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# Neural Networks 2 marks: Unit 3 &4

1. May 2009
1. Define fuzzification. Ans: Fuzzification is process of finding the membership degree A(x') to which input value x' for a fuzzyvariable x defined on an universe U belongs to a fuzzy set A defined on the same universe. 2. Define defuzzification. Ans: Defuzzification is the process of calculating a single output numerical value for a fuzzy output variable on thebasis of an inferred membership function for this variable. 3. What is meant ! non"interacti#e fuzz! sets\$ Ans: on!interactive fuzzy sets can be thought of analogous to independent events in probability theory. "hich means the occurrence of one event is not dependent on the occurrence of others. 4. Define con#e% fuzz! set. Ans:A fuzzy set A of # is called convex if \$A%a is a convex subset of # belongs to a & \$'()%. &. Differentiate classical set & fuzz! set. Ans: A classical set is defined by *crisp+ boundaries, i.e. there is no uncertainty in the prescription or location of the boundaries of the set. A fuzzy set( on the other hand( is prescribed by vague or ambiguous properties, hence its boundaries are ambiguously specified '. Write the truth ta le for modus tollens.
-he validity of modus tollens can be clearly demonstrated through a truth table. P . . Q . . pq . -

## Ans: A fuzzy proposition can be an atomic or compound sentence. For example

"Temperature is hot" is an atomic fuzzy proposition. "Temperature is hot and humidity is low" is a compound fuzzy proposition. /ompound fuzzy relations are expressed with fuzzy connectives such as and( or and complement.

*. +%)lain e%tension )rinci)le. Ans: A useful principle( called the extension principle( defines how any single real value( or function( or set(can be represented by a corresponding fuzzy membership function( that is( how it can be fuzzified. 0f wehave a function f1 # 2 3 between two crisp sets # and 3( and we 4now the membership function A of a subset A 5 #( we can obtain the fuzzy representation of f(A) in 3 through the following formula1 f(A)(f(x)) 6 A(x) 1,. -i#e the formula for fuzz! inner )roduct and outer )roduct of a& . Ans: .a%"min /a0 12 inner )roduct .in"ma%/a0 12 outer )roduct

2. March 2009
1. What are the fuzz! set o)erations\$ ns: Union, A B: AB(u) = A(u) B(u), for all u from U, where means MAX Intersection, A B: AB(u) = A(u) B(u), for all u from U, where means MI ! the De Mor"an#s laws are \$ali% for intersection an% union& '(ualit), A = B: A(u) = B(u), for all u from U *et com+lement, not A, A: notA(u) = , - A(u), for all u from U

.oncentration, ./ (A): ./ (A)(u) = (A(u))0, for all u from U! this o+eration is use% as a lin"uistic mo%ifier 1\$er)1 Dilation, DI2(A): DI2(A)(u) = (A(u))3&4, for all u from U! this o+eration is use% as a lin"uistic mo%ifier 1more or less&1

*u5set, A B: A(u) B(u), for all u from U Al"e5raic +ro%uct, A6 B: AB() = A(u) 6 B(u), for all u from U Boun%e% sum: ma78,,A(u) 9 B(u):, for all u from U Boun%e% %ifference, A ; -; B: A;-;B(u) = min83,A(u) - B(u):, for all u from U Boun%e% +ro%uct: ma783, A(u) 9 B(u) - ,:, for all u from U ormalization /<M(A): /<M(A)(u) = A(u)=MAX 8A(u):, for all u from U Al"e5raic sum: A9B(u) = A(u) 9 B(u), for all u from U! the De Mor"an laws are \$ali% for the al"e5raic sum an% %ifference& >he o+erations o\$er fuzz) sets ha\$e some +ro+erties, for e7am+le, the) are associati\$e, commutati\$e, an% %istri5uti\$e, that is: Associati\$e: (a ? 5) ? c = a ? (5 ? c) .ommutati\$e: a ? 5 = 5 ? a (not \$ali% for the 5oun%e% %ifference) Distri5uti\$e: a ? (5 c) = (a 5) ? (a c) 2. What are the )ro)erties of fuzz! relations\$ 7et 8 represent a relation on the cross!product universe U 9:. -hen the following properties may be held for 8 ()) 8eflexiveness1 8(u( u) 6 ) (;) 0rreflexiveness1 8(u( u) 6 ' (<) =ymmetry1 8(u(v) 6 8(v(u) (>) -ransitivity1 v?8(u(v) 98(v(p)@ 98(u(p)( for each v 9: 4. Define the term 3su))ort4 with res)ect to mem ershi) function. Ans1 =upport of a fuzzy set A =ubset of the universe U( each element of which has a membership degree to A different from zero. &. 5ow is the inference method used for assi6nin6 mem ershi) #alues\$ Ans: 7n the inference method we use knowled6e to )erform deducti#e reasonin6. We wish to deduce or infer a conclusion0 6i#en a od! of facts and knowled6e '. Define 8lam da9 cuts for fuzz! relations.

