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DETERMINACIN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY)

ESPECTROSCOPA INFRARROJA

Hermenegildo Garca Gmez Departamento de Qumica Instituto de Tecnologa Qumica Universidad Politcnica de Valencia 46022 Valencia E-mail: hgarcia@qim.upv.es Telephone: +34 96 387 7807 or ext. 78572/73441 Fax: + 34 96 387 7809

ESPECTROSCOPA DE INFRARROJOS

- Niveles electrnicos - UV-Visible: transiciones de electrones entre dos estados electrnicos

- Niveles vibracionales dentro de un nivel electrnico - Diferencia de energa mucho menor - Hace falta onda con frecuencia ms pequea

FUNDAMENTAL VIBRATION MODES

- A molecule contains two or more atoms and several bonds - The position of each atom is indicated by three coordinates - If we have n atoms we need 3n coordinates - Three degrees of freedom are wasted in translation - Degree of freedom for vibration: 3n-3

x A A y A z A x B B y B z B x C C yC z C

VIBRATION OF SINGLE BONDS AND GROUPS

1- A molecule may contain many atoms and bonds. In reality a vibration is not located in a single bond or group of atoms, but

2- In a simplified model, the rest of the molecule can be considered as having infinite mass.

3- The conclusion of the previous point is that each covalent bond has specific absorptions irrespective of the rest of the molecule.

TIPOS DE VIBRACIONES - Stretching: change in the atomic distance


-

Bending: changes in the bond angles

H2O

CO

CH2

HYDROGEN BOND

1- All the covalent bond has a typical wavenumber irrespective of the concentration at which the IR spectrum is recorded.

2- Except when there is a hydrogen bond

FH Cl H
Hydrogen bonded to an electronegative element

R OH R NH |

3- The intensity of the hydrogen bond depends on the difference of electronegativity on other inductive effects

HYDROGEN BONDS

1.

A polarized bond in which the positive pole is hydrogen is special

high charge density

density =

+d volume

2. Hydrogen bond interaction depends on the concentration.

3. Strength of hydrogen bond follows the overall avidity of the compounds.

Activity Strength hydrogen bond

FOTMETRO

ALCANOS

A: CH2 and CH3 symmetric and asymmetric stretching B: CH2 bending. Sharp peak at 1370 cm-1 corresponds to CH3; C: rocket band

ALQUENOS

A: CH2 and CH3 asymmetric and symmetric stretching B: CH2 bending. With several CH3 at 1370 cm-1

A: C-H stretching. Above 3000 cm-1 C-H (sp2); below 3000 cm-1 C-H (sp3) B: CH2=CH stretching vibration. Not visible in symmetric alkenes C: CH2 bending + CH3 D: CH2=C bending

ALQUINO

HIDROCARBURO AROMTICO (ORTOXILENO)

ALCOHOLES

TER

EJEMPLO DE INTERACCIN POR PUENTES DE HIDRGENO

COMPUESTOS CARBONLICOS

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