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Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 4

Adobe Photoshop CS6


LEARN BY VIDEO
CORE TR AINING IN VI SUAL COMMUNIC ATION

Adobe Photoshop CS6: Learn by Video: Core Training in Visual Communication


video2brain GmbH Kelly McCathran Copyright 2012 by video2brain GmbH Peachpit Press 1249 Eighth Street Berkeley, CA 94710 510/524-2178 510/524-2221 (fax) Find us on the Web at www.peachpit.com To report errors, please send a note to errata@peachpit.com Peachpit Press is a division of Pearson Education. Adobe Photoshop CS6: Learn by Video: Core Training in Visual Communication is published in association with Adobe Press. For the latest on Adobe Press books, go to www.adobepress.com Acquisitions Editor: Victor Gavenda Project Editor: Tracey Croom Media Producer: Eric Geoffroy Proofreader: Liz Welch Package design: Charlene Charles-Will Package imagery: Provided by Adobe Systems Inc. Book interior design: Danielle Foster

Notice of Rights
All rights reserved. No part of this video training book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. The software and media files on this disc are copyrighted by the authors and Peachpit. You have the non-exclusive right to use these programs and files. You may use them on one computer at a time. You may not transfer the files from one computer to another over a network. You may transfer the files onto a single hard disk so long as you can prove ownership of the original disc. For information on getting permission for reprints and excerpts, contact permissions@peachpit.com.

Notice of Liability
The information in this video training book is distributed on an As Is basis, without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the video training book, neither the trainers nor video2brain GmbH nor Peachpit shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this video training book or by the computer software and hardware products described in it.

Trademarks
Adobe Photoshop is a trademark or registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. All rights reserved. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this video training book, and Peachpit was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this video training book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringe ment of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this video training book. ISBN-13: 978-0-321-84071-4 ISBN10: 0-321-84071-2 987654321 Printed and bound in the United States of America

DVD Contents

1 Introducing Photoshop CS6


1.1 Introduction 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 How to Launch the Files and Lessons What Is Photoshop: Raster vs. Vector Whats New in Photoshop CS6 (Overview) The Photoshop Family Touring the Interface and Managing Document Windows The Window > Application Frame (Mac Only) Zooming and Navigating Advanced Zooming and Navigating

Customizing Photoshop
3.1 Under the Hood: New Auto Recovery, Customizing the Interface, and Hidden Plug-ins (Filters)

3.2 Arranging Panels, Switching Screen Modes, and Saving a Custom Workspace 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Customizing Keyboard Shortcuts Customizing Photoshops Menus Optimizing Photoshops Performance: GPU, CPU, RAM, VRAM and More Rulers, Guides, and Grids

1.10 Creating, Opening, Editing, and Saving

4 Image Editing Concepts


4.1 Resolution, File Size, and Compression 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 RGB vs. CMYK Importing Camera Images Reviewing and Rating Images Organizing Your Image Library Nondestructive Editing Selections: Rectangular and Elliptical Selections: The Lasso and Polygonal Lasso Tools Selections: The Magic Wand Tool

Photoshop Project Explorations


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Using Multiple Undos and the History Brush Tool Redesigned Mini Bridge Adobe Bridge and Batch Renaming Removing Unwanted Objects with Content-Aware Fill Content-Aware Move, Patch, and History Brush Tools Plug-ins a.k.a. Filters/Up in Smoke Automatic Color Correction Flawless Faces: Women Flawless Faces: Men

4.10 Selections: The Quick Selection Tool and Refine Edge 4.11 Using Refine Edge for Image Extraction 4.12 Converting to Black-and-White

2.10 Cropping and Straightening an Image 2.11 Content-Aware Scaling 2.12 Making Selections

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DVD Contents

Layers and Masks


5.1 5.2 5.3 Removing Solid Backgrounds Overview of Layers Adding New Layers

Creating Beautiful Digital Images with Adobe Camera Raw


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 What Is Adobe Camera Raw and What Files Can It Correct? Reading a Histogram and Using the Info Panel Reading and Applying Metadata Creating Metadata Templates Removing Color Casts and Improving Contrast With ACR Correcting a Series of Photos and the Image Processor Cropping in Adobe Camera Raw Boosting Color With Adobe Camera Raw

5.4 Merging Two Images for One Perfect Shot 5.5 Layer Masks, the Key to Flawless Retouching 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Creating Special Effects with Layer Masks Correcting Color and Contrast Using a Layer Mask Using Layer Styles Changing Colors Using Layers

Photo Retouching
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Removing Red-Eye Skin Perfection, Eye Brightening, and Double-Chin Removal Creating Hollywood Skin Realistic Retouching Using the History Panel

7.9 Selective Color in Adobe Camera Raw 7.10 Painting in Corrections with the Adjustment Brush 7.11 Using the Targeted Adjustment Tool

6.5 Dodging and Burning to Draw Attention 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 Differences in the Primary Retouching Tools Repairing Skin to New Layers Did the Makeup Artist Go Too Far? Drop 10 Pounds Without Dieting Using the Liquify Tool

Working with Type and Creating Mock-Ups


8.1 8.2 8.3 Typography in Photoshop The Character Panel The Paragraph Panel

8.4 Creating and Sharing Paragraph Styles 8.5 8.6 Character Styles Creating Mobile Buttons

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8.7 8.8 8.9

The Coolest Keyboard Shortcuts for Formatting Text Using Guides and Layer Groups to Perfect the Layout Advanced Blending Options for Type

11 Outputting Your Images


11.1 Building a Web Photo Gallery 11.2 Creating a Contact Sheet 11.3 Saving Images for the Web 11.4 Color Settings 11.5 Preparing Press-Quality Images 11.6 Printing Images

3D and Video Editing


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Making Text 3D Creating a 3D Object Creating a 3D Title Sequence Video Editing in Photoshop Adding Video Transitions

12 Artistic Expression and


Special Effects
12.1 Turn Your Photo Into a Work of Art with Oil Paint 12.2 Creating Hand-Painted Artwork from a Photo with the Mixer Brush 12.3 Using Adobe Camera Raw for Painterly Effects 12.4 Creating Abstract Artwork with the Art History Brush 12.5 Using Actions for Special Effects 12.6 Record Your Hand-Drawn Painting 12.7 Create a Cartoon Avatar Using the Filter Gallery 12.8 Creating and Applying Patterns

10 Just for Fun


10.1 The Tourist & Car Remover 10.2 Creating Seamless Panoramic Images 10.3 Cropiddy Crop, Crop, Crop 10.4 Cropping to Ratios, Fixed Sizes, and Resolution 10.5 Perspective Crop Tool 10.6 Adaptive Wide Angle Correction 10.7 Blurring for Focus or Optical Illusion 10.8 Cool Lighting Effects 10.9 Warping Images 10.10 Puppet Warp 10.11 The Clone Stamp Tool 10.12 Merging High Dynamic Range Images 10.13 Vanishing Point 10.14 Using Blending Modes and Adding a Mask

