only.

Welding Currents to be in Accordance with the Electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation.
Width of Deposited Weld Beads not to Exceed Three Times the Electrode3
Core Wire Diameter

Post Weld Heat Treatment: 705
0
C, 15
0
C for 2Hrs/25mm Wall (Min. 3 Hrs.)

Heating Rate: 50
0
C/Hr or 6250
0
C/Hr Down to 350
0
C/Hr

T
Whichever is Lower
Cooling Rate: 50
0
C/Hr or 6250
0
C/Hr Down to 350
0
C &

T Cool in Still Air


Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead to be Hot Ground Prior to Stress Relief & Polished after Stress Relief.
Magnetic Particle Inspection
Ultrasonic Examination

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen Elecrodes:
to be Backed for 2 Hrs. at 2500C
Min. & stored at 1200C Min.
PMI, NTPC 206

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: Over 100mm OD
Pipe Butt Welds in Cr Over 9 mm Wall
1/2Mo ,1/4 V Steel Pipe
Work & Forgings



Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
Electrical Method to be used MMA Electrode Positive
2000C Min. (M.M.A. Root & Fill Fill) All Positional

Welding Procedure:
Root Run: 2.5 MM DIA Ruttle Coated Electrode to E9013 B3,
Cromocord-C or E9013 B5 Molycord-10 Ti.
Filler Runs: Basic Coated Electrode Conforming to E9018 B3,
Cromocord-C, or E9013 B5 Molycord-10 i.e. Philips
KV3 Electrodes 2.5, 3.25 & 4mm DIA only
Welding Currents to be in Accordance with the electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation.
Width of Deposited Weld Beads not to Exceed Three Times the Electrode
Core Wire Diameter.
PMI, NTPC 207

Post Weld Heat Treatment: 705
0
C, 15
0
C for 2Hrs/25mm Wall (Min. 3 Hrs.)

Heating Rate: 50
0
C/Hr or 6250
0
C/Hr Down to 350
0
C/Hr

T Whichever is Lower
Cooling Rate: 50
0
C/Hr or 6250
0
C/Hr to 350
0
C &
T
then Cool in Still Air whichever is Lower.

Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:
Weld Bead to be Hot Ground Prior to Stress Relief & Polished after
Stress Relief.
Magnetic Particle Inspection
Ultrasonic Examination

Weld consumable Storage: Insurance Approvals
Low Hydrogen Elecrodes:
to be Backed for 2 Hrs. at 2500C
Min. & stored at 1200C Min.












PMI, NTPC 208

Type of Weld & Materials: Sizes: Over 100mm OD.s overf
Pipe Butt Welds in Cr 9 mm Wall
1/2Mo ,1/4 V To be used for
Welding Castings to Pipe

. Thermocoupling Arrangements:


Preheating Requirements: Welding Processes and Position:
Electrical Method to be used Root Run: Manual TIG (Electrode
Negative)
1000C Min. (TIG Toot) Filler Run: Manual Metal Arc Welding
300
0
C Min. (MMA Fill) (Electrode Positive) (All Positional)

Welding Procedure:
Relevant preheat Temperature to be obtained for 2 hours Prior to welding.
Root Run: 1.6-2.4mm DIA Filler Wire to 2901 Part 1, 1970 A33 i.e 6043 or BOC
Saffire 2 Cr 1 Mo
2. 4mm DIA 2% thoriated tungsten Electrode Welding Current 60-
95 AMPS< High Purity Argon Shielding 8-10 Litres/Min. Flow
PMI, NTPC 209

Filler Runs: Basic Coated Electrode Conforming E9018,
Cromocord-C, or E9013 B5 Mol cord 10.
Welding Current to be in Accordance with the electrode Manufacturers
Recommendation .
Width of deposited weld Beats not to Exceed three Times the Electrode Core Wire
Diameter.
Run Sequence: (Please see Diagram Below) After Root Run. Well preparation
on Casting Side Should Be Buttered with Overlapping Stringer
Bead Welds using A 2.5 mm Dia Electrode. Runs marked (1).
The Groove Walls on casting site should then be buttered with
a second Layer of Overlapping Stringer Beads Using A
3.25mm DIA Electrode(This is to ensure Maximum
Refinement of the Weld HAZ on the Casting Side.



