Y(s)
G
C
(s)
Controllers: phase lead, phase lag, leadlag compensator, P,
PD PI PID PD, PI, PID,
Design method: root locus frequency response
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 6
Design method: root locus, frequency response
State feedback control State feedback control
All the states of the systemare fed back to calculate the control All the states of the systemare fed back to calculate the control
rule.
+
r(t)
u(t)
C
y(t)
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x + =
x(t)
K
State feedback controller:
) ( ) ( ) ( t t r t u Kx =
 
Design method: pole placement LQR
 
n
k k k
2 1
= K
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 7
Design method: pole placement, LQR,
Effects of controller on system Effects of controller on system Effects of controller on system Effects of controller on system
performance performance
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 8
The addition of a pole (in the lefthalf splane) to the open
Effects of the addition of poles Effects of the addition of poles
The addition of a pole (in the left half s plane) to the open
loop transfer function has the effect of pushing the root locus
to the right, tending to lower the systems relative stability and
t l d th ttli f th to slowdown the settling of the response.
Im s Im s Im s
Re s Re s Re s
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 9
The addition of a zero (in the lefthalf splane) to the open
Effects of the addition of zeros Effects of the addition of zeros
The addition of a zero (in the left half s plane) to the open
loop transfer function has the effect of pulling the root locus to
the left, tending to make the systemmore stable and to speed
th ttli f th up the settling of the response.
Im s Im s Im s
Re s Re s Re s
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 10
Effects of lead compensators Effects of lead compensators
Transfer function:
) 1 (
1
1
) ( >
+
+
= o
o
Ts
Ts
K s G
C C
Transfer function:
Frequency response:
e
e o
e
Tj
Tj
K j G
C C
+
+
=
1
1
) (
e Tj + 1


1
sin
1
o
\
+
=
1
sin
max
o
o
e
T
1
max
=
o e lg 10 lg 20 ) (
max
+ =
C
K L
The lead compensators improve
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 11
the transient response (POT, t
s
,..)
Lead compensator implementation Lead compensator implementation
Lead compensator transfer function:
) 1 (
1
1
1
1
) (
) (
2 2 1 1
1 1
4 2
C R C R
Ts
Ts
K
s C R
s C R
R R
R R
s E
s U
C
> >
+
+
=
+
+
= o
o
Lead compensator transfer function:
1 1 ) (
2 2 3 1
Ts s C R R R s E + +
E(s)
U(s)
E(s)
U(s)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 12
Effects of lag compensators Effects of lag compensators
Transfer function:
) 1 (
1
1
) ( <
+
+
= o
o
Ts
Ts
K s G
C C
Transfer function:
Frequency response:
e
e o
e
Tj
Tj
K j G
C C
+
+
=
1
1
) (
e Tj + 1


1
sin
1
o
\
+
=
1
sin
min
o
o
e
T
1
min
=
o e lg 10 lg 20 ) (
min
+ =
C
K L
The lag compensators
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 13
g
reduce the steadystate error.
Lag compensator implementation Lag compensator implementation
Lag compensator transfer function:
) 1 (
1
1
1
1
) (
) (
2 2 1 1
2 2
1 1
3 1
4 2
C R C R
Ts
Ts
K
s C R
s C R
R R
R R
s E
s U
C
< <
+
+
=
+
+
= o
o
Lag compensator transfer function:
1 1 ) (
2 2 3 1
Ts s C R R R s E + +
E(s)
U(s)
E(s)
U(s)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 14
Effects of lead Effects of lead lag compensators lag compensators
1 1



+



+ o o s T s T
) 1 , 1 (
1
1
1
1
) (
2 1
2
2 2
1
1 1
> <


.

\

+
+


.

\

+
+
= o o
o o
s T
s T
s T
s T
K s G
C C
Transfer function:
Bode diagram
The lead lag compensators improve transient response and
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 15
The leadlag compensators improve transient response and
reduces the steadystate error.
Effects of proportional controller (P) Effects of proportional controller (P)
G ) ( T f f ti
Increasing proportional gain leads to decreasing steadystate
h h b l bl d h POT
P C
K s G = ) ( Transfer function:
error, however, the systembecome less stable, and the POT
increases.
(t)
Ex: response of a
proportional control
t h
y(t)
system whose
plant has the
transfer function transfer function
below:
10
) ( G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 16
) 3 )( 2 (
) (
+ +
=
s s
s G
Effects of proportional derivative controller (PD) Effects of proportional derivative controller (PD)
Bode diagram
Transfer function:
Bode diagram
Transfer function:
) 1 ( ) ( s T K s K K s G
D P D P C
+ = + =
The PD controller is a
special case of phase lead
t th compensator, the
maximum phase lead is
max
=90
0
at the frequency
max
q y
e
max
=+.
The PD controller speed up
the response of the system,
however it also makes the
system more sensitive to
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 17
system more sensitive to
high frequency noise.
Effects of proportional derivative controller (PD) Effects of proportional derivative controller (PD)
Note: The larger the derivative constant the faster the Note: The larger the derivative constant, the faster the
response of the system.
y(t) y( )
unompensated
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 18
PD controller implementation PD controller implementation
PDcontroller transfer function:
s K K s C R
R R
R R
s E
s U
D P
+ = + = ) 1 (
) (
) (
1 1
4 2
PDcontroller transfer function:
R R s E ) (
3 1
E(s)
( ) U(s)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 19
Effects of proportional integral controller (PI) Effects of proportional integral controller (PI)
Transfer function:
Bode diagram
Transfer function:
)
1
1 ( ) (
s T
K
s
K
K s G
I
P
I
P C
+ = + =
Bode diagram
The PI controller is a
special case of phase lag
t th i i compensator, the minimum
phase lag is
min
= 90
0
at
the frequency e
min
=+. q y
min
PI controllers eliminate
stead state error to step steady state error to step
input, however it can
increase POT and settling
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 20
time.
Effects of proportional integral controller (PI) Effects of proportional integral controller (PI)
Note: The larger the integral constant the larger the POT Note: The larger the integral constant, the larger the POT
of response of the system.
y(t) y( )
uncompensated
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 21
PI controller implementation PI controller implementation
PI controller transfer function:
1
) (
) (
2 2
4 2
s
K
K
s C R
s C R
R R
R R
s E
s U
I
P
+ =
+
=
PI controller transfer function:
) (
2 2 3 1
s s C R R R s E
E(s)
U( ) U(s)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 22
Effects of proportional integral controller (PID) Effects of proportional integral controller (PID)
Transfer function:
Bode diagram
Transfer function:
s K
s
K
K s G
D
I
P C
+ + = ) (
1
)
1
1 ( ) ( s T
s T
K s G
D
I
P C
+ + =
( ) T K G 1
1
1 ) (




