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MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # 1

MODELING A BAR PROBLEM


I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM
In the simple bar problem below, there are three separate sections of
the bar. Each section has different properties. The following
properties apply, Al Aluminum, St Steel, E for Steel = 200 E
!a, E for Al = "0 E !a
All #ars ha$e s%uare cross section and the right and left ends of the
bar are built in. The force &'& = 000 (ewtons
The 2)d model of the problem is shown below.
St
Al
Al
5 cm 5 cm 10cm
2 cm
1 cm
5cm
F
F
2
'
St
II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily a$ailable. Any
*echanics of *aterials te+t will pro$ide e%uations for the displacements and stresses throughout
the bar. The problem is indeterminant because there are two reactions ,one at each wall- and
only one rele$ant e%uilibrium e%uation , 0
x
F -. Therefore, it is necessary to use the
*echanics of materials ,stress and or displacement- e%uations as well as the force e%uilibrium
e%uations to sol$e the problem.
The normal stress due to a+ial loading is gi$en by .
A
P
xx
, where ! is the internal force in the a+ial direction and A is the cross sectional area
of the bar. The displacements are computed from
AE
PL
u here / is the bar0s length and E is
the Elastic ,1oung0s- modulus.
Some basic %uestions to consider before creating the computational model are.
2. 3here will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressi$e4
2. 3hat will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces4
5. 3here will the displacements be greatest4
6. 7ow do the displacements $ary along the length ,linear, %uadratic etc.-4
8. 3hat will the local effect of the concentrated load be on the stresses4
9. Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements4
Answering these questions qualitatively, along with the quantitative analytical solutions for the stresses and
displacements, will provide reinforcement that your computational model is correctly constructed.
III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
Some general notes on !AT:A(.
A general finite element analysis can be bro;en down into 5 principle tas;s< preprocessing,
analysis and post processing. The preprocessing tas; includes building the geometric model,
building the finite element model, gi$ing these elements the correct properties, setting the
boundary conditions and loading conditions and finally, assembling these elements into a
connected structure for analysis. The analysis stage simply sol$es for the un;nown degrees of
freedom, as well as reactions and stresses. In the postprocessing stage, the results are e$aluated
and displayed. The accuracy of these results is postulated during this postprocessing tas;.
The !atran and (astran software together perform all 5 of the principle tas;s of a finite element
analysis. The pre and post processors are uni%ue to !AT:A( itself. 7owe$er, this pac;age
allows the user to do the actual solution analysis on a $ariety of different pac;ages. At many sites
you ha$e the option of using the *S=>(astran pac;age, which is probably the most widely used
sol$er in industry. *any of the other pac;ages commonly used in industrial settings ,A#A?@AS,
A(S1S, *A:=- are also compatible with !AT:A(.


IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY
The exact details of the formulation of the rod elements in MSC/Nastran is given in the MSC/Nastran
manuals and is somewhat lengthy. However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 2 node rod element
is not difficult and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the
convergence and other accuracy studies. This basic form can be found in any standard text of finite
5
element analysis. For Example see Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, by R.D. Cook, John
Wiley & Sons, 1995.
V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR MODELING THE BAR
PROBLEM
USING MSC/PATRAN
@nless you ha$e used the !AT:A( software numerous times in the past, the steps shown below
should be followed e+actly. 7owe$er, in order to prepare you to do independent finite element
wor; using !AT:A( in the future, you are encouraged to go bac; after you ha$e completed the
assignment and in$estigate modeling options using different !AT:A( selections. Also, I
encourage you to ta;e notes as you go through this e+ercise in order to prepare for the time when
you will be as;ed &build a certain geometric structure& or &apply a certain type of boundary
condition& with out being gi$en the specific steps for carrying out this tas;.
The *S=>!atran program is menu dri$en much in the same way that most 3indows programs
are dri$en. Selecting a category from a menu may result in a pull down set of options or in a
subordinate menu. Selections in menus may be in the form of buttons to turn on or off, or in the
form of bo+es which re%uire te+t. Te+t entered into bo+es may be changed by positioning the
cursor at the point of te+t insertion and either typing the new te+t or erasing the incorrect te+t. A
standard finite element analysis normally proceeds across the top menus starting with Aeometry
and ending with :esults. Selecting one of these top menus results in a set of menus which allow
you to complete that tas; in the analysis process. Aenerally, it is best to attempt to proceed from
the top of these menus toward the bottom, answering %uestions as you go.
!reliminaries for using *S= !atran and (astran normally include.
2- /og in to the machine.
2- =hange to the directory that you wish to contain your results.
5- To start the program *S=>!atran, clic; on Start>!rograms>*S=,common- and choose *S=
!atran 0.
In the instructions below, the following abbre$iations and terms will be used.
TM = Top Men. This refers to the horiBontal menu options residing at the top of the screen
after !AT:A( has been initiated.
RM = R!"#t Men. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from
the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the !AT:A( des;top.
SM = S$o%&!n'te Men. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the
right menu.
C(!)* = @nless otherwise stated, this indicates a clic; with the left mouse button.
Bo(&+')e will indicate te+t that occurs in the !AT:A( menus.
Italics te+t will indicate te+t that you must enter into te+t bo+es in the !AT:A( menus or te+t
that you choose in a menu scroll bo+.
Cur first step is to create a new database.
'rom the T* choose F!(e
In the resulting pull down menu choose Ne,
A S* called Ne, D't'$'-e pops up
Turn off ,no chec;- Mo&!+. P%e+e%en)e-
6
If the new database for has come up showing a directory on a remote
computer ,as opposed to a directory on the local machine-, then switch
the directory to the local directory c.D*S=
@nder Ne, D't'$'-e N'/e enter bar.db
=lic; O0
The geometry of the structure will be determined ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Geo/et%.
A :* called Geo/et%. will result
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the Po!nt ID list to 1
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
Enter the following into the point coordinates list.
[0,0,0] [.05,0,0] [.10,0,0] [.20,0,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
, At this point 6 points should appear on your &bar.db ) defaultE$iewport ) defaultEgroup ) entity&
main $iewport-
The ne+t Fob is to connect these points to form 5 lines.
3hile still in the Geo/et%. :*,
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = Point
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button if it is on
, for the following, it is assumed that you ha$e created points 2,2,5,6
numbered from left to right in the main $iewport. If the numbers are not in that
order, follow the procedure below from left to right regardless of point
numbers-
=lic; in the St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t bo+
=lic; on node 2 in the main $iewport.
=lic; in the En&!n" Po!nt L!-t bo+
=lic; on the point 2 in the main $iewport
=lic; on App(.
,A line will be drawn from point 2 to point 2. This line should be named
line 2-
=lic; in the St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t bo+
=lic; on point 2 in the main $iewport.
=lic; in the En&!n" Po!nt L!-t bo+
=lic; on the point 5 in the main $iewport
=lic; on App(.
,A line will be drawn from point 2 to point 5. This line should be named
line 2-
=lic; in the St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t bo+
=lic; on node 5 in the main $iewport
=lic; in the En&!n" Po!nt L!-t bo+
=lic; on the point 6 in the main $iewport
=lic; on App(.
,A line will be drawn from point 5 to point 6. This line should be named
line 5-
8
The finite element mesh is specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose E(e/ent-
A :* appears called F!n!te E(e/ent-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh eed
T.pe = !ni"or#
Select N/$e% o+ E(e/ent- ,button down-
N/$e% = 2
Turn off the Ato E2e)te ,button up-
=lic; in C%3e- L!-t bo+
=lic; on the left most cur$e in the main $iewport
,The words &=ur$e 2& will be added to the C%3e L!-t-
=lic; App(.
,circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the cur$e-
=lic; C%3e L!-t bo+
=lic; on the center cur$e in the main $iewport
,the words &=ur$e 2& will be added to the C%3e L!-t-
=lic; App(.
,circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the cur$e-
=lic; C%3e L!-t bo+
=lic; on right most cur$e in the main $iewport
,the words &=ur$e 5& will be added to the C%3e L!-t-
=lic; App(.
,circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on ends of the cur$e-
,The nodes created abo$e must now be tied together with elements-
,up at the top of the :*-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh
T.pe = Curve
=lic; on #ar2 under E(e/ent Topo(o".
=lic; C%3e L!-t #o+
=lic; the left most cur$e in the main $iewport ,should be cur$e 2-
=lic; App(.
=lic; C%3e L!-t #o+
=lic; the middle cur$e in the main $iewport ,should be cur$e 2-
=lic; App(.
=lic; C%3e L!-t #o+
=lic; the right most cur$e in the main $iewport ,should be cur$e 5-
=lic; App(.
,numbers for the nodes will appear o$er the geometry points-
,up at the top of the :*-
Set A)t!on = $%uivalence
O$1e)t = &ll
T.pe = 'olerance Cube
,The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another-
Set the E4!3'(en)!n" To(e%'n)e to .005
=lic; App(. ,at the bottom of the :*-
(The command window at the bottom of the PATRA des!top will tell you that " nodes were
deleted. #n addition circles will appear over the ends of the middle curve to indicate the
equivalencing of the $overlapping$ nodes%
9
The boundary conditions are specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Lo'&/BC5-
A :* called Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- will appear
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (is)lace#ent
T.pe = *odal
Set C%%ent Lo'& C'-e = (e"ault
Enter Ne, Set N'/e as
+,Cla#)
, This is for the right and left clamping of the bar structure-
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Set Inpt T%'n-('t!on- to -0,0,0.
#e sure An'(.-!- Coo%&!n'te F%'/e is Coord0
=lic; CG
,bac; in the Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
Turn on the Geo/et%. ,button down-
=lic; in bo+ under Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e-
A !atran item menu appears ,Fust to the left of the :*-
=lic; on the picture with a point in this menu
In the main $iew port, clic; on the left most point on the line
A S* called Se(e)t!on C#o!)e- appears
=hoose Po!nt 1
, This will cause the words &!oint 2& ,assuming point 2 is the leftmost point on
the line- to appear in the Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- bo+ in the
:*-
=lic; on A&& Fust below this bo+
, This will remo$e the words &!oint 2& from the Se(e)t Geo/et%!)
Ent!t!e- bo+ and add them to the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; in the Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- bo+ again.
e&t 'lic! point " in the main view port (assuming point " is the right most point
in the bar structure%
A S* called Se(e)t!on C#o!)e- appears
=hoose Po!nt 6
=lic; A&& ,The App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+ should now ha$e the words
&!oint2 2& in it and the Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- bo+ should be empty-
=lic; CG
,The Lo'& / Bon&'%. Con&!t!on :* appears again-
=lic; App(.
,5 displacement constraint arrows should now appear in the main
$iewport window on the e+treme right and on the e+treme left points in the bar
structure-
The loads are specified ne+t.
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
change A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = /orce
T.pe = *odal
=hange the Ne, Set N'/e to a0ial1
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Enter the force $ector -1.2$3,0,0.
"
lea$e the moments - . ,i.e. blan;-
=lic; O0
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
a Se(e)t App(!)'t!on menu appears as well as a small P't%'n item
menu
In the Se(e)t App(!)'t!on- menu, turn on the Geo/et%. F!(te%
(e+t, clic; in the bo+ labeled Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e-
=lic; in the P't%'n item menu ,Fust to the left of the :*- on the
point icon
In the main $iewport, clic; on the 5rd point from the left
,its number ,should be !oint 6- will be added to the Se(e)t
Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- list-
=lic; A&&
,the point0s number will be added to the App(!)'t!on Re"!on list-
=lic; O0
,Lo'&/BC5- menu now reappears-
=lic; App(. ,bottom of the :*7
,A $ector with the load should appear on the 5rd point from the left in the main
$iewport-
The materials are specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select M'te%!'(-
a :* will appear called M'te%!'(-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Isotro)ic
Met#o& = Manual In)ut
=lic; M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
Input the name teel
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
S* called Inpt Opt!on- appears
Input E('-t!) Mo&(- = 2.0$11
Input Po!--on = 0.1
=lic; O0
#ac; in the *aterials :*, clic; App(.
=lic; M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
Input the name to be &lu#inu#
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e- bo+
S* called Inpt Opt!on- appears
Input E('-t!) Mo&(- = 4.0$10
Input Po!--on = 0.1
=lic; O0
#ac; in the *aterials :*, clic; App(.
,The E2!-t!n" M'te%!'(- bo+ should ha$e teel and &lu#inu# in it-
The properties for each element are assigned ne+t.
Cn the T* select P%ope%t!e-
a :* will appear called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 1d
H
T.pe = rod
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
Enter bar1
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &Steel& in the M'te%!'(- P%ope%t. Set bo+
, the words m.Steel will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+-
=lic; in the A%e' bo+
Enter 0.0003
=lic; O0
,note. If you Fust input the word Steel in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+,
the element will not ha$e the correct properties. The e+act
synta+ m.Steel is necessary-
,#ac; in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
a !atran item menu will appear to the left of the :*
In the item menu, clic; in the bo+ which contains the element with end
nodes ,as opposed to the cur$e in the left bo+-
,This allows you to pic; finite element entities as opposed to the
geometric entities in the other bo+-
=lic; on element 2 in the main $iewport
,element 2 is the left most element in the bar structure-
,The words Elm 2 will appear in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+-
=lic; A&&
,The words Element 2 appear in the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; App(. in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- menu
,#ar 2 will be added to the E2!-t!n" P%ope%t. Set- bo+-
=hange P%ope%t. Set N'/e to bar2
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-...
a S* called Inpt P%ope%t!e- will appear
=lic; the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; A(/!n/ in the M'te%!'(- P%ope%t. Set- bo+
,The words m.Aluminum will appear in the M'te%!'(- N'/e bo+-
=hange the A%e' to 0.0028
=lic; O0
,#ac; on the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- *enu-
=lic; the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
A !atran item menu appears Fust to the left of the :*
In this item menu, clic; in the bo+ which contains the element with end
nodes ,as opposed to the cur$e in the other bo+-
=lic; on element 2 in the main $iewport
,Element 2 is the middle element in the bar structure-
,The words Elm 2 appears in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+-
=lic; A&&
,The words Element 2 appear in the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
, (ote. If anything other than Element 2 is in the App(!)'t!on
Re"!on bo+, it must be deleted.-
=lic; App(.
,The words bar2 will be added to the E2!-t!n" P%ope%t!e- Set-
bo+-
=hange P%ope%t. Set N'/e to bar5

=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-...


