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W. M.

Lindsay, Syntax of Plautus

Preface. A Summary of Plautine Syntax will, I hope, be of use not merely to readers of Plautus, but to all who are interested in Latin Grammar. These Comedies are the earliest remains of Roman Literature, and they re eal to us the obs!ure be"innin"s of many a !onstru!tion whi!h is fully de eloped in !lassi!al Latin. #or example, the !lassi!al use of the Supine, of quominus, and of other words !an be understood only with the help of Plautine Latin $see below, I. %&. A Summary !annot a!hie e !ompleteness in !atalo"uin" instan!es, in dis!ussin" doubtful readin"s or !onstru!tions, in pursuin" minor details and o!!asional arieties. 'ut some !ompensation for these omissions will be found in the biblio"raphi!al referen!es( for e er sin!e Rits!hl brou"ht the study of Plautus into fashion, there has been a steady stream of mono"raphs% on spe!ial points of Plautine Syntax. The Syntax of Teren!e and the early Latin Poets has been in!luded as far as was pra!ti!able. #or the Republi!an Prose)writers and Ins!riptions, the student should !onsult the brief but useful a!!ount "i en by Altenbur" in an offprint from #le!*eisen+s Jahrbcher der classischen Philologie $Suppl. ,,I-&, entitled de Sermone Pedestri Italorum Vetustissimo, Leip.i" $Teubner&, %/0/( and he will find some interestin" parallels from the other an!ient diale!ts of Italy in C. 'u!*+s Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian $'oston, %012&. The only existin" wor* whi!h deals with 3arly Latin Syntax as a whole, 4olt.e Syntaxis priscorum scriptorum latinorum usque ad erentium, Leip.i", %/5%, was !ompiled at a time before the text of the early authors had been properly restored. 6f the lon")promised !istorische Grammati" der lateinischen Sprache, edited by a "roup of German s!holars, only the first olume $Leip.i", Teubner, %017& has appeared as yet $see below, -. %&. 8p. %9

:here a re!ent mono"raph !ontains mention of earlier writin"s on the same sub;e!t, I ha e not thou"ht it ne!essary to refer to them. In other respe!ts too, utility and bre ity, rather than !ompleteness, are !onsulted in my biblio"raphi!al noti!es. :hen the example of this or that !onstru!tion is ta*en from a play of whi!h there is an annotated edition, additional examples will often be found in the editor+s note on the line !ited.

I. Colloquialisms. The Concords. The rules of Latin Syntax whi!h pre ailed in the !lassi!al period, e.". that quamquam and temporal quom "o ern the Indi!ati e, quam#is and !ausal quom the Sub;un!ti e, so often fail us in readin" Plautus, that Plautine Latin at first si"ht appears to be re"ardless of rules. This appearan!e is partly due to the fa!t that Latin Syntax obeys the <arwinian law of the =sur i al of the fittest.> 6ut of a "reat ariety of !onstru!tions possible in the time of Plautus, only one or two fa oured types ha e sur i ed to the !lassi!al period. :hile Plautus, for example, puts the -erbal ?oun in $tus to a ariety of uses, e.". spectatum eo% spectatu redeo% pulcher spectatui% facile factu% et!., two of these, spectatum eo and facile factu% sur i ed the stru""le for existen!e and be!ame the #irst and the Se!ond Supine. A"ain we find in early writers quo Ablati e ?euter used with magis in affirmati e, with minus in ne"ati e sense, and a!!ompanied by the Indi!ati e when a fa!t is stated, by the Sub;un!ti e when an intention, e.".

Ter. Phorm. /@@ immo etiam dabo Auo ma"is !redas, 3un. @7@ Auo intellexi minus, Andr. %0@ falla!iae . . . Auo $nuptiae& fiant minus.

6ut of all this ariety emer"es in !lassi!al Latin the !on;un!tion quominus "o ernin" the Sub;un!ti e and asso!iated with -erbs of hinderin". It is partly due also to the !olloAuial !hara!ter of Plautine Latin( and before ta*in" up the details of Plautine Syntax, it will be well to !onsider how far !olloAuialisms interfere with a stri!tly "rammati!al expression in his plays.

