Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

THERMAL ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN IC ENGINE PISTON USING CAD SOFTWARE

ABSTRACT
Aim: Design, Analysis and optimization of piston which is stronger, lighter with minimum cost and with less time. Since the design and weight of the piston influence the engine performance.

Study Design:
Analysis of the stress distribution in the various parts of the piston to know the stresses due to the gas pressure and thermal variations using with Ansys.

Methodology:
The Piston of an engine is designed, analyzed and optimized by using graphics software. The PRO E, CAD software for performing the design phase and ANSYS 11.0 for analysis and optimization phases are used.

INTRODUCTION

Automobile components are in great demand these days because of increased use of automobiles. The increased demand is due to improved performance and reduced cost of these components .R&D and Test engineers should develop critical components in shortest possible time to minimize launch time for new products. This necessitates understanding of new technologies and quick absorption in the development of newer products. Piston is highly dynamically loaded component used for power transmission in combustion engines. A piston is a moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine its purpose is to transfer from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crank shaft via piston rod and or connecting rod. As an important part in an engine piston endures the cyclic gas pressure and inertia forces at work and this working condition may cause the fatigue damage of the piston. The investigationsindicate that greatest stress appears on the upper end of the piston and stress concentration is one of the mainly reason for fatigue failure

LITERATURE SURVEY
Mirosaw Wendeker , Pawe Magryta Adam Majczak, Micha Biay
The paper describes the coupled thermo - mechanical load model of a supercharged Subaru EJ25 engine. The engine piston was tested thermally and mechanically, and the intake and exhaust valves only thermally. The calculations were done using the finite element method (FEM) in ABAQUS 6.10. Parts where divided into Hex and Tet mesh elements, depending of their geometry. The models used in the simulation were previously created using CATIA v5. Because there were only separate parts, the authors used only Part Module. The process of 3D scanning based on the method of reverse engineering was for fine mapping the surface of the examined parts, e.g. a piston. The boundary conditions and material properties are based on the literature and the information provided by the companies that sell spare parts for this engine. The simulations were done for varied heating times and mechanical load (25, 50, 100, 250, 400 seconds).

Gudimetal P. Gopinath C.V.


present a framework which successfully uses RE to generate a CAD model of a damaged internal combustion (IC) engine piston and then use the state-of-the-art ANSYS finite element analysis package to perform a linear static and a coupled thermalstructural analysis of the component. Further, a parameteric evaluation of the material properties vis--vis operating conditions is carried out to generate a relational database for the piston to arrive at optimal design solutions under different operating conditions

Janko D. Jovanovi
This paper deals with case study of product design based on Taguchis approach that involves parametric optimization of piston rod geometry aiming mass reduction with stress restriction. Finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench was used to get access to CAD parameters of piston rod within a process of parametric finite element evaluation and optimization.

Atish Gawale , A. A. Shaikh1 and Vinay Patil


This paper deals with nonlinear static analysis and optimization of forged steel connecting rod. Optimization is important as less time required to produce the connecting rod which is stronger, lighter with minimum cost. The design and weight of the connecting rod influence the engine performance. Hence optimization is to be carried out. Specifications of connecting rod have been evaluated to calculate the loads acting on it. Nonlinear static analysis is carried out on piston end and crank end of connecting rod then further study was conducted to explore weight reduction opportunities for a production of connecting rod. The component is to be optimized for weight subject to constraint of allowable stress and factor of safety. A proper CAD model is developed using software CATIA V5 then FEA of connecting rod is carried out to determine the maximum vonmisses stresses for the given loading conditions using software ANSYS WORKBENCH. The percentage weight reduction obtained was 7.35% by optimization.

A. R. Bhagat1, Y. M. Jibhakate
This paper describes the stress distribution of the seizure on piston four stroke engine by using FEA. The finite element

analysis is performed by using computer aided design (CAD) software. The main objectives is to investigate and analyze the thermal stress distribution of piston at the real engine condition during combustion process. The paper describes the mesh optimization with using finite element analysis technique to predict the higher stress and critical region on the component. The optimization is carried out to reduce the stress concentration on the upper end of the piston i.e (piston head/crown and piston skirt and sleeve). With using computer aided design(CAD), Pro/ENGINEER software the structural model of a piston will be developed. Furthermore, the finite element analysis performed with using software ANSYS.

