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The salivary glands send saliva into the mouth where the teeth chew the food, and the tongue forms a bolus for swallowing. The air passage and food passage cross in the pharynx. When one swallows, the air passage is usually blocked off and food must enter the esophagus where peristalsis begins. The stomach expands and stores food. While food is in the stomach, it churns, mixing food with the acid gastric juices. The walls of the small intestine have fingerlike projections called villi where nutrient molecules are absorbed into the circulatory and lymphatic systems. The large intestine consists of the cecum; colons (ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid); and the rectum, which ends at the anus. The large intestine does not produce digestive enzymes; it does absorb water, salts, and some vitamins. The three accessory organs of digestionthe pancreas, liver, and gallbladder send secretions to the duodenum via ducts. The pancreas produces pancreatic juice, which contains digestive enzymes for carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder. The liver receives blood from the small intestine by way of the hepatic portal vein. It has numerous important functions, and any malfunction of the liver is a matter of considerable concern. Digestive enzymes are present in digestive juices, and they break down food into the nutrient molecules: glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol (see Table 12.2 in the text). Glucose and amino acids are absorbed into the blood capillaries of the villi. Fatty acids and glycerol rejoin to produce fat, which enters the lacteals. Digestive enzymes have the usual enzymatic properties. They are specific to their substrate and speed up specific reactions at body temperature and optimum pH. The nutrients released by the digestive process should provide us with an adequate amount of energy, essential amino acids and fatty acids, and all necessary vitamins and minerals. The bulk of the diet should be carbohydrates (like bread, pasta, and rice) and fruits and vegetables. These are low in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol molecules, whose intake is linked to cardiovascular disease. The vitamins A, E, and C are antioxidants that protect cell contents from damage due to free radicals.

Study the text section by section as you answer the questions that follow.


The human digestive system is an extended tube with specialized parts between two openings, the mouth and the anus. Food is ingested and then digested to small molecules that are absorbed. Indigestible remains are eliminated.


Questions 17 pertain to the following diagram.

salivary gland food

esophagus Digestion

liver gallbladder

stomach (gastric glands)


Absorption lymphatic vessel (to vein)

small intestine (intestinal glands)


large intestine H 2O feces anus Defecation

blood vessel (to liver)

1. Food is received by the a.________________, which possesses b.________________ to grind and break up particles.

______________ glands secrete d._______________ that moistens food and binds it together for swallowing. The

taste of food is detected by e.________________ located on the f.________________. 2. At the back of the mouth, the muscular a._________________ is involved in swallowing food. The epiglottis folds over the glottis during the swallowing b.________________. 3. The esophagus propels food toward the a.________________, using muscular contractions called

________________. At the upper end of the esophagus, a muscular ring called a(n) c.________________ regulates

the entrance of food to the esophagus. 4. The stomach is lined with a.________________ that secretes protective b._______________. Otherwise, the lining would be injured by the strong c._______________acid secreted by d._______________ glands. Gastric juice also contains e._____________ that breaks down proteins. 5. The layer of the digestive tract that houses blood vessels is the a.________________. The b._______________ layer contains two layers of smooth muscle. The outside layer, c.________________, protects the digestive tube. 6. The first section of the small intestine is the a._______________. It receives secretions from the b._______________ and c._______________ and also receives food known as d._______________ from the stomach. 7. The mucosa of the small intestine is folded into a._______________, which, in turn, have projections from individual cells called b.________________. Proteins in the microvilli transport nutrients such as c._______________ directly into the bloodstream, and fats must be reconstructed so they can travel into vessels of the lymphatic system called d.________________.


8. State the purpose of microvilli. 9. A number of hormones control the secretions of digestive juices. a._____________ is secreted in response to protein in foods and enhances gastric gland output, while b.______________ inhibits gastric secretion. c._______________ is secreted in response to acidic chyme. When fats are present in chyme, d._______________ triggers the release of bile from the gallbladder. 10. The large intestine functions to store and compact a._______________. Unusual outgrowths of the lining of the colon, called b._______________, can be either benign or cancerous. Colon cancer incidence increases for people who do not have enough c._______________ in their diets.


The pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder are accessory organs of digestion because their activities assist the digestive process. 11. Pancreatic juice contains a mix of a._______________ solution to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive

_________________ to further break down food. _________________. The liver has been called the c._________________ to the blood because it detoxifies

12. The liver produces a greenish substance called a._________________, which is stored and concentrated by the

substances entering the blood from the d._________________. Other functions of the liver include (list three)
e. f.

__________________________________________ __________________________________________


g. a.

13. __________________ is an inflammatory disease of the liver caused by a viral infection, while b._________________ is damage caused by chronic alcohol abuse.


The products of digestion are small molecules, such as amino acids and glucose, that can cross plasma membranes. The digestive enzymes are specific and have an optimum temperature and pH at which they function. 14. a.________________ is a fat-digesting enzyme produced by the accessory organ, the b._____________. Starch digestion begins in the c.____________ with salivary d._______________ and continues in the e.________________ with pancreatic


15. Protein digestion begins in the a.________________ where the enzyme b._______________ is produced, and continues in the small intestine with the aid of the enzyme c._______________ from the pancreas.

12.4 NUTRITION (P . 226)

Proper nutrition supplies the body with energy and nutrients, including the essential amino acids and fatty acids, and all vitamins and minerals.


16. Fill in the blanks of the following food guide pyramid. Include the following groups, listed in alphabetical order, and indicate the recommended number of daily servings from each group: bread, rice, pasta group dairy group fruit group meat, poultry, fish, and beans group vegetable group sweets, fats, and oils group

Food Guide Pyramid: A guide to daily food choices

17. Of the macronutrients, a.________________ are the primary source of energy in the diet, while b._________________ supply building materials. c._________________ are stored to supply energy at a later time. 18. In the small intestine, a.________________ and b.________________ pass into the wall of the small intestine and from there, into c.________________. Fats travel a different route, into d._________________, after being reconstructed in intestinal cells. 19. It is recommended that carbohydrates comprise a.______________% of calories in the diet, with the bulk of those being b.______________ carbohydrates. Fats should be less than c._________________% of total calories for the day, especially keeping d.________________ fats to a minimum. 20. Many vitamins function as a.________________ in various metabolic pathways. Vitamin b._______________ is important as a visual pigment, and vitamin c.__________________ is turned into a compound that enhances calcium absorption. Vitamins d.__________________ are antioxidants. 21. Too much of the mineral a.__________________ can lead to hypertension. The mineral b._________________ is a major component of bones and teeth. Eating Disorders (p. 234) 22. Assign an O for obesity, B for bulimia nervosa, or A for anorexia nervosa to these descriptions. _____ a. Body weight is O.K., but weight is regulated by purging after binge eating. _____ b. Body weight is too low, and person may binge eat and purge. _____ c. Body weight is 20% or more above appropriate weight for height. _____ d. Exercise is most often minimal. _____ e. Often accompanied by excessive exercise.