II. The Cases of the Noun. The Latin of Plautus+ time stands at a sta"e between the ery early period, when the use of Prepositions to "i e for!e and pre!ision to the meanin" of the Cases was not mu!h in e iden!e, and the !lassi!al period( ;ust as !lassi!al Latin itself stands at an earlier sta"e than the en!roa!hment of the Prepositions e en on su!h !ases as the Geniti e and <ati e.% The primiti e expression, e.". salio monte =leap from the mountain,> be!ame first desilio monte% and finally salio &desilio' de monte( Plautine Latin may be said to be !oin!ident with the transition from the se!ond to the third type of expression. #or its un!lassi!al uses of a prepositionless !ase are usually found after a Compound -erb, e.".

Amph. B1@ abituros a"ro, Cas. 71@ "ladium in!umbam(

althou"h we find a few sur i als of the primiti e type, espe!ially stereotyped phrases li*e foro 8p. %%9 fu"iunt Pers. 27C , saxo saliat Trin. B5C , i malam crucem &rem' beside i in malam crucem &rem' ="o and be han"ed,> as in le"al Latin the stereotyped phrase tribu mo#ere sur i ed lon" after Plautus+ time, and in both !olloAuial and literary Latin the Auasi)ad erbial rus ire% domo ire% et!.B In#ado% used of a disease, ta*es the A!!usati e $Trin. B/, Asin. CC&, otherwise in and A!!usati e $'a!!h. @%%, Asin. 01/, 3pid. 5@1&. Dust as the meanin" of a Case was e*ed out by the addition of a !o"nate Preposition, salio de monte% salio ex monte $or desilio% exsilio&, et!., so was the meanin" of an Ad erb. Plautine Latin is ri!h in Ad erbial !ompounds li*e in$ibi% inter$ibi% et!., e.". Pers. %BC marsuppium habeat, inibi &) in eo' paulum praesidi, Pers. %5C interibi &) inter eas res' e"o puerum olo mittere ad ami!am meam.

The "erms of this appear at an early sta"e, e.".

Cato A"r. Cult. %C/ addito de perna frustum, @1, B, de ea potione uni!uiAue bo i dato( !f. Pseud. %%52 dimidium de praeda, Capt. %1%0 $see below, on ad Preposition&.

The Auasi)ad erbial nature of these words e en in Plautus+ time is seen from his use of a Preposition when an attribute is employed, e.". in domo ista! Cur!. B1/ , in patriam domum Sti!h. C1@ , ad alienam domum Rud. %%5 , so that in 3nnius tra". B/% -., domum paternamne anne ad Peliae filias, it may be ri"ht to !onstrue ad apo *oinou. :hen the attribute is a Poss. Pronoun, the usa"e aries, e.".

domi nostrae Een. 7C0 , Eost. /@2, Poen. /7/, but in nostra domo Cas. 5B1 , Pseud. /2 $!f. Tru!. B5B nostrae domi P% in nostra domo *&( domos abeamus nostras Poen. /%2 , but in nostram domum Amph. 210 , Capt. 0%%, Trin. 7/B. $The readin" ab domo is doubtful in Aul. %1C, 3pid. 5/%( !f. Sti!h. CB7&.

6f !ourse proxuma #icinia =next door> $!f. C2& and mala crux are rather word"roups than ?ouns Aualified by an Attribute.

III. The Adjective. Dust as an Ad;e!ti e may play the part of a ?oun, e.". boni ="ood men,> bonum =a "ood thin"> $!f. proxumum =next door,> e.". Asin. C2( Rud. @5@ Auin inhumanum exuras tibi =!auteri.e your inhumanity>&, so a ?oun o!!asionally plays the part of an Ad;e!ti e. Instan!es from Plautine Latin are

turbo #entus =whirlwind,> lapis silex =flintstone,> Phil+ppus nummus $but PhilFppeus Poen. @%2 ( 8p. 7/9 !f. Poen. @/%&, Eost. %120 ut senatum !on"erronem &$num% ,-' !on o!em, Poen. C27 obse!ro her!le, operam !elo!em han! mihi, ne !orbitam date =express) boat ser i!e, not lu""er ser i!e.>

6f the eAui alen!e of an Ad;e!ti e to the Geniti e Case of a ?oun the !ommon phrase erilis filius =our youn" master> may ser e as example. An Ad;e!ti e plays the part of an Ad erb in lines li*e Een. %C2 dies Auidem iam ad umbili!um est dimidiatus mortuus. 'esides in#itus $e.". Eil. 220 i atAue in itam in"ratiis G rapiam te domum, Aul. %15 in itus abeo&, we often find totus% miser% di#orsus% citus used Ad erbially, e.".