*. :tate D:W al6orithm. Ans: -he DSW algorithm( or in full Day/Stout/Warren algorithm( is a method for efficiently balancing binary search trees A that is( decreasing their height to B(log n) nodes( where n is the
total number of nodes. Unli4e a self!balancing binary search tree( it does not do this incrementally during each operation( but periodically( so that its cost can be amortized over many operations.

1,. Write an! 4 com)osition o)erations of fuzz!. Ans: .a%"min0 ma%"dot0 min"ma% & min"min are 4 com)osition o)erations.

4. May 2009
*. Define .a% mem ershi) defuzzification method. Ans: Also known hei6ht method0 this scheme is limited to )eaked out)ut functions. 1,. What is the difference etween fuzz! &cris)\$ Ans: ;uzz! set is a set containin6 elements that ha#e #ar!in6 de6rees of mem ershi) in the set. <ris) set mem ers would not e mem ers unless their mem ershi) is full on com)lete in that set. 7e their mem ershi) #alue is 1. +lements in a fuzz! set can also e mem er of other fuzz! set. .em ers in a cris) set cannot e mem ers in another cris) set.

5. Nov 2008
1. What is meant ! fuzz! )ower set\$ 3. What is meant ! fuzz! tolerance\$ Ans: An! fuzz! relation or one which satisfies reflecti#it! & s!mmetr! is a fuzz! tolerance relation. &. What is meant ! rank orderin6\$

Ans: Assessin6 )references ! a sin6le indi#idual0 a committee0 a )oll and other o)inion methods can e used to assi6n mem ershi) #alues to a fuzz! #aria le. =reference is determined ! )air"wise com)arisons and these determine the orderin6 of the mem ershi). '. What are the a))lications of #erte% method\$ Ans: 7t can )re#ent a normalit! in the out)ut mem ershi) function due to the a))lication of the discretization techni>ue on the fuzz! #aria les domain. 7t can )re#ent the widenin6 of the resultin6 function #alue set due to multi)le occurrences of #aria les in the functional e%)ression ! con#entional inter#al anal!sis methods. (. 5ow is mem ershi) #alue assi6nment for fuzz! set\$ Ans: 7ntuition0 6enetic al6orithm0 inference0 neural n?w0 rank orderin60 an6ular fuzz! sets. @. Name few defuzzification methods. Ans: <entroid method0 wei6hted a#era6e method0 ma% mem ershi) )rinci)le0 mean"ma% mem ershi)0 center of sums0 center of lar6est area & 1 st or last of ma%ima. *. What is meant ! fuzz! #ectors\$ Ans: A fuzz! #ector is a #ector containin6 fuzz! mem ershi) #alues. :u))ose a fuzz! set A is defined on N elements in A0 for instance on %10 %2B0 %N and fuzz! set C is defined . elements in D for instance on !10 !2B0 !.. Ehe arra! of mem ershi) functions for each of the fuzz! sets A & C can then e reduced to fuzz! #ectors. 1,. What is fuzz! tautolo6!\$ Ans: 7n )redicate lo6ic it is useful to consider )ro)ositions that are alwa!s true0 irres)ecti#e of the truth #alues of the indi#idual sim)le )ro)ositions. <lassical lo6ical com)ound )ro)ositions with this )ro)ert! are called tautolo6ies. Ehe! are useful for deducti#e reasonin60 )ro#in6 theorems and for makin6 deducti#e inferences.