Post Weld Heat Treatment: 750
0
C, 15
0
C for 2hrs.
Heating Rate: 50
0
C /hr Max. or 6250
0
whichever is Lower
T
Cooling Rate : 50
0
C/Hr or Max. 6250
0
C/hr to 350
0
C
T
Before Lagging is removed cool in still Air.




PMI, NTPC 210
Notes on Weld Finish and Quality Assurance:

1. Post weld Grinding should be Carried out Prior to Stress Relief with Preheat
Maintained.
2. Weld to be Polished after stress Relief.
3. Ultrasonic and Magnetic Practice Examination to be Carried Out


Weld Consumable Storage: Insurance Approvels:
Electrodes to be Baked for 2 Hrs.
At 250oCMin. And Stored at 120oC Min.
Prior to use.
PMI, NTPC 211
11. Safety in Welding


Welding and cutting operations involve potential hazards, including exposure to
toxic agents, but can be made safe with careful work and hading. Welding and
cutting operations are quite often used for construction, demolition, maintenance
and repair works.

The term WELDING refers to a process, to unite materials by heat or pressure or
both, and sometimes includes the use of filler metal.

The CUTTING operations refers to the removal of the metal due to the chemical
reaction of the metal at elevated temperatures.

Both these operations have one thing in common, i.e. the operations are carried
out at elevated temperatures and require generation of large amounts of heat
energy for melting or fusing of metals.

The three common sources of heat are:-

1) Flame produced by combustion of fuel gas with air or oxygen.
2) Electric are struck between an electrode and a work piece or between two
electrodes.
3) Electric resistance offered to passage or current between two or more work
pieces.
The hazards of the process would depend upon:

a. Type of operation carried out viz. welding or cutting
b. Type of equipment used, which includes the maintenances.
c. Place of work, indoor, restricted or confined space, containers having
flammable vapours etc.
PMI, NTPC 212
d. Type of work piece, metal, including its component whether painted,
galvanized, degreased etc.
e. Types of fumes,vapour , released.
f. Temperature and ventilation of the environment.
g. Use of inert gases,Fluxes,etc if any.
h. Apart from the hazards of this process, the other hazards of handling
materials and equipment, use of electricity etc, has to be kept in view.

GAS WELDIG & CUTTING

1. Gas Welding

Welding gases are compounds of carbon and hydrogen i.e. hydro carbons. Heat
Energy is released form welding gases by burning these gases with oxygen. The
important characteristics of a welding gas are heat content, flame temperature,
combustion ration and combustion products. In gas welding oxygen or air and a
fuel gas are fed to a torch, in which they are mixed prior to combustion. The heat
of he flame melts the metal parts to be joined and they flow together. A filler metal
or alloy is also used some times.

Welding gases are oxygen, Acetylene, Hydrogen and other fuel gases. Acetylene
burned with Oxygen can produce flame temperature upto 6000F which is higher
then any flame produced by other gases. Range of commability of acetylene (2.5
to 81% acetylene in air) is greater than that of other commonly used gas and
consequently greater hazards. The acetylene cylinder should not be allowed to
discharge at a rate exceeding 20% of its capacity. For requirements in excess,
additional cylinder should be coupled. The acetylene cylinders should not be
coupled with copper connectors and more than 3 cylinders should not be coupled
Acetylene may form a dangerously explosive compound copper acetylide' with
copper. Hydrogen air mixtures are flammable in the range of 4.1 to 74.2%
hydrogen.