( ) s T
s T
K s G
D
I
P C 2
1
1 1 ) ( +


.
\
+ =
Effects of PIDcontrollers:
speed up response of
the system
Eliminate steadystate
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 23
error to step input.
Comparison of PI, PD and PID controllers Comparison of PI, PD and PID controllers
(t) y(t)
U t d Uncompensated
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 24
Control systems design Control systems design y g y g
using the root locus method using the root locus method
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 25
Procedure for designing lead compensator using Procedure for designing lead compensator using the root locus the root locus
) / 1 ( + oT s
) 1 (
) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) ( >
+
+
= o
o
T s
T s
K s G
C C
Lead compensator:
Step 1: Determine the dominant poles fromdesired
*
s
(POT) Overshoot
2 *
1 j
Step 1: Determine the dominant poles from desired
transient response specification:
2 , 1
s
Step 2: Determine the deficiency angle so that the dominant
ts time Settling
( )
n
e
2
2 , 1
1 e e =
n n
j s
Step 2: Determine the deficiency angle so that the dominant
poles lie on the root locus of the compensated system:
*
2 , 1
s
+ =
m n
z s p s
* * 0 *
) arg( ) arg( 180 
= =
+ =
i
i
i
i
z s p s
1
1
1
1
) arg( ) arg( 180 
where pi and zi are poles & zeros of G(s) before compensation.
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 26
+ =
*
1
0 *
to from angle 180 s p
i

*
1
to from angle s z
i
Procedure for designing lead compensator using the root locus Procedure for designing lead compensator using the root locus
Step 3: Determine the pole & zero of the lead compensator Step 3: Determine the pole & zero of the lead compensator
Draw 2 arbitrarily rays starting from the dominant pole
such that the angle between the two rays equal to *. The
*
1
s
intersection between the two rays and the real axis are the
positions of the pole and the zero of the lead compensator.
Two methods often used for drawing the rays: Two methods often used for drawing the rays:
Bisector method
Pole elimination method Pole elimination method
Step 4: Calculate the gain K
C
using the formula:
1 ) ( ) (
*
1
=
=s s
C
s G s G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 27
Example of designing a lead compensator using RL Example of designing a lead compensator using RL
( ) R(s)
+
Y(s)
G
C
(s)
) 5 (
50
+ s s
Objective: design the compensator G
C
(s) so that the j g p
C
( )
response of the compensated system satisfies: POT<20%;
t
s
< 0,5sec (2% criterion).
Solution:
Because the design objective is to improve the transient
) 1 (
) / 1 (
) ( >
+
= o
oT s
K s G
response, we need to design a lead compensator:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 28
) 1 (
) / 1 (
) ( >
+
= o
T s
K s G
C C
Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont)
Step 1 Determine the dominant poles Step 1: Determine the dominant poles:
2 . 0
1
exp
2
<


.

\

=
t
POT 6 , 1 2 . 0 ln
1
2
= <
t
45 , 0 >
1
2

.
\
1
2
707 , 0 = Chose
5 , 0
4
< =
n
t
e
q
>
5 , 0
4
n
4 , 11 >
n
e
15 =
n
e Chose
The dominant poles are:
2 2 *
2 , 1
707 , 0 1 15 15 707 , 0 1 = = j j s
n n
e e
*
p
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 29
5 , 10 5 , 10
*
2 , 1
j s =
Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont)
Step 2: Determine the deficiency angle: Step 2: Determine the deficiency angle:
{ } )] 5 ( ) 5 10 5 10 arg[( ] 0 ) 5 10 5 10 arg[( 180
0 *
+ + + + = j j 
Method 1:
{ } )] 5 ( ) 5 , 10 5 , 10 arg[( ] 0 ) 5 , 10 5 , 10 arg[( 180 + + + + = j j 
)
`

.

\

+

.

\

+ =
5 , 5
5 , 10
arctan
5 , 10
5 , 10
arctan 180
0
)
. \ . \
5 , 5 5 , 10
) 6 , 117 135 ( 180
0
+ + =
0 *
6 , 72 = 
Im s
s
*

j10,5
s
Method 2:
) ( 180
0 *
   + +
Re s 
1

2
O
) ( 180
2 1
0
   + + =
) 6 , 117 135 ( 180
0 0 0
+ + =
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 30
5
O
10,5
0 *
6 , 72 = 
Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont)
Step 3: Determine the pole and the zero of the compensator Step 3: Determine the pole and the zero of the compensator
(bisector method)
s
*
P
x
Im s
j10,5

1
O
A
B C
Re s
5
10,5
5
12 , 28
2 2
sin
*
*
=
 


.

\

+
=
 x P O
OP OB
0 , 8
2 2
sin
*
=
 


.

\

=
 x P O
OP OC
,
2 2
sin
*


.

\

 x P O
0 , 8
2 2
sin
*


.