Aul. 2%1 totus doleo atAue oppido perii, 'a!!h. B1/ misera amans desiderat, Poen. 75/ dis!ru!ior miser $misere is Terentian but hardly Plautine in su!h phrases( S;H"ren =de part. !op>., p. 51 !ites Aul. %2, 7%C&, Rud. %BCB sed Auom inde suam AuisAue ibant di orsi domum, Tru!. @/@ di orsae state =stand apart,> Amph. %%%C !itus e !unis exilit, et!.

Ad;e!ti e and Ad erb are often found side by side, e.". Capt. 051 re!te et era loAuere $!f. Ter. Adelph. 510&, Trin. B5/ sunt tamen Auos miseros maleAue habeas, 'a!!h. 2@2 tu Pisto!lerum falso atAue insontem ar"uis. $#or other examples see S;H"ren =de part. !opulat.>, p. C/.& 6n the use of the Pronoun Ad;e!ti e for a Con;un!tion, nullus for non% e.". Asin. 21/ is nullus enit, =he did not turn up,> see I-. B/ The Ad;e!ti e #arius plays the part of a Perfe!t Parti!iple Passi e #ariatus in Eil. B%5 nisi Auidem hi! a"itare ma is arius ir"is i"ilias.

I . The Pronoun. Personal. $:. IaempfJ de pronominum personalium usu et collocatione apud poetas scaenicos .omanorum. 'erlin, %//5.& The pleonasti! stren"thenin" of Pronouns $see below, 7& is a feature of lan"ua"e, espe!ially of !olloAuial lan"ua"e, as in 3n"lish =this here man> =my ery own self.> :e see it in the emphati! forms of the Pers. Pronoun egomet% tute% where $m/t and $t/ are mere repetitions of the % Pronoun stem and the B Pronoun stem, e.". Eost. 750 A. tutin idistiK '. e"omet, inAuam. These forms are espe!ially used in the phrases egomet mihi $or me& and tute tibi $or te&, for whi!h we find also ego mihi and tu tibi( The redupli!ated sese is the emphati! form of the Reflexi e se( In the normal ipsus $not $se& sibi $or se& we ha e a parallel to egomet mihi% tute tibi% e.".

Trin. 7B% Aui ipsus sibi satis pla!et . . Aui ipsus se !ontemnit $!f. Rud. @71 tu ipsus te ut non no eris&.

6n the !olloAuial use of hic $homo, et!.& for ego% see below, %7 and on the o!!asional !areless use of is for the Reflexi e $and i!e ersa&, %C. Vos seems $but, I thin*, only seems& to be used for 8p. 2%9 tu in

Eil. /5B &0urcio to Palaestrio'ne dixeritis obse!ro hui! ostram fidem, Eost. 5B &Grumio to ranio'er um daturin estis, bubus Auod feramK, Pers. C1% salutem di!it Toxilo Timar!hides et familiae omni( si aletis, "audeo.