a S* called Inpt P%ope%t!e- will appear
=lic; the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; A(/!n/ in the M'te%!'(- P%ope%t. Set- bo+
,The words m.Aluminum will appear in the M'te%!'(- N'/e bo+-
=hange the A%e' to 0.0001
=lic; O0
=lic; the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
A !atran item menu appears Fust to the left of the :*
In this item menu, clic; in the right bo+ which contains the element with
end nodes ,as opposed to the cur$e in the other bo+-
=lic; on element 5 in the main $iewport
,Element 5 is the right most element in the bar structure-
,The words Elm 5 appears in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+-
=lic; A&&
,The words Element 5 appear in the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
, (ote. If anything other than Element 5 is in the App(!)'t!on
Re"!on bo+, it must be deleted.-
=lic; App(.
,The words bar5 will be added to the E2!-t!n" P%ope%t!e- Set-
bo+-
The analysis is to be done is specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
a :* will appear called An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = &nal56e
O$1e)t = $ntire Model
Met#o& = /ull +un
=lic; on T%'n-('t!on P'%'/ete%-
a S* will appear
=hange the D't' Otpt to OP6 'n& P%!nt
=lic; O0
=lic; on So(t!on T.pe
a S* will appear
Set So(t!on T.pe = L!ne'% St't!) ,button down-
=lic; O0
,bac; in the analysis menu-
=lic; App(.
,The analysis will ta;e a few seconds Imaybe 20J to run-
In the :* analysis
Set A)t!on = +ead 7ut)ut 2
O$1e)t = +esult $ntities
Met#o& = 'ranslate
=lic; on Se(e)t Re-(t- F!(e
a S* will appear
'ind and select the file $'%.op6
,1ou may need to use the KfindL tools in 3indows to locate the file. Cccasionally
(astran will put the M.op2 file in a weird place. Cccasionally it e$en puts the file
on the hard dri$e of the license file ser$er. If you cannot find the file on your local
20
hard dri$e then loo; on the file ser$ers hard dri$e. The file ser$er for the (=/ is
N'E/A#20. The file ser$er for the library is 7C!!E:. 1ou should be able to
access either of these from your local machine o$er the networ;-
=lic; O0
#ac; in the An'(.-!- :*
=lic; App(.
(e+t you will post process the results by $iewing and e+porting them
Cn the T* select Re-(t-
a :* will appear called Re-(t-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = 8uic9 Plot
A S* appears
@nder Se(e)t Re-(t C'-e
highlight the option (e"ault, tatic ubcase
@nder Se(e)t F%!n"e Re-(t
7ighlight (is)lace#ents, 'ranslational
@nder Se(e)t De+o%/'t!on Re-(t
7ighlight (is)lace#ents, 'ranslational
=lic; App(.
A =olored picture displaying the displacement results will appear. It includes
numeric results for ma+ and min displacement as well as color)coded results for
the entire beam.
To sa$e this plot use the Kcopy to =lipboardL icon ,usually Fust to the right of the
print icon- to copy the $iewport to the clipboard. Then paste the picture into a
word processing document.
If you want to print the $iewport directly, you can Fust use the normal 3indows
commands ,'ile>!rint-
(e+t, to see the stresses
@nder Se(e)t Re-(t C'-e
7ighlight the option (e"ault, tatic ubcase
@nder Se(e)t F%!n"e Re-(t
7ighlight tress, tensor
=hange the 8'nt!t. to X Co#)onent
@nder Se(e)t De+o%/'t!on Re-(t
7ighlight (is)lace#ents, 'ranslational
=lic; App(.
A =olored picture displaying the stresses results will appear. It includes numeric
results for ma+ and min Stresses as well as color)coded results for the entire
beam.
To sa$e this plot use the Kcopy to =lipboardL icon ,usually Fust to the right of the
print icon- to copy the $iewport to the clipboard. Then paste the picture into a
word document.
If you want to print the $iewport directly, you can Fust use the normal 3indows
commands ,'ile>!rint-
(e+t you will end your !AT:A( session by sa$ing your database and e+iting
Cn the T* select F!(e
22
'rom the pull down menu select S'3e
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select 8!t
VI. E9ERCISES:
2. 7and in the output file bar.f09. In this file, highlight the reaction
forces, stresses and the displacements.
2. 7and in the two picture files which ha$e the pictures of your finite
element model and the displacement and stress results.
5. Are any of the members in or close to the plastic range of the
material4
6. =hec; the problem against some analytic answer to see if your
displacement and stress results are the correct order of
magnitude. It might be easiest to sol$e the statically determinant
problem and use that as a bound for the displacements and
stresses as opposed to sol$ing the statically indeterminant
problem. If you decide to use this approach, e+plain how the
statically determinant problem gi$es bounds for the displacements
and stresses. Are these upper or lower bounds4 Are your 'EA
based answers consistent with this analytic chec;4
8. 3ill it increase the accuracy of the results to use a greater number
of elements4 3hy or why not4
9. Are there any physical phenomena that this bar might e+perience
that we ha$e not ta;en into account4
". 3ill this type of element correctly capture the physics of the
problem if the lower force is set to Bero and the upper force is
maintained at 000 (4 3hy or 3hy not4
22
MSC Patran Tutorial # 2
Modeling of a Truss
I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM:
The truss structure shown below has nine members. Each of the members is made of aluminum
and each has the same cross sectional area. The lower left corner of the structure is constrained
in all three directions. The lower right hand corner is constrained in the 1 and O directions, but is
free to roll in the P direction. A $ertical load of 200 (ewtons is applied at the midpoint of the top
of the truss. The loading is directed downward. The truss geometry is symmetric about the
$ertical line through the point at which the force is applied. *aterial properties, as well as physical
dimensions, are gi$en below.
'or the truss below.
1oungQs modulus = (0 )0
* "
x N m + ( % ,Aluminum-
!oissonQs ratio = 0.5
Truss members are ,5 cm P 5 cm- s%uare
II. THIN0ING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
#efore you begin the computational model of the structure, study the structure for a few minutes
to determine if it has any peculiarities. As; a few introductory %uestions.
I. Is the truss constrained from any rigid body displacements or rotations4
II. 3hat direction do you e+pect the reactions to be in4
III. 3hat magnitudes should the directions ha$e4
IR. Are there any KBero)forceL members in the truss4
R. @se the method of sections ,or another method if you prefer- to analytically determine the
stresses in a few of the members.
III. THE GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
In the modeling instructions below, the geometry is specified by creating the *S=>!atran
geometric entity called a &cur$e& between each of the truss0s Foints. In this manner, each truss
member becomes a separate cur$e in the geometric portion of the database. The lengths and
directions of the cur$es correspond to those of the members in the physical truss structure.
Each of the truss members is modeled using a single 2)node rod element. Each element is
originally created with two uni%ue nodes which no other element shares. The procedure called
25
Y
X
P = 1;; Ne,ton-
1 /
1 /
6 /
&e%ui$alencing& in *S=>!AT:A( creates a single node from two or more nodes which ha$e the
same physical location. Therefore, after e%ui$alencing, there are nine elements and si+ nodes in
this structure. These elements ha$e three displacement degrees of freedom per node. The
elements can only model a+ial ,membrane- deformations. #ending type deformations, which are
e$idenced by rotation of the element cross section, are not accounted for by this particular
element. Torsion of the members is also neglected. The neglect of torsion and bending are $ery
common assumptions in truss problems, as these are higher order effects in a great number of
truss type structures. !hysically, this non)bending assumption is representati$e of pinned Foints
,for 2)N- or spherical Foints ,for 5)N-. It should be noted, howe$er, that there are some situations
where these assumptions would not allow your model to correctly capture the physics of the
problem. This type of modeling assumption should be carefully considered.
The loading is modeled with a single concentrated force of magnitude 200 on the center node of
the top of the structure. It is also possible to position loads on geometric entities li;e points and
surfaces instead of on finite element entities li;e nodes. This is demonstrated in other tutorials.
The boundary conditions are established by constraining the displacements at the lower left node
to be Bero in all 5 directions and the lower right node to be Bero in the 1 and O directions. *aterial
properties and lengths are input corresponding to the figure of the truss abo$e. (ote that it is not
necessary to carefully number the nodes of the structure for minimiBation of the bandwidth of the
stiffness matri+. The code automatically renumbers the nodes for bandwidth minimiBation before
sol$ing the system of e%uations.
IV. THE FINITE ELEMENT THEORY
The finite elements used to model two and three dimensional truss structures are actually Fust the
simple 2)node bar elements spatially e+trapolated to function in two or three dimensional space.
This spatial e+trapolation is in the form of a transformation of the a+ial direction of the arbitrarily
oriented bar into the global ,fi+ed- coordinate system. The results of the transformation is found in
the following stiffness matri+ for the two dimensional case.
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