\

+
 x P O
OP OC
8 + s
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 31
28
8
) (
+
+
=
s
s
K s G
C C
Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead compensator using RL (cont)
Step 4: Determine the gain of the compensator: Step 4: Determine the gain of the compensator:
1 ) ( ) (
*
=
=s s
C
s G s G
1
) 5 5 10 5 10 )( 5 10 5 10 (
50
.
28 5 10 5 10
8 5 , 10 5 , 10
=
+ + + + +
+ +
j j j
j
K
C
) 5 5 , 10 5 , 10 )( 5 , 10 5 , 10 ( 28 5 , 10 5 , 10 + + + + + j j j
1
85 11 15 41 20
50 79 , 10
=
C
K
85 , 11 15 41 , 20
C
7 , 6 =
C
K
8
7 6 ) (
+ s
G
Conclusion: The transfer function of the lead compensator is:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 32
28
7 , 6 ) (
+
=
s
s G
C
Root locus of the system Root locus of the system
Root locus of the
Root locus of the
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 33
uncompensated system
compensated system
Transient response of the system Transient response of the system
y(t)
uncompensated
compensated
Transient response of the system
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 34
Transient response of the system
Procedure for designing lag compensator using the root locus Procedure for designing lag compensator using the root locus
) / 1 ( + T s
) 1 (
) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) ( <
+
+
= 

T s
T s
K s G
C C
Lag compensator:
Step 1: Determine  to meet the steadystate error requirement: Step 1: Determine  to meet the steadystate error requirement:
*
P
K
K
= 
*
V
K
K
= 
*
a
K
K
=  or
or
P
K
V
K
a
K
Step 2: Chose the zero of the lag compensator:
) Re(
1
*
2 1
s <<
Step 2: Chose the zero of the lag compensator:
) (
2 , 1
T 

1 1
Step 3: Calculate the pole of the compensator:
T T 
. =
Step 3: Calculate the pole of the compensator:
Step 4: Calculate K satisfying the condition:
1 ) ( ) (
*
= s G s G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 35
Step 4: Calculate K
C
satisfying the condition:
1 ) ( ) (
*
2 , 1
=
=s s
C
s G s G
Example of designing a lag compensator using RL Example of designing a lag compensator using RL
( ) R(s)
+
Y(s)
G
C
(s)
) 4 )( 3 (
10
+ + s s s
Objective: design the compensator G
C
(s) so that the j g p
C
( )
compensated system satisfies the following performances:
steady state error to ramp input is 0,02 and transient
response of the compensated systemis nearly unchanged response of the compensated system is nearly unchanged.
Solution:
) 1 (
) / 1 (
) ( <
+
= 
T s
K s G
The compensator to be design is a lag compensator:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 36
) 1 (
) / 1 (
) ( <
+
= 
T s
K s G
C C
Example of designing a lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lag compensator using RL (cont)
Step 1: Determine 
The velocity constant of uncompensated system:
83 . 0
) 4 )( 3 (
10
lim ) ( lim
0 0
=
+ +
= =
s s s
s s sG K
s s
V
50
1 1
*
*
= = =
V
K
The desired velocity constant:
50
02 , 0
*
xl
V
e
K
83 . 0
= =
V
K

Then:
50
*
= =
V
K

Then:
017 0 
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 37
017 , 0 = 
Example of designing a lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lag compensator using RL (cont)
Step 2: Chose the zero of the lag compensator Step 2: Chose the zero of the lag compensator
The pole of the uncompensated system:
10
= 1 j s
0 ) ( 1 = + s G
0
) 4 )( 3 (
10
1 =
+ +
+
s s s
=
=
5
1
3
2 , 1
s
j s
Th d i t l f th t d t j 1 The dominant poles of the uncompensatedsystem: j s = 1
2 , 1
{ } 1 Re
1
1
= << s
T 
Chose:
1 , 0
1
=
T 
T 
T 
Step 3: Calculate the pole of the compensator:
1 1
1
) 1 , 0 )( 017 , 0 (
1 1
= =
T T 

0017 , 0
1
=
T
1 , 0
) (
+
=
s
K s G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 38
0017 , 0
) (
+
=
s
K s G
C C
Example of designing a lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lag compensator using RL (cont)
Step 4: Determine the gain of the compensator
1 ) ( ) (
*
=
=s s
C
s G s G
s s
1
) 4 )( 3 (
10
.
0017 , 0
1 , 0
1
=
+ + +
+
j
C
s s s s
s
K
) )( ( 7 ,
1 = j s
1
) 4 1 )( 3 1 )( 1 (
10
.
) 0017 0 1 (
) 1 , 0 1 (
=
+ + + + + + +
+ +
j j j j
j
K
C
) 4 1 )( 3 1 )( 1 ( ) 0017 , 0 1 ( + + + + + + + j j j j
1 0042 , 1 ~ =
C
K
1 , 0
) (
+
=
s
s G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 39
0017 , 0
) (
+
=
s
s G
C
Y(s)
G
C
(s)
) 5 . 0 (
4
+ s s
Objective: design the compensator G
C
(s) so that the j g p
C
( )
compensated systemhas the dominant poles with =0.5,
e
n
=5 (rad/sec) and the velocity constant K
V
=80.
Solution
The compensator to be designed is a lead lag compensator p g g p
because the design objective is to improve the transient
response and to reduce the steadystate error.
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 43
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
s G s G s G
C C C
=
Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont)
Step 1: Design the lead compensator G
C1
(s)
The dominant poles:
2 2 *
2 , 1
5 , 0 1 5 5 5 , 0 1 = = j j s
n n
e e
33 4 5 2
*
j s = 33 , 4 5 , 2
2 , 1
j s =
The deficiency angle:
0 *
) ( 180
2 1
0 *
   + + =
) 115 120 ( 180
0 0 0
+ + =
0 * 0 *
55 = 
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 44
Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont)
Chose the zero of the lead compensator so that it eliminates Chose the zero of the lead compensator so that it eliminates
the pole at 0.5 of G(s) (pole elimination method)
5 0
1
5 , 0
1
=
T o
5 , 0 = OA
5 . 4
60 sin
55 sin
76 . 4
sin
sin
0
0
= = =
PAB
B P A
PA AB
5 , 0 OA
A
B
5
1
1
= + = AB OA
T
1/oT
1
1/T
1
1
5
5 , 0
) (
1 1
+
+
=
s
K s G
C C
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 45
5 + s
Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont)
C l l K Calculate K
C1
:
1 ) ( ) (
*
1
=
=s s
C
s G s G
1
4 5 , 0 + s
K 1
) 5 , 0 (
.
5
,
33 , 4 5 , 2
1
=
+ +
+ = j s
C
s s s
K
25 6 K 25 , 6
1
=
C
K
5 , 0
25 , 6 ) (
1
+
=
s
s G
C
) 5 (
25
) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
+
= =
s s
s G s G s G
C
The leadcompensated openloop system:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 46
) 5 ( + s s
Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont)
Step 2: Design the lag compensator G
C2
(s)
1
T
s +