PMI, NTPC 213
2. Oxygen Cutting

The cutting of steel is based on its property or oxidizing rapidly at about 1000 C if
pure oxygen is added to it. In mental cutting the metal is heated by flame and a jet
of pure oxygen is directed on the point of cut and moved along the line of cut.

3. Handling of Cylinders

Serious accidents may result if the cylinders containing compressed gases are not
handled properly, The following precautions, if observed, may prevent a number of
accidents.

1. Do not tamper with the number or marks stamped on the cylinders.
2. Do not drop cylinders or let them strike violently.
3. Do not lift cylinders with an electric magnet. In case cylinders are to be
lifted by lifting devices, they are to be slung in suitable cradles or platforms.
Do not use slings.
4. Do not tamper with safety devices in the valve or cylinders.
5. Do not use oil or grease as lubricants on valves or attachments.
6. In case the regulator or cylinder valves have frozen that with hot water ,
never by flame.
7. Never transport cylinders with regulators and hose attached, unless a
proper trolly or carrier is used while transporting, the cylinder valves should
be shut.
8. Do not drag cylinders. They may be rolled on the bottom edge.
9. When the cylinder is not use, keep the metal cap in place to protect the
valve.
10. Before returning empty cylinders, make them EMPTY.
11. Always consider cylinders full, if not definitely known..
12. When in doubt about the proper handling. consult supplier.


PMI, NTPC 214
STORAGE OF CYLINDERS

1) Ensure that the cylinders are stored properly. Store room should be dry well
ventilated and away from oil, or other flammable substances.
2) Store empty and full cylinders separately.
3) Store rooms should be fire proof and lighting and electrical switches should
be of flame-proof type.
4) Oxygen cylinders should be stored away from the cylinders containing
combustible gases, preferably in separate rooms. If stored in the same
room, they should be kept for apart (say 20ft) or have a non combustible
barrier in between of at least 5 ft.
5) Acetylene cylinders should always be stored upright.
6) Cylinders are not designed for temperatures in excess of 130 F.
Accordingly, they should not be stored near the sources of heat, such as
radiators, furnaces, etc
7) Cylinders should be stored away from elevators, stairs,or other such places
where they can be knocked down or damaged by passing of falling object.

REGULATIORS & HOSE CONNECTIONS

Care should be taken in choosing the correct regulator for different gas cylinders.
Regulators should be handled very carefully and not dropped. Leaky regulators
should be withdrawn from service. Hoses are used for connection regulators to
welding torches. Red is generally used for fuel gas and green or black is used for
oxygen. Before using the torch all the connection and the hose pipes should be
checked for leaks. Connections on cylinders and torches should be checked by
scap water and in no case oil should be used.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHILE USING TORCHES

1. Set the regulators to the recommenced working pressure
PMI, NTPC 215
2. Keeping the blow pipe nozzle away from any sources of lightion until the
fuel gas is flowing freely from the nozzle.
3. A spark lighter is recommended for lighting purposes. If the blow pipe
flashes back on lighting , it may be due to:

a) The regulators are not set to the correct pressure, or

b) The light has been applied before the free flow of fuel gas. If the
flame shaps or back fires during use, it may be due to:

i) The regulator pressure and/or gas flow are incorrect, either
too high or too low.
ii) The nozzle has been obstructed.
iii) The nozzle is held too close to the work.
iv) The nozzle has become over heated , when this happens.
Completely shut both blow pipe.

Completely shut both blow pipe valves, oxygen, first check regulator setting,
cylinder pressures and relight as mentioned earlier. In case the nozzle has
become heated , plunge the blow pipe head in cold water.

ARC WELDING

In the arc welding process, an arc is struct in between an electrode and the work
pieces, which are connected to an AC or DC supply when an arc is struck, a temp
of about 4000 C is obtained and work pieces are fused together when they are in
fluid stage, either by melting the electrode or by melting a filler rod. Flux issued to
shield the weld form oxidation .

