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# SPH pr 04 - noninteracting current for 3-terminal device: Generalize the formulas we obtained for the

noninteracting current on page 6 of Noninteracting.pdf to the case where there are three reservoirs, L, R, and
M, instead of two, L and R. The system is the following 3-terminal model,
(1.1)

The hopping Hamiltonians,

* * *
, , , , , , , , ,
; ; ;
L C L C L C C L C L C R R C R C C R C R C M M C M C C M C M
H W c c W c c H W c c W c c H W c c W c c = + = + = + (1.2)

Let there be current from L to R, and let it have the directionality indicated by the -/+ coordinates of (1.1). The
left and right current-operators in frequency (energy) space, where
d
dt
e i , appear as,

( )
( )
*
, , , , ,
*
, , , , ,
( ) . . ( [ ]) . . . . ;
( ) . . ( [ ]) . . . . ;
L L L C L L C L L C L C L C L C L L C L C
R R R C R R C R R C R C R C R C R R C R C
I N I N h c W N h c W c c h c W c c W c c
I N I N h c W N h c W c c h c W c c W c c
e
e
= = + = + = + =
= + = + + = + + = + = +
i i i i
i i i i

(1.3)

Thermal averaging: On taking the thermal average of the operators (1.3), we encounter Green functions,

( )

, ,

, ,
( , ) ( , ) ( ) ( ) h propagator ;
( , ) ( , ) ( ) ( ) e propagator ;
( , ) ( , ) ( ) ( , ) ( , ) ;
jj ss j s j s
jj ss j s j s
r r r
jj ss jj ss jj ss
G G t t g t t c t c t
G G t t g t t c t c t
G G t t g t t t t g t t g t t
< < < +
' ' '
> > >
' ' '
< >
' ' ' ' ' '
' ' ' ( = = = = e

' ' ' ( = = = = e

' ' ' ' ' = = = O + e i

( )
( )
( , ) ( , ) ( ) ( , ) ( , ) ;
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ;
a a a
jj ss jj ss jj ss
k k k
jj ss jj ss jj ss
G G t t g t t t t g t t g t t
G G t t g t t g t t g t t
< >
' ' ' ' ' '
< >
' ' ' ' ' '
' ' ' ' ' = = = + O + e
' ' ' ' = = = e
i
i i

(1.4)

Thus, the left-right currents of (1.3), for spin being irrelevant ( s s' = ), appear (in the <, > basis) as,

( ) ( ) ( )
* * *
, , , , , , , , , ,
; ;
L C L C L L C L C C L L C L C C L R C R C R R C R C
I W c c W c c W g W g I W g W g
< < < <
= = = + i i i (1.5)

The Dyson equation: We wish to rewrite the g
<
s of (1.5) entirely in terms of on-center g
<
s. The Dyson
equation
1
, with Langreth time-ordering, implied summation, and C L ' = (i.e.,
, L C
g
<
'
for , C C M ' = ), is,

. . ,0 ,0
, , , , , , , ,
. . ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
;
D C r r r r a a a a
L C L C C C C C C L C C C C C L
D C a a r r a a r r
L C L C C C C C L C C C C C C L C C C C C L C C C C
g g g g g g
g g g g g g g g g g
'' '' ''' ''' ''' ''' '' ''
< < < < <
'' '' ''' ''' '' '' ''' ''' '' '' ''' ''' '' '' ''' ''
= E = E
= E = E = E = E
,
;
C L
<
'
(1.6)

Intermediary the spectral function and the Dyson equation: using (1.6), and the following abbreviations,

1
Graphically:

( ) ( ) ( )
,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
2 ; 2 ; 2 ;
L r a R r a M r a
C L L L L L L C C R R R R R R C C M M M M M M C
L R M
W g g W W g g W W g g W
' ' '
I = I = I =

i i i (1.7)

one can define a new member of the basis of Green functions (1.4), the real-definite spectral function
( ) 2Im
r a r
a g g g = i . The following are operators,

( )
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 (2 ) ;
r a
r a r a r r a a r L R M a r a
g g
a g g g g g g g g g g o o = = + I + I + I = I i i i (1.8)