13 Closing Thoughts
13.1 Closing Thoughts

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Booklet Contents

Introduction Copyrighting Your Digital Images Nondestructive Image Editing

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Nondestructive Image Editing with Adjustment Layers . . . . . . . . . . 6 Working with Smart Filters . . . . . . . . 9 Nondestructive Image Sharpening . . . 12 Adjusting Shadows and Highlights . . . 14

Tips & Tricks

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Tips for Working with Rulers, Guides, and the Grid . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Using the History Panel Feature . . . . 19 Saving Memory with Adjustment Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Enlarging JPEG Images . . . . . . . . . . 21 Printing a Hard Proof . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Glossary

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B ooklet Contents

Introduction

Introduction

Welcome to Adobe Photoshop CS6 Learn by Video


Adobe Photoshop CS6 is the most powerful Photoshop yet, with remarkable video and 3D capabilities, new character and paragraph styles, a redesigned interface, and many more new and enhanced features. In this video train ing course youll get comprehensive coverage of all its features, old and new. The course begins with a series of Project Explo rations that demonstrate what Photoshop CS6 can do. Then youll get a tour of the interface, see how to customize it to suit the way you work, and learn core image editing concepts like color modes, nondestructive editing, selections, layers, masks, and more. After mastering these basics, youll have the opportunity to learn advanced skills for photo retouching, adding and formatting type, working with video and 3D, and creating artistic effects. And of course youll get lots of tips for sharing your images by putting them on the web or by making prints or contact sheets. The lessons are wrapped in a feature-rich inter face that lets you jump to any topic and book mark individual sections for later review. Full-Screen mode provides a hi-def, immersive expe rience, and Watch-and-Work mode shrinks the video into a small window so you can play the videos alongside your application. This course also includes project files so you can follow along and try out new techniques as you learn them.
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About This Book


The material in this booklet serves as a valuable supplement to the video training. The first chapter explains what you need to know about copyright and how it applies to your digital images. The second chapter looks at one of the most important principles you need to understand when working with Photoshop: nondestructive image editing. Finally, the third chapter provides some valuable tips and tricks to help make your work in Photoshop CS6 easier.

How to Use This Course


The video2brain interface is easy to use, but it also has a large number of options. Weve pro vided this brief guide to give you a tour of the interface and make sure you dont miss out on any of its features. This course comes in a few different flavors. You can run the Mac application (labeled Start or Start.app) or the Windows application (.exe) file, or you can open start.html in your browser. Most people will use one of the application versions of the course. If youre working with an operating system that doesnt support one of these two options, such as Linux, the browser version is a great alternativeit works on any browser with a current version of Adobe Flash. The main difference between running the course as an application versus opening it in your browser is that the application versions include an option, discussed in more detail later in this guide, called Watch-and-Work mode. Watch-and-Work mode lets you watch the course

in a smaller window while you follow along in another application. This option doesnt exist in the browser version of the course. Whether youre using the application or brow ser version, when you first launch the course, you will see the Welcome screen.

Entering a word or phrase in the Search field in the upper right of the screen will search the courses titles and descriptive text to help you find what youre looking for.

Starting the Course


When youre ready to dive in, you have several options for how to get started:

To begin at the beginning and play all the way through, click Play All Videos. To access a list of every video available in the training, click Table of Contents. To start with Chapter 1 (or any chapter that appeals to you), click the chapter name on the left of your screen.

The Welcome Screen


From here, there are a few ways you can proceed:

Click the Play icon in the middle of the screen to watch a video that introduces you to the instructor(s) and gives you an overview of whats covered in the course. For onscreen help and a users manual, click either the Help item on the menu at the top of your screen or the Need Help item at the bottom of the Content panel. You can also access help by pressing F1 on your keyboard.

You can navigate the Table of Contents and Chapter views using your mouse, or using the keyboard to arrow up and down, left and right. When youve selected a movie, you can press the right arrow to play that movie.

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Introduction
4 3 2 1

In the Table of Contents or Chapter view, any time you move your mouse over the name of a chapter or video, text describing the contents of that item will appear on the right side of your screen. This area is known as the Sidebar and is discussed in detail on the next page.

Navigating Inside a Video


While watching a video, you can use the buttons along the bottom right of your screen to toggle both Full-Screen mode 1 and video smoothing 2 on and off. You can adjust the volume 3 from here as well. You can also click and drag the green line 4 in the timeline at the bottom of the screen to move around within the video. When the video ends, click the Next Video button at the top right of the window to go directly to the next lesson. (This will happen automatically if you clicked Play All Chapter Videos to launch the chapter.) At the end of a chapter, this option will change to Next Chapter. You can also click Training Content at any time to leave the player and choose another lesson or click the navigation bar near the top of the screen to access the table of contents.

If you click the name of a chapter, youll see a list of all the videos in that chapter. Choose the video you want to start with or click Play All Chapter Videos to start with the first video in the chapter and go all the way through.

Keyboard Shortcuts for the Player


Spacebar: Play/pause Right Arrow: Jump forward Left Arrow: Jump backward Tab: Show/hide Sidebar B: Add bookmark M: Show/hide navigation bar Esc: Turn off Full-Screen mode

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Resizing Your Window


The player interface gives you a few different options for resizing your window to fit your needs. Click the Full-Screen icon 1 to enter FullScreen mode. You can exit Full-Screen mode by clicking the icon again or by pressing the Esc key. You can also dynamically resize your window while watching simply by grabbing the lower-right corner of the window and dragging until the window is the size you want. In the application versions of the course, you can also choose Watch-and-Work mode 2 from the player. This takes you to a smaller screen that leaves room for you to work in another application alongside the course. Click the Standard button to return to a regular-size screen.

Using Bookmarks
Its easy to create a bookmark in the video to mark where you left off or make note of some thing you want to refer back to later. Just click the Bookmark button at the bottom right or use the B keyboard shortcut. You will see the Create Bookmark dialog box.

The Sidebar
The Sidebar is an area on the right side of the player where additional informa tion, such as a description of the video youre watching, is displayed. At the bottom are buttons that enable you to access your bookmarks or a list of videos in the chapter. To turn the Sidebar on or off, you can press Tab or click the button in the navigation bar.

Enter a name for your bookmark and an optional note, then click Save or press Enter/Return. The bookmark will then be visible as a thin line in the timeline. You can access your bookmarks by clicking My Bookmarks at the top of the screen or via Video Bookmarks in the Sidebar. Just click the bookmark to go to your previously marked point. To delete a bookmark, click the Trashcan icon to the right of the bookmark and confirm your deletion by clicking Yes.

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Introduction

Test Yourself
This course includes a number of Test Yourself sections, each of which contains a series of questions about the topics covered in that chapter.