2
2
2 2
1
) (
T
s
T
K s G
C C
+
=

2
T
Determine :
5
25
lim ) ( lim
1
= = = s s sG K
V
5
) 5 (
lim ) ( lim
0
1
0
+
s s
s s sG K
s s
V
80
*
=
V
K
V
16
1
80
5
*
= = =
V
K
K

6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 47
16 80
V
K
Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont)
D i h f h l Determine the zero of the lag compensator:
5 , 2 ) 33 , 4 5 , 2 Re( ) Re(
1
*
= + = << j s
T 
2
T 
16 , 0
1
=

Chose: ,
2
T 
) 16 , 0 .(
16
1 1
.
1
= =


Calculate the pole of the lag compensator:
) , (
16
2 2
T T 

01 . 0
1
=
Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont) Example of designing a lead lag compensator using RL (cont)
Calculate K
C2
using the gain condition: 1 ) ( ) (
*
1 2
=
C
s G s G Calculate K
C2
using the gain condition: 1 ) ( ) (
*
1 2
=
=s s
C
s G s G
( )( ) 1 ) ( ) (
* *
1 2
=
= = s s s s
C
s G s G
1
01 , 0 33 , 4 5 , 2
16 , 0 33 , 4 5 , 2
2
=
+ +
+ +
j
j
K
C
) 01 0 (
) 16 , 0 (
01 , 1 ) (
2
+
+
=
s
s
s G
C
The transfer function of the lag compensator:
) 16 , 0 )( 5 , 0 (
31 , 6 ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
+ +
= =
s s
s G s G s G
C C C
Final result:
) 01 , 0 ( + s
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 49
) 01 , 0 )( 5 (
31 , 6 ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
+ + s s
s G s G s G
C C C
Control system Control system design in design in yy gg
frequency domain frequency domain
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 50
Procedure for designing lead compensators in frequency domain Procedure for designing lead compensators in frequency domain
1 + oTs
) 1 (
1
1
) ( >
+
+
= o
o
Ts
Ts
K s G
C C
The lead compensator:
Step 1: Determine K
C
to meet the steadystate error requirement: Step 1: Determine K
C
to meet the steady state error requirement:
P P C
K K K /
*
=
V V C
K K K /
*
=
a a C
K K K /
*
= or
or
Step 2: Let G (s)=K G(s) Plot the Bode diagram of G (s) Step 2: Let G
1
(s)=K
C
G(s). Plot the Bode diagram of G
1
(s)
Step 3: Determine the gain crossover frequency of G
1
(s):
0 ) (
1
=
C
L e 1 ) (
1
=
C
j G e
or
0 ) (
1 C
L e 1 ) (
1
=
C
j G e
or
Step 4: Determine the phase margin of G
1
(s) (phase margin
of uncompensated system):
) ( 180
1 C
M e + = u
of uncompensated system):
) ( 180
1 C
M e + u
Step 5: Determine the necessary phase lead angle to be
added to the system:
u + u u = M M
*
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 51
u + u u M M
max
is the desired phase margin,
*
M u
0 0
20 5 = u
Procedure for designing lead compensators in frequency domain Procedure for designing lead compensators in frequency domain
sin 1 +
St 7 D t i th i f ( f
Step 6: Calculate o :
max
max
sin 1
sin 1
+
=
Step 7: Determine the new gain crossover frequency (of
the compensated openloop system) using the conditions:
o e lg 10 ) (
1
=
'
C
L
o e / 1 ) ( =
'
j G
or
o e lg 10 ) (
1 C
L
o e / 1 ) (
1
=
C
j G
or
Step 8: Calculate the time constant T: T =
1
p
o e
C
'
Step 9: Check if the compensated systemsatisfies the gain
margin? If not repeat the design procedure fromstep 5 margin? If not, repeat the design procedure fromstep 5.
Note: It is possible to determine e
C
(step 3), uM (step 4) and
e
C
(step 7) by using Bode diagraminstead of using analytic
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 52
e
C
(step 7) by using Bode diagraminstead of using analytic
calculation.
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain   Example Example
( ) R(s)
+
Y(s)
G
C
(s)
) 2 (
4
+ s s
Objective: Design the compensator G
C
(s) so that the j g p
C
( )
compensated systemsatisfies the performances:
; 20
*
=
V
K
; 50
0 *
> uM dB GM 10
*
>
Solution:
The transfer function of the lead compensator to be designed: p g
Ts
Ts
K s G
C C
+
+
=
1
1
) (
o
) 1 ( > o
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 53
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 1: Determine K Step 1: Determine K
C
The velocity constant of the uncompensated system:
2
4
li ) ( li G K 2
) 2 (
lim ) ( lim
0 0
=
+
= =
s s
s s sG K
s s
V
The desired velocity constant:
20
*
=
V
K
2
20
*
= =
V
V
C
K
K
K 10 =
C
K
y
V
V
Step 2: Denote
) 2 (
4
. 10 ) ( ) (
1
+
= =
s s
s G K s G
C
) 1 5 , 0 (
20
) (
1
+
=
s s
s G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 54
Draw the Bode diagram of G
1
(s)
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
20dB/dec
26
40dB/dec
e
c
=6 2
160
uM
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 55
160
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 3: The gain crossover frequency of G (s) Step 3: The gain crossover frequency of G
1
(s)
According to the Bode diagram:
6 ~
C
e
(rad/sec)
Step 4: The phase margin of G
1
(s)
According to the Bode diagram:
00
1
160 ) ( ~
C
e
0
1
20 ) ( 180 ~ + = u
C
M e
0 0 0
max
7 20 50 + =
0
u + u u = M M
max
(chose u 7)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 56
0
max
37 =
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 6: Calculate o Step 6: Calculate o
0
0
max
37 sin 1
37 sin 1
sin 1
sin 1
+
=
+
=
o 4 = o
Step 7: Determine the new gain crossover frequency using
Bode plot
max
37 sin 1
sin 1
dB L 6 4 lg 10 lg 10 ) ( = = =
'
o e
p
dB L
C
6 4 lg 10 lg 10 ) (
1
= = = o e
The abscissa of the intersection between Bode magnitude
diagram and the horizontal line with ordinate of 6dB is the dag a a d e o o a e o d a e o 6d s e
new gain crossover frequency. According to the plot (in slide
54), we have:
9 ~
'
C
e
(rad/sec)
9 ~
C
e
(rad/sec)
Step 8: Calculate T
1 1
T
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 57
) 4 )( 9 (
=
'
=
o e
C
T
056 , 0 = T
224 , 0 = T o
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
20dB/dec
+20dB/dec
20dB/dec
40dB/dec
20dB/dec
40dB/dec
6
40dB/dec
e
c
=6
e
c
=9
1/T=18 1/oT=4.5
160
uM
uM *
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 58
160
Design lead compensator in frequency domain Design lead compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 9: Check the gain margin of the compensated system
According to the compensated Bode diagram, GM* =+, then