6. Dec 2005
3. What is a fuzz! relation\$ Ans: A fuzz! relation is that relation which ma)s elements from one uni#erse A to another uni#erse D throu6h the <artesian )roduct of the 2 uni#erses. 5owe#er0 the stren6th of the relation ?w ordered )airs of the 2 uni#erses is not measured with the characteristic function ut rather with a mem ershi) function e%)ressin6 #arious de6rees of stren6th of the relation on the unit inter#al F,01G. 4. What is a sin6leton set\$

Ans: 7f the cardinalit! of a fuzz! set is infinit! then it is a sin6leton set. &. What is fuzz! inference\$ Hist the names of two inferrin6 )rocedures. Ans: An inference method that uses fuzzy implication relations( fuzzycomposition operators( and an operator to lin4 the fuzzy rules. -he inference process results in inferringnew facts based on the fuzzy rules and the input information supplied. -he ; procedures are the generalizedmodus ponens rule or the generalized modus tolens inference rule. '. +%)lain the core of a mem ershi) function of fuzz! set. <ore of a mem ershi) function for some fuzz! set A is defined as that re6ion of the uni#erse that is characterized ! com)lete and full mem ershi) in the set A.Ehat is the core com)rises those elements A of the uni#ersesuch that u a8%921 (. What is the hei6ht of a fuzz! set\$ Ans: 5ei6ht of a fuzz! set A is the ma%imum #alue of the mem ershi) function. *. What is an an6ular fuzz! set\$ Ans: Ehe! are defined on a uni#erse of an6les0 hence are re)eatin6 sha)es e#er! 2)i c!cles.Eheseare used in >uantitati#e descri)tion of lin6uistic #aria les known as truth #alues. 1,. +%)lain how lin6uistic #aria le is different from numerical #aria le. Ans: Hin6uistic #aria les are those assumed in a 6i#en measurement8knowled6e ased9 whereas numerical #aria les are those that are o ser#ed in a measurement.

7. Nov 2006
@. ;or the 2 inter#als 712 Fa0 G and 722Fc0dG0 a))l! restricted D:W al6orithm for inter#al multi)lication and di#ision.multi)lication: 8aI 92Fac0 dGJdi#ision8a? 92Fa?c0 ?dG *. What are the uses of Eautolo6ies\$ Ans: . Ehe! are useful for deducti#e reasonin60 )ro#in6 theorems and for makin6 deducti#e inferences.

8. Nov 2007
1. 5ow are fuzz! set )oints in h!)er cu es re)resented\$

## 7N2F,01GN 3. What are the oundaries of a mem ershi) function\$ ,Kua8A9K1

9. March 2006
3. Define fuzz! <artesian )roduct. Ans: Het A e a fuzz! set on uni#erse A0 C e a fuzz! set on uni#erse D0 then the <artesian )roduct ?w A & C will result in a fuzz! relation or which is contained within the full cartesian )roduct s)ace A%C 2 L elon6s to A%D where the fuzz! relation L has mem ershi) function UL8%0!92 UA%C8%0!92min8UA8%9. UC8!99. 4. What is cardinalit!\$ ;ind the cardinalit! of set A2/10203041 Ans: <ardinalit! is num er of elements in a set. 4. '. +%)lain the su))ort of a mem ershi) function. (. What is a fuzz! num er\$ @. Define normal fuzz! set\$ Ans: 7t is 1 whose mem ershi) function has at least one element A in the uni#erse whose mem ershi) #alue is unit!.

## 10. November 2009

&. What are crosso#er )oints\$ Ans: <rosso#er )oints of mem ershi) function are defined as the elements in the uni#erse for which a )articular fuzz! set A has #alues e>ual to ,.& ie for which UA8%92,.& .

## 11. May 2010

2. 5ow will !ou con#ert fuzz! tolerance to fuzz! e>ui#alence relation\$ Ans: ;uzz! tolerance relation can e con#erted into e>ui#alence relation ! at most N"1 com)ositions0 Must like cris) tolerance relation to e>ui#alence function. 3. What is the com)osition of fuzz! relations and state its uses. 4. Write down the mem ershi) function for the ell" sha)ed fuzz! mem ershi) dia6ram.

&. ;ind the #alues of A"C and A U C from the fuzz! sets A & C. A2/,.&?1 N ,.&?4 N ,.'?&1 C2/ 1?1 N ,.2?4 N ,.*?&1 '. Define fuzz! transform and 6i#e an e%am)le. Ans: A fuzz! transform is a ma))in6 that e%ists from sin6le element to a fuzz! set in the )ower set of the uni#erse. @. Usin6 the truth ta le0 show that the statement 88="OP9Q=QPR9 is contradiction. *. What is a))ro%imate reasonin6\$ Ans: 7t is the reasonin6 used to form the theoretical foundation for reasonin6 a out im)recise )re)ositions. 7t is analo6ous to )redicate lo6ic for reasonin6 with )recise )ro)ositions and hence is an e%tension of classical )ro)ositional calculus that deals with )artial truth.