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Cell & Plant Sci 2011 2 (3):12-21

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Cell & Plant Sci 2011 2 (3):12-21 Journal ofofofof Cell &Plant Sciences Journal Journal Journal Cell

Orjinal Article

Physiological and Biochemical Traits Analysis of Capsicum annum L. Germplasm for Resistance to Colletotrichum capsici

Navneet KAUR 1 , Jagtar Singh DHIMAN 2 , Daljit Singh KHURANA 3

1 University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA; 2 Punjab Agricultural University, Additional Director of Communication, Ludhiana, Punjab 152107, India; 3 Punjab Agricultural University, Department of Vegetable Crops, Ludhiana, Punjab 152107, India

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

Abstract

Colletotrichum capsici, the casual fungus of die back/fruit rot causes heavy losses in chilli (Capsicum annum L.) yield. The presence of this disease in India have a great impact on chilli production, as the current commercial varieties are considered to be susceptible, and the use of fungicides add additional costs to production in addition to environmental hazards. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen 17 chilli germplasm for field resistance to die back/fruit rot, (ii) to compare various biochemical and physiological characters among resistant and susceptible chilli genotypes. The experiment was randomized complete block with three replications and 17 genotypes (BC-30, Breek-1, Breek-2, Byadgi Kaddi, CH-1, CH-3, Jalandhri, Jaun, KDS-810, Ludhiana Local Selection (LLS), Longi, My12(3) 3 , Punjab Guchhedar, Punjab Lal, Punjab Surkh, Sanauri, Shahkoti). These genotypes were evaluated based on visual fruit rot severity in the field after inoculation with Colletotrichum capsici. Of the 17 chilli accessions, four accessions LLS, Breek-1, Breek-2, and Jaun were identified as resistant to die back/fruit rot. The resistant chilli genotypes were high in capsaicin and orthodihydroxy phenols (ODP) and exhibited more plant height, fruit length, days to first picking as compared to susceptible ones. The other characters which had a positive and direct effect on fruit rot were fruit width, fruit number per plant, stem thickness, fruit weight per plant, leaf area, and β-carotene whereas total flavonols, ascorbic acid, total sugars had a direct and negative effect on die back/fruit rot. A various physiological and biochemical traits that varied significantly among resistant and susceptible genotypes can be deployed in resistant breeding or as physiological and biochemical markers in marker assisted selection (MAS) breeding of chilli varieties. Additionally, these resistant chilli genotypes may be used as one of the donor parent to breed a new variety of chilli resistant to dieback/fruit rot.

Key words: breeding, chilli, die back, evaluation, fruit rot, genotypes

* Corresponding Author: N.Kaur, E-mail: navneet@illinois.edu, Phone:0012172446150, Fax: 0012173334582

INTRODUCTION

India is the major chilli producing country in the world, but the average productivity of chilli is low (1 ton/ha) as compared to China, Taiwan, and Mexico where it yields 3 tons/ha of dry chilli (Peter 1998). The main cause for low productivity in India is the cultivation of open pollinated varieties which do not have the genetic capacity to break the yield barriers. Moreover, the local cultivars are prone to various diseases perhaps account for significant reduction in

productivity. The most important fungal disease of chilli is die back/fruit rot, drastically reduces yields, deteriorates the quality of fruit, and hence gives low returns to the farmers. Yield losses had been significant in Punjab and Haryana (20- 60%) and Assam (12-30%) (Bansal and Grover 1969; Chowdhry 1957). Major fungal disease control strategy includes the use of chemicals which greatly increases the yield (Ekbote 2002; Jayasekhar et al. 1987; Hegde 2001).