the compensated systemfulfills the design requirements the compensated systemfulfills the design requirements.
Conclusion: The designed lead compensator is:
s
s
s G
C
056 , 0 1
224 , 0 1
10 ) (
+
+
=
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 59
Design lead compensator in frequency Design lead compensator in frequency domain domain Example 2 Example 2
( ) R(s)
+
Y(s)
G
C
(s) G(s)
16
) (
02 . 0
e
G
s
Objective: Design the compensator G (s) so that the
) 25 10 )( 2 (
) (
2
+ + +
=
s s s
s G
Objective: Design the compensator G
C
(s) so that the
compensated systemhas: and
steadystate error to unit step input ; 05 . 0
*
s
ss
e
; 50
0 *
> uM
dB GM 10
*
>
steady state error to unit step input ; 05 . 0 s
ss
e
Solution:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 60
Procedure for designing lag compensators in frequency domain Procedure for designing lag compensators in frequency domain
1 + oTs
) 1 (
1
1
) ( <
+
+
= o
o
Ts
Ts
K s G
C C
The lag compensator:
Step 1: Determine K
C
to meet the steadystate error requirement: Step 1: Determine K
C
to meet the steady state error requirement:
P P C
K K K /
*
=
V V C
K K K /
*
=
a a C
K K K /
*
=
or
or
Step 2: Let G (s)=K G(s) Plot the Bode diagram of G (s) Step 2: Let G
1
(s)=K
C
G(s). Plot the Bode diagram of G
1
(s)
Step 3: Determine the new gain crossover frequency
satisfying the following condition:
C
e
'
satisfying the following condition:
is the desired phase margin
*
M u
0 0
20 5 u
u e + u + =
'
* 0
1
180 ) ( M
C
is the desired phase margin,
M u
20 5 = u
Step 4: Calculate o using the condition:
l 20 ) (
'
L
1
) (
'
j G
or
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 61
o e lg 20 ) (
1
=
'
C
L
o
e ) (
1
=
'
C
j G
or
Procedure for designing lag compensators in frequency domain Procedure for designing lag compensators in frequency domain
St 5 Ch th f th l t th t Step 5 : Chose the zero of the lag compensator so that:
C
T
e
o
'
<<
1
T o
T o
Step 6: Calculate the time constant T:
T T o
o
1 1
=
T
Y(s)
G
C
(s)
) 1 5 . 0 )( 1 (
1
+ + s s s
Objective: design the lag compensator G
C
(s) so that that j g g p
C
( )
compensated systemsatisfies the following performances:
; 5
*
=
V
K
; 40
0 *
> uM dB GM 10
*
>
Solution
The transfer function of the lag compensator to be designed: The transfer function of the lag compensator to be designed:
Ts
Ts
K s G
C C
+
+
=
1
1
) (
o
) 1 ( < o
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 63
Ts + 1
Design lag compensator in frequency domain Design lag compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 1: Determine K
C
Step 1: Determine K
C
The velocity constant of the uncompensated system:
1
1
lim ) ( lim G K 1
) 1 5 . 0 )( 1 (
lim ) ( lim
0 0
=
+ +
= =
s s s
s s sG K
s s
V
The desired velocity constant:
5
*
=
V
K
5
*
= =
V
V
C
K
K
K
y
V
V
Step 2: Denote
) ( ) (
1
s G K s G
C
=
5
) 1 5 . 0 )( 1 (
5
) (
1
+ +
=
s s s
s G
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 64
Draw the Bode diagram of G
1
(s)
Design lag compensator in frequency domain Design lag compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
20dB/dec
60dB/dec
40dB/dec
14
60dB/dec
2 1
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 65
Design lag compensator in frequency domain Design lag compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 3: Determine the newgain crossover frequency:
u e + u + =
'
* 0
1
180 ) ( M
C
0
1
135 ) ( =
'
C
e
0 0 0
1
5 40 180 ) ( + + =
'
C
e
According to the Bode diagram: 5 . 0 ~
'
C
e (rad/sec)
St 4 C l l t i th diti
1
135 ) (
C
e
Step 4: Calculate o using the condition:
o e lg 20 ) (
1
=
'
C
L
( ) ' According the Bode diagram: (dB)
18 ) (
1
~
'
C
L e
o lg 20 18 =
9 , 0 lg = o
9 , 0
10
= o
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 66
126 , 0 = o
Design lag compensator in frequency domain Design lag compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
Step 5: Chose the zero of the lag compensator: Step 5: Chose the zero of the lag compensator:
5 . 0
1
=
'
<<
C
T
e
oo
Chose 05 . 0
1
=
T o
20 = T o
159 T
Step 6: Calculate the time constant T
0063 0 05 0 126 0
1 1
159 = T
0063 , 0 05 , 0 126 , 0 = = =
T T o
o
Step 7: It can be verified in the Bode diagram that the Step 7: It can be verified in the Bode diagram that the
compensated systemsatisfies the gain margin requirement.
) 1 20 (
5 ) (
+
=
s
s G Conclusion
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 67
) 1 159 (
5 ) (
+
=
s
s G
C
Conclusion
Design lag compensator in frequency domain Design lag compensator in frequency domain Example (cont) Example (cont)
20dB/dec
60dB/dec
40dB/dec
14
L
1
(e
c
)
L(e
t
)
GM*
60dB/dec
2 1
e
c
=0.5
0.0067
0.05
e
t
(
t
)
135
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 68
Design lag Design lag compensator in frequency compensator in frequency domain domain Example 2 Example 2
( ) R(s)
+
Y(s)
G
C
(s) G(s)
16
) (
02 . 0
e
G
s
Objective: Design the compensator G (s) so that the
) 25 10 )( 2 (
) (
2
+ + +
=
s s s
s G
Objective: Design the compensator G
C
(s) so that the
compensated systemhas: and
steadystate error to unit step input ; 05 . 0
*
s
ss
e
; 50
0 *
> uM
dB GM 10
*
>
steady state error to unit step input ; 05 . 0 s
ss
e
Solution:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 69
Comparison of phase lead and phase lag compensator Comparison of phase lead and phase lag compensator
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 70
(Dorf and Bishop (2008), Modern control system p.729)
D i f PID D i f PID t ll t ll Design of PID Design of PID controllers controllers
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 71
Zeigler Zeigler Nichols method 1 Nichols method 1
Determine the PID parameters based on the step response of Determine the PID parameters based on the step response of
the openloop system.
Plant
u(t)
y(t)
y(t)
K
t
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 72
T
1
T
2
Zeigler Zeigler Nichols method 1 (cont) Nichols method 1 (cont)
R( ) R(s)
+
Y(s)
Plant PID
 