For questions 16, match the following digestive system structures to each of the statements below. a. pharynx b. soft palate c. esophagus d. stomach e. small intestine f. large intestine _____1. blocks food from entering nasal passages _____2. conducts food from throat to stomach _____3. common passageway for food and air _____4. longest portion of the digestive tract _____5. contains cecum, colon, rectum, and anus _____6. has pyloric sphincter on one end _____7. The layer of the digestive tube that keeps it from sticking to surrounding internal organs is the a. serous layer. b. submucosa. c. mucosa. d. muscularis. For questions 812, match these organs to each of the functions listed. a. large intestine b. stomach c. liver d. pancreas e. gallbladder _____8. secretes digestive enzymes and bicarbonate _____9. releases bile into the duodenum ____10. absorbs water and alcohol, initiates protein breakdown ____11. detoxifies blood ____12. absorbs water and houses bacteria ____13. Cholecystokinin is a(n) ________________ secreted in response to ______________ in food. a. enzyme, protein b. hormone, fats c. lipid, carbohydrates d. hormone, carbohydrates ____14. Which enzyme digests starch? a. lipase b. carboxypeptidase c. trypsin d. amylase ____15. HCl a. is an enzyme. b. creates the acid environment necessary for pepsin to work. c. is found in the intestines. d. all of these ____16. Two enzymes involved in the digestion of protein are a. salivary amylase and lipase. b. trypsin and hydrochloric acid. c. pancreatic amylase and trypsin. d. pepsin and trypsin. ____17. What is absorbed into the lacteals? a. proteins b. fats c. carbohydrates d. water and amino acids ____18. Villi a. are found in the small intestine. b. increase the absorptive surface area. c. contain capillaries. d. All of these are correct. ____19. The enzymes for digestion are referred to as hydrolytic because they require a. hydrogen. b. HCl. c. energy. d. water. ____20. What type of food has the highest fat content? a. meat b. bread c. potatoes d. fruits ____21. What is the best way to ensure that you are obtaining plenty of vitamins and minerals in your diet? a. Take mega-multiple vitamin supplements. b. Be sure you eat five fruit and vegetable servings daily. c. Eat lots of red meat. d. Eat white bread. ____22. Which macronutrient supplies quick energy and should comprise the bulk of the diet? a. milk and cheese b. lipids c. carbohydrates d. proteins ____23. An eating disorder characterized by binging on food, then inducing vomiting or other purging is a. bulimia. b. anorexia nervosa. c. obesity. d. cirrhosis. ____24. Which type of fat is best to consume in quantity? a. saturated fats b. monounsaturated fats c. polyunsaturated fats d. None of these should be consumed in quantity. ____25. Which of the following are considered antioxidants? a. calcium and sodium b. B vitamins and selenium c. vitamin E and iron d. vitamins C, E, and A


Answer in complete sentences. 26. Why is digestion a necessary process for humans?

27. Why is it advantageous for the human body to have a variety of hormones to control digestion?

Test Results: _______ number correct 27 = _________ 100 = _______%

1. a. mouth b. teeth c. salivary d. saliva e. taste buds f. tongue 2. a. pharynx b. reflex 3. a. stomach b. peristalsis c. sphincter (constrictor) 4. a. mucosa b. mucus c. hydrochloric d. gastric e. pepsin 5. a. submucosa b. muscularis c. serosa 6. a. duodenum b. pancreas c. gallbladder d. chyme 7. a. villi b. microvilli c. glucose and amino acids d. lacteals 8. To increase the surface area available for absorption in the small intestine. 9. a. gastrin b. gastric inhibitory peptide c. secretin d. cholecystokinin 10. a. feces b. polyps c. fiber 11. a. bicarbonate b. enzymes 12. a. bile b. gallbladder c. gatekeeper d. small intestine e. storing iron and fat-soluble vitamins f. storing glycogen g. making blood plasma proteins 13. a. hepatitis b. cirrhosis 14. a. lipase b. pancreas c. mouth d. amylase e. small intestine f. amylase 15. a. stomach b. pepsin c. trypsin 16. Refer to Figure 12.13 in the text. 17. a. carbohydrates b. proteins c. lipids 18. a. carbohydrates b. proteins c. blood d. lacteals 19. a. 58 b. complex c. 30 d. saturated 20. a. coenzymes b. A c. D d. C, E, and A 21. a. sodium b. calcium 22. a. B b. A c. O d. O e. A

1. b 2. c 3. a 4. e 5. f 6. d 7. a 8. d 9. e 10. b 11. c 12. a 13. b 14. d 15. b 16. d 17. b 18. d 19. d 20. a 21. b 22. c 23. a 24. d 25. d 26. Like all other organisms, humans function at the level of the cell. Digestion occurs so that nutrients in foods can be processed to the point that they are available to individual cells. 27. Digestion does not need to occur continuously. Certain digestive responses are needed when food intake warrants it (e.g., pepsin secretion in the stomach with the arrival of protein there, signaled by gastrin secretion).