" "
" "
" "
" "
s cs s cs
cs c cs c
s cs s cs
cs c cs c
L
E A
K
where the order of the degrees of freedom is { }
" " ) )
, , , v u v u . The A, E, and / are the
cross sectional area, 1oungQs ,elastic- modulus and a+ial length respecti$ely. The c and s in the
matri+ stand for =os ,- and Sin ,- respecti$ely. The orientation of the bar and the angle are
shown below.
O
U1
V1
U2
V2
Y
X
26
This element does not ha$e any stiffness associated with rotational degrees of freedom.
Therefore, bending and torsion effects are not included in this model nor is it possible to load the
structure with moments. Also, the element, in the manner it is used in this analysis, does not
ha$e the ability to model large deformations and will not warn the user in case of buc;ling type
failures ,i.e. geometric nonlinearities-. Similarly, this type of analysis does not ha$e the ability to
correctly model stresses which are not in the elastic range of the material ,i.e. material
nonlinearities-.
V. STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING THE TRUSS MODEL USING PATRAN
!reliminaries for using *S=>!AT:A( include.
2- /og on to the computer
2- =hange to the directory that you wish to contain your analysis results
5- /eft clic; STA:T ,lower left corner of the (T des;top-, go to !:CA:A*S, then top *S=
,common-, then to *S= !atran 0. This will bring up the *S=>!atran !rogram.
In the instructions below, the following abbre$iations and terms will be used.
TM = Top Men. This refers to the horiBontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after
!AT:A( has been initiated.
RM = R!"#t Men. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from
the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the !AT:A( des;top.
SM = S$o%&!n'te Men. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the
right menu.
C(!)* = @nless otherwise stated, this indicates a clic; with the left mouse button.
Bo(&+')e will indicate te+t that occurs in the !AT:A( menus.
Italics te+t will indicate te+t that you must enter into te+t bo+es in the !AT:A( menus or te+t that
you choose in a menu scroll bo+.
2. Cur first step is to create a new database.
'rom the T* choose F!(e
In the resulting pull down menu choose Ne, D't'$'-e
A S* called Ne, D't'$'-e pops up
Turn off ,button up- Mo&!+. P%e+e%en)e-
@nder Ne, D't'$'-e N'/e enter truss.db
=lic; O0
A menu called Ne, Mo&e( P%e+e%en)e- will appear
Select To(e%'n)e to be $'-e& on t#e /o&e(
Set Mo&e( D!/en-!on = 2.0
An'(.-!- )o&e = MSC/N'-t%'n
An'(.-!- T.pe = -t%)t%'(
=lic; O0
2. The geometry of the truss will be determined ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Geo/et%.
28
A :* called Geo/et%. will result
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the C%3e ID list to 1
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button ,unchec;-
Enter the following into the Ve)to% Coo%&!n'te- list.
-1,0,0.
Enter the following into the O%!"!n Coo%&!n'te- list.
-0,0,0.
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
#uild the rest of the truss using the following table
/ine (umber Rector =oordinates Crigin =oordinates
2 S2,0,0T S0,0,0T
2 S0,2,0T S0,0,0T
5 S0,2,0T S2,0,0T
6 S2,0,0T S0,2,0T
8 S2,2,0T S0,0,0T
9 S2,0,0T S2,0,0T
" S2,)2,0T S2,2,0T
H S2,0,0T S2,2,0T
S0,2,0T S2,0,0T
(ote that the commands =onstruct, /ine, P1O do (CT wor; based on the coordinates of the 2
end points of the truss member. These commands generate lines based on the origin and the
$ector for that particular truss member.
(ote that if you ma;e a mista;e you can erase by clic;ing on the undo button on the top of the
!AT:A( des;top. This will erase the /AST =C(ST:@=TIC( =C**A(N C(/1. In other
words, it will ta;e the process bac; to before you hit the App(. button the last time.
5. The boundary conditions are specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Lo'&/BC5-
A :* called Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- will appear
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (is)lace#ent
T.pe = *odal
Set C%%ent Lo'& C'-e = (e"ault
Enter Ne, Set N'/e as le"t"i0
, This is for the clamping of the left most bottom nodes-
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Set Lo'&/BC S)'(e F')to% = 1.
Set T%'n-('t!on- to -0,0,0.
/ea$e the Rot't!on- blan;
#e sure An'(.-!- Coo%&!n'te F%'/e is Coord0
=lic; CG
,bac; in the Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
29
a S* called Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on appears with a Select menu on
its left edge.
In the Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on S*
Turn on the Geo/et%. ,button down-
=lic; in bo+ under Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e-
In the Select *enu ,which is Fust to the left of the S*-
=lic; on the picture with a point
In the main $iew port, clic; on point 2 ,left most point on the bottom
edge-
A Selection =hoices menu will appear. =hoose !oint 2.
, This will cause the words &!oint 2& to appear in the Se(e)t Geo/et%!)
Ent!t!e- bo+ in the :*-
=lic; on A&& Fust below this bo+
, This will remo$e the words &!oint 2& from the Se(e)t Geo/et%!)
Ent!t!e- bo+ and add them to the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; CG
,The Lo'& / Bon&'%. Con&!t!on :* appears again-
=lic; App(.
,5 displacement constraint arrows and the numbers 2,2,5 should now appear in
the main $iewport window on the e+treme right point on the bottom of the truss-
#ac; in the :* called Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (is)lace#ent
T.pe = *odal
Set C%%ent Lo'& C'-e = (e"ault
Enter Ne, Set N'/e as ri:ht"i0
, This is for the clamping of the right most bottom nodes-
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Set Lo'&/BC S)'(e F')to% = 1.
Set T%'n-('t!on- to - ,0,0.
(ote the space left in before the first comma in the T%'n-('t!on-
$ector. This ensures that the P direction is (CT constrained
/ea$e the Rot't!on- blan;
#e sure An'(.-!- Coo%&!n'te F%'/e is Coord0
=lic; CG
,bac; in the Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
a S* called Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on appears with a Select menu on
its left edge.
In the Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on S*
Turn on the Geo/et%. ,button down-
=lic; in bo+ under Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e-
In the Select *enu ,which is Fust to the left of the S*-
=lic; on the picture with a point
In the main $iew port, clic; on point 8 ,right most point on the bottom
edge-
A Selection =hoices menu will appear. =hoose !oint 8.
, This will cause the words &!oint 8& to appear in the Se(e)t Geo/et%!)
Ent!t!e- bo+ in the :*-
=lic; on A&& Fust below this bo+
2"
, This will remo$e the words &!oint 8& from the Se(e)t Geo/et%!)
Ent!t!e- bo+ and add them to the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; CG
,The Lo'& / Bon&'%. Con&!t!on :* appears again-
=lic; App(.
,2 displacement constraint arrows and the numbers 2,5 should now appear in the main $iewport
window on the e+treme right point on the bottom of the truss-
6. The loads are specified ne+t.
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
change A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = /orce
T.pe = *odal
=hange the Ne, Set N'/e to to)load
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Enter the force $ector -0 , ;100 , 0.
lea$e the moments - . ,i.e. blan;-
=lic; O0
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
A S* called Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on appears with a select menu Fust to its
left
In the Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on menu
Select the Geo/et%. F!(te% = <eo#etr5
=lic; in the Se(e)t Geo/et%. Ent!t!e- $o2
In the select menu to the left of the S*
=lic; on the point icon
In the main $iewport, clic; on the point 6 ,top center point-
,point 6 will be added to the Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- list-
In the Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on menu
=lic; A&&
,!oint 6 will be added to the App(!)'t!on Re"!on list-
=lic; O0
,Lo'&/BC5- menu now reappears-
=lic; App(.
,A $ector with the load of magnitude 200 in the U1 direction will appear on point 6
in the main $iewport-
8. The finite element mesh is specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose E(e/ent-
A :* appears called F!n!te E(e/ent-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh eed
T.pe = !ni"or#
Select N/$e% o+ E(e/ent- ,button down-
N/$e% = 2
Turn off the Ato E2e)te ,button up-
=lic; in C%3e- L!-t bo+
=lic; on cur$e 2 in the main $iewport
,cur$e 2 is the line between point 2 and point 2. This is the bottom left part of the truss-
,The words &=ur$e 2& will be added to the C%3e L!-t-
2H
=lic; App(.
,circles which represent finite element nodes will appear on points 2 and 2-
No the same for cur$es 2).
,The nodes created abo$e must now be tied together with elements-
,up at the top of the :*-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh
T.pe = Curve
=lic; on #ar2 under E(e/ent Topo(o".
=lic; C%3e L!-t #o+
=lic; cur$e 2 in the main $iewport
=lic; App(.
No the same for cur$es 2)
To see the element numbers on the truss, clic; the K/abel =ontrolL button ,/oo;s li;e an
K/L- on the top row menu. This adds a label control tool bar which allows you to turn
on>off labels for different geometric and>or finite element entities.
,up at the top of the :*-
Set A)t!on = $%uivalence
O$1e)t = &ll
T.pe = 'olerance Cube
,The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another-
/ea$e the No&e- to $e E2)(&e& list blan;
Set the E4!3'(en)!n" To(e%'n)e to .001
=lic; App(.
,The command window at the bottom of the !AT:A( des;top will tell you that 22 nodes
were deleted-
9. The materials are specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select M'te%!'(-
a :* will appear called M'te%!'(-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Isotro)ic
Met#o& = Manual In)ut
=lic; M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
Input the name to be &lu#inu#
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e- bo+
S* called Inpt Opt!on- appears
Input E('-t!) Mo&(- = 4.0$10
Input Po!--on = 0.1
O0
#ac; in the *aterials :*
=lic; App(.
,The E2!-t!n" M'te%!'(- bo+ should ha$e &lu#inu# in it-
". The properties for each element are assigned ne+t.
Cn the T* select E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
2
a :* will appear called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 1d
T.pe = +od
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
Enter truss1
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &Aluminum& in the M'te%!'(- P%ope%t. Set bo+
, the words m.Aluminum will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+-
=lic; in the A%e' bo+
Enter .000= ,recall that the member0s cross section was 5cm + 5cm
s%uare-
=lic; O0
,#ac; in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
In the select menu Fust to the left of the S*
=lic; in the bo+ which contains finite element with 2 end nodes
,This allows you to pic; finite element entities as opposed to
the geometric entities in the other bo+-
*o$e the cursor arrow to a point to the left and abo$e the highest, left)
most point on the truss. =lic; and hold down the left mouse button. Nrag
the cursor ,while holding down the mouse button- to a point to
the right of and below the right)most bottom node. A &selection bo+&
is formed while you drag. :elease the button.
,The words Elm 2. will appear in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+-
=lic; A&&
,The words Element 2. appears in the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; App(. in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- menu
,truss2 will be added to the E2!-t!n" P%ope%t. Set- bo+-
H. The analysis is to be done is specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
a :* will appear called An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = &nal56e
O$1e)t = $ntire Model
Met#o& = /ull +un
=lic; on So(t!on T.pe
a S* will appear
=lic; on T%'n-('t!on P'%'/ete%-
A S* called T%'n-('t!on P'%'/ete%- will appear
Set D't' Otpt to 7P2 and Print
=lic; O0
#ac; in the An'(.-!- :*
Set So(t!on T.pe = St't!) ,button down-
=lic; O0
,bac; in the :* An'(.-!--
=lic; App(.
,The analysis will ta;e a few seconds to run-
20
(ow we0ll read the results into the graphics database
,bac; in the :* An'(.-!--
Set A)t!on = +ead 7ut)ut2
O$1e)t = +esult $ntities
Met#o& = 'ranslate
=lic; on Se(e)t Re-(t- F!(e
=hoose truss.o)2 ,you may need to go to the root or home directory to find this.
If this file does not e+ist, then there was an error in your model. Ao to the file
truss.log or truss.f09 to attempt to find out what error occurred.-
#ac; in the An'(.-!- :*
=lic; App(.
. RisualiBe the results
'rom the T* choose Re-(t-
A :* called Re-(t- appears
Set Action = =reate
CbFect = ?uic; !lot
@nder Se(e)t F%!n"e Re-(t =hoose (is)lace#ents, 'ranslational
et 8'nt!t. > Y Co#)onent
@nder Se(e)t De+o%/'t!on Re-(t-, choose (is)lace#ents, 'ranslational
=lic; App(.
, A deformed plot appears with colors indicating the le$el of deformation. (ote that the
$isual deformation of the truss is magnified so that you can see the deformation KmodeL.
The actual truss deformations are $ery small< as can be seen by the numerical $alues,
which are (CT scaled-
(ote that you can also $iew the stress results in this manner. Simply choose St%e--<
Ten-o% from the Se(e)t F%!n"e Re-(t options. :ecall that there are a number of ways
to compute and e+trapolate the stresses for a bar and these will ma;e significant
differences in the $alues which are plotted.
20. =hec; the written report of the truss results.
The file containing the written results from the analysis is scaled truss.f09. Cpen the file ,by
simply double clic;ing on it-. The file might be in the root or home directory or in the directory
from which you ran the analysis.
In this file find the displacement $ectors and record the numerical $alues. These will help you
answer some of the %uestion below. Also, find the $ectors for the stresses and constraint forces
and record these $alues.
(e+t you will end your *S= !AT:A( session by sa$ing your database and e+iting
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select S'3e
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select 8!t
VII. 8UESTIONS FROM THE TUTORIAL: MODELING A TRUSS
The %uestions below refer to the truss model described at the beginning of this tutorial. Also,
information from the output file truss.f09 will be needed in order to answer many of these
22
%uestions. As used below, the term &/e/$e%& refers to the portion of a truss structure between
two Foints. 'or e+ample, the top of this structure has two horiBontal members which are
connected by the Foint at which the load is applied.
1'. 3hat is the ma+imum displacement for the structure 4
1$. Is this displacement consistent in location, magnitude and direction with your physical
intuition 4
6'. 3hat is the ma+imum stress in the structure 4
6$. Is this stress consistent in location, magnitude and direction with your physical intuition 4
=. Are there any members with $ery low stresses4 Noes this ma;e physical sense4
>. 7ow many e%uations are sol$ed in order to determine the displacements for this structure 4
?. 3hat assumptions are in$ol$ed in using this specific element as opposed to using a 2 node
beam element with 9 degrees of freedom ,5 displacements and 5 rotations- per node 4
@. The present model uses a single 2)node bar element for each truss member. 3ould the
accuracy of the model increase if two bar elements were used to model each truss member 4
Vustify your answer.
A'. The resultant forces ,sometimes called constraint, restoring or reaction forces-, are located
at the nodes where the boundary conditions are applied. State how these resultant forces can be
used as a &necessary but not sufficient& test of the accuracy of your analysis.
A$. Noes your analysis pass this test 4
B. If two nodes in your final truss structure ha$e the e+act same physical location but different
node numbers, what part of the !AT:A( analysis procedure has been left out 4
C'. 7ow could the element properties be changed to model this truss if the members in the
structure were circular hollow aluminum bars. Assume that the outside diameter is 5 cm and the
inside diameter is 2 cm. :emember that this structure only models the membrane ,a+ial-
deformation not the bending deformation of each member.
C$. If you wanted to account for bending deformation in your model, could you use this same
adFustment to the physical properties to model the truss with hollow members 4
1;. Assume that the cross sectional area of the truss members is incorrectly input in s%uare cm
as opposed to s%uare meters. If the other data for the problem is input using meters, what would
the ma+imum deflection of the truss be 4
11. Assuming that the rotations of the cross sections of the bars are small, what will be the
difference between the results of your !AT:A( analysis and the e+act analysis 4 ,&e+act& here
refers to the analytic analysis using standard structural analysis methods-
16'. Some truss structures may be designed so that, if certain members of the truss are
damaged to the e+tent that they no longer ha$e significant stiffness, the structure will still be able
to handle reasonable loading. This type of truss assembly is said to ha$e redundant members.
3ithout changing the number of elements in the structure, suggest a method of using *S=
!AT:A( to determine if there are redundant members in this truss structure.
16$. @se the method de$eloped in 25a- to determine if one of the diagonal members is
redundant.
16). @se the method de$eloped in 25a- to determine if one of the $ertical members is
redundant.
1='. !redict the deflection if the direction of the load is changed from the negati$e 1 direction, to
the O direction ,note from your nodal location information that this truss is located in the P ) 1
plane-.
1=$. :un the analysis and e+plain the displacement results.
1>'. !redict the effect of remo$ing the displacement boundary condition on the lower right node
of the truss structure 4
1>$. :un the analysis and e+plain the displacement results.
22
MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # =
MODELING A CANTILEVERED BEAM DITH END LOAD
USING > NODE SHELL ELEMENTS
I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM
The beam below is cantile$ered or &built in& on the left edge. This means that both the
translations and the rotations are held to Bero along this edge. A point or concentrated load of
magnitude 2000 ( ,appro+imately 228 lb- in the negati$e 1 direction is found at the tip of the
beam. This problem is part of a standard set of test cases for finite elements published in a paper
by *ac(eal and 7arder ,*ac(eal founded the company that ma;es the 'EA code
*S=>(AST:A( and *S=>!AT:A(-. The set of problems is called &The *ac(eal ) 7arder Test
=ases&. The material properties for the beam are E= 200 + 20

!ascals ,typical for steel- and


0 . 0
,as the analytic beam theory we use below does not ta;e !oison0s ration effects into
account-. The beam has a solid rectangular cross section with thic;ness in the O)direction t = 0.2
meters and height in the 1)direction h = 0.2 meters.
25
1

P=1000 N
L= 6.0 m
h=20 cm +
II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily a$ailable. Any
*echanics of *aterials te+t will pro$ide e%uations for the ma+ stress ,located at the built in edge
and on either the top fiber for ma+ tensile stress or the bottom fiber for ma+ compressi$e stress-
and the ma+ displacement ,located, of course, at the free tip where the load is applied-. These
e%uations are gi$en below.
'or the normal stress due to bending.
I
y x M
x
xx
% (
% ( so that the ma+ $alue located at the built)in edge is
,
)"
)
"
% (
bh
PL
h
MAX xx

.
'or the displacement at the tip of the beam ,ma+imum displacement-.
EI
PL
L x
Y
,
% (
,

Some basic %uestions to consider before creating the computational model are.
a- 3here will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressi$e4
b- 3hat will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces>moments4
c- 3here will the stresses be Bero4
d- 7ow do the displacements $ary along the length ,linear, %uadratic etc.-4
e- 3hat will the local effect of the concentrated load be on the stresses4
f- Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements4
Answering these %uestions %ualitati$ely, along with the %uantitati$e analytical solutions for the
ma+ stress and displacement will pro$ide reinforcement that your computational model is
correctly constructed.
III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
As is the standard procedure for building *S=>!atran models, we will build the geometry first and
then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will proceed from creation
of points to lines to surfaces for this simple model. (e+t, we will use 6 node shell elements
deforming in their membrane mode to model the beam. In this e+ercise, we will $ary the e+act
number and configuration of these elements. This is discussed in detail in the ne+t paragraph.
(e+t, the material and element properties will be entered. 3e will constrain the 5 displacement
and 5 rotational degrees of freedom on the left edge ,for both nodes-. This creates the
cantile$ered or built)in, end condition. Then we will, place a point load of magnitude 2000 on the
26
top right node of the tip ,or right)most- element. This load will be in the negati$e 1 direction.
'inally, the nodes must be e%ui$alenced before the analysis is ready to run.
#elow, we show 8 mesh configurations for the beam ,labeled KaL through KeL-. =omparison of
results between mesh KaL and mesh KbL will indicate of how the number of elements affects the
model0s ability to correctly model a beam problem. Increasing the number of elements in a mesh
in order to increase the accuracy of the results is called KhL con$ergence. *eshes KbL U KeL all
ha$e 9 elements< but the elements ha$e different orientations. Elements that ha$e non)regular
shapes are said to be distorted. Nistorted elements can cause errors in the 'EA results. This
can be a significant problem in comple+ meshes as e$en the best automatic mesh generators
often produce some distorted elements. The elements in *S=>(astran ha$e been specifically
designed to minimiBe this unfortunate effect, but some sensiti$ity to element distortion may still
remain. Nifferent types of element distortion result in different le$els of error. E$aluating results
from the meshes KbL ) KeL will pro$ide you with some feel for how these elements perform when
they are distorted.
Me-#e- +o% t#e E#F Con3e%"en)e G D!-to%t!on An'(.-!-
I. Re)t'n"('% 6 E(e/ent Me-#:
1000
6.0
N
m
20 cm
$7 Re)t'n"('% @ E(e/ent Me-#:
1000
6.0
N
m
20 cm
28
)7 1; De"%ee P'%'((e(o"%'/ Me-#:
1000
6.0
N
m
20 cm
10
Degrees
Typical

&7 >? De"%ee P'%'((e(o"%'/ Me-#:
1000
6.0
N
m
20 cm
45 Deg.
Typ.

e7 >? De"%ee T%'peHo!& Me-#:
1000
6.0
N
m
20 cm
45 Deg.
Typ.
29
IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY
The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node shell elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated.
However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 4 node membrane element is not extremely difficult
and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the h convergence and
distortion sensitivity studies. This basic form is constructed as follows:
Isoparametric Formulation of a 2-D Membrane Element [K] Matrix
Assume the element has the configuration shown below:
4.0
2.0
Y
X
1 2
3
4
The physical and natural coordinate locations of the 6 nodes are.
Cur goal is to find the element stiffness matri+
ASS@*E.

V
T
dV B E B K - . - . - . - .

ASS@*E. 2 displacement degrees of freedom ,dof- per node
3ith . I#J = the strain ) displacement matri+ such that [ ]{ } { } B u
where. WuX is the dof $ector and W

X is the strain $ector


IEJ = the constituti$e matri+ such that [ ]{ } { } E
where W

X is the stress $ector and


R = $olume.
(CNE ,+,y-
( , )
2 ,0,0- ,)2,)2-
2 ,6,0- ,2,)2-
5 ,6,2- ,2,2-
6 ,0,2- ,)2,2-
2"
Step 1: Interpolate the dof. / -0 . / , , , , , , , -0 .
1 1 , , " " ) )
u N v u v u v u v u N
v
u
T

'


where I(J is the shape function matri+
1
]
1

1 , " )
1 , " )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
- .
N N N N
N N N N
N
and the rules for the shape functions are . 2-
N
i
must be =2 at node &i&
2-
N
i
must be =0 at any node not = &i&
This leads to the shape functions. N
)
)
1
) ) ( %( % < N
2
1
4
1 1 + ( )( ) <
N
3
1
4
1 1 + + ( )( ) < N
4
1
4
1 1 + ( )( )
Step 6: 'ind the I#J matri+.
:ele$ant strains are

'

'

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

v
u
D
v
u
x y
y
x
xy
yy
xx
- . 0
0
/ 0

< but from step 2


/ -0 . u N
v
u

'

So
0 / . -. -0 / . -0 / D N u B u
with [ ] [ ][ ] B D N
Therefore,
1
1
1
]
1

x y x y x y x y
y y y y
x x x x
N N N N N N N N
N N N N
N N N N
B
, 1 , 1 , , , , , " , " , ) , )
, 1 , , , " , )
, 1 , , , " , )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
- . where the commas denote
partial differentiation.
Step =: @se the Vacobian to find deri$ati$es.
Isoparametric Assumption.
T
y x y x y x y x N
y
x
/ , , , , -0 .
1 1 , , , , " " , ) )

'


i.e. the isoparametric assumption is that geometry can be interpolated using the same
interpolation functions as the displacements.
The Vacobian matri+
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1 1
, ,
" "
) )
, 1 , , , " , )
, 1 , , , " , )
- .
y x
y x
y x
y x
N N N N
N N N N
y
x
y
x
J


2H
and from chain rule

'

'

1
]
1

'



,
,
)
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
- .
i
i
i
i
y y
x x
y i
x i
N
N
J
N
N
N
N
So in this particular case.
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

+ +
+ +

" 0
" 1
0 1
0 0
) ) ) )
) ) ) )
1
)
- .