After answering any question, click the Submit Answer button at the bottom left to indicate that youre finished. A dialog box will pop up to let you know whether you got the question right. (If you get a question wrong and want to see the correct answer, press and hold F, A , and N on your keyboard at the same time. A check mark will appear in the box next to the right answer.) This dialog box also contains a button that will take you to the next question. When youre finished answering all the questions, click Training Content to return to the table of contents.

Just click the box for the right answer.

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About the Authors

About video2brain
video2brain (video2brain.com) has been Europes premier source for video training since 2002. We produce high-quality English, German, French, and Spanish video training on a variety of software topics, with a special emphasis on graphics, web design, photography, and programming. Our customers include people just starting out, professionals, educa tional institutions, and global corporations as well as home enthusiasts. All of our courses are available in 1280 x 720 Hi-Def video, with a full-screen mode that creates an immersive learning experience. They also include an interactive, easy-to-use interface; custom bookmarks that let you annotate your course and remember where you left off; and Watch-and-Work mode, so you can practice as you learn. Were passionate about teaching and about helping you build exceptional skills so you can create extraordinary work. Our mission is to provide the best and most affordable video training possible, and to offer you a feature-rich learning environment aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of ourtraining. video2brain was founded by Gerhard Koren, a v2b trainer himself. Our home office is nestledamong the mountains of the Austrian Alps in the city of Graz, a student city with six universities.

About Kelly McCathran


Kelly McCathran has been teaching Adobe applications since 1992 and computer classes since 1989. Shes an Adobe Certified Instructor in InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator, Acrobat, and PageMaker. Kelly has traveled North America and abroad, teaching applications to the largest printshops and ad agencies in the world. In addition to creating video training for video2brain.com, Kelly is the co-founder of onlineinstruct.com.

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Copyrighting Your Digital Images

Copyrighting Basics
Copyright is the exclusive legal right, granted to you by law (title 17, U. S. Code), to control the reproduction, distribution, public display, and derivative use of your original works of authorship, and to sue for unauthorized use (infringement) of your work. Copyright literally means the right to copy. This right begins the moment your original work is created in a fixed, tangible form. In other words, you automatically own the copyright to your creative works. Copyright protection is available for both published and unpublished works. Copyrightable works include anything that fits into one of these categories:

The following types of works are not copyrightable:

Ideas and concepts. Only the original expression of those ideas and concepts in some tangible form, like a photograph, can be copyrighted. You might have an idea for a great photograph, but that idea cannot be copyrighted. Procedures, methods, systems, principles, discoveries, or devices. However, written or recorded descriptions, explanations, or illus trations of such things are protected by copyright. Works that have not been fixed in a tangible form, such as speeches or performances that have not been written or recorded. Works that consist entirely of information that is common property and contain no original authorship, such as familiar symbols and designs. Titles, names, short phrases, and slogans. However, some titles and words may be protected under trademark law if their use is associated with a particular product or service.

Literary works (including computer pro grams) Musical works (including any accompanying words) Dramatic works (including any accompanying music) Pantomimes and choreographic works Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works Motion pictures and other audiovisual works Sound recordings Architectural works

How to Obtain a Copyright


The way in which you obtain copyright protection is often misunderstood. It is important to understand that no publication, registration, or other action in the U.S. Copyright Office is required to secure a copyright. Copyright is automatically secured the moment the work is created in tangible form. However, copyrights can be formally registered with the U.S. Copyright Office in Washington, DC (www.copyright. gov), and there are fees involved.

Although many things are copyrightable, some are not. To be copyrightable, the work must be original. Originality is essential to copyright. For example, if you copy a photograph, that copy cannot be copyrighted since it is not original. In fact, you would need the original photographers permission to copy their image.

Copyrighting Your Digital I mages

Even though registration is not a requirement for protection, it does establish a public record of the copyright and is required before an infringement lawsuit can be filed. You should always seek legal advice from a qualified attorney before threatening a copyright infringement action.

Duration of the Rights


Under current law, the copyright term for works created by individuals is the life of the author plus 70 years after the authors death. The copyright term for works made for hire is 95 years from publication or 120 years from the date of creation, whichever expires first. Works made for hire are works created by employees for employers, as well as certain types of specially commissioned works.

Notice of Copyright
Copyright notice informs the public that your work is protected by copyright, identifies who owns the copyright, and shows the year of first publication. It is a way of saying, This is my work. If you want to use it, first ask my permission. A notice reinforces the asset value of your work and alerts people that you are prepared to protect that value. Under U.S. law, you are no longer required to use a copyright notice. This requirement was eliminated when the United States adhered to the Berne Convention. However, the use of a notice is still required for works distributed before March 1, 1989. The use of a copyright notice is your responsibility; you are not re quired to get permission from, or register with, the U.S. Copyright Office. For photographs and other types of visually perceptible copies, the copyright notice con sists of the symbol , followed by the year of first publication of the work and the name of the copyright owner. Example: 2012 John Doe The word Copyright, or the abbreviation Copr. can be used instead of the symbol. Either form is recognized, but use of the symbol can provide additional international protection, as can the words All Rights Reserved.

Fair Use Doctrine


Anytime you make an unauthorized copy of a copyrighted work or create derivative works based upon the work without permission, you are technically violating or infringing on the rights of the copyright owner. However, the law does permit some limited copying of copyrighted works as a fair use of the works. So is copying defined as fair use? The reproduction of a copyrighted work for purposes such as criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research is generally not an infringement of copyright. The fair use exemp tion of U.S. copyright law was created to enable educators, researchers, and journalists to reuse copyrighted works without having to ask the author for permission, because usually these applications do not impinge on the commercial value of the work. There are four factors that you need to consider when determining whether the use of someones copyrighted work is a fair use of that work:

1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial na ture or is for nonprofit educational purposes.

Ad obe P hotoshop C S6 : Learn by V i d eo

2. The nature of the copyrighted work. 3. The amount and substantiality of the portion
used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.

Protecting Your Images on the Internet


Image theft on the Internet is a growing and intractable problem, but there are ways to protect your images on the web. The best security is to apply a watermark across your image; in case of theft, this shows where the image came from. But of course this can have a negative impact on the appearance of your ima ges. One alternative is to include the images in a SWF (Flash) movie; this prevents them from being downloaded directly. However, keep in mind that even this method will never fully protect your images. As soon as your images are published on the Internet, there is a possibility that they can be copied and used elsewhere (for instance, someone can take a screenshot of the SWF movie). The only way to fully protect a valuable image is not to publish it online.

4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The distinction between fair use and copyright infringement is not easily defined. For every situation, all four factors must be weighed by the courts to determine whether or not a work qualifies for fair use protection. In other words, there is no definitive yes or no to fair usethere is no absolute method of assessing whether or not a use is fair until after a judicial ruling in an infringement suit. The safest way to avoid copyright infringement is to always get permission from the copyright owner before using their copyrighted material. Simply acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.

Notice
U.S. copyright law is ever-changing. Every effort has been made to make this information as up to date as possible. This information is not intended to be legal reference material.