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However, biological control of this pest has been reported using Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis (Gupta et al 1982; Jeyalakshmi et al. 1998). But due to high cost of chemicals, environment hazards, and weather conditions these approaches are not feasible. The identification and use of resistant genotypes against die back/fruit rot is the important component for genetic improvement of chilli. A number of resistant cultivars of chilli had been identified against die back/fruit rot at national and international level (Bansal et al. 1982; Chang and Chung 1985; Hegde and Anahosur 2001; Jeyalakshmi and Seetharaman 1998; Kadu 1978, Singh et al. 1977, Singh et al. 1997; Singh and Thind 1980; Smith and Crossan 1958; Ullalsa et al. 1981; Waraich and Saimbhi 1974). Since the host plant resistance provides the cheapest and most economic control of die back/fruit rot in chilli, therefore in this research 17 chilli genotypes were screened to identify resistance to this disease. A various biochemical characters also affect die back/fruit rot intensity in chilli such as total phenol, total sugars, capsaicin, ascorbic acid and total sugars that imparted resistance to fruit rot (Azad 1991; Borua and Das 2000; Hegde and Anahosur 2001). Numerous studies of effect of physiological characters on die back/fruit rot had also been reported. Increase in leaf area and leaf yield had been showed to provide

resistance to die back/fruit rot in chilli (Roy et al. 1998). Red ripe fruits were more susceptible to fruit rot as compared to semiriped ones (Bhale et al. 1999; Hegde et al. 2001). A various biochemical and physiological characters play a specific role in imparting resistance against diseases. Thus, the present investigation also includes biochemical and physiological evaluation of 17 chilli genotypes which can help in breeding resistant cultivars.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Experiment Design and Inoculation Method

Chilli germplasm was screened under field conditions at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. The experiment was randomized block design with three replications and 17 chilli genotypes (Table 1). Seedlings were inoculated when plants were at flowering stage and disease intensity was evaluated at maturity. Based on visual observation, disease severity was rated from 0 – 5 scale, where 0= no disease and 5= 80% of the fruit was covered with disease

Table 1 Chilli germplasm and their source at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

Serial No.

Chilli Genotype

Source

  • 1 CH-1

Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, India

  • 2 CH-3

PAU, Ludhiana, India

  • 3 BC-30

Bhubneshwar, Orissa, India

  • 4 Breek-1

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India

  • 5 Breek-2

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India

  • 6 Byadagi Kaddi

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India

  • 7 Jalandhri

Jalandhar, Punjab, India

  • 8 Jaun

Ropar, Punjab, India

  • 9 KDS-810

Kalyanpur, India

  • 10 Ludhiana Local Selection (LLS)

PAU, Ludhiana, India

  • 11 Longi

Khalra, Amritsar, India

  • 12 My 12 (3)3

PAU, Ludhiana, India

  • 13 Punjab Guchhedar (PG)

PAU, Ludhiana, India

  • 14 Punjab Lal (PL)

PAU, Ludhiana, India

  • 15 Punjab Surkh (PS)

PAU, Ludhiana, India

  • 16 Sanauri

Sanaur, Patiala, India

  • 17 Shahkoti

Shahkot, India

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Physiological Characters Plant Height (cm) and Stem Thickness (mm)

At maturity, the height was measured form the ground level to the highest bud point. The stem thickness was

measured at the ground level using Vernier caliper.

Days to First Picking

The number of days taken from the transplant to the first

picking was observed daily until fruits developed full red color and were ready to harvest.

Fruits/Plant

The fruits from each harvesting were added after last harvesting to get the total number of fruits per plant

Fruit Length and Width (cm)

Ten fruits from each treatment/genotype of each replication were used for measuring fruit length and width. The fruit length was measured with the help of a measuring scale after removing the pedicel. Fruit width was measured with vernier caliper at the maximum width of the fruit.

Branches/Plant

The number of primary branches was counted from five plants of each replication and each genotype at the time of last picking.

Leaf Area (cm 2 ) Five mature or fully expanded leaves from each replication of each genotypes were taken for measuring the leaf area at the end of the experiment. The area of the leaves was measured on graph paper and the average leaf area was worked out.