In his note on Ter. Adelph. @@2 in pe!!ato maxumo Auod ix sedatum satis est potastis, s!elus, <onatus remar*sJ oratorie =potastis> di!it, !um unum ebrium !ernat. $Cf. Tru!. 21%, 0C7, Ter. 4e!. B57( in Sti!h. BCC, Tru!. 7C/, Poen. %7@B, Pseud. %B%@, et!., the two families of ESS. offer B Sin"ular and B Plural respe!ti ely.&

. The er!. $-ol. III. of the new !istorische Grammati" der lateinischen Sprache $Leip.i", %017&, edited by a "roup of German S!holars, !ontains an a!!ount of the Latin -erb, its Classes, its Tenses, and its Eoods, with full details of Plautine usa"es.& The history of the Itali! -erb is full of diffi!ulty. The Passi e in $r it shares with some other Indo)3uropean lan"ua"es( and from a !onsideration of these, as well as of the Itali! <iale!ts, it would seem that this Passi e was ori"inally an Impersonal "o ernin" an A!!usati e Case. The Latin Passi e, as far ba!* as we !an tra!e it, has Person) endin"s, and therefore must ha e followed that tenden!y whi!h appears in the o!!asional !han"e of an Impersonal to a Personal -erb in 3arly Latin $!f. Pris!ian %, pp. 27B, C5% 4.&, e.".

Aul. 20% Auo lubeant, nubant, Trin. B%% dum illud Auod lubeant, s!iant, Sti!h. C% &post Plautine1'et me Auidem hae! !ondi!io nun! non paenitet, Ter. Andr. 2/% Auae adsolent AuaeAue oportent, Adelph. @C2 non te hae! pudentK, Pa!u ius 7% paenitebunt,

and also in the !urious phrase, Rud. %B2% mihi istae! idetur praeda praedatum irier $see below, 2%&. Li*e me #eretur for !lassi!al Latin #ereor $see abo e, II. /& is mihi dolet% for doleo $see my note on Capt. 0B/& e.". Een. 270 mihi dolebit, non tibi, siAuid e"o stulte fe!ero, Ter. Phorm. %5B. 'ut we see in Plautus a mar*ed predile!tion 8p. C79 for the 7 Sin"ular Passi e used impersonally, e.". caletur $always in spea*in" of hot weather, while calet means =this or that thin" is hot>&( Pseud. B@7 A. Auid a"itur, CalidoreK '. amatur atAue e"etur a!riter, Pseud. 2C@ A. Auid a"iturK '. statur hi! ad hun! modum $!f. Ter. 3un. B@1&, Pers. %@ A. Auid a"iturK '. i itur, Pers. 7/5 non tu nun! hominum mores ides, Auoiusmodi hi! !um mala fama fa!ile nubiturK, Pers. 22/ dum stas, reditum oportuit, Ter. 4e!. 2C@ !reditur =I belie e you,> and the !ommon phrase facere certumst =I ha e de!ided to do it(> and this may be, in a way, a sur i al of the old Impersonal sta"e. :hether we find also sur i al of the primiti e !onstru!tion, the "o ernment of an A!!usati e Case by this 7 Sin"ular Passi e is not !ertain. I thin* that we do in lines li*e Cas. %/C pessumis me modis despi!atur domi $despicatur is Passi e of despico2 !f. . %/0&, Eil. B2 epityra estur insanum bene, Eil. BC2K indu!amus era ut esse !redat Auae mentibitur, Pseud. /%@ teritur sinapis s!elera, Pseud. %B5% ubi mammia mammi!ulL opprimitur, 3nnius tra". %11 R. in!erte errat animus, praeterpropter itam &alii3 $ta' i itur =life is li ed !asually.> $6n #itam #i#ere% see II. 7C&

The intermixture of A!ti e and Passi e Infiniti e in a passa"e li*e Eost. 0C0 is thorou"hly PlautineJ triduom unum est haud intermissum hi! esse et bibi, s!orta du!i, per"rae!ari, fidi!inas, tibi!inas du!ere.

I. The Adver!. $P. GehlhardtJ de *d#erbiis ad notionem augendam a Plauto usurpatis, 4alle, %/0BJ with it read Seyffert+s re iew in 'ursian+s Dahresberi!ht, %/0C, p. B02.& The use of Ad erbs with esse is a well)*nown feature of !olloAuial Latin. ?otable examples are

Eer!. C/7 pul!hre ut simus, Tru!. %@B lon"e aliter est ami!us atAue amator, Ter. Phorm. CB0 hi! me huiusmodi s!ibat esse, e"o hun! esse aliter !redidiJ iste me fefellit, e"o isti nihilo sum aliter a! fui $!f. Pers. /7/ sed ita pars libertinorum est, Trin. 25 si ita es ut e"o te olo, sin aliter es&, A!!ius %B1 Auoniam horum aeAuiter sententiae fuere( also the !ommon phrase frustr4 esse% e.". Capt. /C2 ne frustra sis =ma*e no mista*e about it,> =be assured of that.>