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Nondestructive Image Editing

Nondestructive Image Editing with Adjustment Layers


One way to learn about image editing is by experimenting with different settings and adjustments through trial and error. However, you may find that your willingness to experiment is sometimes hampered by the fear of ruining your images. This is where adjustment layers come in handythey let you play around with the appearance of your images without changing the original image data.
Working with Adjustment Layers
Anything you can do with an adjustment layer can also done through the Image > Adjustments menu. However, unlike adjustment layers, the menu does not offer the flexibility of a nonde structive workflow. Therefore it pays to get used to working with adjustment layers right from the beginning. Photoshop CS6 includes a Properties panel that allows you to easily create and edit adjustment layers.
Icon Adjustment
Brightness/Contrast Levels Curves Exposure Vibrance Hue/Saturation Color Balance Black & White

Icon Adjustment
Photo Filter Channel Mixer Color Lookup Invert Posterize Threshold Gradient Map Selective Color

Creating an Adjustment Layer


1. To create an adjustment layer, activate the
Properties panel and click the icon for the adjustment you want to add. Alternatively, you can click the Create New Fill or Adjustment Layer icon ( ) at the bottom of the Layers panel and select the desired com mand from the pop-up menu.

2. The Properties panel will show the controls


and options for the selected adjustment. Any changes you make to the settings here will be directly visible in your image. (Note that the Layers panel now contains an adjustment layer with the appropriate icon, as well

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as a layer mask. If you choose to rename the adjustment layer, you will still be able to identify the adjustment by its icon. The table on the previous page provides an overview.)

Constraining the Effects of Adjustment Layers


Every adjustment layer comes with its own layer mask by default. In some cases you might not want to correct the entire image, but only certain areas or subjects within the image. For example, you might want to make the main subject pop out more from the background by increasing its saturation while decreasing the saturation of the background, or vice versa. Or you might want to selectively adjust the colors in certain image areas, like the color of a sub jects eyes or hair in a portrait photo. In these cases, you can limit the adjustment to certain parts of the image. In the example shown here, we want to use a Brightness/Contrast adjustment to lighten only the rocks and the tree, while the sky remains unchanged.

1. To achieve this effect, you would activate the


layer mask icon, select the Brush tool with the foreground color set to black, and paint over any parts of the picture that you do not want to be affected by the correction.

2. You would leave any image regions that you


do want to be affected by the adjustment in white.

Ad obe P hotoshop C S6 : Learn by V i d eo

3. If there were areas of the image you wanted


to be only partially affected by the adjustment, you could paint these in gray. Alternatively, you can also select the part of the image you want to be affected by your adjustment prior to creating your adjustment layer. Photoshop will then automatically create the appropriate black-and-white regions in the layer mask when you add the adjustment layer.

Exaggerating the Adjustment


Sometimes it is useful to overdo your adjustment, creating an exaggerated effect that can then be dialed back by reducing the opacity of the adjustment layer. And if you are not satisfied with a correction, you can change it at any time by clicking the relevant adjustment layer in the Layers panel and editing the settings in the Properties panel. All of these changes will leave your original image untouched; even after closing and relaunch ing Photoshop you can continue editing, or you can return to your original image by deactivating or deleting the adjustment layer(s). This is what is known as nondestructive image editing.

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Working with Smart Filters


When you apply a filter directly to an image, you permanently change the image. This is not the case when you apply a filter as a Smart Filter.
Most filters can also be applied to Smart Objects (like vector graphics imported from Illustrator). The great advantage of this technique is that you can still edit the para me ters of a filter after app ly ing it, even after having closed and reopened the file. This is not possible using standard layers and filters, which will irreversibly alter the images strate pixels. The following example will demon the power and flexibility of Smart Filters.

Converting a Layer into a Smart Object


When you apply a filter as a Smart Filter, the effect is nondestructive. This means that you can always go back and make adjustments to the filter, hide it, or remove it, even after saving, closing, or reopening your document.

1. Before starting to work with Smart Filters,


you might want to create a duplicate of the layer you want to apply the filters to. This can be done quickly using the Ctrl/Command+J keyboard shortcut. Now you have added flexibility, because you can reduce the layers opacity later in the process in order to weaken the effects of your filters.

2. To convert the layer into a Smart Object,


simply select the layer that you want to apply the Smart Filter to, go to the Filter menu, and choose Convert For Smart Filters. Alternatively, you can right-click the layer name in the Layers panel to open the context menu and choose Convert to Smart Object. A small symbol ( ) indicates that the layer is now a Smart Object.
Ad obe P hotoshop C S6 : Learn by V i d eo

3. Now you can safely apply a filter, knowing that youre not permanently changing the pixels of the original image. Photoshop provides an abundance of filters that you can use to apply special effects to your images, all of which you can find in the Filter menu.

Using the Filter Gallery


One easy way to apply filters in Photoshop is by using the Filter Gallery, which can be accessed by choosing Filter > Filter Gallery. Keep in mind that not every filter in the Filter menu can be applied in the Filter Gallery. For example, the sharpening filters found in the Sharpen menu, the effects in the Render menu, and the Blur filters in the Blur menu are not available in the Filter Gallery; you have to apply those filters individually instead. When you select a filter in the Filter Gallery, you get a large preview of the filters effect and the options in the right panel change to the relevant options for that filter. Fine-tune your settings for the best effect and click OK. The Smart Filter shows up in the Layers panel, just below the Smart Object layer that youve applied it to. All the filters in the Filter Gallery can be applied one by one, or you can combine them to get some really creative effects. To use multiple filters, click the Create New icon at the bottom of the Layers panel. This creates a duplicate of the active filter, which you can then change to the filter of your choice.

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Editing a Smart Filter


So far, working with Smart Filters is no different from working with standard filters. However, the power of Smart Filters will become apparent as soon as you decide that you dont really like one or more previously assigned filter(s). You can click the eye icon next to a Smart Filter to temporarily deactivate that filter and/or the filter mask at any time. You can also drag the filter to the trash icon to delete it, or you can adjust the filter by simply double-clicking the name of the Smart Filter in the Layers panel. The Filter dialog box with your previous settings opens up, allowing you to adjust the filter by changing its settings.

All the changes you make in the Filter Gallery will be applied nondestructively. In fact, since this layer is now a Smart Object, you can also transform the image without actually harming its pixels.

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Nondestructive Image Sharpening


Most commands for optimizing images are also available as adjustment layers in Photoshop. This enables you to seamlessly adjust your edits, if necessary, or to add a mask to them. This is not the case for the all-important sharpening features, however. But not to worryyou can also apply sharpening as a Smart Filter.
To apply sharpening as a Smart Filter:

1. Open the desired image. 2. Choose Layer > Smart Objects > Convert to
Smart Object or Filter > Convert for Smart Filters.

3. Go to the Layers panel (F7). The thumbnail of


the image layer now displays a special Smart Object icon.

