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Operation Management PERT/CPM Network:

We have selected the gold smith business for the project of critical path method .In the process of jewelry making there are following activities are involved 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Order of raw gold Conversation of gold into 22 k Melting of gold Structure making Designing Stone cutting Stone setting in jewelry polishing

1. Conversion of gold:
The purest form of Gold considered 24 carats is equal to roughly 99.9 percent purity When we say 24k or 24k Gold jewelry, we mean that all the 24 parts in the gold are just pure gold without traces of any other metal(s) or 99.9 percent pure. When we say 22kt or 22k Gold Jewelry we mean that 22 parts of the jewelry, is gold and the remaining 2 parts are some other metal(s) or equal to 91.3 percent gold plus 8.6 percent of some other metal We can roughly state that each Karat is equal to approximately 4.1625 percent. The difference of the other metal or alloys of the metal, gives the jewelry its hardness and color. We can state that 24 Karat is the softest and 10 karat the hardest, because 10kt would have 41.6 percent gold and the balance would be other metals which are mostly harder than gold.. The color from the other metals enhances the beauty of the jewelry as the case may be, white gold, yellow gold, red gold etc.22k gold contains Gold 91.67%, Silver 5%, Copper 2%, Zinc 1.33%.the main reason behind converting 24 k gold into 22k is that the 22k gold is soft it cannot be used for making the jewelry because the jewelry made by 24 k losses its real shape.

2. Melting of gold:
In this process the 22k gold is melted and converted into gold plates than gold wires are made out of these gold wires and jewelry structure is made by pouring gold into wax Different traditional and modern techniques are being used in melting of gold .In melting process gold is place in crucible. Since gold melts at almost 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, you need a container that won't melt before the gold does. In melting of gold an acetylene torch is used.

3. Structure making:
In this process jewels wax is used. In this process wax is being slice half width wise to create identical halves. Wax file is being used to create an even surface on our wax halves than pattern is created equal to length and size and alternatively we can use another mold (if available) or a copy of the jewelry to make and press it down into softened wax to make an impression. Then we will pour the molten gold into wax mold.

4. Designing :
In this process the structured jewelry is designed.

5. Stone cutting and stone setting:


In this process stone cutting is done according to the design selected and these stones are settled in the jewelry.

6. Polishing:
In this process jewelry is being polished. The process of polishing is consisting of chemical polishing, brushing, drum machine, color balancing. In polishing process jewelry gets the shine.

Activity list for making jewelry set of Haroon Jewelers:


Activity Activity Description Immediate predecessor Completion time (Hrs) -------1.3

Order of raw gold

Conversation of gold into 22 k

0.58

C D E

Wax mold Melting Structure making

A B C,D

2 0.50 0.25

Designing

G H

Stone cutting Stone setting in jewelry

E F,G

0.42 0.33

polishing

PERT/CPM Network:
A [0, 1.50] B [1 .50, 1.88] D [1.88, 2.38] E {3.3 , 3.55}

1 1.30 [0, 1.50]

2 0.58 [2.2, 2.8]

3 0.50 [2.2, 3.3]

5 0.25(3.3, 3.55)
4

6
4

2 [1.50, 3.3]

C [1.50, 3.3]

0.42 [4.13, 4.55] G [3.55,3.97]

1 [3.55, 4.55]

F [3.55, 4.55]

7
4

8
4

0.33 [4.55, 4.88]

H{4.55,4.88}

I [4.88, 6.88]

9 2[4.88,6.88]
4

ACTIVITY SCHEDULE:
Activity Earliest Start (ES) 0 1.30 1.30 1.88 3.3 3.55 3.55 4.55 4.88 Latest Start (LS) 0 2.2 1.30 2.8 3.3 3.55 4.13 4.55 4.88 Earliest Finish (EF) 1.30 1.88 3.3 2.38 3.55 4.55 3.97 4.88 6.88 Latest Slack Finish (LF) (LS-ES) 1.30 2.80 3.3 3.3 3.55 4.55 4.55 4.88 6.88 0 0.60 0 0.50 0 0 0.42 0 0 Critical Path YES --YES --YES YES --YES YES

A B C D E F G H I

Activities A, C, E, F, H, and I are critical activities and cannot be delayed because delay in any of these activities can result in the whole delay of process of jewelry set.

Optimistic, Most Probable and Pessimistic Activity Time Estimates [in Hours]:
Activity A B C D Optimistic (a) 1 0.50 1.50 0.42 Most Probable (m) 1.50 0.58 2 0.50 Pessimistic (b) 2.50 0.75 3 0.67

E F G H I

0.20 0.75 0.30 .20 1.50

0.25 1 0.42 0.33 2

0.40 1.50 0.75 .50 3.50

After that expected time of each activity is calculated by using the following formula:

t = a + 4m +b / 6 With uncertain activity time we can use the common statistical measure of variance to describe the dispersion or variation in the activity time value. The variance the activity time is given by the following formula:

Square of = [(b a ) / 6 )]^2

Expected Times and Variances:


Activity A B C D E F Expected Time in hours 1.58 0.60 2.08 0.52 0.27 1.04 Variance 0.0625 0.0017 0.0625 0.0017 0.0011 0.0156

G H I

0.46 0.34 2.17

0.0056 0.0025 0.11