J =
1
]
1

1
]
1

) 0
0 "
1 0
0 2
1
)
which implies that
1
]
1

) 0
0
- .
"
)
)
J
This allows us to find the entries in I#J
Step >: !erform the numerical integration.
Assume that the element has constant thic;ness = t implies

A
T
dy dx B E B t K - . - . - . - .
3hich, according to the rules of calculus can be written.
d d J B E B t K
T
- . - . - . - .
where J is the determinant of the Vacobian matri+.
Aaussian numerical integration is then used to find the final numbers for the element stiffness.
This ta;es the form.
. - . - . - . -
( , %
K h B E B J w w
j
nj
i
ni
T
i j
n
i j



) )

3here ngF and ngi are the number of gaussian integration points in the KFL and KiL directions
respecti$ely and wF and wi are the associated gaussian weighting factors.
Un&e%-t'n&!n" t#e E#F Con3e%"en)e E2pe%!/ent:
'rom step 2 abo$e we gain insight into the KhL con$ergence study. :emember that the that the
analytic formula for the displacements as a function P ,distance from built)in edge- is.
EI
x L Px
x
y
3
% , (
% (
"

where ! is the load, / is the length, E is the Elastic *odulus and I is the
bending moment in inertia. This e%uation shows that the displacement is a cubic function of the
distance from the cantile$er. As the bi)linear ,linear in both

and

- shape functions are used


to interpolate the displacements for this 6 node element, the elements are attempting to capture a
cubic beha$ior by using a series of linear appro+imations. The number of linear appro+imations
is e%ual to the number of elements we use ,the actual situation when using *S=>(astran0s 6
node shell element is a little better than this due to the inno$ati$e element formulation, but this is
a good way to conceptually grasp the idea of KhL con$ergence-. This is the reason why 2
elements gi$e a higher error than do 9 elements.
Un&e%-t'n&!n" t#e D!-to%t!on Sen-!t!3!t. E2pe%!/ent:
2
D#en 'n e(e/ent !- %e)t'n"('%< !t- I')o$!'n /'t%!2 J-e& !n -tep- = 'n& > '$o3e7 !-
n/e%!)'((. e2')t. Ho,e3e%< !+ t#e e(e/ent $e)o/e- &!-to%te&< t#e $!K(!ne'% -#'pe
+n)t!on- -e& to +o%/ LIM )'n no (on"e% e2')t(. )'pt%e t#e "eo/et%. 'n& t#e
I')o$!'n !- no (on"e% n/e%!)'((. e2')t. T#!- !nt%o&)e- e%%o% !nto -tep- = 'n& >
'$o3e. T#e e2')t +o%/ o+ t#e e(e/entN- &!-to%t!on &ete%/!ne- t#e '/ont o+ e%%o%
,#!)# !- !nt%o&)e&. A- /ent!one& p%e3!o-(.< t#e e(e/ent- !n MSC/N'-t%'n '%e
!nt%!)'te(. &e-!"ne& to %e/o3e '- /)# o+ t#!- &!-to%t!on $'-e& e%%o% '- po--!$(e.
I+ t#e -!/p(e -t'n&'%& !-op'%'/et%!) +o%/('t!on -#o,n '$o3e !- -e&< t#e
t%'p'H!o&'( e(e/ent- J/e-# EeF '$o3e7 ,o(& ')t'((. E(o)*F J$e)o/e 3e%. -t!++7
'n& t#e e%%o%- !n t#e &!-p(')e/ent- ,o(& $e #"e Jo3e% C;O7. Fo% t#!- %e'-on< !t
!- )%!t!)'( t#'t -op#!-t!)'te&< ,e((Kte-te& +!n!te e(e/ent )o&e- $e -e& +o% 'n.
)%!t!)'( 'n'(.-!-. E3en t#en< !t !- ,!-e to !n-pe)t /e-#e- +o% %e"!on- ,#e%e
e(e/ent- '%e #!"#(. &!-to%te& 'n& 'tte/pt to )%e'te ' (e-- &!-to%te& /e-# !n t#'t
'%e'.
R. STE! #1 STE! I(ST:@=TIC(S 'C: *CNE/I(A T7E =A(TI/ERE:EN
#EA* @SI(A *S=>!AT:A(
!reliminaries for using !AT:A( include.
a- /og on to the computer
b- =lic; STA:T ,lower left corner of the 3indows Nes;top-, go to !rograms, Select *S=
,common-, Select *S= !atran.0.
The instructions below give details for modeling the beam problem discussed above. Specifically, the 6
rectangular elements (mesh b above) is constructed. If one wishes to create any of the other meshes, the
mesh creation section must be adapted to fit that mesh.
In the instructions below, the following abbre$iations and terms will be used.
TM = Top Men. This refers to the horiBontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after
!AT:A( has been initiated.
RM = R!"#t Men. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from
the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the !AT:A( des;top.
SM = S$o%&!n'te Men. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the
right menu.
C(!)* = @nless otherwise stated, this indicates a clic; with the left mouse button.
Bo(&+')e will indicate te+t that occurs in the !AT:A( menus.
Italics te+t will indicate te+t that you must enter into te+t bo+es in the !AT:A( menus or te+t that
you choose in a menu scroll bo+.
2. Cur first step is to create a new database.
'rom the T* choose F!(e
In the resulting pull down menu choose Ne,
A S* called Ne, D't'$'-e pops up
Turn on ,chec;ed- Mo&!+. P%e+e%en)e-
@nder F!(e N'/e enter bea#.db
=lic; O0
2. (e+t set the analysis preference.
A Ne, Mo&e( P%e+e%en)e- window will appear as a :*
@nder To(e%'n)e choose ?ased on Model
50
Set Mo&e( D!/en-!on to @.0
@nder An'(.-!- Co&e choose MCA*&'+&*
=hoose An'(.-!- T.pe = tructural
clic; O0
5. The geometry of the beam will be determined ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Geo/et%.
A :* called Geo/et%. will result
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the Po!nt ID list to 1
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
Enter the following into the Po!nt Coo%&!n'te- list.
[0,0,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
A point will appear in the main $iewport at coordinates I0,0,0J
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the Po!nt ID list to 2
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
Enter the following into the Po!nt Coo%&!n'te- list.
[@,0,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
A point will appear in the main $iewport at coordinates I9,0,0J
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the Po!nt ID list to 1
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
Enter the following into the Po!nt Coo%&!n'te- list.
[0,0.2,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
A point will appear in the main $iewport at coordinates I0,0.2,0J
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the Po!nt ID list to 3
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
52
Enter the following into the Po!nt Coo%&!n'te- list.
[@,0.2,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
A po!nt ,!(( 'ppe'% !n t#e /'!n 3!e,po%t 't )oo%&!n'te- L@<;.6<;M
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = Point
Set the C%3e ID list to 1
Turn Atoe2e)te off
Set St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t = Point 1
Set Ending !oint /ist = Point 2
=lic; App(.
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = Point
Set the C%3e ID list to 2
Turn Atoe2e)te off
Set St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t = Point 1
Set Ending !oint /ist = Point 4
=lic; App(.
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = ur"ace
Met#o& = Curve
Set the S%+')e ID list to 1
Set P't%'n 6 Con3ent!on o""
Opt!on = 2 Curve
Set M'n!+o(& o"" ,not chec;ed-
Set St'%t!n" C%3e L!-t = Curve 1
Set Ending =ur$e /ist = Curve 2
=lic; App(.
6. The boundary conditions are specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Lo'&/BC5-
A :* called Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- will appear
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (is)lace#ent
T.pe = *odal
Set C%%ent Lo'& C'-e = (e"ault
Enter Ne, Set N'/e as lBcant
, The name can be whate$er name you wish. The name lBcant is chosen as this
is for the cantile$er of the left most nodes-
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* called Input Nata appears
Set Lo'&/BC S)'(e +')to% =1
Set T%'n-('t!on- to -0,0,0.
Set Rot't!on- to -0,0,0.
#e sure An'(.-!- Coo%&!n'te F%'/e is Coord0
52
=lic; CG
,bac; in the Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
A SM )'((e& Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on 'ppe'%-
Turn on the Geo/et%. ,button down-
=lic; in bo+ under Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e-
In the !atran Se(e)t Men JFust to the left of the :*-
=lic; on the cur$e icon ,Fust under the point icon-
In the main $iew port, select the left most $ertical edge of the
beam.
A Se(e)t!on C#o!)e- S* appears
=hoose ur"ace 1.1
, This will cause the words &Surface 2.2& to appear in the Se(e)t
Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- bo+ in the :*-
=lic; on A&& Fust below this bo+
, This will remo$e the words &Surface 2.2 & from the Se(e)t
Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- bo+ and adds them to the App(!)'t!on
Re"!on bo+-
=lic; CG
,The Lo'& / Bon&'%. Con&!t!on :* appears again-
=lic; App(.
,5 displacement constraint arrows and 5 rotation constraint arrows should now
appear on each point in the main $iewport window on the e+treme left edge of
the beam. (umbers 2,2,5,6,8,9 will appear with the arrows to show that all 9 of
the dof are constrained there-
8. The loads are specified ne+t.
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
change A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = /orce
T.pe = *odal
=hange the Ne, Set N'/e to rB)oint
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Enter the force $ector -0 , ;1000 , 0.
lea$e the moments - . ,i.e. blan;-
=lic; O0
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
a small !atran select menu appears to the left edge of the :*
=lic; in this !atran select menu on the point icon
In the main $iewport, clic; on the point 6 ,top right corner of the
beam-
A S* called Se(e)t!on C#o!)e- menu appears.
=hoose the Po!nt > option, not the C%3e or S%+')e option-
,!oint 6 will be added to the Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e- list-
=lic; A&&
,!oint 6 will be added to the App(!)'t!on Re"!on list-
=lic; O0
,Lo'&/BC5- menu now reappears-
=lic; App(.
,A $ector with the 2000 unit downward load should appear on point 6 in
the main $iewport-
55
9. The finite element mesh is specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose E(e/ent-
A :* appears called E(e/ent-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh
T.pe = ur"ace
Set No&e I& > 1
Set E(e/ent I& L!-t > 1
Set G(o$'( E&"e Len"t# > 1.0 ,This will create 9 elements. If you want to create
only 2 elements ,as is needed to answer %uestion Y2 below- then set the Alobal
edge length to 5.0-
Set E(e/ent Topo(o". > 8uad3
Set Me-#e% > Iso#esh
=lic; in the S%+')e L!-t bo+
=lic; and drag to select the entire structure
The 3ords &Surface 2& should appear in the S%+')e L!-t
=lic; App(.
S!2 e(e/ent- ,!(( 'ppe'% on t#e -t%)t%e.
Set A)t!on = $%uivalence
O$1e)t = &ll
T.pe = 'olerance Cube
,The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another-
Set the E4!3'(en)!n" To(e%'n)e to .001
=lic; App(.
,The command window at the bottom of the !AT:A( des;top will tell you that 0 nodes
were deleted. This step will become critical if, in more complicated models, you are
attempting to Foin portions of a model which ha$e been meshed separately.-
". The materials are specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select M'te%!'(-
a :* will appear called M'te%!'(-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Isotro)ic
Met#o& = Manual In)ut
=lic; M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
Input the name to be bea#B#atl
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e- bo+
S* called Inpt Opt!on- appears
Input E('-t!) Mo&(- =200.0$=
Input Po!--on = 0.0
=lic; O0
#ac; in the M'te%!'(- :*
=lic; App(.