4. Choose Filter > Sharpen > Unsharp Mask


from the menu.

5. Check the Preview checkbox and enter the


desired settings. Dont be afraid to choose high values; you can compensate for this later by reducing the opacity of the layer.

6. Click OK to close the dialog box and apply


the image correction.

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N on d estructive I mage E d iting

You can subsequently alter the sharpening values you entered, just as with an adjustment layer:

1. In the Layers panel, double-click Unsharp


Mask. This will bring up the Unsharp Mask dialog box, where you can adjust your settings and click OK to apply the changes.

2. To weaken the sharpening effect, go to the


Layers panel and click the icon ( ) to the right of Unsharp Mask.

3. Reduce the opacity in the Blending Options


dialog box. The more you reduce it, the more the sharpening effect will fade.

4. Click OK.

To weaken the sharpening effect locally:

1. Activate the Brush tool and choose black as


your foreground color.

2. In the Layers panel, click to activate the mask


of the Smart Filter. Paint any areas you dont want to sharpen black. Or, you can fill the entire Smart Filter mask with black as a first step, and then overpaint areas you want to sharpen using white as the foreground color.

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Adjusting Shadows and Highlights


The Image > Adjustments > Shadows/Highlights command is one of Photoshops best features when it comes to quickly improving the bright and dark portions of a photograph. Unfortunately, it is not available as an adjustment layerbut you can still apply it nondestructively.
To apply a Shadows/Highlights adjustment nondestructively:

1. Open the desired image. 2. Choose Layer > Smart Objects > Convert to
Smart Object.

3. In the Layers panel, you will see that a Smart


Object icon has been added to the layers thumbnail.

4. Choose Image > Adjustments > Shadows/


Highlights.

5. Choose the desired settings and feel free to


exaggerate them a little bit; you can com pensate for this later by reducing the opacity of the layer.

Tip : To see the advanced settings for this


adjustment, check the Show More Options checkbox at the bottom of the Shadows/ Highlights dialog box.

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N on d estructive I mage E d iting

6. Click OK to close the dialog box and assign


your adjustment to the image.

7. If you want to change the adjustments settings afterward, you can simply double-click Shadows/Highlights in the Layers panel.

To make additional adjustments to your Shadows/Highlights Smart Filter, proceed as follows:

1. To reduce the overall effect of the assigned


Shadow/Highlights adjustment, double-click the icon ( ) to the right of the Shadows/ Highlights label in the Layers panel.

2. In the Blending Options dialog box, reduce


the opacity value. The more you reduce this value, the weaker the effect of the Shadows/ Highlights command will be on your image.

Note : For certain purposes you may want


change the blend mode, which you can do via the Mode drop-down menu.

3. Click OK.

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If you only want to weaken the filter in certain areas of the image, go to the Layers panel and click the mask for the Smart Filter to activate it. Choose the Brush tool from the Toolbar, select black as the foreground color, and paint any areas you want to exclude from the effect in black. For smooth transitions, reduce the hardness of your brush tip.

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N on d estructive I mage E d iting

Tips & Tricks

Tips for Working with Rulers, Guides, and the Grid


In this section well look at Photoshops rulers, grids, and guides, which can be very helpful in situations where precise alignment is required. Youll get some valuable tips on setting up and working with these tools.
Determining the Rulers Unit
There are several ways to change the measure ment unit for the rulers. The quickest way is to double-click one of the rulers in the document window (you can show both rulers by selecting View > Rulers). This brings up the Preferences dialog box with the category set to Units & Rulers. Now you can go to the Units section to change the unit of measurement. You can choose among pixels, inches, centimeters, millimeters, points, picas, and percent.

Enabling Snapping
Snapping is a feature that allows you to align layers, shapes, text, etc. with other objects, guides, or the grid. To enable snapping, choose View > Snap To, and make sure the desired items are checked in the submenu that appears. You should now be able to align objects easily and precisely. If youre using the Shape tools to draw accurate shapes for screen and web use, you can enable the Snap To Pixels checkmark under the Shape Options.

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Using the History Panel Feature


Retouching in Photoshop can be tricky. This section looks at using the History panel to gain greater control over your work.
The History Panel
The Undo and Redo buttons are frequently used to undo or redo the most recent image editing steps. Or you can use Ctrl/Command+Z and Ctrl/ Command+Y, which enable you to work even faster. But Photoshop also includes a handy History panel that keeps track of every step youve taken during your editing session. If you decide that you want to return to any earlier version of your work, you can just click that version in the History panel. Note that any steps that were taken after this will be grayed out, but still remain accessible.

Changing History Preferences


By default, Photoshop remembers 20 editing steps. For extensive retouching work that involves many Brush tool clicks, 20 wont be enough. Choose Edit > Preferences > Performance. In the History & Cache section, click the arrow next to History States to access a slider that allows you to adjust the number of recorded history states all the way up to a value of 1000. Please note: The more history states you choose, the more RAM the software will require.

Purging the History


If you are absolutely satisfied with the current state of your image, you can empty your History panel by choosing Edit > Purge > Histories. This means that you can no longer recover your previous editing steps, but more RAM will be available on your computer and Photoshop may speed up if your memory was clogged previously.
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Saving Memory with Adjustment Layers


Photoshop files containing numerous layers can take up a considerable amount of hard disk space and RAM. In this section, youll learn a simple way to reduce your file sizes by using adjustment layers.
Duplicate layers are used quite frequently in Photo shop. For example, to increase the contrast in a photo, you can duplicate the image layer and assign the Overlay or Color Burn blend mode to the duplicate. (If the effect is too crude, you may choose to reduce the layers opacity in the Layers panel.) The only problem with this is that the duplicate layer doubles the pixel count in the document, therefore doubling the size of your PSD file. You can easily solve this problem by using an adjustment layer instead of the duplicate layer:

1. Go to the menu and choose Layer > New


Adjustment Layer. From the submenu that appears, select any type of adjustment layer, for example Levels.

2. Click OK to close the New Layer dialog box.


Do not make any adjustments in the Properties panel.

3. Return to the Layers panel and set the


desired blend mode and opacity value. The result is the same as with the duplicate layer, but the increase in file size is much smaller.

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Enlarging JPEG Images


If you try to print an image that was downloaded from the Internet, you will often find that these images have poor resolution and may include blocky artifacts resul t ing from JPEG compression. If you want to use an image like this for print output, you usually need to severely scale it down to prevent the artifacts from showing.
The following process allows you to double the pixel size of a JPEG image in a way that makes it still printable. Its certainly not going to become crisp and detailed, but at least the artifacts wont be visible.

1. Go to the menu and choose Image > Image


Size.

2. In the Document Size section of the Image


Size dialog box, enter 200% into the Width and Height fields.

3. Check the Resample Image checkbox at the


bottom of the dialog box and make sure the Bicubic Automatic option is selected from the drop-down list below. Click OK to confirm.

