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G.R. No. 75379 March 31, 1989 JAVIER v. INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT a ! LEON ". GUTIERRE#, JR.

FACTS: Private respondent issued to the petitioners a check that was subsequently dishonored and not made good despite the required notice of dishonor For this he has been charged with estafa under ! P !lg "" in the #egional Trial Court of $akati The information against %eon S &utierre'( )r was filed on April *( *+,- .Criminal Case /o *--,*0 in the #egional Trial Court of $akati The civil case was not reserved 1n September -( *+,-( &utierre' filed a complaint for damages against the petitioners in the #egional Trial Court of Catarman( /othern Samar .Civil Case /o C23--0where the defendants were charged with having inveigled &utierre' into signing the very check sub4ect of the criminal case in the $akati court The complaint in effect e5plains why he issued the check for which he is now facing prosecution 1n September *6( *+,-( the petitioners filed a motion to dismiss Civil Case /o C23-- on the grounds of lack of a cause of action and litis pendentia but was denied on September "7(*+,- 1n the other hand( the private respondent moved to suspend proceedings in Criminal Case /o *--,* pending the resolution of what was claimed to be the pre4udicial question raised in the civil case The petitioners filed an opposition which was also denied Petitioners not having submitted their answer in the civil case( the private respondent moved to declare them in default and that he be allowed to present his evidence ex parte Pending resolution of this motion( the petitioners moved for reconsideration of the order denying their motion to dismiss but was denied on /ovember "6(*+,- 1n )anuary 3( *+,8( the petitioners filed a second motion for reconsideration based on the original two grounds and alleging the additional ground of improper venue The record does not show if this second motion for reconsideration was acted upon( but on )anuary *6( *+,8( the respondent 4udged declared the petitioners in default and set the civil case for trial Three days later( the motion to suspend proceedings in the #egional Trial Court of $akati was denied and the criminal case was set for hearing on the merits The petitioners went to the 9ntermediate Appellate Court to question the orders of )udge Cesar # Cinco of the #egional Trial Court of Catarman( /orthern Samar( denying their motion to dismiss and their motion for reconsideration of the denial Failing to obtain relief there( they are now before us in this petition for review 9SS:; : <hether or not private respondent can raise the reason that he was inveigled into signing the very check sub4ect of the criminal case in #TC $akati in another court( in a separate civil action for damages filed by him against the petitioners =;%>: <e shall reverse The respondent court erred in sustaining the trial 4udge As the civil action was not reserved by the petitioners( it was deemed impliedly instituted with the criminal case in the #egional Trial Court of $akati #ule ***( Section *( of the #ules of Court provides( Section * Institution of criminal and civil actions 2 <hen a criminal action is instituted( the civil action for the recovery of civil liability arising from the offense charged is impliedly instituted with the criminal action( unless the offended party e5pressly waives the civil AUSL Criminal Procedure| SY 13 14 2ND Semester
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action or reserves his right to institute it separately =owever( after the criminal action has been commenced( the civil action cannot be instituted until final 4udgment has been rendered in the criminal action <hen the offended party seeks to enforce civil liability against the accused by way of actual( moral( nominal( temperate or e5emplary damages( the filing fees for such civil action as provided in these #ules shall first be paid to the Clerk of Court of the court where the criminal case is filed 9n all other cases( the filing fees corresponding to the civil liability awarded by the court shall constitute a first lien on the 4udgment award and no payment by e5ecution or otherwise may be made to the offended party without his first paying the amount of such filing fees to the Clerk of Court 9t was before the $akati court that the private respondent( as defendant in the criminal charge of violation of ! P !lg ""( could e5plain why he had issued the bouncing check As the civil action based on the same act was also deemed filed there( it was also before that same court that he could offer evidence to refute the claim for damages made by the petitioners This he should have done in the form of a counterclaim for damages for his alleged deception by the petitioners 9n fact( the counterclaim was compulsory and should have been filed by the private respondent upon the implied institution of the civil action for damages in the criminal action A counterclaim is compulsory and is considered barred if not set up where the following circumstances are present: .*0 that it arises out of( or is necessarily connected with the transaction or occurrence that is the sub4ect matter of the opposing party?s claim@ ."0 that it does not require for its ad4udication the presense of third parties of whom the court cannot acquire 4urisdiction( .30 that the court has 4urisdiction to entertain the claim All these circumstances are present in the case before the #egional Trial Court of $akati This being so( it was improper for the private respondent to file his civil complaint in the #egional Trial Court of /orthern Samar alleging the very defense he should be making in the #egional Trial Court of $akati <=;#;F1#;( the decision of the respondent court dated $ay "+( *+,8( and its resolution dated )uly *8( *+,8( are S;T AS9>; and Civil Case /o C23-- in the #egional Trial Court of Catarman( /orthern Samar is >9S$9SS;>( with costs against the private respondent 9t is so ordered

AUSL Criminal Procedure| SY 13 14 2ND Semester

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