1
PID controller:


.

\

+ + = s T
s T
K s G
D
I
P C
1
1 ) (
Controller K
P
T
I
T
D
P T /(T K) 0 P T
2
/(T
1
K) 0
PI 0.9T
2
/(T
1
K) 0.3T
1
0
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 73
PID 1.2T
2
/(T
1
K) 2T
1
0.5T
1
Zeigler Zeigler Nichols method 1 Nichols method 1 Example Example
Problem: Design a PID
y(t)
Problem: Design a PID
controller to control a furnace
providing the openloop
h t i ti f th f
y(t)
characteristic of the furnace
obtained from a experiment
beside.
150
t (min) ( )
8
24
150 = K
sec 480 min 8
1
= = T
024 0
1440
2 1 2 1
2
= = =
T
K
P



+ + = s s G
PID
240
1
1 024 0 ) (
sec 1440 min 24
2
= = T
024 . 0
150 480
2 . 1 2 . 1
1
K T
K
P
sec 960 480 2 2
1
= = = T T
I

.
\
+ + s
s
s G
PID
240
960
1 024 . 0 ) (
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 74
sec 240 480 5 . 0 5 . 0
1
= = = T T
D
Zeigler Zeigler Nichols method 2 Nichols method 2
Determine the PID parameters based on the response of the Determine the PID parameters based on the response of the
closedloop systemat the stability boundary.
Plant
+
K
K
cr
y(t)
T
cr
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 75
t
Zeigler Zeigler Nichols method 2 (cont) Nichols method 2 (cont)
R(s)
+
Y(s)
Plant PID
 
1
PID controller:


.

\

+ + = s T
s T
K s G
D
I
P C
1
1 ) (
Controller K
P
T
I
T
D
P 0 5K 0 P 0.5K
cr
0
PI 0.45K
cr
0.83T
cr
0
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 76
PID 0.6K
cr
0.5T
cr
0.125T
cr
Zeigler Zeigler Nichols method 2 Nichols method 2 Example Example
Problem: Design a PID controller to control the angle position Problem: Design a PID controller to control the angle position
of a DC motor, providing that by experiment the critical gain of
the systemis 20 and the critical cycle is T=1 sec.
According to the given data:
Solution:
20 =
cr
K
sec 1 =
cr
T
g g
 
Applying Zeigler Nichols method 2:
12 20 6 . 0 6 . 0 = = =
cr P
K K

.

\

+ + = s
s
s G
PID
5 . 0
125 . 0
1
1 12 ) (
cr P
sec 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 5 . 0 = = =
cr I
T T
sec 125 0 1 125 0 125 0 = = = T T
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 77
sec 125 . 0 1 125 . 0 125 . 0 = = =
cr D
T T
Analytical method for designing PID controller Analytical method for designing PID controller
St 1 E t bli h ti ( ) ti th l ti hi Step 1: Establish equation(s) representing the relationship
between the controller to be designed and the desired
performances.
Step 2: Solve the equation(s) obtained in step 1 for the
t ( ) f th t ll parameter(s) of the controller.
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 78
Analytical method for designing PID controller Analytical method for designing PID controller
Example: Design PIDcontroller so that the control system Example: Design PID controller so that the control system
satisfies the following requirements:
Closedloop complex poles with =0.5 and e
n
=8.
Velocity constant K
V
= 100.
R(s) Y(s)
100
( )
+
( )
G
PID
(s)
100 10
100
2
+ + s s
Solution: The transfer function of the PIDcontroller to be Solution: The transfer function of the PID controller to be
designed
s K
K
K s G
D
I
P C
+ + = ) (
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 79
s K
s
K s G
D P C
+ + ) (
Analytical method for designing PID controller (cont) Analytical method for designing PID controller (cont)
Velocity constant of the controlled system:

.