Total Yield

The average weight of fresh mature fruits harvested from

five plants of each replication and genotype (all harvesting) was taken as total yield/plant.

Biochemical Characters Capsaicin Content

Capsaicin content from oven dried red ripe fruits was estimated following the method described by Bajaj and Kaur (1979). Briefly, 0.5 g of dried chilli powder was extracted with 25 ml acetone. The mixture was shaken for 10 min, allowed to stand for 2 hrs, and filtered through glass wool in a short-stemmed funnel. Then, 2 ml of the extract was passed through a basic alumina column (10 x 1 cm) covered with approximately 1 g of Na 2 SO 4 crystals at the top. The column was washed thrice with 5 ml of acetone. Capsaicin was eluted with methanol: acetone: water solvent (75: 25: 1) and 50 ml volume was collected. Then 10 ml aliquot was evaporated to

dryness and mixed

with 0.5

ml

of phenol reagent.

The

mixture was allowed to stand for 3 min. Thereafter, 1 ml of saturated Na 2 CO 3 solution was added and volume was made to 10 ml. After 1 hr, optical density (OD) was taken at 760 nm.

ββββ-carotene A 2 g of fresh sample was extracted with a solution (3% acetone in petroleum ether and a pinch of Na 2 SO 4) . The extracted sample was filtered 2-3 times till it turned colorless and then its volume was made to 50 ml. The extract was poured in separating funnel along with water and kept it overnight (ON). When the impurities were separated the pure aliquot was collected in a beaker and the volume was made to 50 ml with petroleum ether. The OD was taken at 452 nm.

Total Sugars A 0.2 g of dried sample was refluxed with 80% ethanol/alcohol for 2 hrs. After filtration, 5 ml of lead acetate was added to filtrate and the mixture was shaken vigorously. The mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hr and filtration was done again. To filtrate, 1-2 g of sodium oxalate was added and kept for 15 min. Then again filtration was done and the final volume was made to 50 ml with distilled water. For OD at 490 nm, 1 ml aliquot was mixed with 1 ml 5% phenol and 4 ml conc. H 2 SO 4 .

Total Phenols

A 0.5 g of dried chilli powder was refluxed in 15-20 ml

of 80% methanol for 2 hrs and filtered it through Whatman No.1 filter paper. The final volume of filtrate was made to 25

  • ml with 80% methanol. A 5 ml aliquot was evaporated it to

dryness and the residue was dissolved in 6.5 ml of distilled water. Then 0.5 ml of 1 N Folin-Ciaclateaun reagent was added to the mixture and kept it for 5 min. Later, 1 ml of saturated Na 2 CO 3 was added to the mixture and the volume was made to 25 ml and kept in dark for 1 hr that developed a blue color and OD was taken at 760 nm

Total Flavonols

A 0.5 g of dry sample was refluxed in 15-20 ml of 80% methanol for 2 hrs. The mixture was filtered and the volume of the filtrate was made to 25 ml with 80% methanol. A 5 ml aliquot was evaporated it to dryness and the residue was dissolved in 0.1 M methanolic solution and 10 ml AlCl 3 which developed a yellow color and OD was taken at 420 nm.

ODP

A 0.5 g of dry sample was refluxed in 15-20 ml of 80%

methanol for 2 hrs, filtered and the volume was made to 25

  • ml with 80% methanol. A 5 ml aliquot was evaporated it to

dryness. To the residue, 1 ml distilled water + 0.5 ml of 10%

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TCA + 1 ml of 10% sodium tungstate + 0.5 ml of 0.5 N HCL + 1 ml of 0.5% NaNO 2 was added and after 5 min, 2 ml of 0.5 N NaOH was added. The mixture developed a red color and OD was taken at 540 nm after 15 min.