The operation also include chipping of slag etc. from the weld.

PMI, NTPC 216
The voltage across the arc may be between 20-40 volt. But the voltage of circuit
has too be high to allow for the resistance etc. A higher voltage is also needed to
strike the arc. The voltage should not exceed the following limits.

a) A.C. Machines
i) Manual arc Welding 80 volts.
ii) Automatic or mechanised welding 100volts.

b) D.C. Machines
i) Manual arc welding - 100 volts.
ii) Automatic or mechanised welding 100 volts

The supply of current for electric welding would require a generator or transformer
of suitable voltage. The transformer use for giving supply of current for welding
should be double would to ensure complete isolation of welding circuit from main
supply.

The current used with small diameter electrodes on this sheets for manual arc
welding varies between 10-15 amps. For larger die-electrodes it is more. Since the
welder has to with stand the heat generated, the current valve should never
exceed 500-600 amps.

Electrode holders used for electrodes should be fully insulated and capable of
handling the maximum current requirement by electrode. Electrode holders can get
hot during welding if proper size holder is not used or if there is a loose connection.
Dipping of hot electrode holders in work should be prohibited, as it may expose the
worker to electric shock.

The chances of electric shock are there if worker is not careful while changing
electrodes, changing work position or in humid conditions. Risk of shock can be
reduced by providing an insulated barrier between worker and ground, while
PMI, NTPC 217
changing electrodes, Dry leather gloves and shoes with rubber soles should be
used by the welders.

The cables used for welding work should be of food quality which can resist hard
wear and should be inspected regularly for insulation defects. Joints between
cables should be insulated connectors of equivalent capacity.

Welding equipment must be safely earthed. There should be two district and
different earthling circuits so that, in case if one fails the other will afford protection
and earth connection cable should be short in length as possible.

HAZARDS

In welding and cutting operations hazards are mainly of high temp. which can
always be sources of fire of exposition . Some physical and chemical reaction are
caused which include various types of radiations, toxic gases, vapours, fumes
which may affect health or the workers engaged in process.

PHYSICAL HAZARDS

i. Flying metallic sparks and molten metal. Some of these sparks consist of
tiny shreds of extremely hot metal, sometimes molten, which may be hotter
then 1000 F and may cause painful burns on exposed skin.
ii. These sparks are also source of fire, or explosion hazards, in case
flammable materials are near by.
iii. Pressure of hot temperatures.
iv. Hot surfaces of the work pieces after welding or cutting this may cause
burns to unsuspecting persons.
v. Flying material while chipping the weld.
vi. Enrichment of oxygen ( due to leakage from oxygen bottles) radically
changes flammability.

PMI, NTPC 218
vii. Glare which comes in the arc is struct or the torch is lit. it affects the optic
nerve at the back of the eye.
viii. Thermal heat radiation-intense heat from welding can cause headache,
fatigue, and eye damage.
ix. Infra red radiation some of the IR is stopped by the upper layer of the skin
but part of the radiation penetrates the exposed skin code and my cause
serious skin burns or pigmentation. Since eye has no absorbing layer, it can
be severally damaged by this and may cause heat cataract.
x. Ultra-violet radiation it may also cause skin burns to noise due to welding ,
cutting, or chipping operations.
xi. Noise workers in the shop floors may also be exposed to noise due to
welding, cutting , or chipping operations,
xii. Fall of materials etc. during operation.

CHEMICAL HAZARDS

During welding and cutting operation, may toxic fumes are released in the
environment. These fumes or vapours affect the worker directly as oxygen content
in the environment cause oxygen deficiency and may effect the workers.

