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State out the differences between high level and assembly language.

Features of high level language: - High level languages are easily understandable. - The programs that are developed in high level language are portable. - In case of high level languages debugging of the code is easy and the program written is not machine dependent. Features of Assembly language: - Although Assembly level languages are not easy to understand they are relatively easier as compared to machine level languages. - The programs written in this language are not portable and the debugging process is also not very easy. - The programs developed in assembly language are thoroughly machine dependent.

Difference between Compiler and Interpreter


No 1 2 3

Compiler
Compiler Takes Entire program as input Intermediate Object Code is Generated Conditional Control Statements are Executes faster Memory Requirement : More (Since Object Code is Generated) Program need not be compiled every time Errors are displayed after entire program is checked Example : C Compiler

Interpreter
Interpreter Takes Single instruction as input . No Intermediate Object Code is Generated Conditional Control Statements are Executes slower

Memory Requirement is Less Every time higher level program is converted into lower level program Errors are displayed for every instruction interpreted (if any) Example : BASIC

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Explanation : Compiler Vs Interpreter


Just understand the concept of the compiler and interpreter 1. We give complete program as input to the compiler. Our program is in the human readable format. 2. Human readable format undergoes many passes and phases of compiler and finally it is converted into the machine readable format. 3. However interpreter takes single line of code as input at a time and execute that line. It will terminate the execution of the code as soon as it finds the error. 4. Memory requirement is less in Case of interpreter because no object code is created in case of interpreter.

Comparison chart

Hardware

Software

Definition:

Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer. Software is a program Devices that are required to store and execute (or run) that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as the software. opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). System software, Programming software, and Application software.

Types:

Input,storage,processing,control, and output devices.

Examples:

Quickbooks, Adobe Acrobat, CD-ROM, monitor, printer, video card, scanners , label Winoms-Cs, Internet Explorer , makers, routers , and modems. Microsoft Word , Microsoft Excel Hardware serve as the delivery system for software solutions. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, in comparison with software and data, which are soft in the sense that they are readily created, modified, or erased on the comput To perform the specific task you need to complete. Software is generally not needed to for the hardware to perform its basic level tasks such as turning on and reponding to input. To deliver its set of instructions, Software is installed on hardware. Software failure is systematic. Software does not have an increasing failure rate. Software does not wear out over time. However, bugs are discovered in software as time passes. Software is logical in nature.

Function:

Inter Hardware starts functioning once software is loaded. dependency: Hardware failure is random. Hardware does have increasing failure at the last stage.

Failure:

Durability:

Hardware wears out over time.

Nature:

Hardware is physical in nature.

BUS:
In computer architecture, a bus (from the Latin omnibus, meaning 'for all') is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components (wire, optical fiber, etc.) and software, including communication protocol.

COMPARISON BETWEEN IMPACT PRINTER AND NON-IMPACT PRINTER

We summarized all the differences between impact printer and non-impact printer regarding to their features. 1. Descriptions : Impact printer - Produces text and images when tiny wire pins on print head strike the ink ribbon by physically contacting the paper Non-impact printer - Produces text and graphics on paper without actually striking the paper 2. Types : Impact printer - Dot-matrix printer Non-impact printer - Inkjet printer, laser printer and thermal printer 3. Speed : Impact printer - Low printing speed Non-impact printer - Reasonably fast 4. Quality : Impact printer - Print quality lower in some types Non-impact printer - High quality of output, capable of printing fine and smooth details 5. Letter quality : Impact printer - Produce near letter quality (NLQ) print only, which is just suitable for printing mailing labels, envelopes, or invoices Non-impact printer - Letter-quality printouts 6. Consumption : Impact printer - Not commonly used today Non-impact printer - Most commonly used printer today 7. Tools : Impact printer - Uses ink ribbon Non-impact printer - Uses ink spray or toner powder 8. Cost : Impact printer - Less expensive Non-impact printer - More expensive 9. Durability : Impact printer - Reliable, durable (lasting for a long time) Non-impact printer - Print head is less durable, inclined towards to clogging and damage.

What is the difference between inkjet and laser printers?


It can be difficult to determine which labels to use in what kind of printer. Many people don't know the difference between inkjet printers and laser printers. We cover the basics of each printer, and then compare them for you.

Inkjet Printers 101


In a nutshell, the term "inkjet" is an apt description of the process these printers go through. An inkjet printer uses ink, which it sprays onto a piece of paper (or label) in a series of tiny dots. If low-quality paper is used in an inkjet printer, the paper may absorb too much of the ink and cause it to feather out, making images appear blurry. Smoother paper coated in a waxy film produces sharper images, because just enough ink soaks in to dry while some still remains on the surface. The brighter the paper, the better the image an inkjet printer will produce. Bright paper is a result of smooth paper. While rough paper scatters light, smooth paper reflects the light back in the same direction, making it appear brighter. In addition to preventing feathering, coated paper sometimes allows two layers of ink to be applied, creating a much higher resolution image. So for best results in inkjet printing, use bright, waxy, smooth paper. All but three kinds of Desktop Labels; gold and silver metallic labels, white and color polyester labels, and clear polyester labels, can be used in an inkjet printer. These labels are made of a material that does not allow the ink to soak in, and causes the ink to smear.