H. The properties for each element are assigned ne+t.
Cn the T* select P%ope%t!e-
a :* will appear called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 2d
T.pe = hell
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
56
Enter bea#B)ro)
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &beamEmatl& in the M'te%!'( P%ope%t. Set- bo+ at the
bottom of the S*
, the words m.beamEmatl will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+ at the
top of the S*-
=lic; in the T#!)*ne-- bo+
Enter 0.1
=lic; O0
,#ac; in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
a !atran Se(e)t /en will appear on the left edge of the :*
=lic; on the icon which contains the surface or face icon
*o$e the cursor arrow to a point to the left and abo$e the highest, left)
most point on the beam. =lic; and hold down the left mouse button. Nrag
the cursor ,while holding down the mouse button- to a point to the right of
and below the right)most bottom node. A &selection bo+& is formed while
you drag. :elease the button.
,The words Surface 2 will appear in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+-
=lic; A&&
,The words Surface 2 appears in the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; App(. in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- menu
,beamEprop will be added to the E2!-t!n" P%ope%t. Set- bo+-
. The analysis is to be done is specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
a :* will appear called An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = &nal56e
O$1e)t = $ntire Model
Met#o& = /ull +un
=lic; Translation !arameters
In the S* that appears, set D't' Otpt = 7)2 and Print
=lic; O0
#ac; in the :* An'(.-!-
Set So(t!on T.pe = ,inear tatic ,button down-
=lic; O0
=lic; App(.
,The analysis will ta;e a few seconds to run. A S* indicating that *S=>(astran is
wor;ing may appear-
20. A graphical representation of the deformation can be produced.
A graphical representation of the deformation pro$ides an easy way to help determine if you ha$e
constructed your model correctly.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = +ead 7ut)ut2
O$1e)t = +esults $ntities
Met#o& = 'ranslate
=lic; Se(e)t Re-(t- F!(e
A S* appears called Se(e)t F!(e
58
=lic; the file $e'/.op6
J1ou may need to loo; in your home or root directory to find the file. If
this file does not e+ist, then you ha$e made a mista;e in constructing
your model. Ao to E+plorer ,right)clic; on Start and choose E+plore- and
find the file beam.log and beam.f09. Cpen these files by double clic;ing
on them and search for the word KerrorL to determine what your mista;e
is-.
bea#.o)2 then appears in the F!(e N'/e bo+
=lic; O0
,bac; in the An'(.-!- menu-
=lic; App(.
Cn the T* select Re-(t-
A :* will appear called Re-(t-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = 8uic9 Plot
In t#e Select 'ringe :esult $o2 )(!)* Displacements, translational
In t#e Apply 'ringe :esult $o2 )(!)* Displacements, translational
Set ?uantity = Y Component
=lic; App(.
(This will create the deformed plot)
(ote that stresses can also be plotted from the Re-(t- menu by specifying them in the
Se(e)t F%!n"e Re-(t section.
22. (e+t you will end your *S=>!AT:A( session by sa$ing your database and e+iting.
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select S'3e
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select 8!t
VI. E9ERCISES:
Fo% /'n. o+ t#e e2e%)!-e- $e(o,< !t /'. $e #e(p+( to -e t#e Re-(t- Te/p('te !n)(&e&
'+te% t#e e2e%)!-e-.
a- =ompare the 'EA results with the analytic results for the tip deflection and stresses using two
elements and using 9 elements along the a+is of the beam ,see figures KaL U KeL abo$e-. This
is a small h con$ergence test. !lot ,Z error- Rs ,number of elements-. Assume a linear
function from your 2 data points. If this linear assumption is correct, what is the least number
of elements you would need to get 2Z error in the displacements4 3hat is the least number
of elements you would need to get 20Z error in the stresses4 ,(ote 2Z error in
displacements and 20Z error in stresses are sometimes used for standard error goals. In
addition, because stresses usually con$erge more slowly than displacements, these two
errors often occur for appro+imately the same number of elements.-
b- :eturn to your &*ac(eal ) 7arder& beam model. :erun the analysis using the same
structural geometry, boundary conditions, loading conditions and material properties as you
used pre$iously. *odel the structure with the 6 meshes specified as meshes b)e in the
KAeometric !ropertiesL section abo$e. =ompare both the displacement and stress solutions
from the 'EA with their analytic counterpart. Netermine which type of distortion appears to
be most detrimental to the 'EA results by recording specific error percentages for all 6
meshes for both displacements and stresses.
59
c- (oting that the elements we are using are &shell& elements ,that is they ha$e both membrane
A(N bending dof-, rerun the four 9)node meshes. This time load the structure in the &out)of)
plane& or O direction. To do this you will need to apply 2 e%ual loads to the 2 nodes on the tip
of the beam. These loads must be in the O)direction. As the thic;ness is not the same as the
width of the beam, your analytic answers for the tip deflection will be different than when you
loaded the beam in the )1 direction. Again, compare the percent errors for both
displacements and stresses for the meshes b)e.
d- Netermine the numerical $alues for the Vacobian matri+ for an element in one of the distorted
meshes.
e- :un the 9)element distorted)mesh problems with the load parallel to the long a+is ,in a+ial
loading- and discuss the resulting errors for both displacements and stresses.
f- :erun the analysis using only rectangular elements. =hange the !oisson0s ratio to 0.5
,normal !oisson0s ratio for steel-. :un the analysis using 2, then 9 then 6H0 elements ,by
setting the global edge length to 5, then 2 then 0.08 respecti$ely-. :ecord the displacement
and stress results for the 5 meshes. =ompute the percent errors for the stresses ,using the
analytic results as the baseline-. =ompare these errors with those found while using a
!oisson0s ratio of Bero, !ropose an e+planation for the differences,
g- :un the 9)element distorted)mesh problems with loads that create torsion and discuss the
resulting errors for both displacements and stresses. (ote that you will need to consult a
*echanics of *aterials te+t for the analytic e+pressions for the displacements and stresses of
a shaft with rectangular cross section.
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
:ES@/T TE*!/ATE
[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
Analytic tip deflection for the membrane)based case = EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
Analytic tip deflection for the bending )based case = EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
Analytic ma+. stress for the membrane)based case = EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
Analytic ma+. stress for the bending )based case = EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE
Lo'&!n" T.pe: J$en&!n" ,!t# (o'& !n .< $en&!n" ,!t# (o'& !n P< '2!'(< to%-!on7
MESH TIP
DISPL.
DISPL.
ERROR
MA9.
STRESS
STRESS
ERROR
2 element rectangular mesh
9 element rectangular mesh
20 degree parallelograms
68 degree parallelograms
68 degree trapeBoids
MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL# >
MODELING A FRAME STRUCTURE JDEIGHT BENCH7
5"
USING BEAM ELEMENTS
I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM
The frame structure ,weight lifting bench- below has the 6 legs that are attached to the floor. The
weight of a user is assumed to be distributed across the rectangular bo+ which sits in the
horiBontal plane. The weight of this user and accompanying weights is accounted for by a H lb per
inch load distributed across the 20H inches of the horiBontal rectangle. The weight on the
uprights is assumed to be 800 lb ma+ on each upright. This accounts for some impact load as
well as the static force of a fully loaded bar. In addition to the $ertical force, there is a 200 lb per
upright force in the horiBontal direction. This is intended to model the physics of someone
pushing the bar horiBontally ,in the 1 direction- against the cradle supports as they remo$e the
bar to begin the bench press e+ercise.
II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
5H
The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is readily a$ailable if we
thin; about the problem in sections. Any *echanics of *aterials te+t will pro$ide e%uations for
the stress and the displacements for built in and simply supported beams as well as a+ial loads.
These results can be used to gi$e basic analytic comparison solutions for certain sections of the
structure.
III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
As is the standard procedure for building *S=>!atran models, we will build the geometry first and
then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will proceed from creation
of points to cur$es for this simple model. (e+t, we will use 2 node beam elements to model the
frame. (e+t, the material and element properties will be entered. 3e will constrain the 5
displacement and 5 rotational degrees of freedom on the 6 legs. This creates the cantile$ered or
built)in, end conditions for these sections of the frame. Then we will place a point load of
magnitude 800 in the U1 direction on the top nodes of each of the uprights ,where the weight bar
would rest-. A 200 lb load in the horiBontal direction is also placed at that same node. A $ertical
load of H lb per inch is placed on the horiBontal bench section ,rectangle in the P1 plane-. 'inally,
the nodes must be e%ui$alenced before the analysis is ready to run.
As can be seen in the step by step instructions below, !atran has a library of beam cross
sections that can be used for frame analysis. These properties include $arious cross sections
and wall thic;ness. Cne particular feature of note is the manner in which the orientation of the
cross section is specified. The menu that allows you to pic; the properties of the beam cross
section re%uires a $alue for K#eam CrientationL . This $alue determines how the cross section will
oriented. In particular, imagine that the graphic of the cross section ,which is shown on the library
menu- has a local coordinate system with P/ being the horiBontal and1/ being the $ertical
coordinates respecti$ely ,see figure below-. Cb$iously, this means that O/ is the coordinate down
the long a+is of the beam. If we label the K#eam CrientationL $ector WboX, then the following
relationship can be used to specify our $alues for the components of WboX.
WboX P WO/X = WP/X.
An E+ample is shown below.
=onsider the following cross section and the orientation of the cross section on the 2 beams in
the picture.
5
1
/

P
/
'or the section of the beam that has its long a+is down the global P a+is, the #eam Crientation
$ector WboX is set to W0,2,0X This results in the orientation of the cross section as shown because
WboX P WO/X = WP/X W0,2,0X P W2,0,0X = W0,0,2X. So the choice of WboX = W0,2,0X results in the
global O a+is ,i.e. W0,0,2X- being the local P)a+is as seen in the graphic of the cross section. (ote
that this same choice for WboX will result in the orientation for the section of the beam that has its
long a+is in the W2,2,0X direction abo$e. This is because, for that case WboX P WO/X = WP/X. = W0,2,0X
P W2,2,0X = W0,0,2X.
This procedure is used below, in the step)by)step procedure, to determine the choice ofWboX in
the beam library menu.
IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY
The exact details of the formulation of the 2 node beam elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated.
However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 2 node beam element is not extremely difficult and will
provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the general application areas and
h convergence of these elements. This basic formulation for the 2 node isoparametric beam can be found
in the almost any Finite Elements text (see for example Finite Elements for Stress Analysis, R.D. Cook,
John Wiley & Sons, 1995) .
60
R. STE! #1 STE! I(ST:@=TIC(S 'C: *CNE/I(A T7E ':A*E
@SI(A *S=>!AT:A( \ *S=>(AST:A(
!reliminaries for using !AT:A( include.
a- /og on to the computer
b- =lic; STA:T ,lower left corner of the 3indows Nes;top-, go to !rograms, Select *S=
,common-, Select *S= !atran.0.
The instructions below give details for modeling the beam problem discussed above. The instructions are
NOT as detailed as I have given in other problems as I expect that you have begun to get a feel for how to
do certain tasks in Patran.
In the instructions below, the following abbre$iations and terms will be used.
TM = Top Men. This refers to the horiBontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after
!AT:A( has been initiated.
RM = R!"#t Men. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from
the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the !AT:A( des;top.
SM = S$o%&!n'te Men. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the
right menu.
C(!)* = @nless otherwise stated, this indicates a clic; with the left mouse button.
Bo(&+')e will indicate te+t that occurs in the !AT:A( menus.
Italics te+t will indicate te+t that you must enter into te+t bo+es in the !AT:A( menus or te+t that
you choose in a menu scroll bo+.
2. Cur first step is to create a new database.
'rom the T* choose F!(e
In the resulting pull down menu choose Ne,
A S* called Ne, D't'$'-e pops up
Turn on ,chec;ed- Mo&!+. P%e+e%en)e-
@nder F!(e N'/e enter bench.db
=lic; O0
2. (e+t set the analysis preference.
A Ne, Mo&e( P%e+e%en)e- window will appear as a :*
@nder To(e%'n)e choose ?ased on Model
Set Mo&e( D!/en-!on to 60.0
@nder An'(.-!- Co&e choose MCA*&'+&*
=hoose An'(.-!- T.pe = tructural
clic; O0
5. The geometry of the beam will be determined ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Geo/et%.
A :* called Geo/et%. will result
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
62
Set the Po!nt ID list to 1
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
Enter the following into the Po!nt Coo%&!n'te- list.
[2,0,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
A point will appear in the main $iewport at coordinates I2,0,0J
@sing the same approach, create each of the other points in this table
Point P 1 O
2 2 0 0
2 29 0 0
5 2 0 2H
6 29 0 2H
8 2H 62 0
9 0 62 0
" 2H 62 5H
H 0 62 5H
29 62 2H
20 2 62 2H
22 2H 62 2H
22 0 62 2H
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = Point
Set the C%3e ID list to 1
Turn Atoe2e)te off
Set St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t = Point 1
Set Ending !oint /ist = Point 3
=lic; App(.
@sing the same approach, create each of the other cur$es in this table
Curve #eginning
!o
int
Ending !oint
2 2 5
2 2 6
5 6
6 6 5
8 22 "
9 22 8
" 22
H 20
22 20
62
20 22 H
22 22 9
22 5 20
6. The boundary conditions are specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Lo'&/BC5-
A :* called Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- will appear
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (is)lace#ent
T.pe = *odal
Set C%%ent Lo'& C'-e = (e"ault
Enter Ne, Set N'/e as cant
, The name can be whate$er name you wish. The name cant is chosen as this is
for the cantile$er of the leg ends which contact the floor-
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* called Input Nata appears
Set Lo'&/BC S)'(e +')to% =1
Set T%'n-('t!on- to -0,0,0.
Set Rot't!on- to -0,0,0.
#e sure An'(.-!- Coo%&!n'te F%'/e is Coord0
=lic; O0
,bac; in the Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
A SM )'((e& Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on 'ppe'%-
Turn on the Geo/et%. ,button down-
=lic; in bo+ under Se(e)t Geo/et%!) Ent!t!e-
A Se(e)t!on C#o!)e- S* appears
=hoose )oints 1,2,5,@
=lic; on A&& Fust below this bo+
=lic; O0
,The Lo'& / Bon&'%. Con&!t!on :* appears again-
=lic; App(.
,5 displacement constraint arrows and 5 rotation constraint arrows should now
appear on each point in the main $iewport window on the e+treme lower edge of
the bench0s legs. (umbers 2,2,5,6,8,9 will appear with the arrows to show that
all 9 of the dof are constrained there-
8. The finite element mesh is specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose E(e/ent-
A :* appears called E(e/ent-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh eed
T.pe = !ni"or#
=hoose the N/$e% o+ E(e/ent- option
Set the number of elements to 3
3e want each of the 22 cur$es to ha$e 6 elements. To ensure this, in the C%3e
L!-t Bo2 enter Curve 1C12
C(!)* A!!/1
A set of mesh seeds will appear to show the density of nodes.
#ac; at the top of the :* called Elements
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh
65
T.pe = Curve
Set No&e I& > 1
Set E(e/ent I& L!-t > 1
Set G(o$'( E&"e Len"t# > 1.0
Set E(e/ent Topo(o". > ?ar 2
=lic; in the C%3e L!-t bo+
=lic; and drag to select the entire structure
=lic; App(.
Fo% e(e/ent- ,!(( 'ppe'% on e')# o+ t#e )%3e- !n t#e -t%)t%e.
#ac; at the top of the :* called Elements
Set A)t!on = $%uivalence
O$1e)t = &ll
T.pe = 'olerance Cube
,The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another-
Set the E4!3'(en)!n" To(e%'n)e to .02
=lic; App(.
,The command window at the bottom of the !AT:A( des;top will tell you that some
nodes were deleted. This step is =:ITI=A/ as it KattachesL the nodes together at the
frame Functions-
9. The materials are specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select M'te%!'(-
a :* will appear called M'te%!'(-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Isotro)ic
Met#o& = Manual In)ut
=lic; M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
Input the name to be bea#B#atl
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e- bo+
S* called Inpt Opt!on- appears
Input E('-t!) Mo&(- 50.0$@
Input Po!--on = 0.1
=lic; O0
#ac; in the M'te%!'(- :*
=lic; App(.