Effects of various Gases on Human System

Carbon Di-Oxide

OXYGEN ACETYLENE WATER CARBON DIOXIDE
5O2 + 2C2H2 2H2O + 4CO2 heat energy

Carbon dioxide, produced as a bye product of the combustion escapes in the
surrounding air and if the area is not well ventilated builds up on the atmospheres
and cuts the normal supply of oxygen in the air. The normal concentration of CO2
in the air is about 0.001% . If the oncentration of CO2 reaches 8-15 per cent the
PMI, NTPC 219
worker may be suffocated and have symptoms of headache. nausea etc.
(recommended TLV 5000 PPM).

In dump atmosphere CO2 can combine with water vapor and from carbonic acid,
which may be irritating the eyes, skin, etc.

Carbon Monoxide

This gas may formed due to incomplete brining of acetylene. It unit with the
hemoglobin in the blood and blocks oxygen reaching the tissues of the body.
(recommended TLV 50 PPM)

Acetylene

This gas can find its way in he environment from the oxyacetylene torch, leakage
from hoses and connections. In low concentration it acts like a mild intoxicant, but
if allowed to build in higher concentration may cause oxygen deficiency.

Nitrogen Dioxide

During electric welding, the nitrogen of the atmosphere is oxidised to nitrogen
dioxide. It cause nose and throat irritation and may cause lung damage.
(Recommended TLV 50 PPM).

Oxone

Present in all arc welding, irritates nose and throat and damages lungs, as a levels
arc generally exceeded. It has a sweet smell. If you can smell it, you are getting
too much . (Recommended TLV-0.1 PPM).



PMI, NTPC 220
Phosgene

Phosgene as is produced when UV given off by welding attack degreasing
chemicals, such as trichloroethylene or perchloroethylene. This is a very
poisonous gas and can cause lung disease or death. People upto 200ft, away
could also be affected. Work should step if a nasty smell comes (Recommended
TLV-0.1 PPM)

Hydrogen Fluoride

Some of the electrodes are coated with fluxes containing flouride. During welding,
the gas is produced whenever such electrodes are used. This cusses skin irritation
when the gas comes in contact with the water of the skin, hydrofluoric acid is also
formed (Recommended TLV 2.5 mg. /CU.m)

Zinc Oxide

This is produced while working on galvanised steel and can cause fume fever
(Recommended TLV-5.0 mg/CU.m).

Lead Poisoning

Lead fumes may be released while working on painted metal work pieces. Lead
affects the nervous system. (Recommended TLV-0.15 mg/cu.m).

Beryllium Poisoning

Beryllium is found in alloys with aluminum, magnetite , and copper , Easilty
damage lung. Can be fatal (Recommended TLV 0.002 mg./cu.m)



PMI, NTPC 221
Special Precautions

Special precautions are required to be taken when works carried out at hazardous
locations or in closed environment. In confined spaces the toxic gases may
accumulate and cause deficiency of oxygen in working environment.

Exhaust systems for removing fumes and gases should be used an sufficient air
changeable made. The worker should have a life line so that he can be removed
from the area at earliest.

In case of fire and explosion hazards, these should be eliminated before start of
work. The area should be thoroughly ventilated and frequently tested, fire fighting
equipment such as sand extinguishers should be kept handy.

While working on heights the platform should have necessary fencing to prevent
fall of persons. When electric welding is done in confined spaces, measures
should be taking to protect the worker against electric shock.

PERSONAL PROTECTION

For the safety & health of worker precautions should be taken to protect against
various physical & chemical hazards. Leather hand gloves, leather apron. Fire
spats & safety shoes should be used for protection of body against heat, sparks
etc. Welders goggles or face shield should be used for protections of the eyes and
face against heat and light rays. Bare areas of the skin may get affected by UV
and IR radiations e.g. neck portion, these can be protected by of barrier creams.

As far as possible welding operations should be isolated and screened from other
employees so that nearby workers are not affected. To protect employees from
toxic fumes, vapours suitable respiratory protection be provided or exhaust system
be employed. Where hazard of falling object is present the welders must use hand
PMI, NTPC 222
hats/helmets. Every welder should be adequately trained for protection against
hazards.