It is most freAuently Impersonal, e.". bene est% $passim&, Cist. C0 male mihi est, 8p. /19 Een. 5B5 Auid tibi ae"re estK, Asin. %22 nun! Auom est melius =now thin"s are better,> 'a!!h. %%/% i ha! me!um intro, ubi tibi sit lepide i!tibus, ino atAue un"uentis. The differen!e of pulchre sum and pulchre est mihi may find its true parallel in the !han"e from an Impersonal to a Personal use of a -erb, e.". doleo for dolet mihi, lubent for lubet illis $see -. %&. 6r the ori"in of the !onstru!tion may be the identity of sense in esse and se habere( for with se habere the Ad erb is appropriate, e.". Poen. B7C nam Auom sedulo munditer nos habemus $!f. I. 2&. :e find a !ombination of Ad;e!ti e and Ad erb in lines li*e Capt. B@% proxumum Auod sit bono AuodAue a malo lon"issimeB $!ompare 3pid. 210, plane her!le ho! Auidem est, with Capt. C52, et!., pol planum id Auidem est( and see abo e, III. %&. The same use of the Ad erb is found with fio and facio% e.". Eil. %72/ ne ho! tandem propalam fiat nimis, Capt. @C2 Aui mihi ho! fe!it palam.

Optume est% e.". Capt. %1, is Superlati e of bene est% whereas optumum est means =it is the best !ourse to ta*e,> et!., e.". Capt. CC@ !on!edi optumum est =retreat is ad isable.>

#or examples of longe esse% see Redslob in ,erliner Philologische 5ochenschrift %/, /%5.

II. The Pre"osition. $PradelJ de praepositionum in prisca 0atinitate #i atque usu( Part i, Leip.i", %01%.& The "enesis of Prepositions from Ad erbs may be illustrated from lines li*e Cas. @57 omnes festinant intus totis aedibus, Eost. C05 an metuis ne Auo abeat foras urbe exsulatumK, where the meanin", already expressed by the Case)forms aedibus =in the house,> urbe =from the !ity,> is made definite by the addition of the Ad erbs intus and foras( These Ad erbs at a mu!h later time !ame to be used as Prepositions. The independent existen!e of Prepositions in Compound -erbs, 8p. /B9 e.". supplico% whi!h is seen in 6ld Latin Tmesis% , e.". sub #os placo for supplico #os $!f. Trin. /77 distraxissent disAue tulissent&, lea es a tra!e of itself in Plautus in the retention of the bare Ablati e $or A!!usati e& without a Preposition after Compound -erbs li*e abeo $or accedo& $see II. %&. It is seen, too, in the !ollo!ation of the words in lines li*e

Sti!h. 2C7 ite ha! se!undum os me, Cas. /%C sensim super attolle limen pedes, no a nupta $where some editors read supera% i.e. supra&

and in lines li*e Eer!. /B% uxor irum si !lam domo e"ressast foras, Cist. 5@@ lo!a hae! !ir!iter ex!idit mi. Possibly also in, e.". amicum erga $Trin. %%B5, %%B/, et!.&, me ad#orsum $Poen. 211, et!.&. 'ut the Postpositon of Prepositions is a feature of all the Itali! lan"ua"es, and must date from a ery early time. In !lassi!al Latin it sur i es in quocum% mecum% quamobrem% et!. In Plautus postposition with the Interro". Pronoun is normal, with the Relati e ery freAuent, e.". Eil. %12@ Aua ab illarumK, Asin. 70@ Aui &Instrumental$*blati#e' pro istu!K, Eer!. @CB Auos inter iudex datu+s, Ter. 3un. C2B Auo in lo!o di!tumst, parati nihil est( Lu!ilius %/B Ea. Auando in eo numero mansi, Auo in maxima non est pars hominum, Lu!ilius %7B@ AuMs in ersamur. :e find also, e.". Capt. 215 rebus in dubiis, Eost. 71 iu entute ex omni, Ter. 4e!. 2@7 ni te ex ipsN hae! ma"is elim res!is!ere. In Sti!h. @% "ratiam per &a patre P' si petimus, the readin" is not Auite !ertain( more so in Amph. B7/ sed fu"am in se tamen nemo !on ortitur =but howe er no one turns himself to fli"ht.>