". The properties for each element are assigned ne+t.
Cn the T* select P%ope%t!e-
a :* will appear called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 1d
T.pe = ?ea#
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
Enter s%uareB)ro)
We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench that have
square cross sections. These parts are the 4 legs and the 2 uprights(which would hold the
actual weight bar)
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &beamEmatl& in the M'te%!'( P%ope%t. Set- bo+ at the
bottom of the S*
, the words m.beamEmatl will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+ at the
top of the S*-
66
Vust to the right of the Se)t!on N'/e bo+, set the option to D!/en-!on-
=lic; in the Se)t!on n'/e bo+ and input s%uareBsect
Vust to the right of the B'% O%!ent't!on bo+, set the option to Ve)to%
=lic; in the B'% O%!ent't!on bo+ and enter the $ector -1,0,0.
=lic; on the ICLBe'/ L!$%'%. button
A SM 'ppe'%- )'((e& Be'/ L!$%'%.
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = tandard ha)e
T.pe = *astran tandard
Set the Ne, Se)t!on N'/e to %uare1
Scroll through the $arious possible cross sections using the S and T
buttons ,under the 5+5 set of cross section pictures- until you find the
hollow rectangular picture with constant wall thic;ness ,on the lowest
row-. =lic; this graphic.
In the upper right part of the window.
Set D > 1.0
Set H > 1.0
Set t1 > .125
Set t6 > .125
If you want to see the information on the cross sectional properties
,which will come in handy when doing the analytical comparison
calculation later- clic; on the C'()('te/D!-p('. button.
=lic; App(.
=lic; O0 ,if a menu as;s if you wish to o$er write say YES7
=lic; C'n)e(
#ac; in the Input !roperties *enu, clic; O0
#ac; in the !roperties :*
=lic; in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
=hoose the 6 legs and the 2 uprights ,this is 9 cur$es and all the $ertical
members-
=lic; A&&
=lic; App(.
(ow we0ll create the properties for the horiBontal members. These members will ha$e a 2 in + 2
in hollow cross section with .228 wall thic;ness. In this case it is critical that the large dimension
of the cross section be oriented to pro$ide the ma+ bending moment of inertia KIL , so the larger ,2
in- dimension must be the $ertical dimension of the cross section.
#ac; in the :* called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 1d
T.pe = ?ea#
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
Enter rectYB)ro)
We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench that have
rectangular cross sections and run in the Y direction
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &beamEmatl& in the M'te%!'( P%ope%t. Set- bo+ at the
bottom of the S*
, the words m.beamEmatl will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+ at the
top of the S*-
Vust to the right of the Se)t!on N'/e bo+, set the option to D!/en-!on-
=lic; in the Se)t!on n'/e bo+ and input rectYBsect
68
Vust to the right of the B'% O%!ent't!on bo+, set the option to Ve)to%
=lic; in the B'% O%!ent't!on bo+ and enter the $ector -1,0,0.
=lic; on the ICLBe'/ L!$%'%. button
A SM 'ppe'%- )'((e& Be'/ L!$%'%.
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = tandard ha)e
T.pe = *astran tandard
Set the Ne, Se)t!on N'/e to +ectY
Scroll through the $arious possible cross sections using the S
and T buttons ,under the 5+5 set of cross section pictures- until
you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant wall
thic;ness ,on the lowest row-. =lic; this graphic
Set D > 2.0
Set H > 1.0
Set t1 > .125
Set t6 > .125
If you want to see the information on the cross sectional
properties ,which will come in handy when doing the analytical
comparison calculation later- clic; on the C'()('te/D!-p('.
button.
=lic; App(.
=lic; O0 ,if a menu as;s if you wish to o$er write -'. YES7
=lic; C'n)e(
#ac; in the Input !roperties *enu, clic; O0
#ac; in the !roperties :*
=lic; in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
=hoose the 2 horiBontal members that ha$e their long a+is in the 1 direction
,cur$es 5 \ 22-
=lic; A&&
=lic; App(.
#ac; in the :* called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 1d
T.pe = ?ea#
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
Enter rectXB)ro)
We will now create the cross sectional properties for the parts of the bench that have
rectangular cross sections and run in the X direction
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &beamEmatl& in the M'te%!'( P%ope%t. Set- bo+ at the
bottom of the S*
, the words m.beamEmatl will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+ at the
top of the S*-
Vust to the right of the Se)t!on N'/e bo+, set the option to D!/en-!on-
=lic; in the Se)t!on n'/e bo+ and input rectXBsect
Vust to the right of the B'% O%!ent't!on bo+, set the option to Ve)to%
=lic; in the B'% O%!ent't!on bo+ and enter the $ector -0,1,0.
=lic; on the ICLBe'/ L!$%'%. button
A SM 'ppe'%- )'((e& Be'/ L!$%'%.
D!/en-!on = tandard ha)e
T.pe = *astran tandard
Set the Ne, Se)t!on N'/e to +ectX
69
Scroll through the $arious possible cross sections using the S
and T buttons ,under the 5+5 set of cross section pictures- until
you find the hollow rectangular picture with constant wall
thic;ness ,on the lowest row-. =lic; this graphic
Set D >2.0
Set H > 1.0
Set t1 > .125
Set t6 > .125
If you want to see the information on the cross sectional
properties ,which will come in handy when doing the analytical
comparison calculation later- clic; on the C'()('te button.
=lic; App(.
=lic; O0 , if you are as;ed to o$erwrite, say YES-
=lic; C'n)e(
#ac; in the Input !roperties *enu, clic; O0
#ac; in the !roperties :*
=lic; in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
=hoose the 6 horiBontal members that ha$e their long a+is in the P direction
,cur$es 6,",H,-
(ote that there are 6 members that ha$e their long a+is aligned with the P a+is<
not Fust 2. These 6 include 2 cur$es that attach the uprights to the rectangular
horiBontal supports.
=lic; A&&
=lic; App(.
In order to see if the cross sections are correctly aligned, go to the T* = Nisplay, then select
/oad>#=>Elem !rops] in the :* that appears, @nder #eam Nisplay, change the default 2)N
/ine to 5)N 'ull Span and hit Apply ,at the bottom of the S* -. This will turn on display of the
cross sections. If you wish to see the cross sections shaded, you can use the T* shading icon
,solid shaded bo+, Fust to the right of the little wire frame icons-
2. The loads are specified ne+t.
C(!)* t#e TM = Lo'&-/BC
The :* /oads>#= pops up. Set
A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = /orce
T.pe = *odal
=hange the Ne, Set N'/e to Dei:hts
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* appears
Enter the force $ector -0, 100 , ;500 .
/ea$e the moments - . ,i.e. blan;-
=lic; O0
,=ontinuing on in the Lo'&/BC5- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
a small !atran select menu appears close to the :*
=lic; in this !atran select menu on the point icon
In the main $iewport, clic; on the points " \ H ,top of the uprights
on the bench-
A&& these points to the application region
=lic; O0
,Lo'&/BC5- menu now reappears-
=lic; App(.
(A vector with the 510 unit downward and backward load should appear on points 7 & 8
in the main viewport)
6"
#ac; in the main :* /oads>#=
A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (istributed ,oad
T.pe = $le#ent !ni"or#
Set Ne,Set N'/e = &K(o'&
Set Target Element Type > 1;d
=lic; Inpt D't'
In t#e %e-(t!n" SM
Set the +o%)e- to -0,0,2.
/ea$e the /o/ent- blan;
=lic; O0
B')* !n t#e Lo'&-/BC RM
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
In t#e %e-(t!n" RM
Turn on FEM as the Geo/et%. +!(te%
Select all the elements along the cur$es 5,6,H,22 ,these are the 6 beams
in the P1 plane that form the rectangle-
=lic; A&&
=lic; O0
#ac; in the :* clic; App(.
Note: if the forces that appear on the main view screen are not in the correct direction, then you probably
flipped one of the curve beginning/ending points. The easiest way to fix this is to remove the distributed
load from those elements where it is in the wrong directions and create a second distributed force set that
has the values <0,0,-8> and apply it to these elements.
. The analysis is to be done is specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
a :* will appear called An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = &nal56e
O$1e)t = $ntire Model
Met#o& = /ull +un
=lic; Translation !arameters
In the S* that appears, set D't' Otpt = 7)2 and Print
=lic; O0
#ac; in the :* An'(.-!-
Set So(t!on T.pe = ,inear tatic ,button down-
=lic; O0
=lic; App(.
,The analysis will ta;e a few seconds to run. A S* indicating that *S=>(astran is
wor;ing may appear-
20. A graphical representation of the deformation can be produced.
A graphical representation of the deformation pro$ides an easy way to help determine if you ha$e
constructed your model correctly.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = +ead 7ut)ut2
O$1e)t = +esults $ntities
Met#o& = 'ranslate
=lic; Se(e)t Re-(t- F!(e
A S* appears called Se(e)t F!(e
=lic; the file $en)#.op6
J1ou may need to loo; in your home or root directory to find the file. If
this file does not e+ist, then you ha$e made a mista;e in constructing
your model. Ao to E+plorer ,right)clic; on Start and choose E+plore- and
6H
find the file bench.log and bench.f09. Cpen these files by double clic;ing
on them and search for the word KerrorL or KfatalL to determine what your
mista;e is-.
bea#.o)2 then appears in the F!(e N'/e bo+
=lic; O0
,bac; in the An'(.-!- menu-
=lic; App(.
Select the T* Re-(t-
A :* will appear called Re-(t-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = 8uic9 Plot
In t#e Select 'ringe :esult $o2 )(!)* Displacements, translational
In t#e Apply Nisplacement :esult $o2 )(!)* Displacements, translational
Set ?uantity = magnitude
=lic; App(.
(This will create the deformed plot)
(ote that stresses can also be plotted from the Re-(t- menu by specifying them in the
Se(e)t F%!n"e Re-(t section. 1ou will want to use the Ron*ises stresses in this case
as the P, 1 or O based stresses are, by default, in the local coordinate system for that
beam and are not in the global ,=oord 0- frame.
22. (e+t you will end your *S=>!AT:A( session by sa$ing your database and e+iting.
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select S'3e
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select 8!t
VI. E9ERCISES:
2. =ompare the 'EA results with the analytic results for the mid)span deflection and
stresses of a simply supported beam. To do this loo; at the mid)span deflection and
stresses of either of the long horiBontal members. (ote that the #= of the ends of these
members are (ot really simply supported. There is some resistance to rotation of the
cross section. 7owe$er, neither is it truly a cantile$ered #=. Therefore, if you calculate
the midspan displacements sing simply supported #=, the analytic displacement will be
an upper bound.
2. =reate the Ron *ises stress plot and the displacement plot. No these ma;e physical
sense4
5. =ompare the stresses in the uprights with the analytical !>A appro+imation using only the
a+ial ,O component- part of the load. 3hat do you conclude4
6. =ompare the stresses in the uprights with the analytical *y>I appro+imation using only
the bending ,y component- part of the load. 3hat do you conclude4
MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # ?
MODELING A STABELIPATION FI9TURE DITH END PRESSURE
USING SOLID ELEMENTS
6
I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM
The structure below is designed to support a bearing on its right, cur$ed edge. A similar part
e+ists to hold the bearing on the other side. The left edge is cantile$ered or &built in&. This means
that both the translations and the rotations are held to Bero along this edge. A pressure load of
magnitude 200 lb>in
2
in the negati$e P direction results from the bearing reaction. The material
properties for the beam are E= 20 + 20
9
psi ,typical for aluminum- and , . 0 . The part has a
solid cross section with thic;ness in the O)direction t = 5 in.
II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
The analytic solution for stresses and displacements for this problem is not readily a$ailable.
7owe$er, any *echanics of *aterials te+t will pro$ide e%uations for the ma+ stress and the ma+
displacement of simple problems that will pro$ide upper or lower bounds for stresses and
displacements. These analytic $erifications will be discussed below.
Some basic %uestions to consider before creating the computational model are.
2. 3here will the stresses be tensile and where will they be compressi$e4
2. 3hat will be the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces>moments4
5. 3here will the stresses be Bero4
6. 7ow do the displacements $ary along the length ,linear, %uadratic etc.-4
8. 3hat will the local effect of the pressure load be on the stresses4
9. Is the model fully constrained from rigid body rotations and displacements4
Answering these %uestions %ualitati$ely, along with the %uantitati$e analytical solutions for the
ma+ stress and displacement will pro$ide reinforcement that your computational model is
correctly constructed.
III. CREATING THE GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
1. C%e'te t#e Geo/et%.
=reate the 5)d obFect below according to the following steps.
80
=reate the points shown with coordinates as in the table
!oint +)coord y)coord B)coord
2 0 0 0
2 20 0 0
5 22 )2 0
6 29 )2 0
8 25 2 0
9 29 8 0
" 22 8 0
H 20 6 0
0 6 0
(e+t create cur$es between points 2 and 2, 5 and another cur$e between 6, 9 and another
cur$e between ", H and , 2 and another cur$e between H, 5 and ".
=reate the cur$e between points 2 and 5 and between points "and H using the 2)d arc 2point
using a radius of 2.
=reate the arc between points 6, 8 and 9 using the 2d arc5point option.
(ow create 5 surfaces. The instructions will use the cur$e numbers in the picture below. !lease
substitute the cur$e numbers form the cur$es you created.
82
=reate the first surface between the cur$es 2,2,8 and 20 using the =reate>Surface>Edge
command.
=reate the 2
nd
surface between the cur$es ", 20, 9 and and the 5
rd
surface between the cur$es
5, , 6, and H.
(ow create solids of thic;ness 5 ,in the O direction- from each of the 5 surfaces using the
=reate>Solid>E+trude command. The translation $ector will need to be S0,0,5T.
3hen you are done, the part will loo; li;e this.
82
6. C%e'te t#e F!n!te E(e/ent Me-#
The first tas; is to seed the mesh. This is critical in this model as the model contains 5 separate
solids which will need to be meshes separately. Then the nodes will need to be e%ui$alenced so
that the 5 solids are KattachedL computationally. If this e%ui$alencing is to wor; correctly, nodes
along the interface between 2 solids will need to be coincident. The mesh seed will ensure this.
@sing the =reate>*esh Seed>@niform option in the Element menu, create mesh seeds as shown
below. (ote that is your mesh seeds are a little different than the ones shown below, it will simply
mean that you end up with a slightly different number and placement of elements. This should
(CT affect the results of your analysis substantially e+cept in one case. The distribution of
elements in the 1 direction must be constant across the part. 'or e+ample if you ha$e 9
elements across the far left edge, then you need to ha$e 9 elements across the right cur$ed edge
and across other P=constant planes in the part. The reason this is important is that if the element
pattern is not symmetric in the in the 1 direction, the part will e+perience a non)symmetric
distribution of loads in the 1 direction, resulting in non)physical displacements in the 1 direction
and also resulting in non)physical bending stresses.
(e+t place the actual mesh on the solids using the =reate>*esh>Solid. If the mesh seeds are
done as shown, it will not matter what the global edge length is. @se the 7e+H elements. @se
the isomesh mesh generator.
(e+t e%ui$alence the nodes using the E%ui$alence>All>Tolerance cube command. The defaults
tolerance is fine. This should indicate appro+imately 96 nodes were deleted. The graphics will
show these nodes along the interface between the 5 solids.
The completed mesh should loo; appro+imately as shown below.
85
=. C%e'te t#e BC 'n& Lo'&-
To clamp the left edge ,edge away from the rounded bearing surface- use the
=reate>Nisplacement>(odal command in the /oads>#= menu. Set all 5 displacements and all 5
rotations to Bero and select apply to the left edge.
(e+t create the pressure load on the bearing surface by using the =reate>!ressure>element
@niform command. *a;e sure the element target type is 5d. =hoose a pressure of 200. To
select the application surface ,in the Select Application Surface- turn on the geometry button and
then select the icon for K'ace of a SolidL and choose the cur$ed surface shown highlighted below.
The #= and loads graphics will appear as shown.
The #= on the left and the pressure load on the right might loo; different on your part depending
on whether you ha$e applied the #= or pressure to the geometry .
86
>. C%e'te t#e M'te%!'( 'n& P%ope%t.
The material for the part is aluminum which has a E of 20e9 psi and a !oisson0s ratio of 0.5.
@sing the *aterials menu create an isotropic homogeneous material with these properties.
The properties set is made using the command =reate>5N>Solid in the properties menu. Input the
properties simply as the material you Fust created. Select the entire part to ha$e these properties.
?. Do t#e An'(.-!-
In the analysis menu, use the command AnalyBe>Entire *odel>'ull :un . Set the Translation
!arameters to output the M.op2 file. :ead in the analysis results @sing the command :ead
Cutput2>:esult Entities> Translate. Select the appropriate results ,M.op2- file.
@. V!e, t#e Re-(t-
In the results menu, use the command =reate>?uic; !lot. *a;e plots of the displacements ad
the appropriate stresses.
VI. E9ERCISES
1. T%n !n t#e p(ot- +o% t#e &!-p(')e/ent- 'n& -t%e--e-. Do t#e. /'*e p#.-!)'( -en-eQ
6. F!n& ' ,'. to "et -o/e -$-t'nt!'( 'n'(.t!) 3e%!+!)'t!on +o% t#e /o&e(.
=. Loo* 't t#e -t%e-- %e-(t- 'n& p%e-)%!$e ' ,e!"#t -'3!n"- /e'-%e t#'t -#o(& not
)%e'te -t%e-- %e('te& p%o$(e/- J!.e. &ete%/!ne ,#e%e /'te%!'( )'n p%o$'$(. $e %e/o3e&7.
Co/pt't!on'((. te-t .o% ne, &e-!"n.
88
MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # @
MODELING A CANTILEVERED BEAMNS VIBRATION
USING > NODE SHELL ELEMENTS
I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM
The beam below is cantile$ered or &built in& on the left edge. This means that both the
translations and the rotations are held to Bero along this edge. The material properties for the
beam are E= "0 + 20