Piston Material Comparisons


Cast Aluminum Pistons
Best suited for stock engines. Lower price point. The typical cast piston is made of a lower grade aluminum which is molten and flowed into a mold having the shape of the finished product. Piston molds are permanent dies, intricately made of multiplepiece steel shapes. The molten aluminum is vacuum drawn into the mold. So accurate is the process that the resulting casting requires minimal machining. Cast pistons, costing less, are more brittle than hypereutectic or forged pistons so they are not well suited for high performance applications.

Hypereutectic Aluminum Pistons


Best suited for up to 600 HP in SB or 700 HP in BB normally aspirated engines.

Mid price point. The hypereutectic piston is also a cast piston but with an ideal amount of silicon added (approximately 16%) to produce a much stronger version of the standard cast piston. Silicon itself expands less than aluminum, but it also acts as an insulator to prevent the aluminum from absorbing as much of the operational heat. Another benefit of adding silicon is that the piston becomes harder and is less susceptible to scuffing. Additionally the higher silicon content of the hypereutectic pistons allows for a tighter fit piston improving combustion seal due to reduced rocking of the piston as it travels in the cylinder wall. Although not as robust as forged pistons, hypereutectic pistons aan ideal choice for engines producing up to 600 HP in small blocks and up to 700 HP in big blocks, depending on application. Because of the higher silicon content, hypereutectic is a less ductile alloy and is less forgiving when used with boosted and/or nitrous applications, making them best suited for normally aspirated engines. 4032 Forged Aluminum Pistons Best suited for engines producing up to 1000 horsepower normally aspirated. Higher price point. Forged pistons are the strongest piston on the market. The manufacturing process is different from a cast piston. The aluminum is not molten like a cast piston, instead a hot slug of aluminum alloy called an ingot is placed in a female mold, and a male ram is pounded into it. The result is a piston blank, which must then undergo many machining operations before it becomes a piston. 4032 is a highsilicon (approximately 11%.), low-expansion alloy. Pistons made from this alloy can be installed with tighter piston to bore clearance, resulting in a tighter seal with less noise and reduced scuffing

than its 2618 cousin, due to reduced rocking of the piston as it travels in the cylinder wall. 4032 is also a more stable alloy, so it will retain characteristics such as ring groove integrity, for longer life cycle applications. Because of the higher silicon content, 4032 is a less ductile alloy and is less forgiving when used with boosted and/or nitrous applications, making them best suited for normally aspirated engines. 2618 Forged Aluminum Pistons Best suited for engines producing up to 1200 horsepower and is ideal for engines running power adders. Higher price point. Forged pistons are the strongest piston on the market. The manufacturing process is different from a cast piston. The aluminum is not molten like a cast piston, instead a hot slug of aluminum alloy called an ingot is placed in a female mold, and a male ram is pounded into it. The result is a piston blank, which must then undergo many machining operations before it becomes a piston. The 2618 aluminum material is a low-silicon (approximately 2%), high expansion alloy that is used for extreme-duty racing applications such as NASCAR, ALMS, etc. Due to its highexpansion characteristic, this alloy is engineered with additional piston to bore clearance. At the start of a cold engine, the pistons expanding can be heard and is commonly referred to as the "piston slap". Once the engine warms up the noise subsides as the piston expands to its running clearance. 2618 is a more ductile alloy and grants higher tolerances with higher resistance to detonation. The forgiving characteristics allow for the most extreme conditions, but longevity is eventually compromised after countless heat cycles.

A. N PRUDNIKOV

A. N. Prudnikov
Deformable heatproof transeutectic silumin for pistons
Steel in Translation 01/2009; 39(6):456-459. DOI:10.3103/S0967091209060047 Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.

We know that, in motor operation, the base of the piston is heated to 300 C. For heavy-duty motors in overdrive, this temperature may reach 350400 . Therefore, piston operation is primarily determined by the mechanical characteristics at elevated temperaturein particular, the long-term strength. Accordingly, it is important to increase the high-temperature strength of piston alloys while retaining excellent properties at lower temperatures. To improve the hightemperature strength, the piston Nalloy based on aluminum with 1820% Si described in [2, 3] may be modified on the basis of information regarding the positive influence of copper and nickel on high-temperature strength [4]. However, nickel has little influence on the high-temperature strength, as follows from [1]; copper is much more effective. In view of the shortage of nickel, Russian producers have improved the high-temperature strength by means solely of copper, whose content is increased to 56%. However, the content of magnesium is limited, since it is able to reduce the high-temperature strength and increase the risk of scorching and, at concentrations higher than 1%, will reduce the plasticity. The corrected chemical composition of the alloy is as follows: 1520% Si; 35% Cu; 0.51% Mg. (The balance is aluminum.) To reduce the size of the grains and primary crystals of silicon in the alloy, cerium (0.10.3%) is added, as well as nitrogen (0.0450.08%), which is able to form heatproof nitride deposits [5]. Moreover, to obtain a modified structure and improve the mechanical properties of the ingot, the melt is hydrogenated by means of steam and, at the same time, the melt is treated with copper phosphide (0.16 wt % of the melt).