4. Go to the menu and choose Filter > Noise >


Despeckle. The image will be softened.

5. Repeat the above steps (except for the


Despeckle filter) to double the image size.

6. Choose Filter > Stylize > Diffuse from the


menu.

7. Select Anisotropic mode from the Diffuse


dialog box and click OK.

8. Go back to the Image Size dialog box and


reduce both image width and height to 50% this time.

9. Choose Enhance > Unsharp Mask from the


menu. Your image is now ready for print output.
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Printing a Hard Proof


The Photoshop Print Settings dialog box contains several options for color manage ment. To make use of these, expand the Color Management area in the right column of the Photoshop Print Settings dialog box and choose your desired settings.
You can print the image using its current color profile by choosing Normal Printing from the pop-up menu. Alternatively, you can print a proof of your document to see how it will look under different output conditions, such as the CMYK mode for offset printing. To do so, choose Hard Proofing from the pop-up menu. The setting you selected under View > Proof Setup will be used as your proof profile. To get the most precise proofs, you might want to check the Simulate Paper Color and Simulate Black Ink checkboxes. In the Color Handling pop-up menu, choose the Photoshop Manages Colors option if you want to use a printer profile for your device. Then you can choose a profile from the Printer Profile pop-up menu below. If you dont have a dedicated profile for your printer, choose the Printer Manages Colors option instead.

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The Photoshop Tool Panel

2 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21

1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

4 Quick Selection Tool and Magic Wand Tool The Quick Selection tool is used for painting a selection with a resizable brush. The Magic Wand tool is used for selecting similarly colored areas in an image. 5 Crop Tool, Perspective Crop Tool, Slice Tool, and Slice Select Tool The Crop tool is used for cropping or trimming images. Use the Perspective Crop Tool to crop images in perspective. The Slice tool allows you to divide an image into multiple sections that are reassembled on a web page. The Slice Select tool is used for selecting and modifying existing slices. 6 Eyedropper Tool, 3D Material Eyedropper Tool, Color Sampler Tool, Ruler Tool, Note Tool, and Count Tool The Eyedropper and Color Sampler tools are used to sample colors in an image. The 3D Material Eyedrop per Tool is used to sample 3D materials already existing in your image. The Ruler tool is used for measuring distances, locations, and angles. The Note tool allows you to attach notes to an image. The Count tool (Photoshop Extended only) is used for counting objects in an image. 7 Spot Healing Brush Tool, Healing Brush Tool, Patch Tool, Content-Aware Move Tool, and Red Eye Tool The Spot Healing Brush tool is used to remove unwanted objects and blemishes. The Healing Brush tool allows you to paint with a sample or pattern to fix imperfections in an image. The Patch tool allows you to fix imperfections in a selected area of an image using a sample or pattern. The Content-Aware Move Tool allows you to move a previously selected image area while automatically adjusting the background . The Red Eye tool is used to remove the red reflection caused by a cameras flash.

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1 Move Tool The Move tool is used for moving selections, layers, and guides. 2 Rectangular Marquee Tool, Elliptical Marquee Tool, Single Row Marquee Tool, and Single Column Marquee Tool The marquee tools are used for making rectangu lar, elliptical, single row, and single column selections. 3 Lasso Tool, Polygonal Lasso Tool, Magnetic Lasso Tool The lasso tools are used for making freehand, polygonal (straight-edged), and magnetic selections.

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The Photoshop Tool Panel

8 Brush Tool, Pencil Tool, Color Replacement Tool, and Mixer Brush Tool The Brush tool is used for painting various brush strokes. The Pencil tool allows you to paint hard-edged strokes. The Color Replacement tool is used to replace a selected color with a new color. The Mixer Brush Tool is used to define multiple colors on a single tip in order to paint with subtle color blends or to blend a photos colors to create a beautiful painting. 9 Clone Stamp Tool and Pattern Stamp Tool The Clone Stamp tool is used for cloning parts of an image or removing unwanted objects. The Pattern Stamp tool is used to paint with part of an image as a pattern. 10 History Brush Tool and Art History Brush Tool The History Brush tool is used to paint a copy of the selected history state or snapshot. The Art History Brush tool lets you paint with stylized strokes that simulate the look of different painting styles, using a selected history state or snapshot. 11 Eraser Tool, Background Eraser Tool, and Magic Eraser Tool The Eraser tool allows you to erase pixels and restore parts of an image to a previously saved history state. The Background Eraser tool allows you to erase areas of an image to transparency. The Magic Eraser tool allows you to erase solid areas of an image to transparency with a single click. 12 Gradient Tool, Paint Bucket Tool, and 3D Material Drop Tool The Gradient tool is used to create blends between colors. The Paint Bucket tool allows you to fill similarly colored areas with the current foreground color. The 3D Material Drop tool is used to drop a loaded material to another part of a model, another 3D mesh, or another 3D layer. 13 Blur Tool, Sharpen Tool, and Smudge Tool The Blur tool allows you to soften hard edges and reduce detail in specific areas of an image. The Sharpen tool sharpens specific areas of an image. The Smudge tool simulates the effect you see when you drag your finger through wet paint.

14 Dodge Tool, Burn Tool, and Sponge Tool The Dodge tool makes areas of an image lighter. The Burn tool makes areas of an image darker. The Sponge tool can either saturate or desaturate the colors in an image. 15 Pen and Anchor Point Tools These tools are used for drawing smooth-edged paths and shapes. They are also used to edit existing paths. 16 Horizontal and Vertical Type Tools, Horizontal and Vertical Type Mask Tools The type tools are used for creating horizontal and vertical type on an image. The type mask tools are used to create a selection in the shape of type. 17 Path Selection Tool and Direct Selection Tool The Path Selection and Direct Selection tools are used for selecting, moving, and modifying the shape of vector paths. 18 Shape Tools, Line Tool, and Custom Shape Tool The Shape tools and Line tool are used for drawing different shapes and lines in either a normal layer or a shape layer. The Custom Shape tool allows you to create custom shapes. 19 Hand Tool, Rotate View Tool The Hand tool is used for moving an image around within the document window. The Rotate View tool allows you to nondestructively rotate the canvas. 20 Zoom Tool The Zoom tool is used to magnify and reduce the view of an image. 21 Foreground and Background Color Boxes The current foreground color appears in the upper color box and the current background color appears in the lower box. The color boxes also allow you to change the fore ground and background colors. 22 Quick Mask Mode Quick Mask mode allows you to create a temporary mask, which becomes a selection when you exit Quick Mask mode. Its often used for finetuning an existing selection.