!ascals ,typical for Aluminum- and


, . 0
. The beam has a solid
rectangular cross section with thic;ness in the O)direction t = 0.02 meters and height in the 1)
direction h = 0.2 meters. 3e wish to find the mode shapes and associated $ibration fre%uencies
for this beam.
89
1

L= 1.0 m
h=10 cm +
II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
The analytic solution ,modes shapes and natural fre%uencies- for this problem is readily
a$ailable. Any $ibrations te+t will pro$ide e%uations for the mode shapes ,eigen$ectors- and the
natural fre%uencies ,eigen$alues-. These e%uations are gi$en below.
'or the cantile$ered beam with bending moment of inertia KIL, Elastic ,1oung0s- modulus KEL,
mass per unit length KmL and /ength K/L, the first 5 natural fre%uencies 32)5 ,rad>sec- are gi$en
by.
1
"
)
2(4 . )
mL
EI

1
"
"
3*1 . 1
mL
EI

1
"
,
244 . (
mL
EI

(ote that these correspond to the following 5 mode shapes which are all bending modes in the
plane of the smallest $alue of KIL.
*odeshape 2.
*odeshape 2.
8"
*odeshape 5
Some basic %uestions to consider before creating the computational model are.
2. Are there any other types of mode shapes that might occur ,torsional, a+ial or bending in a
different plane-4
2. 3hat would be a reasonable fre%uency for the first mode shape4
5. Are there any constraint force chec;s that will help me $alidate the accuracy of my model4
Answering these %uestions %ualitati$ely, along with the %uantitati$e analytical solutions for the
mode shapes and their associated natural fre%uencies will pro$ide reinforcement that your
computational model is correctly constructed.
III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
As is the standard procedure for building *S=>!atran models, we will build the geometry first and
then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will proceed from creation
of points to cur$es to surfaces for this simple model. (e+t, we will use 6 node shell elements to
model the beam. (e+t, the material and element properties will be entered. 3e will constrain the
5 displacement and 5 rotational degrees of freedom on the left edge ,for all nodes-. This creates
the cantile$ered or built)in, end condition. 'inally, the nodes must be e%ui$alenced before the
analysis is ready to run.
IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY
The exact details of the formulation of the 4 node shell elements in MSC/Nastran is rather complicated.
However, the basic formulation of an isoparametric 4 node membrane element is not extremely difficult
and will provide us with sufficient background information to begin to understand the vibration model
studies. This basic form is constructed as follows:
8H
Isoparametric Formulation of a 2-D Membrane Element [K] Matrix
Assume the element has the configuration shown below:
4.0
2.0
Y
X
1 2
3
4
The physical and natural coordinate locations of the 6 nodes are.
Cur goal is to find the element stiffness matri+
ASS@*E.

V
T
dV B E B K - . - . - . - .

ASS@*E. 2 displacement degrees of freedom ,dof- per node
3ith . I#J = the strain ) displacement matri+ such that [ ]{ } { } B u
where. WuX is the dof $ector and W

X is the strain $ector


IEJ = the constituti$e matri+ such that [ ]{ } { } E
where W

X is the stress $ector and


R = $olume.
Step 1: Interpolate the dof. / -0 . / , , , , , , , -0 .
1 1 , , " " ) )
u N v u v u v u v u N
v
u
T

'


where I(J is the shape function matri+
1
]
1

1 , " )
1 , " )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
- .
N N N N
N N N N
N
and the rules for the shape functions are . 2-
N
i
must be =2 at node &i&
2-
N
i
must be =0 at any node not = &i&
(CNE ,+,y-
( , )
2 ,0,0- ,)2,)2-
2 ,6,0- ,2,)2-
5 ,6,2- ,2,2-
6 ,0,2- ,)2,2-
8
This leads to the shape functions. N
)
)
1
) ) ( %( % < N
2
1
4
1 1 + ( )( ) <
N
3
1
4
1 1 + + ( )( ) < N
4
1
4
1 1 + ( )( )
Step 6: 'ind the I#J matri+.
:ele$ant strains are

'

'

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

v
u
D
v
u
x y
y
x
xy
yy
xx
- . 0
0
/ 0

< but from step 2


/ -0 . u N
v
u

'

So
0 / . -. -0 / . -0 / D N u B u
with [ ] [ ][ ] B D N
Therefore,
1
1
1
]
1

x y x y x y x y
y y y y
x x x x
N N N N N N N N
N N N N
N N N N
B
, 1 , 1 , , , , , " , " , ) , )
, 1 , , , " , )
, 1 , , , " , )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
- . where the commas denote
partial differentiation.
Step =: @se the Vacobian to find deri$ati$es.
Isoparametric Assumption.
T
y x y x y x y x N
y
x
/ , , , , -0 .
1 1 , , , , " " , ) )

'


i.e. the isoparametric assumption is that geometry can be interpolated using the same
interpolation functions as the displacements.
The Vacobian matri+
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1 1
, ,
" "
) )
, 1 , , , " , )
, 1 , , , " , )
- .
y x
y x
y x
y x
N N N N
N N N N
y
x
y
x
J


and from chain rule

'

'

1
]
1

'



,
,
)
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
- .
i
i
i
i
y y
x x
y i
x i
N
N
J
N
N
N
N
90
So in this particular case.
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

+ +
+ +

" 0
" 1
0 1
0 0
) ) ) )
) ) ) )
1
)
- .


J =
1
]
1

1
]
1

) 0
0 "
1 0
0 2
1
)
which implies that
1
]
1

) 0
0
- .
"
)
)
J
This allows us to find the entries in I#J
Step >: !erform the numerical integration.
Assume that the element has constant thic;ness = t implies

A
T
dy dx B E B t K - . - . - . - .
3hich, according to the rules of calculus can be written.
d d J B E B t K
T
- . - . - . - .
where J is the determinant of the Vacobian matri+.
Aaussian numerical integration is then used to find the final numbers for the element stiffness.
This ta;es the form.
. - . - . - . -
( , %
K h B E B J w w
j
nj
i
ni
T
i j
n
i j



) )

3here ngF and ngi are the number of gaussian integration points in the KFL and KiL directions
respecti$ely and wF and wi are the associated gaussian weighting factors.
Un&e%-t'n&!n" t#e Co/pt't!on'( V!$%'t!on An'(.-!- :
The elements as formed above must be assembled into a global stiffness matrix. In the same manner,
element mass matrices are formed using the equation

d d J N N M
T
- . - . - .
. A similar form e+ists for the :ayleigh damping matri+ I=J. The
stiffness, mass and damping matrices are then used in the dynamics e%uilibrium relationship
/ 0 / 0 - . / 0 - . / 0 - . ! d K d " d M + +

where the o$er)dots indicated deri$ati$es with respect to
time and WfX is the forcing function. This set of e%uations can be sol$ed for the time history of the
motion ,transient dynamics- or for the eigen$alues and eigen$ectors. 'or the $ibration analysis,
the damping and the forcing function are assumed to be Bero. The resulting eigen$alue problem
of the second ;ind is .
/ 0 0 / 0 - . / 0 - . + d K M
where eigen$alues are the natural fre%uencies

and the
eigen$ectors WdX gi$e the node shapes.
R. STE! #1 STE! I(ST:@=TIC(S 'C: *CNE/I(A T7E RI#:ATIC( C'
T7E =A(TI/ERE:EN #EA* @SI(A *S=>!AT:A(
!reliminaries for using !AT:A( include.
a- /og on to the computer
b- =lic; STA:T ,lower left corner of the 3indows Nes;top-, go to !rograms, Select *S=
,common-, Select *S= !atran.0.
92
In the instructions below, the following abbre$iations and terms will be used.
TM = Top Men. This refers to the horiBontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after
!AT:A( has been initiated.
RM = R!"#t Men. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from
the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the !AT:A( des;top.
SM = S$o%&!n'te Men. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the
right menu.
C(!)* = @nless otherwise stated, this indicates a clic; with the left mouse button.
Bo(&+')e will indicate te+t that occurs in the !AT:A( menus.
Italics te+t will indicate te+t that you must enter into te+t bo+es in the !AT:A( menus or te+t that
you choose in a menu scroll bo+.
2. Cur first step is to create a new database.
'rom the T* choose F!(e
In the resulting pull down menu choose Ne,
A S* called Ne, D't'$'-e pops up
Turn on ,chec;ed- Mo&!+. P%e+e%en)e-
@nder F!(e N'/e enter bea#;vib.db
=lic; O0
2. (e+t set the analysis preference.
A Ne, Mo&e( P%e+e%en)e- window will appear as a :*
@nder To(e%'n)e choose ?ased on Model
Set Mo&e( D!/en-!on to10.0
@nder An'(.-!- Co&e choose MCA*&'+&*
=hoose An'(.-!- T.pe = tructural
clic; O0
5. The geometry of the beam will be determined ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Geo/et%.
A :* called Geo/et%. will result
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Point
Met#o& = XYZ
Set the Po!nt ID list to 1
Set Re+e%en)e Coo%&!n'te F%'/e to Coord 0
Turn off the Ato E2e)te button
Enter the following into the Po!nt Coo%&!n'te- list.
[0,0,0]
,note that !AT:A( will accept either commas or blan;s as separators
between coordinates-
=lic; App(.
A point will appear in the main $iewport at coordinates I0,0,0J
@se this same procedure to create points at coordinates I2,0,0J, I2,0.2,0J and I0,0.2,0J
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = Point
Set the C%3e ID list to 1
92
Turn Atoe2e)te off
Set St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t = Point 1
Set Ending !oint /ist = Point 2
=lic; App(.
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Curve
Met#o& = Point
Set the C%3e ID list to 2
Turn Atoe2e)te off
Set St'%t!n" Po!nt L!-t = Point 1
Set Ending !oint /ist = Point 4
=lic; App(.
#ac; at the top of the :* called Geo/et%.
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = ur"ace
Met#o& = Curve
Set the S%+')e ID list to 1
Set P't%'n 6 Con3ent!on o""
Opt!on = 2 Curve
Set M'n!+o(& o"" ,not chec;ed-
Set St'%t!n" C%3e L!-t = Curve 1
Set Ending =ur$e /ist = Curve 2
=lic; App(.
2. The finite element mesh is specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose E(e/ent-
A :* appears called E(e/ent-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Mesh
T.pe = ur"ace
Set No&e I& > 1
Set E(e/ent I& L!-t > 1
Set G(o$'( E&"e Len"t# > 0.025
Set E(e/ent Topo(o". > 8uad3
Set Me-#e% > Iso#esh
=lic; in the S%+')e L!-t bo+
=lic; and drag to select the entire structure
The 3ords &Surface 2& should appear in the S%+')e L!-t
=lic; App(.
Set A)t!on = $%uivalence
O$1e)t = &ll
T.pe = 'olerance Cube
,The purpose here is to tie the nodes together that lie on top of one another-
Set the E4!3'(en)!n" To(e%'n)e to .001
=lic; App(.
,The command window at the bottom of the !AT:A( des;top will tell you that 0 nodes were
deleted. This step will become critical if, in more complicated models, you are attempting to Foin
portions of a model which ha$e been meshed separately.-
5. The boundary conditions are specified ne+t.
'rom the T* choose Lo'&/BC5-
95
A :* called Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- will appear
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = (is)lace#ent
T.pe = *odal
Set C%%ent Lo'& C'-e = (e"ault
Enter Ne, Set N'/e as lBcant
, The name can be whate$er name you wish. The name lBcant is chosen as this
is for the cantile$er of the left most nodes-
=lic; Inpt D't'...
a S* called Input Nata appears
Set Lo'&/BC S)'(e +')to% =1
Set T%'n-('t!on- to -0,0,0.
Set Rot't!on- to -0,0,0.
#e sure An'(.-!- Coo%&!n'te F%'/e is Coord0
=lic; CG
,bac; in the Lo'&/Bon&'%. Con&!t!on- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on
A SM )'((e& Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on 'ppe'%-
Turn on the FEM ,button down-
=lic; in bo+ under Se(e)t No&e-
@se the cursor to highlight the set of nodes along the left $ertical edge of the
beam. There should be 8 nodes there.
=lic; CG
,The Lo'& / Bon&'%. Con&!t!on :* appears again-
=lic; App(.
,5 displacement constraint arrows and 5 rotation constraint arrows should now
appear on each node in the main $iewport window on the e+treme left edge of
the beam. (umbers 2,2,5,6,8,9 will appear with the arrows to show that all 9 of
the dof are constrained there-
6. The materials are specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select M'te%!'(-
a :* will appear called M'te%!'(-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = Isotro)ic
Met#o& = Manual In)ut
=lic; M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
Input the name to be alu#inu#
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e- bo+
S* called Inpt Opt!on- appears
Input E('-t!) Mo&(- =40.0$=
Input Po!--on = 0.1
Input the Den-!t. to be 2400
=lic; O0
#ac; in the M'te%!'(- :*
=lic; App(.