Piston Design
The piston is designed according to the procedure and specification which are given in machine design and data hand books. The dimensions are calculated in terms of SI Units. The pressure applied on piston head, temperatures of various areas of the piston, heat flow, stresses, strains, length, diameter of piston and hole, thicknesses, etc., parameters are taken into consideration

Design Considerations for a Piston In designing a piston for an engine, the following points should be taken into consideration: It should have enormous strength to withstand the high pressure. It should have minimum weight to withstand the inertia forces. It should form effective oil sealing in the cylinder. It should provide sufficient bearing area to prevent undue wear. It should have high speed reciprocation without noise. It should be of sufficient rigid construction to withstand thermal and mechanical distortions. It should have sufficient support for the piston pin. Procedure for Piston Design The procedure for piston designs consists of the following steps: Thickness of piston head (tH) Heat flows through the piston head (H) Radial thickness of the ring (t1) Axial thickness of the ring (t2) Width of the top land (b1) Width of other ring lands (b2) The above steps are explained as below: Thickness of Piston Head (th) The piston thickness of piston head calculated using the following Grashoffs formula, tH = (3pD2)/ (16t) in mm Where P= maximum pressure in N/mm D= cylinder bore/outside diameter of the piston in mm. t=permissible tensile stress for the material of the piston. Here the material is a particular grade of AL-Si alloy whose permissible stress is 50 Mpa90Mpa. Before calculating thickness of piston head, the diameter of the piston has to be specified. The pistonProcedure for Piston Design The procedure for piston designs consists of the following steps: Thickness of piston head (tH) Heat flows through the piston head (H) Radial thickness of the ring (t1) Axial thickness of the ring (t2) Width of the top land (b1)

Width of other ring lands (b2) The above steps are explained as below: Thickness of Piston Head (th) The piston thickness of piston head calculated using the following Grashoffs formula, tH = (3pD2)/ (16t) in mm Where P= maximum pressure in N/mm D= cylinder bore/outside diameter of the piston in mm. t=permissible tensile stress for the material of the piston. Here the material is a particular grade of AL-Si alloy whose permissible stress is 50 Mpa90Mpa. Before calculating thickness of piston head, the diameter of the piston has to be specified. Heat Flow through the Piston Head (H) The heat flow through the piston head is calculated using the formula H = 12.56*tH * K * (Tc-Te) Kj/sec Where K=thermal conductivity of material which is 174.15W/mk Tc = temperature at center of piston head in C. Te = temperature at edges of piston head in C. Radial Thickness of Ring (t1) t1 = D3pw/t Where D = cylinder bore in mm Pw= pressure of fuel on cylinder wall in N/mm. Its value is limited from 0.025N/mm to 0.042N/mm. For present material, t is 90Mpa Axial Thickness of Ring (t2) The thickness of the rings may be taken as t2 = 0.7t1 to t1 Let assume t2 =5mm Minimum axial thickness (t2) = D/( 10*nr ) Where nr = number of rings Width of the top land (b1) The width of the top land varies from b1 = tH to 1.2 tH Width of other lands (b2) Width of other ring lands varies from b2 = 0.75t2 to t2 Maximum Thickness of Barrel (t3) t3 = 0.03*D + b + 4.5 mm Where b = Radial depth of piston ring groove Thus, the dimensions for the piston are calculated and these are used for modeling the piston in CATIA V5R16. In the above procedure the ribs in the piston are not taken into consideration, so as make the piston model simple in its design. In modeling a piston considering all factors will

become tedious process. Thus, a symmetric model is developed using the above dimensions

The Piston Model before optimization

The following are the sequence of steps in which the piston is modeled. Drawing a half portion of piston Exiting the sketcher Developing the model Creating a hole Applying fillets Piston was modeled using CATIA V5 software

It was then imported to ANSYS 11.0. for analysis and optimization. Specifications of piston before optimization OPTIMIZING MATERIALSILUMIN ALLOY