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T he P hotoshop Tool Panel

Glossary

Glossary

Absolute Colorimetric rendering This rende r ing intent reproduces in-gamut colors exactly and clips out-of-gamut colors to the nearest reproducible hue, sacrificing saturation and possibly lightness. See also rendering intents. Additive Color Mixing A reproduction process that mixes red, green, and blue light emitted from a source to produce a wide range of colors. See also subtractive color. Alpha Channel Image information that defines which parts of the image will be transparent or semitransparent. Applications like Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, Premiere Pro, and After Effects support alpha channels. Anti-Aliasing A pixel-processing technolo gy that eliminates or softens the jaggedness of low-resolution curved edges. For the Photoshop selection tools, the Options bar contains an Anti-alias checkbox to help you create smooth selection border contours. This will prevent your selection from looking jagged or pixelated. The Anti-alias option is very useful for photomon tages, image corrections, and so on. Make sure to keep it always on in those cases and for any selection tool you might be using; however, for selecting line art, screenshot areas, etc., this option should be switched off. See also feathering. Artifacts Color faults or line faults that have a negative visual impact on the image. Artifacts are often the result of excessive image compression. Audience Who is your audience? Always keep in mind that your images may be seen by a wide audience. Dont assume a common cultural background, social class, education, or native language. Therefore, you should also analyze the

target audience and define their gender, age, ethnic background, education, buying behavior, and personal preferences. Find out what maga zines your target audience reads and what TV shows it watches. Your design should not only look good, it should also match the target audience as closely as possible in terms of layout, color scheme, fonts, and visual language. This is a prerequisite for successful and efficient communication. Bit (Binary Digit) The smallest unit of information in a computer. Bits can have only two values: 0 or 1. Bitmap A digital image file that uses spatially arranged pixels to store the image information. Sometimes, the term bitmap implies a color depth of one bit per pixel only, resulting in a two-color image. Black Point The darkest point in a color space. Black points in RGB color spaces usually describe a perfect black (lightness 0). In print, the darkest possible color value will never be completely black. Therefore, black points in printer color spaces are always brighter than a perfect black. Blur The process of adding fuzziness to or de creasing the focus of an image or a certain image region for a softer appearance or to camouflage a defect. Brush Tool With the Brush tool, you can select from a variety of different brush tips in order to create your artwork. You can also modify the preset settings for diameter, shape, spacing, roundness, hardness, angle, drawing mode, opacity, and more.

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G lossary

Channel A component of a digital image that carries information for one color parameter of the color mode used (RGB, CMYK, HSB, or LAB). The combination of all channels yields a fullcolor composite image. CMM (Color management Module) The core software component of a color management system. CMS (Color Management System) A program that helps to match the color of input and output devices throughout the workflow in order to produce predictable results. CMYK Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black: The process colors used in four-color printing. See also subtractive color. Color Conversion The process of changing the color mode of an image. See also conversion options. Color Correction The process of modifying the color of the pixels in a digital image in an effort to improve the appearance of the image or to correct obvious defects. Color Depth A measure of how many colors can be in a pixel of an image. Also called bit depth. 1 bit equals two colors (21), 8-bit color equals 256 colors (28), and so on. One pixel of an RGB image, which is represented by three 8-bit color channels, has over 16 million possible color values (28 red channel x 28 green channel x 28 blue channel). RGB images using 8 bits per color channel are sometimes referred to as 24-bit im ages (8 bits per channel x 3 channels = 24 bits). Color Gamut The range of colors that can be reproduced by all possible combinations of a

given systems colorants, such as the colors that can be reproduced using process colors in commercial printing. Color Management Policies Color management policies specify how Photoshop handles files that are not in the preferred working space. Each color space has its own policy. Photoshop offers three choices. Off ignores any embedded color profile, and the colors of the image are not converted to the working space. This is therefore a risky choice that should only be applied on rare occasions. Preserve Embedded Profiles preserves any color profile saved along with the image. Convert to Working (color space) forces Photoshop to take your custom RGB and CMYK profiles into account. In most cases, it is advisable to convert RGB and CMYK images to your working profile. However, this does not always apply. For an image that is modified on different computers and then finalized on the first com puter, it makes sense to preserve the embedded profile. The checkboxes in the color management policies give you the option to choose whether or not you will be prompted when a color conversion is required. Color Model A mathematical model for the description of color, such as RGB, LAB, or CMYK. Color Separation The process of transform ing color artwork into components that correspond to separate color channels, such as process colors or spot colors, or a combination of the two. Each ink color is reproduced as a unique piece of film or printing plate. Color spaces Color spaces are abstract formations. Colors can be described very well

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Glossary

using three numeric values. Each visible color is assigned a distinct position in terms of coordinates. The total of all possible colors inside a given color system (like RGB or CMYK) adds up to a virtual shape inside this coordinate system; this shape is called a color space. Reproduction media like computer screens cannot display all visible colors. Printing or photographic reproduction technologies also have various intrinsic limitations of color reproduction. If colors are to be reproduced, which means they are transported from one medium to another, you need to know the color limitations of the different media. This is exactly what color spaces and gamuts are all about: They are mathematical descriptions of the total number of displayable colors. Color spaces are vital components of the information being saved in color profiles. Commercial Printing Printing processes include offset lithography, flexography, gravure, and screen printing. Offset printing is the most widely used commercial printing process. Compression The process of reducing file size using various mathematical algorithms. Depending on the technology, compression can be lossless or lossy, with the latter resulting in a loss of image quality and/or resolution. Continuous Tone An image that contains continuous shades of color or gray tones, such as a photograph. Contrast The relationship and degree of difference in color and light between parts of an image. Conversion Options These options are set in the Color Settings dialog box. The Engine option tells Photoshop what software will handle the

conversion, while the Rendering Intent controls how the colors are converted from one color space to another. Copyright A form of intellectual property. Permits the creator of an original work to prevent its use without express permission or acknowledge ment of the originator. Copyrights may be sold, transferred, or surrendered contractually. Depth of Field The portion of a scene that appears sharp in a photograph. Only one distance can be precisely in focus, and the decrease in sharpness is gradual. The depth of field also describes the range of distance still perceived as being sharp. Dot Gain The growth of a halftone dot that occurs because of ink spreading across the paper as it is soaked in. Dot gain varies with paper type. Failure to compensate for this effect can result in very poor results during printing. DPI (Dots Per Inch) A measurement unit for the resolution of page printers, phototypesetting machines, and graphics screens. Drop Shadow A duplicate of a graphic element or type that is placed behind and slightly offset from the original element, creating the effect that the object is raised above the objects behind it. Dynamic Range The range between the light est and darkest area of an image. Also used to describe the limits of luminance range that a digital camera, scanner, or film can capture. Exposure The total amount of light that a photographer allows to fall on the film or sensor when capturing an image.