$#or fuller details see Studemund in Verhandlungen der philolog( Versammlung in 6arlsruhe. Leip.i", %//7, pp. 20, C@, C/( <e"erin"J ,eitr7ge 8u hist( Syntax. 3rlan"en, %/07.&

Tmesis appears with other word)"roups too, e.". with sis or si #is =please,> Asin. 7C2 si erum is <emaenetum, Auem e"o no i, addu!e. 6n at$qui% postquam% et!., see the next !hapter.

III. The Conjunction. In the Indo)3uropean senten!e an en!liti! word too*, as a rule, the se!ond pla!e. This is therefore the natural pla!e for 3n!liti! Con;un!tions li*e autem% quoque% althou"h metri!al or other !onsiderations o!!asionally interfere in lines li*e

Cas. B/ se!undum ludos reddunt autem nemini, Pseud. 50B eu"aeO par pari aliud autem Auod !upiebam !onti"it. Cf. Pseud. %/2 eo os ostros panti!esAue adeo madefa!tatis.

8p. 079

I#. The Interjection. $P. Ri!hterJ de usu particularum exclamati#arum apud priscos scriptores 0atinos, ol. I, Part ii of Studemund+s Studien auf dem Gebiet des arch7ischen 0ateins, 'erlin, %/01( #. :. ?i!olsonJ the use of hercle &mehercle'% edepol &pol'% ecastor &mecastor' by Plautus and erence, in ol. I- of 4ar ard Studies in Classi!al Philolo"y, 'oston, %/07.&. <etails re"ardin" Plautus+ use of Inter;e!tions belon" mostly to the domain of A!!iden!e, not of Syntax. The A!!usati e of 3x!lamation $often a!!ompanied by an Inter;e!tion& has been already mentioned, II. 2@ 9m naturally ta*es an A!!usati e, sin!e it is nothin" but the Imperati e of emo% =I ta*e>( e.". Capt. /C0 A. !edo manum. '. em manum. $The 'embine S!holiast remar*s on Ter. Phorm. CBJ =em,> ho! !um "estu offerentis di!itur.& 8p. %7/9 9n is with Plautus and Teren!e merely used in rhetori!al Auestions in the !ollo!ation en unquam% et!., e.". Een. 0BC di! mihiJ en unAuam intestina tibi !repantK 9ccum% $am% et!. $for Pecce$hum% an old form of hunc&, and eccillum% $am% et!. $when!e, a!!ordin" to a probable a!!ount, Roman!e Pronouns li*e #r. celui& are !hara!teristi! of the 6ld Comedians+ lan"ua"e. :hen a noun without a erb follows eccum it is normally put in the A!!usati e, e.".

Eil. %B%5 e!!um praesto militem, 'a!!h. C5/ duas er"o hi! intus e!!as 'a!!hides.

A similar Compound is ellum $!f. Ital. ello& for em$illum. #or the phrase pro de:m fidem $e.". Ter. Andr. B7@& we find in Cae!il. B%B pro deQm . . . imploro fidem, whi!h shows that pro does not "o ern an A!!usati e Case $!f. pro di immortales, e.". Ter. Adelph. 22@&. 6n the use of O with -o!ati es, see abo e, II. CB and on the !onstru!tion of the <ati e with #ae $but ae teO Asin. 2/% &, ei $e.". ei mihi;&, see II. B2 <alum;, =!urse youO> inter;e!ted as an 3n!liti! after an Interro"ati e, e.".

Rud. 02C Auid tu, malum, nam me retrahisK, Een. 701 !ui, malum, parasitoK, Eost. 5 Auid tibi, malum, hi! ante aedes !lamitatiostK,

is an ellipti! expression of malum tibi sit(