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)

A 2 g of fresh sample was extracted with buffer (200 ml of sodium dihyroxy orthometaphosphate, 103 ml of disodium hydrogen phosphate-2 hydrate, and 303 ml of water) and the volume was made to 25 ml. For OD at 495 nm, 1 ml extract was mixed with 1 ml catechol solution and readings were taken for 2 min at intervals of 15 sec.

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis for the 17 chilli germplasm included an analysis of varitation (ANOVA). The experiment was randomized complete block design with three replications per genotype. The correlations at phenotypic and

genotypic level were estimated from ANOVA and covariance of all the characters.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Seventeen chilli genotypes from various sources in India were screened against Colletotrichum capsici with respect to physiological and biochemical traits. A visual observation had identified four chilli genotypes: LLS, Breek-1, Breek-2, and Jaun that were resistant to fruit rot/die back. There were a significant amount of variations at physiological and biochemical levels present in chilli genotypes for resistance to fruit rot/ die back. Analysis on 10 physiological traits data revealed that the fruit rot/die back resistant chilli genotypes exhibited more plant height, fruit length, fruit width, days to first picking and less number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant as compared to the susceptible genotypes (Table 2 & Fig.1 A).

Table 2 Means of physiological traits and disease intensity in chilli genotypes

Genotypes

Fruit

Plant

Branches/

Leaf

Stem

Fruit length

Fruit

Fruit

Fruit

Days to

rot*

height

plant

area

thickness

(cm)

width

number/

weight/

first

 

(cm)

(cm) 2

(mm)

(mm)

plant

plant

picking

CH-3

0.90

74.80

8.33

7.43

20.56

5.78

12.44

40.00

116.33

88.33

CH-1

1.03

73.80

7.67

6.47

21.56

4.89

13.16

69.67

219.67

84.33

Byadgi Kaddi

0.63

80.00

8.00

7.30

19.78

8.47

12.85

33.00

83.00

105.67

LLS

0.00

90.33

8.00

7.27

20.95

6.00

11.79

22.00

127.67

107.67

PG

0.60

64.47

9.33

6.83

13.84

4.33

6.99

25.00

121.00

97.33

PL

0.43

50.73

9.67

6.53

13.44

3.85

8.15

50.00

145.00

95.67

Shahkoti

0.53

62.67

8.00

17.23

16.33

6.75

11.61

34.67

121.33

91.67

Longi

0.77

49.40

8.00

3.37

12.97

1.62

11.05

60.67

57.00

78.00

PS

0.17

67.90

5.00

2.43

13.64

5.73

13.92

26.00

109.33

76.33

Breek-1

0.00

83.47

7.67

5.73

17.13

6.92

17.84

8.33

43.67

128.67

My 12 (3) 3

0.80

55.93

9.67

5.27

22.89

5.70

8.08

80.00

208.33

99.33

KDS-810

0.93

54.90

6.67

6.50

19.72

5.05

8.93

82.33

175.00

93.67

Breek-2

0.17

80.60

7.00

17.30

19.51

6.89

15.84

27.00

31.67

138.33

Jalandhri

0.57

54.20

7.67

7.97

12.18

4.57

12.43

66.67

178.33

76.67

Jaun

0.17

75.27

8.33

6.57

19.33

4.14

9.33

19.67

76.33

131.67

Sanauri

0.50

58.73

6.67

7.13

21.53

5.00

7.56

45.33

147.67

95.33

BC-30

0.97

66.47

8.33

8.87

19.17

3.33

7.32

51.00

78.33

93.67

L.S.D.(P= .05)

0.60

10.92

1.89

1.27

6.09

1.70

NS

30.72

89.11

16.99

* The genotypes were evaluated by visual observation and disease severity was rated on 0-5 scale, where 0= no disease and 5= more than 80% of fruit is rotten

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Cell & Plant Sci 2011 2 (3):12-21 N.Kaur et al. The maximum plant height was
Cell & Plant Sci 2011 2 (3):12-21 N.Kaur et al. The maximum plant height was