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Feathering An editing technique that softens the edges of a selection by adding a shift zone of variable width. Collages and photo compositions frequently require such soft selections to allow for a gradual transition between selected and unselected areas. This effect can be achieved by using the Feather input field in the Options bar of most selection tools in Photoshop. Enter a pixel value defining the selection border sharpness; the higher the pixel value, the less sharp the border will be. See also anti-aliasing. Filter In Photoshop, a routine that contains algorithms to modify digital images by changing the values or arrangement of specified image areas. Focal Length The distance from the optical center of a lens to the focal point that is located on the sensor or film if the subject is in focus. The focal length also determines the field of view of a given lens. Font The complete character set (numbers, uppercase and lowercase letters, and, in some cases, small caps and symbols) of a particular typeface in a specific style, such as Verdana Bold. Gamma In digital imaging, gamma refers to the encoding of linear brightness values captured by a device (such as a camera) to match the contrast and brightness of human perception. Gamut See color gamut. Grayscale An image composed exclusively of shades of gray, varying from black of the weakest intensity to white of the strongest, usually using 256 different tones.

Grid A useful alignment tool in Photoshop. To enable the grid, choose View > Show > Grid. To be able to align objects perfectly along the grid lines and subdivisions, choose View > Snap to > Grid. If you want to change the units used for divisions and subdivisions and the color of the grid, go to Preferences > Guides, Grid & Slices. HDR image When you create an HDR (high dynamic range) image in Photoshop, you need a series of images of the same subject taken at various shutter speeds (this is called bracketed exposure). Each of these individual images will contribute its specific shadow, midtone, or highlight details to the finished HDR file, capturing the entire dynamic range in one single image. You can output the composite image as a 32-, 16-, or 8-bit file. However, only a 32-bit file will be able to hold and save the complete HDR image data. Highlights The lightest areas in an image. Histogram A bar graph representation of the tonal values (brightness or color) in an image based on the frequency of occurrence of each value. JPEG A lossy compression algorithm that reduces the file size of digital images. Image quality is reduced in direct proportion to the amount of compression. Typically, about 10:1 compression is possible with little perceptible loss in image quality. Layer A function of graphics software in which elements are isolated from each other so they can be hidden, reordered, or otherwise manipulated without affecting other elements in the composition.

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Glossary

Masking A technique used to hide certain areas of an image or design or to exempt them from manipulations. Midtones The tonal range between highlights and shadows. Neutral Any color absent of hue, or having the same value in all three RGB channels, such as white, gray, or black. Out-of-Gamut color Color that cannot be reproduced by a specific color model. For example, some RGB colors fall outside the CMYK gamut. Perceptual rendering This rendering intent attempts to compress the gamut of the source space into the gamut of the target space. Typically, perceptual rendering desaturates all colors to bring the out-of-gamut colors into the target gamut while more or less maintaining the overall relationship between colors. This helps preserve the appearance of images. See also rendering intents. Pixel Picture element: the smallest unit of information in a digital image. Pixels are usually arranged in a two-dimensional grid. Depending on the output device, they are often represented using squares or dots. Pixel Aspect Ratio When preparing images for video use, issues like color spaces or image re so lution are subordinate; its much more impor t ant how the finished product will look like on a common TV screen. DV material is based on rectangular pixels. When you open an image with non-square pixels in Photoshop, it will be displayed using pixel aspect ratio correction by default, scaling the image in a way that makes

it look as it will appear on the video screen. If desired, you can change this behavior by deactivating the View > Pixel Aspect Ratio Correction option; then your images will be shown in their actual proportions. If you want to create images for video productions, you can determine a suitable pixel aspect ratio in the File > New dialog box: From the Preset pop-up menu, choose the Film & Video option, then proceed to the Size pop-up menu and choose the desired image dimensions. In the bottom part of the dialog box, the correct pixel aspect ratio will then automatically be filled in. Process Colors The four semitransparent inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) used in fourcolor process printing to reproduce a full range of colors using halftone dots. See also color separation, CMYK. Relative colorimetric rendering This ren dering intent is similar to absolute colorimetric rendering. The difference is that relative colori metric scales the white point of the source to the white point of the target. Like absolute colorimetric rendering, it clips out-of-gamut colors to the nearest reproducible hue. See also rendering intents, absolute colorimetric rendering. Rendering INtents Rendering intents are methods for converting colors from one color space to another. The rendering intent defines how out-of-gamut colors are mapped (or not) to colors that exist in the destination color space. The ICC profile specification defines four different rendering intents: absolute colorimetric rendering, relative colorimetric rendering, perceptual rendering, and saturation rendering. See also absolute colorimetric rendering, perceptual

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G lossary

rendering, relative colorimetric rendering, and saturation rendering. Resampling Recalculating the pixels of an image to change the physical size of the file. Resolution The detail level of an image described as density of graphic information in dots per inch (dpi) or pixels per inch (ppi). Retouching The process of making selective manual or electronic corrections to images. RGB An additive color model that uses red, green, and blue as primary colors to describe the RGB color space, which is a subset of the visual color spectrum. RGB values are numeric triples (red, green, and blue) representing how much of each primary color is used to describe a specific color in the RGB color space. Please note: RGB values do not describe colors device-independently without color management. Saturation The intensity or purity of a specific color; a completely desaturated color is gray. Saturation Rendering This rendering intent maps the saturated primary colors in the source space to the saturated primary colors in the target space. It does not address differences in hue, saturation, or lightness. This rendering intent is designed for rendering business graphics where you want vivid colors and arent particularly concerned about exactly what those colors are. See also rendering intents. Sharpness The subjective density difference between two tones at their boundary, interpreted as fineness of detail.

Subtractive Color Color that is observed when light strikes pigments or dyes, caused by the mixture absorbing certain wavelengths of light and reflecting others. The light that is reflected back is perceived as a color. See also CMYK, process colors. Transparency The quality of an image ele ment with an opacity value below 100 percent that allows parts of background elements or entire elements to show through. Unsharp Masking A digital image manipulation technique that increases the acutance, or apparent sharpness, of photographic images. It locates the edge between sections of differing lightness and exaggerates the difference across that edge, thereby increasing the edge contrast. Vector Graphics Graphics consisting of co ordinate points and mathematically drawn lines and curves rather than discrete pixels. Vector graphics can be freely scaled and rotated without image degradation. Its also very easy to edit vector graphics. With the Direct Selection tool, you can access the individual points that make up the objects path and click and drag the handles to reshape the object. Vector Mask A mask that hides or displays a distinct shape on a layer based on a path. See also masking. White Space The blank area between written characters or graphic regions. Proper use of white space is critical to a well-balanced design.

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Titles
Adobe Photoshop CS6: Learn by Video: Core Training in Visual Communication ISBN: 9780321840714 Adobe Illustrator CS6: Learn by Video ISBN: 9780321840684 Adobe InDesign CS6: Learn by Video ISBN: 9780321840691 Adobe Flash Professional CS6: Learn by Video: Core Training in Rich Media Communication ISBN: 9780321840707 Adobe Dreamweaver CS6: Learn by Video: Core Training in Web Communication ISBN: 9780321840370 Adobe Premiere Pro CS6: Learn by Video: Core Training in Video Communication ISBN: 9780321840721 Adobe After Effects CS6: Learn by Video ISBN: 9780321840387

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