\

+ +

.

\

+ + = =
100 10
100
lim ) ( ) ( lim
2
0 0
s s
s K
s
K
K s s G s sG K
D
I
P
s
C
s
V
. \
+ +
. \
100 10
0 0
s s s
s s
I V
K K =
According to the design requirement: K
V
= 100
100 =
I
K
The characteristic equation of the controlled system:
100
   
K
0
100 10
100
1
2
=

.

\

+ +

.

\

+ + +
s s
s K
s
K
K
D
I
P
0 100 ) 100 100 ( ) 100 10 (
2 3
K K K
(1)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 80
0 64 ) 64 8 ( ) 8 (
2 3
= + + + + + a s a s a s
(2)
Balancing the coefficients of the equations (1) and (2), we have:
+ = + a K 8 100 10
25 156
=
+ = +
+ = +
a K
a K
a K
P
D
64 100
64 8 100 100
8 100 10
=
=
54 1
14 , 12
25 . 156
P
K
K
a
= a K
I
64 100
= 54 , 1
D
K
Conclusion:
G 54 1
100
64 12 ) ( + +
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 81
Conclusion:
s
s
s G
C
54 , 1 64 , 12 ) ( + + =
Manual tuning of PID controllers Manual tuning of PID controllers
Effect of increasing a parameter of PID controller independently
on closedloop performance:
Para
meter
Rise time POT
Settling
time
Steady
state
error
Stability
error
K
P
Decrease Increase
Small
change
Decrease Degrade
K
I
Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate Degrade
K
D
Minor
change
Decrease Decrease No effect
Improve if
K small
D
change K
D
small
6 December 2013 82 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/
A d f l t i f PID t ll
Manual tuning of PID controllers (cont.) Manual tuning of PID controllers (cont.)
A procedure for manual tuning of PID controllers:
1. Set K
I
and K
D
to 0, gradually increase K
P
to the critical
i K (i th i k th l d l t gain K
cr
(i.e. the gain makes the closedloop system
oscilate)
2. Set K
P
~K
cr
/2
3. Gradually increase K
I
until the steadystate error is
eliminated in a sufficient time for the process (Note that
too much K
I
will cause instability).
4. Increase K
D
if needed to reduce POT and settling time
(Note that too much K
D
will cause excessive response
and overshoot)
6 December 2013 83 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/
Control systems design in state Control systems design in statespace space
using pole placement method using pole placement method
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 84
Controllability Controllability
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x
C id t
=
+
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
Consider a system:
The system is complete state controllable if there exists an
unconstrained control lawu(t) that can drive the systemfrom
an initial state x(t
0
) to a arbitrarily final state x(t
f
) in a finite
time interval t
0
s t st
f
. Qualitatively, the system is state time interval t
0
s t st
f
. Qualitatively, the system is state
controllable if each state variable can be influenced by the
input.
y(t)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 85
Signal flow graph of an incomplete state controllable system
Controllability condition Controllability condition
+ ) ( ) ( ) ( t t t B Ax x
=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
System:
Controllability matrix
] [
1 2
B A B A AB B
=
n
C ] [ B A B A AB B = C
The necessary and sufficient condition for the controllability is:
n rank = ) (C
N t th t t ll bl i t d f l t Note: we use the term controllable instead of complete
state controllable for short.
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 86
Controllability Controllability Example Example
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x
=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
Consider a system
where:
(
1 0
(
5
where:
(
=
3 2
1 0
A
(
=
2
5
B
  3 1 = C
E l h ll bili f h
Solution: Controllability matrix:
Evaluate the controllability of the system.
  AB B = C
Because:
(
=
16
2
2
5
C
Because:
84 ) det( = C
2 ) ( = C rank
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 87
The systemis controllable
State feedback control State feedback control
r(t)
u(t)
y(t) x(t)
+
r(t)
u(t)
C
y(t)
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x + =
x(t)
K
Consider a systemdescribed by the state equations:
=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
= ) ( ) ( t t y Cx
+ = ) ( ) ( ] [ ) ( t r t t B x BK A x
= ) ( ) t y(t Cx
Pole placement method Pole placement method
If the system is controllable then it is possible to determine If the system is controllable, then it is possible to determine
the feedback gain K so that the closedloop system has the
poles at any location.
Step 1: Write the characteristic equation of the closedloop
system
0 ] det[ = + BK A I s
(1)
0 ] det[ = + BK A I s
( )
Step 2: Write the desired characteristic equation:
n
0 ) (
1
=
[
=
n
i
i
p s
) 1 ( n i p th d i d l
(2)
Step 3: Balance the coefficients of the equations (1) and (2),
) , 1 ( , n i p
i
= are the desired poles
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 89
we can find the state feedback gain K.
Pole placement method Pole placement method Example Example
Problem: Given a systemdescribed by the state state Problem: Given a system described by the statestate
equation:
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x
= ) ( ) ( t t y Cx
(
0 1 0
(
0
  1 0 0 = C
(
(
(
(
= 1 0 0
0 1 0
A
(
(
(
(
= 3
0
B
(
3 7 4
(
1
Determine the state feedback controller ) ( ) ( ) ( t t r t u Kx = Determine the state feedback controller
so that the closedloop system has complex poles with
and the third pole at 20. 10 ; 6 , 0 = =
n
e
) ( ) ( ) ( t t r t u Kx
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 90
n
Pole placement method Pole placement method Example (cont) Example (cont)
Solution
The characteristic equation of the closedloop system:
0 ] det[ = + BK A I s
Solution
0 ] det[ = + BK A I s
  0 3
0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
d t