The maximum plant height was observed in resistant genotypes such as LLS (90.33 cm) followed by Breek-1 (83.5 cm), Byadgi Kaddi (80.8 cm), and Breek-2 (80.6 cm) where as susceptible genotypes showed minimum plant height (Table 2 & Fig.1B). Thus, present study revealed that tall plants were less prone to fruit rot as compared to dwarf one which could be explained on the grounds that the pathogenic dissemination by rain splashes and air would be more efficient in the fruits of dwarf genotypes than the tall genotypes. There is also an evident in literature that Colletotrichum capsici had led to reduction in the length of the shoots and thus resulted in reduced plant height

(Jeyalakshmi et al. 1998). Fruit length and width had showed a wide range of genetic variability in chilli genotypes in the present study. Analysis on physiological traits of chilli germplasm revealed that Byadgi Kaddi exhibited maximum fruit length (8.47 cm) followed by Breek-1 (6.92 cm), and Breek-2 (6.89 cm) (Table 2 & Fig.1B). The maximum fruit width was observed in Breek-1 (17.84 mm) while the minimum was observed in Plant Gucchedar (6.99 mm) (Table 2). Thus, our research showed that genotypes with more fruit length and width had less disease intensity where as the genotypes with small fruits had more disease intensity. Number of fruits per plant had showed a positive correlation

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with disease intensity (Table 3). The genotypes with more fruit numbers per plant such as KDS-810, My 12 (3) 3 , and CH-1 contracted more disease intensity of 0.93, 0.80, 1.03, respectively (Table 2). LLS, bearing less number of fruits (22) did not contract fruit rot and this can be explained on the basis that pathogen dissemination in the field is more efficient in prolific genotypes. Grewal and Grover (1973) also reported that genotypes: EC 21667 and IC 11670 with more number of fruits per plant showed more fruit rot symptoms. There was a significant and positive correlation between fruit weight and fruit rot (Table 3). The minimum fruit weight per plant was observed in resistant genotypes: Breek-2 (31.67) and Breek-1

(43.67) (Table 2). The present study also revealed that more the maturity period, less is the disease intensity or vice versa. The genotypes such as Breek-2, Jaun, and Breek-1 with long maturity period of 138.33, 131.67, and 128.67 days, respectively had less disease intensity of 0.17, 0.17, and 0.00 respectively (Table 2 & Fig.1B). It might be due to the reasons that maturity period of genotype overlap the infection period of pathogen and thus genotypes with long maturity period perhaps escape from the attack of fruit rot pathogen. However, the physiological characters such as branches per plant and leaf area had not shown any correlation with fruit rot (Table 3)

Table 3 Genotypic (G) and Phenotypic (P) correlation coefficients for different pairs of physiological traits and diseases in chilli genotypes.

Serial

Characters

Fruit rot

Plant

Branches/

Leaf area

Stem

Fruit

Fruit

Fruit

Fruit

No.

(0-5)

height

plant

(cm)

thickness

length

width

No./plant

wt./plant

 

(cm)

(mm)

(cm)

(mm)

(g)

  • 1 -0.6413**

Plant height (cm)

G

 
 

P

-0.3374*

Branches/plant

  • 2 0.4297**

G

-0.2024

 

P

0.0918

-0.1078

  • 3 -0.1196

Leaf area (cm)

G

0.2106

0.0296

 

P

-0.0883

0.1829

0.0333

  • 4 thickness

Stem

G

0.2773

0.5768**

0.0463

0.1721

(mm)

P

0.1191

0.2990**

0.023

0.094

  • 5 -0.318**

Fruit length (cm)

G

0.6583**

-0.3104*

0.4137**

0.4817**

 

P

-0.3109*

0.5596**

-0.1201

0.3528*

0.2897

  • 6 0.2841*

Fruit width (mm)

G

0.4425**

-0.0863

-0.5036**

0.3154*

-0.5768**

 