8. The properties for each element are assigned ne+t.
Cn the T* select P%ope%t!e-
96
a :* will appear called E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-
Set A)t!on = Create
D!/en-!on = 2d
T.pe = hell
=lic; P%ope%t. Set N'/e bo+
Enter bea#B)ro)
=lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-
a S* appears called Inpt P%ope%t!e-
=lic; in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+
=lic; on the word &aluminum& in the M'te%!'( P%ope%t. Set- bo+ at the
bottom of the S*
, the words m.aluminum will appear in the M'te%!'( N'/e bo+ at the top
of the S*-
=lic; in the T#!)*ne-- bo+
Enter 0.01
=lic; O0
,#ac; in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- :*-
=lic; Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+
a !atran Se(e)t /en will appear on the left edge of the :*
=lic; on the icon which contains the surface or face icon
*o$e the cursor arrow to a point to the left and abo$e the highest, left)
most point on the beam. =lic; and hold down the left mouse button. Nrag
the cursor ,while holding down the mouse button- to a point to the right of
and below the right)most bottom node. A &selection bo+& is formed while
you drag. :elease the button.
,The words Surface 2 will appear in the Se(e)t Me/$e%- bo+-
=lic; A&&
,The words Surface 2 appears in the App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+-
=lic; App(. in the E(e/ent P%ope%t!e- menu
,beamEprop will be added to the E2!-t!n" P%ope%t. Set- bo+-
9. The analysis is to be done is specified ne+t.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
a :* will appear called An'(.-!-
Set A)t!on = &nal56e
O$1e)t = $ntire Model
Met#o& = /ull +un
=lic; Translation !arameters
In the S* that appears, set D't' Otpt = 7)2 and Print
=lic; O0
#ac; in the :* An'(.-!-
Set So(t!on T.pe = *or#al Modes ,button down-
=lic; O0
=lic; App(.
,The analysis will ta;e a few seconds to run. A S* indicating that *S=>(astran is
wor;ing may appear-
". A graphical representation of the mode shapes can be produced.
A graphical representation of the mode shapes pro$ides an easy way to begin to determine if you
ha$e constructed your model correctly.
Cn the T* select An'(.-!-
98
Set A)t!on = +ead 7ut)ut2
O$1e)t = +esults $ntities
Met#o& = 'ranslate
=lic; Se(e)t Re-(t- F!(e
A S* appears called Se(e)t F!(e
=lic; the file $e'/K3!$.op6
J1ou may need to loo; in your home or root directory to find the file. If
this file does not e+ist, then you ha$e made a mista;e in constructing
your model. Ao to E+plorer ,right)clic; on Start and choose E+plore- and
find the file beam)$ib.log and beam.f09. Cpen these files by double
clic;ing on them and search for the word KerrorL to determine what your
mista;e is-.
?ea#;vib.o)2 then appears in the F!(e N'/e bo+
=lic; O0
,bac; in the An'(.-!- menu-
=lic; App(.
Cn the T* select Re-(t-
A :* will appear called Re-(t-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = 8uic9 Plot
In t#e Select :esult =ase $o2 )(!)* De+'(t< Mode 1
In t#e Select 'ringe :esult $o2 )(!)* Eigenvectors, translational
In t#e Apply 'ringe :esult $o2 )(!)* Eigenvectors, translational
Set ?uantity = Magnitude
Turn on the animation button ,so it displays a chec;-
=lic; App(.
(This will create the animation of the first mode)
Investigate other, higher order mode shapes. Be sure to record data and screen captures needed to
answer the questions below.
H. (e+t you will end your *S=>!AT:A( session by sa$ing your database and e+iting.
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select S'3e
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select 8!t
VI. E9ERCISES:
a- =ompare the 'EA results with the analytic results for the first 5 pairs of mode shapes and
fre%uencies which are associated with bending of the beam in the direction of minimum KIL.
1ou can use the analytic e%uations shown earlier to produce the analytic results.
b- Study the first 8 mode shapes produced by the (astran and comment on which modes are
not associated with bending about the minimum KIL direction.
99
c- :erun the analysis using only .00928 as the global edge length ,produces 6 times as many
elements-. Noes a refinement in the mesh appear to produce more closely con$erged
results4
d- =hange the !oisson0s ratio to 0.0. :erun the analysis using the original global edge length of
0.028. =ompare these errors with those found while using a !oisson0s ratio of 0.05, !ropose
an e+planation for the differences.
e- Identify the possible sources of that might ma;e our results a poor model of the actual
physical structure.
MSC/PATRAN TUTORIAL # A
THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLING FIN USING SHELL ELEMENTS
I. THE PHYSICAL PROBLEM
The problem you will model is a fin of aluminum alloy, 0.2 m long, 0.002 m thic; and large width.
This is the type of fin that might pro$ide air)cooling on a motorcycle engine. 'or the finite element
model, we consider a representati$e strip of the fin 0.02 m in depth ,shown as the region between
the dotted lines in the drawing-. The 200)degree wall is representati$e of the hot temperature of
the engine. Cur goal is to find the temperature distribution down the fin. If the outside tip of the
engine is too hot, it can be a safety concern. 7eat is conducted down the fin ,away from the heat
source of the engine- and heat is also lost through con$ection from the top and bottom surfaces
to the air. The ambient temperature of the air is ;nown to be 28 =
o
and the con$ection coefficient
,film coefficient- is ;nown to be 50 ,3>m
2
- . The fin itself is made of aluminum which has a
conducti$ity of 2"" ,3>m
2
G-.
9"
0.20
3all
200 =
0.02
II. THINKING ABOUT THE MECHANICS
The analytic solution for the temperatures for this problem is readily a$ailable. Any 7eat Transfer
te+t will pro$ide e%uations for the temperature distribution of a fin considering conduction away
from the heat source and con$ection from the top and bottom surfaces. These results can be
used to gi$e basic analytic comparison solutions for certain sections of the structure. (ote that
we assume no radiation occurs and that only the top and bottom surfaces ha$e significant
con$ection heat transfer ,the con$ection from the edges of the fin is neglected-. These
assumptions are normal for a first le$el analysis where the temperatures are in the ranges used in
this problem.
III. GEOMETRIC AND FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
As is the standard procedure for building *S=>!atran models, we will build the geometry first and
then construct a finite element mesh on that geometry. The geometry will proceed from creation
of cur$es to a surface for this simple model. (e+t, we will use 6 node 2)dimensional elements to
model the fin. (e+t, the material and element properties will be entered. 3e will set the wall
temperature and the con$ection characteristics for the top and bottom of the fin. 'inally, the
nodes must be e%ui$alenced before the analysis is ready to run.
IV. FINITE ELEMENT THEORY
The e&act details of the formulation of the 1 node "5d elements in 67'+astran is rather complicated.
8owever, the basic formulation of the "5d thermal element is not e&tremely difficult and will provide us
with sufficient bac!ground information to begin to understand the general application areas and
convergence of these elements. This basic formulation for the "5d thermal, linear, quasistatic element can
be found in most any 9inite :lement Analysis te&t (see for e&ample 9inite :lements for 7tress Analysis, by
R.;. 'oo!, <ohn =iley > 7ons, )**4.% .
R. I(ST:@=TIC(S 'C: *CNE/I(A T7E 'I( @SI(A *S=>!AT:A( \
*S=>(AST:A(
!reliminaries for using !AT:A( include.
a- /og on to the computer
b- =lic; STA:T ,lower left corner of the 3indows Nes;top-, go to !rograms, Select *S=
,common-, Select *S= !atran.0.
The instructions below give details for modeling the thermal fin problem discussed above. The instructions
are ?T as detailed as have been given in other problems as it is e&pected that you have begun to get a feel
for how to do certain tas!s in Patran.
In the instructions below, the following abbre$iations and terms will be used.
TM = Top Men. This refers to the horiBontal menu options residing at the top of the screen after
!AT:A( has been initiated.
9H
0.002
RM = R!"#t Men. This refers to the menus that pop up after an option has been chosen from
the top menu. These menus reside on the far right side of the !AT:A( des;top.
SM = S$o%&!n'te Men. This referees to the menus that pop up from options selected in the
right menu.
C(!)* = @nless otherwise stated, this indicates a clic; with the left mouse button.
Bo(&+')e will indicate te+t that occurs in the !AT:A( menus.
Italics te+t will indicate te+t that you must enter into te+t bo+es in the !AT:A( menus or te+t that
you choose in a menu scroll bo+.
2. Cur first step is to create a new database.
'rom the T* choose F!(e
In the resulting pull down menu choose Ne,
A S* called Ne, D't'$'-e pops up
Turn on ,chec;ed- Mo&!+. P%e+e%en)e-
@nder F!(e N'/e enter "in.db
=lic; O0
2. (e+t set the analysis preference.
A Ne, Mo&e( P%e+e%en)e- window will appear as a :*
@nder To(e%'n)e choose ?ased on Model
Set Mo&e( D!/en-!on to 0.2
@nder An'(.-!- Co&e choose MCA*&'+&*
=hoose An'(.-!- T.pe = 'her#al
clic; O0
5. The geometry of the beam will be determined ne+t.
Select Geo/et%. from T*.
Cn :*, select A)t!on= =reate, O$1e)t= =ur$e, Met#o&= P1O
(ote C%3e ID L!-t has a 2.
Re+e%. Coo%&!n'te F%'/e should be =oord 0
Set Ve)to% Coo%&!n'te- L!-t to 0.2 0 0 ,1ou will be drawing lines ,$ectors- with these
+yB components.-
O%!"!n Coo%&!n'te- L!-t = 0 0 0 =lic; APPLY. ,A line from origin to point 0.2,0,0
should appear on screen.-
*a;e second cur$e. 3ith same $ector, set O%!"!n Coo%&!n'te- L!-t to 0 0.02 0.
=lic; App(.. ,A second cur$e appears on the screen.-
(ow create a surface between the cur$es.
Cn the Geo/et%. :*, choose A)t!on= =reate< O$1e)t= Surface< Met#o&= =ur$e. Set
Opt!on to 2 =ur$e.
(ote there is a St'%t!n" C%3e L!-t and En&!n" C%3e L!-t.
=lic; in the St'%t!n" C%3e L!-t bo+. .Select the first cur$e by using the mouse. =lic; the
small bo+ on cur$e 2 on the screen. =lic; in the En&!n" C%3e L!-t bo+. Then clic; on
cur$e 2. (ote a surface is created.
6. =reate the finite elements.
Cn the T* select E(e/ent- and get a :*.
=hoose A)t!on= =reate< O$1e)t=*esh< T.pe= Surface
=hoose the siBe of the elements. Type in G(o$'( E&"e Len"t#. 0.02
Select I-o/e-#. =lic; in S%+')e L!-t bo+. Select the Surface 2 with the cursor.
=lic; App(.. (ote the model has 20 elements.
9
8. =reate #oundary conditions
At T*, select Lo'&/BCN-. Aet :*.
(ow create the con$ection characteristics for the bottom of the fin
=hose A)t!on=create, O$1e)t=con$ection, t.pe=element uniform
(ame the con$ection #=. In Ne, Set N'/e, type top)convec
Select T'%"et E(e/ent T.pe = 2N
=lic; Inpt D't'. Aet submenu. Type 10 for con$ection coefficient ,w>m
2
c- for top
surface con$ection. Type 25 for ambient temp. =lic; O0.
#ac; in Lo'&/ BC menu, clic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+
Select FEM as the Aeometry 'ilter.
=lic; in Se(e)t 6D E(e/ent- o% E&"e- bo+
@sing mouse, clic; on all the elements. ,7old shift down for
multiple selections.- =lic; A&&. The application region
bo+ should list the elements 2.20. =lic; O0
#ac; in Lo'&/BC menu clic; App(..
(ow create the con$ection characteristics for the bottom of the fin
=hose A)t!on=create, O$1e)t=con$ection, t.pe=element uniform
(ame the con$ection #=. In Ne, Set N'/e, type bot)convec
Select T'%"et E(e/ent T.pe = 2N
=lic; Inpt D't'. Aet submenu. Type 10 for con$ection coefficient ,w>m
2
c- for bottom
surface con$ection. Type 25 for ambient temp. =lic; O0.
#ac; in Lo'&/ BC menu, clic; Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on bo+
Select FEM as the Aeometry 'ilter.
=lic; in Se(e)t 6D E(e/ent- o% E&"e- bo+
@sing mouse, clic; on all the elements. ,7old shift down for
multiple selections.- =lic; A&&. The application region
bo+ should list the elements 2.20. =lic; O0
#ac; in Lo'&/BC menu clic; App(..
(ow create the base temperature #=. In Lo'&/BC :*
A)t!on=create, O$1e)t=Temp, t.pe=nodal
In Ne, Set N'/e type ?asete#). =lic; on Inpt D't'.
In submenu Inpt D't', type 200 in Te/pe%'t%e bo+. =lic; O0.
#ac; in Lo'&/BC S*, clic; on Se(e)t App(!)'t!on Re"!on.
In submenu, select FEM as Geo/et%. F!(te%.
=lic; on Se(e)t No&e-.
@sing mouse, select the nodes 2 and 22 at the e+treme left of the model. =lic; A&&.
=lic; O0.
#ac; in Lo'&/BC menu, clic; App(.. ,The screen should show 200 at nodes 2 and 22.-
9. =reate and select material
Cn T* select M'te%!'(-.
In submenu, A)t!on=create, O$1e)t=isotropic, /et#o&=manual input.
In M'te%!'( N'/e bo+, type alu#inu#. =lic; Inpt P%ope%t!e-.
In submenu, Inpt Opt!on-, enter thermal conducti$ity as 144. ,w>m
2
;-.
=lic; O0. If S* does not disappear, =lic; C'n)e(.
#ac; in the :* , =lic; App(.
In T*, select P%ope%t!e-
In submenu A)t!on=create, O$1e)t=2N, T.pe=shell.
In P%ope%t. Set N'/e type shellB)ro).
=lic; on Inpt P%ope%t!e- In submenu, clic; on Aluminum in the *aterial !roperty Sets
bo+.
*. Aluminum appears in the *aterial (ame bo+ at the top of the form.
"0
Set T#!)*ne--= 0.002 =lic; O0.
#ac; in E(e/ent P%ope%t!e-, clic; Se(e)t /e/$e%-.
@se mouse to select the entire model. ,1ou can clic; and draw a bo+ around the entire
model to select it.- =lic; A&&. =lic; App(..
". /oad #oundary =onditions
In order to ha$e both the con$ection on top and on the bottom as well as the and base
temperature
#= on the model, all 5 boundary conditions must be combined into a single load
case.
In T*, select Lo'& C'-e-.
In S*, A)t!on==reate, Lo'& )'-e n'/e, type "inBcase.
In De-)%!pt!on, type. h>10 on "in Dith base> 200C.
and a#bient>25C.
=lic; on A--!"n/P%!o%!t!He BC under the Se(e)t In&!3!&'( Lo'&-/BC
=lic; on )on3eR$otK)on3e) and then on )on3eRtopK)on3e) and then on
te/pR$'-ete/p
As you clic; on these each of the 5 is added to the A--!"ne& Lo'&/BC
At the bottom of the menu, clic; O0
#ac; in the /oad =ase :*, clic; App(.
H. AnalyBe ,sol$e- for temperature.
In T* select An'(.-!-. In S*, A)t!on= Analysis O$1e)t = entire model,
Met#o& = 'ull :un, Io$ n'/e = "in
=lic; t%'n-('t!on P'%'/ete%- and set output to Cp2 \ !rint
=lic;, CG
#ac; in the Analysis :*, clic; So(t!on T.pe
=hoose Ste'&. St'te An'(.-!-
=lic; O0
#ac; in the Analysis :*, choose S$)'-e C%e'te
@nder A3'!('$(e S$)'-e-, select finEcase
@nder A3'!('$(e Lo'&)'-e-, select finEcase
=lic; App(.
=lic; C'n)e(
#ac; in the Analysis :*, clic; S$)'-e Se(e)t
@nder S$)'-e- +o% So(t!on Se4en)e 1?=, select finEcase
@nder S$)'-e- Se(e)te&, clic; on Nefault ,this remo$es default from the list-
=lic; O0
#ac; in Analysis S* =lic; App(.
. To read in the results for post)processing
.In the :*=Analysis
Set A)t!on = +ead 7ut)ut2E O$1e)t = +esults $ntitiesE Met#o& = 'ranslate
=lic; Se(e)t Re-(t- F!(e
A S* appears called Se(e)t F!(e
=lic; the file +!n.op6
J1ou may need to loo; in your home or root directory to find the file. If
this file does not e+ist, then you ha$e made a mista;e in constructing
your model. Ao to E+plorer ,right)clic; on Start and choose E+plore- and
find the file fin.log and fin .f09. Cpen these files by double clic;ing on
them and search for the word KerrorL or KfatalL to determine what your
mista;e is-.
fin.o)2 then appears in the F!(e N'/e bo+
=lic; O0
,bac; in the An'(.-!- menu-
"2
=lic; App(.
20. Select the T* Re-(t-
A :* will appear called Re-(t-
Set A)t!on = Create
O$1e)t = 8uic9 Plot
1ou can display different results, but the main focus will be on the temperatures.
22. (e+t you will end your *S=>!AT:A( session by sa$ing your database and e+iting.
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select S'3e
Cn the T* select F!(e
'rom the pull down menu select 8!t
VI. E9ERCISES:
I. =ompare the 'EA results with the analytic results for the problem found from a 7eat
Transfer te+t. 7ow do the results compare. Niscuss any discrepancies.
II. =reate the temperature plot. Noes the distribution ma;e physical sense4 3hy or why
not4
III. 3hat assumptions are we ma;ing that might significantly affect the reliability of the
results4
"2