(
(
(
(
(
(
k k k   0
1
3
3 7 4
1 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0 det
3 2 1
=


.
\
(
(
(
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
k k k s
The desired characteristic equation:
(1)
0 ) 12 10 4 ( ) 21 10 3 7 ( ) 3 3 (
3 1 3 2 1
2
3 2
3
= + + + + + + + + k k s k k k s k k s
= + + 32 3 3
3 2
k k
= +
= + +
2000 12 10 4
340 21 10 3 7
2 1
3 2 1
k k
k k k
Solve the above set of equations, we have:
578 220 k
=
=
482 17
839 , 3
578 , 220
2
1
k
k
k
= 482 , 17
3
k
  482 17 839 3 578 220 = K Conclusion:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 92
  482 , 17 839 , 3 578 , 220 = K Conclusion:
D i f t t ti t D i f t t ti t Design of state estimators Design of state estimators
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 93
The concept of state estimation The concept of state estimation
To be able to implement state feedback control system it is To be able to implement state feedback control system, it is
required to measure all the states of the system.
However in some applications we can only measure the However, in some applications, we can only measure the
output, but cannot measure the states of the system.
The problemis to estimate the states of the systemfromthe p y
output measurement.
State estimator (or state observer)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 94
Observability Observability
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x
=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
Consider a system:
The system is complete state observable if given the control y p g
law u(t) and the output signal y(t) in a finite time interval
t
0
s t st
f
, it is possible to determine the initial states x(t
0
).
Qualitatively the systemis state observable if all state variable Qualitatively, the system is state observable if all state variable
x(t) influences the output y(t).
y(t)
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 95
Signal flow graph of an incomplete state observable system
Observability condition Observability condition
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x
S t
=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
System
It is necessary to estimate the state from mathematical ) (
t x
Observability matrix:
(
C
y
model of the system and the inputoutput data.
) (
Observability matrix:
(
(
(
(
=
2
CA
CA
C
O
(
(
(
(
=
1 n
CA
CA
O
(
CA
The necessary and sufficient condition for the observability is:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 96
n rank = ) (O
Observability Observability Example Example
+ = ) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x
=
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t t y
t u t t
Cx
B Ax x
Consider the system
(
1 0
(
1
where:
(
=
3 2
1 0
A
(
=
2
1
B
  3 1 = C
Solution: Observability matrix:
Evaluate the observability of the system.
(
=
CA
C
O
(
=
8
3
6
1
O
Because
10 ) det( = O
2 ) ( = O rank
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 97
The systemis observable
State estimator State estimator
u(t)
y(t) x(t)
r(t)
u(t)
y(t)
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t B Ax x + =
x(t)
C
+
r(t)
C B
}
L
) (
t x
+
+
+
C
) (
t y
B
A
}
+
K
=
+ + =
) (
) (
)) (
) ( ( ) ( ) (
) (
t t y
t y t y t u t t
x C
L B x A x
State estimator:
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 98
y
T
n
l l l ] [
2 1
= L where:
Design of state estimators Design of state estimators
Requirements: Requirements:
The state estimator must be stable, estimation error
should approach to zero.
Dynamic response of the state estimator should be fast Dynamic response of the state estimator should be fast
enough in comparison with the dynamic response of the
control loop.
All the roots of the equation locates
i th h lf l ft l
It is required to chose L satisfying:
0 ) det( = + LC A sI
in the halfleft splane.
The roots of the equation are further
fromthe imaginary axis than the roots of the equation
0 ) det( = + LC A sI
0 ) det( = + BK A sI
Depending on the design of L, we have different state estimator:
Luenberger state observer
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 99
Luenberger state observer
Kalman filter
Procedure for designing the Luenberger state observer Procedure for designing the Luenberger state observer
St 1 W it th h t i ti ti f th t t b Step 1: Write the characteristic equation of the state observer
0 ] det[ = + LC A I s
(1)
Step 1: Write the desired characteristic equation:
0 ) ( =
[
n
i
p s
(2)
) (
1
[
= i
i
p
) , 1 ( , n i p
i
= are the desired poles of the state estimator
Step 3: Balance the coefficients of the characteristic
equations (1) and (2), we can find the gain L.
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 100
Design of state estimators Design of state estimators Example Example
Problem: Given a systemdescribed by the state equation: Problem: Given a systemdescribed by the state equation:
+ =
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( t u t t
C
B Ax x
= ) ( ) ( t t y Cx
(
0 1 0
(
0
  0 0 1 = C
(
(
(
(
= 1 0 0
0 1 0
A
(
(
(
(
= 3
0
B
(
3 7 4
(
1
Assuming that the states of the system cannot be directly Assuming that the states of the system cannot be directly
measured. Design the Luenberger state estimator so that the
poles of the state estimator lying at 20, 20 and 50.
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 101
p y g ,
Design of state estimators Design of state estimators Example (cont) Example (cont)
Solution
The characteristic equation of the Luenberger state estimator:
0 ] det[ = + LC A I s
Solution
0 ] det[ = + LC A I s
  0 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
d t
1




(
(
(
(
(
(
l
l
  0 0 0 1
3 7 4
1 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0 det
3
2
=


.
\
(
(
(
+
(
(
(
(
(
(
l
l s
Design of state estimators Design of state estimators Example (cont) Example (cont)
B l i th ffi i t f th (1) d (2) l d t Balancing the coefficients of the equ. (1) and (2) leads to:
= + 90 3
1
l
= + + +
= + +
20000 4 3 7
2400 7 3
3 2 1
2 1
l l l
l l
Solve the above set of equations, we have:
= 87 l
=
=
=
12991
2132
87
2
1
l
l
l
=12991
3
l
 
T
12991 2132 87 = L
Conclusion
6 December 2013 H. T. Hong  www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~hthoang/ 103
  12991 2132 87 = L
Conclusion