Laser Printers 101


The most obvious difference between inkjet and laser printers is that while inkjets use ink, laser printers use toner to produce an image. Toner is an electrically charged powder that is fused to paper fibers using heat during the printing process. How the toner gets to the paper, however, is a little involved. Imagine you have a paint roller with an embossed pattern. If you rolled that roller through paint, and then rolled it on a wall, the raised pattern would be transferred onto the wall. That is essentially what happens in laser printers, but with static electricity and a "drum." A printer drum looks like a thick rolling pin. A laser uses electric charges to draw an image on the drum, which is then coated in toner. The toner sticks to the charges, and as paper passes through below, the image is transferred. The paper then passes through heated rollers called "fusers," which fuse the toner to the paper fibers. The fusing process is what makes laser printing so advantageous; the image will not smudge or blur and does not need to dry.

Comparison chart

RAM
Random Access Memory or RAM is a form of data storage that can be accessed randomly at any time, in any Definition: order and from any physical location., allowing quick access and manipulation. Stands for: Random Access Memory

ROM
Read-only memory or ROM is also a form of data storage that can not be easily altered or reprogrammed.Stores instuctions that are not nescesary for re-booting up to make the computer operate when it is switched off.They are hardwired.

Read-only memory

Use:

RAM allows the computer to read data ROM stores the program required to initially boot the quickly to run applications. It allows computer. It only allows reading. reading and writing. RAM is volatile i.e. its contents are lost It is non-volatile i.e. its contents are retained even when the device is powered off. when the device is powered off. The two main types of RAM are static The types of ROM include PROM, EPROM and RAM and dynamic RAM. EEPROM.

Volatility:

Types:

Rom, Prom and Eproms


RAM is short for Random Access Memory. It's the main memory your system uses to handle the programs and data it's currently running and working on. It comes in two kinds--DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) and SRAM (Static Random Access Memory). SRAM is MUCH faster, DRAM is MUCH cheaper. The "RAM sticks" you purchase to upgrade your computer are all DRAM. All those names (SDRAM, RDRAM, DDR, DDR2, etc. are just variations on DRAM technology, and they are packaged on differentlyshaped sticks and have different voltage requirements, which is why you cannot put SDRAM in a DDR2 system or any other crazy combination. ROM is Read-Only Memory. It comes in many forms (CD-ROM, flash ROM, etc.). All it means is memory that can be read from, but not written to. That's why you can't re-write stuff to a CD-ROM. It's "readonly". The data it contains is encoded into it when it's constructed and it cannot be changed. PROM is Programmable Read-Only Memory. It is able to be written to by certain means (not by the computer; you need special equipment) but it cannot be erased or re-written. Technically a CD-ROM is PROM, since is programmed by the laser in your CD burner "burning" the data into it, but we call it CDROM because we're confused human beings :) EPROM is Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. It can be erased and re-written to--but still not by the computer, only by special methods. EEPROM is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. It IS able to be written to by the computer normally; not as storage space or workspace, but it can be "reprogrammed" by your computer without special equipment. An example of EEPROM is the CMOS chip that your BIOS is stored on. It is electronically programmable so that you can update your BIOS without having to buy and physically install a new CMOS chip like they did in the old days.

SIMMS AND DIMMS


DIMM stands for dual inline memory module, and SIMM stands for single inline memory module. The gold or tin pins on the lower edge of the front and back of a SIMM are connected, providing a single line of communication paths between the module and the system.

The pins on a DIMM are not connected, providing two lines of communication paths between the module and the system, one in the front and one in the back. SIMMs and DIMMs are not interchangeable; they are different sizes and they install into different types of sockets.

Cd-Rom
1. A CD-ROM, or a CD drive, reads Compact Discs, most computer nowadays have DVD-Roms in them, meaning they can read cd's and dvd's. 2. Compact Disks are optical media; they record information by burning pits in the disk and use a laser and optical sensor to detect whether a pit is present or not 3. CDs are more robust and cheaper, but slower - particularly when writing or rewriting information

HardDisk
1. A hard drive, or a hard disk, is always in the computer and cannot be modified, you cannot change the disc inside the hard drive 2. A hard disk is a magnetic system - a recording head is moved close to the surface of the disk and used to read or write information 3. Hard drives can hold more information, are faster and can be rewritten indefinitely.

Windows Explorer
1. My computer is an icon and can be created any where in the computer system. 2. Opposite to this when you explore the window explorer it contains all the partition of computer hard disk and the entire folders that contain all the files in that particular folder. 3. Windows explorer gives views of the folders and sub folders into one single window. 4. Windows explorer is divided into two panes one on the left side and the other on the right.

My Computer
1. Windows Explorer is a menu which can not be converted into computer icon and it can only be accessed by right clicking on my computer icon or through the start button. 2. Whenever you open my computer it contains all the partitions of your hard disk, such as A: drive C: Drive D: Drive control panel and network etc. 3. In my computer all the folder and subfolder can be accessed through a stepby-step window opening process. 4. My computer is a single window.

The Higher Education Commission (HEC), Sector H-9, Islamabad

Subject:R/Sir,

AUTHORITY LETTER FOR ATTESTATION OF DEGREE

I, the undersigned, want the attestation of my Bachelor of Science Degree from your esteemed office. Sir, I am working in a private organization and I am unable to appeared at your office Islamabad, for the attestation of degree. You are requested to kindly attest my degree. I authorized Mr. Taimoor Abbasi S/O Khaliq Dad CNIC No.61101-4316001-1, resident of House No.438/A Gali No.71, Sector G-6/11 Islamabad to get attestation of my degree from Higher Education Commission (HEC) Islamabad.

Specimen of Signature

Taimoor Abbasi

Regards, Lubna Waheed D/O Abdul Waheed CNIC No.42201-4243811-2 H.No.119, Mohallaha Banglor, Town Sharah Faisal Karachi