The currents entirely in terms of center-site Green functions: Using (1.6), we eliminate the Green functions
, , L C C L
g g
< <
and
, , C R R C
g g
< <
in favour of center-site Green functions
, ,
r a
C C C C
g g
' '
and
, , C C C C
g g
< <
' '
, and
also introduce the spectral function
r a
jj jj jj
a g g
' ' '
i of (1.8),

( ) ( )
0 ,0 0 ,0
, , , , ,
, , , ,
; ;
2 2
L L C C L LL C C CC LL R R C C R RR C C CC R R
L C C R C C
d d
I W W a g a g I W W a g a g
e e
t t
< < < <
' ' ' ' ' '
' '
= = +

} }
(1.9)

The dressing due to the 3
rd
lead: The presence of the 3
rd
lead will be felt in the dressing (self-energy in
Dysons equation) which determines the explicit
, ,
r a
C C C C
g g
' '
and
, , C C C C
g g
< <
' '
.

The retarded, advanced and < self-energies
2
, using the abbreviation (1.8), are,

[ , ] 0,[ , ] 0,[ , ] 0,[ , ]
, , ,
; 2Tr( );
r a r a r a r a L R M
C C C L LL L C C R RR R C C M MM M C C C L R M
L R M
W g W W g W W g W f f f o o
<
' ' ' ' '
= + + = I + I + I

(1.10)

Using the self-energies (1.10) in the Dyson equation (1.6), the
, C C
g
<
'
, and non-dressed
,0
LL
g
<
and
,0
, R R
g
<
of the
currents (1.9) become,

, , , , ,
(2 2 2 ) Tr 2 ;
r a r L R M a r a
C C C C C C C C C C L R M C C
C C
g g g g f f f g g g o
< <
' '' '' ''' ''' ' '' ''' '
'' '''
= = I + I + I = I

(1.11)

Using (1.11), we have the two terms in each of the currents (1.9) evaluated as,

( )
( )
,0 0
, , ,
, , , ,
,0 0
, , , ,
, , , ,
Tr 2 2 ; Tr 2 2 2 2 ;
Tr 2 2 ; Tr 2 2 2 2 ;
r a L r L R M a L
L C C L CC LL L L C C L LL C C L R M
L C C L C C
r a R r L R M a R
R C C R CC R R R R C C R RR C C L R M
R C C R C C
W W a g g g f W W a g g f f f g
W W a g g g f W W a g g f f f g
< <
' ' ' '
' '
< <
' ' ' '
' '
= I I = I + I + I I
= I I = I + I + I I

(1.12)

Putting (1.12) into (1.9), the currents become,

( )
( )
, ,
, ,
Tr (2 2 2 ) 2 2 2
2
Tr 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ;
2
r L R M a L r a L
L L R M L
L C C
r R M a L
L R M L
L C C
d
I g f f f g g g f
d
g f f f f g
e
t
e
t
'
'
= I + I + I I I I
= + I I I

}
(1.13)

2
The self-energy
jj
o
'
is the sum of all possible transitions from j to j, with the constraint that the hopping begins and ends at the site
(Green function) it is dressing (this is the qualitative statement of Dysons equation (1.6)).

( )
( )
Tr (2 2 2 ) 2 2 2
2
Tr 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ;
2
r L R M a R r a R
R L R M R
r L M a R
L R M R
d
I g f f f g g g f
d
g f f f f g
e
t
e
t
= + I + I + I I I I
= + I + I I
}
}
(1.14)

We can try computing
1
2
( )
L R
I I + , and we see the effect of the middle terminal disappears in such an
average,

, , , ,
(2 2 )( )
Tr Tr 2 ( ) ;
2 2 2
2 ( )
R L
L R L R r a L r a L
L R
M
L C C L C C
L R M M
f f I I
d d
I g g g f f g
f f f f
e e
t t
' '
| | I + I +
= = I = I I
|
|
+ I +
\ .

} }
(1.15)

Limiting case: For 0
M
I , the currents

( ) ( )
Tr 2 ( ) 0 2 ; Tr 0 2 ( ) 2 ;
2 2
R L L R
L r L R a R r L R a
d d
I g f f g I g f f g
e e
t t
= I I = + I I
} }
(1.16)