P

0.2619

0.0826

-0.078

-0.0403

0.0488

0.0231

  • 7 0.6179**

Fruit No./plant

G

-0.8363**

0.1563

-0.1961

0.2011

-0.4908**

0.9722**

 

P

0.5696**

-0.5062**

-0.0943

-0.1769

0.0575

-0.2608

0.0563

Fruit wt./plant

  • 8 0.7003**

G

-0.5782**

0.1271

-0.2776

0.3026*

-0.1631

0.3259*

0.7786**

 

P

0.3171*

-0.2172

0.153

-0.1678

0.1441

0.0086

-0.0309

0.6365**

  • 9 -0.7862**

Days to first picking

G

0.6501**

0.1398

0.4049**

0.4885**

0.4701**

-0.8893**

-0.6891**

-0.6785**

 

P

-0.3846**

0.5294**

0.1019

0.3233*

0.2425

0.3143*

-0.0331

-0.4142**

-0.3854**

* Significant at 5% level of significance, ** Significant at 1% level of significance

Among the 7 biochemical traits studied, only capsaicin and orthodihydroxy phenol showed a relation with fruit rot (Table 4 & Fig. 2A). The relation of capsaicin content was inversely proportional to the fruit rot intensity. For example, the genotypes such as Byadgi Kaddi, Breek-2, and Punjab Lal with high capsaicin content of 1.33, 1.23 and 0.93 % had less disease intensity of 0.63, 0.17 and 0.43, respectively (Table 4 & Fig. 2B). Whereas the genotypes with low capsaicin content such as CH-3 and Longi showed more fruit rot intensity of 0.90 and 0.77, respectively (Table 3). Our findings also supports the previous work performed by Jeyalakshmi et al. 1999, reported that chilli fruits infected

with Colletotrichum capsici showed reduced capsaicin content. Phenols have long been reported to provide disease resistance in plants in host-pathogen interaction. ODP content was high in resistant chilli genotypes such as Jaun, Breek-1, and Breek-2 (Table 4 & Fig. 2C).The infection of Colletotrichum capsici might have triggered the defense response in chilli plant which led to the production of secondary metabolites such as ODP that imparts disease resistance. The resistant genotype such as Breek-2 showed more PPO activity (Table 3). The sharp increase in PPO activity was observed due to infestation by anthracnose pathogen in chilli plants (Bharath et al. 2004; Borua 2000).

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There was no definite trend or correlation between sugar content and disease intensity in our study (Table 5). But these results are contradictory to the literature where they estimated

more sugar in susceptible cv ‘Clustard’ but low in resistant genotypes such as Rukuni (Azad 1991).

Table 4 Means of biochemical traits and disease intensity in chilli genotypes.

Genotypes

Fruit rot*

Total flavonols

Capsaicin

β-carotene a

Total phenols

ODP

PPO a

Total sugars

 

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

CH-3

0.90

0.17

0.57

5.52

0.24

0.02

0.08

1.68

CH-1

1.03

0.73

0.81

1.58

0.23

0.01

0.05

4.63

Byadgi Kaddi

0.63

0.85

1.33

1.17

0.22

0.02

0.05

4.69

LLS

0.00

0.68

0.66

0.70

0.20

0.01

0.01

4.75

PG

0.60

0.58

0.82

0.57

0.28

0.01

0.04

5.03

PL

0.43

0.56

0.93

6.40

0.22

0.01

0.28

4.88

Shahkoti

0.53

0.63

0.53

0.62

0.18

0.00

0.04

4.51

Longi

0.77

0.43

0.55

2.53

0.18

0.00

0.04

1.76

PS

0.17

0.11

0.63

1.25

0.18

0.00

0.02

1.47

Breek-1

0.00

0.19

0.85

1.87

0.19

0.04

0.01

3.77

My 12 (3) 3

0.80

0.85

0.62

0.65

0.20

0.00

0.02

2.48

KDS-810

0.93

0.16

0.54

0.67

0.21

0.01

0.04

2.33

Breek-2

0.17

0.13

1.23

4.55

0.21

0.03

0.57

4.82

Jalandhri

0.57

0.12

0.90

1.24

0.18

0.00

0.37

2.23

Jaun

0.17

0.24

0.72

4.70

0.21

0.07

0.06

1.11

Sanauri

0.50

0.43

0.77

1.47

0.27

0.03

0.04

1.63

BC-30

0.97

0.11

0.80

0.54

0.29

0.02

0.02

1.81

L.S.D. (P= 0.05)

0.60

0.21

0.66

0.35

0.12

0.04

0.02

1.62

* The genotypes were evaluated by visual observation and disease severity was rated on 0-5 scale, where 0= no disease and 5= more than 80% of fruit is rotten. a (OD/min/ml)

CONCLUSION

Although there is extensive research going on disease control management and breeding programs for resistant cultivars but there is necessity to enrich diverse genotypes to strengthen the breeding programs. We aimed to improve the genetic resources of chilli genotypes on the basis of physiological and biochemical traits. Among the seventeen genotypes studied, four genotypes- LLS, Breek-1, Breek-2, and Jain were rated as resistant to die back/fruit rot. These resistant genotypes exhibited more plant height, fruit length,

days to first picking, capsaicin, and ODP compared to susceptible ones. Hence, these genotypes can be used as one of the donor parents to breed a new variety of chilli resistant to die back/fruit rot. Our findings indicate some useful traits in chilli that have been linked with resistance to fruit rot and can be considered as basis for resistance in breeding resistant varieties or perhaps used as markers in MAS breeding of chilli varieties.

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A

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Total flavonols Capsaicin b-carotene Total phenols ODP PPO Total sugars
Total flavonols
Capsaicin
b-carotene
Total phenols
ODP
PPO
Total sugars

More disease intensity

Less disease intensity

B

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Capsaicin 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Capsaicin
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17

Less disease intensity

C

0.08 0.07 0.06 ODP 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 1 3 5 7 9 11
0.08
0.07
0.06
ODP
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17

Less disease intensity

Figure 2 Changes in biochemical traits among different genotypes of chilli (A). Changes in capsaicin (B) and orthodihydroxy phenol ODP (C) content in resistant and susceptible genotypes.

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Table 5 Genotypic (G) and Phenotypic (P) correlation coefficients for different pairs of biochemical traits and diseases in chilli genotypes.

Serial.

Characters

Fruit rot

Total

Capsaicin

βcarotene

Total

ODP 1

PPO 2

No.

flavonols

phenols

Total flavonols

  • 1 0.2079

G

 

P

0.1236

  • 2 -0.3523*

Capsaicin

G

0.1109

P

-0.0756

0.0885

  • 3 -0.2267

βcarotene

G

-0.2477

0.1954

P

-0.1273

-0.2435

0.1536

Total phenols

  • 4 -0.4710**

G

0.0038

0.1554

-0.0651

P

0.3

-0.0055

0.1234

-0.0678

  • 5 -0.4236**

ODP

G

-0.3046*

0.2015

0.3547*

0.1821

P

-0.2549

-0.3021*

0.1681

0.3526*

0.1712

  • 6 -0.2703

PPO

G

-0.3030*

0.6026

0.4891**

-0.195

-0.0201

P

-0.1544

-0.3007*

0.5040**

0.4821

-0.181

-0.0204

Total sugars

  • 7 -0.2329

G

0.5552**

0.5423**

-0.032

-0.0162

-0.2765

0.2609

P

-0.1418

0.5307**

0.4171**

-0.0327

-0.0278

-0.2708

0.251

Significant at 5% level of significance, ** Significant at 1% level of significance 1, ODP: Orthodihydroxy phenol 2, PPO: Polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity

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