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T.A.PAIMANAGEMENTINSTITUTE(TAPMI),MANIPAL PROBLEMSOLVINGANDDECISIONMAKING Programme: Batch: Term: CourseID: Credits: PGDMandPGDMHC 201113 1 PSDM 2 Dr.AjithKumarJ.

KumarJ. PART1 INTRODUCTION Change and uncertainty have become an inevitable part of life; the world is more turbulent than it used to be. It is also susceptible to rapid and often unpredictable change, creating the need for more creative problem solving than ever in order to survive in these conditions. We explore multiple approaches to problem solving in real worldsituations.Wediscoverthatthereisnooneproblemsolvingmethodorapproach that is universally applicable to all problem situations. This course orients the manager towards being sensitive to experience, judgment and context, while invoking a suitable approach. COURSEOBJECTIVES(CO) 1. Toexplorewhatproblemsare,andhowtheyareclassified. 2. Toexploreepistemologicalaspectsofproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking. 3. To explore the different problem solving methods used to tackle real world problems. 4. Toexplorehowtobuildsystemsmodelstoaddressrealworldproblems. COURSELEARNINGOBJECTIVES(CLO) Byvirtueofthelearninggainedinthiscourse,thestudentshouldbeableto: 1. Analyze and classify a given problem, in terms of its properties, as a wicked or a tameproblem(CO1). 2. Explain the important role that tacit knowledge plays in problem solving and decisionmaking(CO2). 3. Demonstrate how to apply a suitable problemsolving method to a given situation (CO3). 4. Buildasystemsmodeltorepresentarealworldproblemsituation(CO4). 5. Conceptually describe any notion discussed in the course and illustrate it with a suitableexample(CO1,2,3,4). 1

CourseInstructor:

MAPPINGCLOsTOPROGRAMMELEARNINGOBJECTIVES(PLOs) ThefollowingmatrixindicateshowtheCLOsofthiscoursemapontocertainPLOs. CLO 1 2 3 4 5 PLO PLO3A PLO3A PLO1A,PLO3A PLO1A,PLO3A PLO3A

PLO1A: Applicationofappropriatetechnicaltoolsinamanagerialcontext PLO3A: Articulate various concepts in management and demonstrate their application inspecificbusinesscontext. COURSECONTENT: Types of problems Classifications of problems Wicked problems and their characteristics Manager as decision maker Approaches to problem solving Co evolution of problem space and solution space Epistemological aspects: the role of knowledge in problem solving Methods of problem solving Creativity in problems solving Exploring paradox in decision making Systems thinking Counterintuitive behaviourSystemdynamicmodelling. PRESCRIBEDTEXTBOOK: There is no prescribed textbook for this course. Selected study material is provided in the Course Pack and the instructor may also announce (and/or provide) specific study materials from time to time throughout the course, as appropriate. The instructor will also make available slides used by him in the classes (if at all). The student is expected tostudyallthesematerialsasapartofthecourse. Important: A hardbound notebook is given along with the course materials, which is meant to be used only for this course. The student is expected to make detailed notes on the points that emerge during discussions that take place during a typical class. Tremendous learning and intellectual stimulation happens when we put ideas into writing. The content of such discussions and debates may not appear in the reading materialmentionedabove,butmaybetestedinexaminations. EVALUATION: S. No. 1 2 3 4 2 EvaluationItem Assignment1 Assignment2 MidTermExam EndTermExam Unitof Evaluation Group Group Individual Individual Weight 20% 20% 30% 30% CLO 1,5 4,5 1,2,3,5 1,2,3,4,5

PART2:SESSIONPLAN Ssn Topic CLO Concepts Typesofproblems;Tamevs.Wickedproblems. CASE/REFERENCE Singh(2011):AnAnalysisofCorruption inIndia.

Whatare problemsand 14 whatis problem solving?

1,5

owning, (re)solving, managing and coping with a RittelandWebber(1973):Ten problem. PropertiesofWickedProblems. Managerasadecisionmaker. TheCPSofOsbornandParnes. Approachestoproblemsolving(SystemsThinking,Synectics, Scott(2005):ManagerialDecision OsbornParnes,KepnerTregoe,TRIZ). MakingandProblemSolving. Problemcomplexity. SurvivalInternationalReport(2008)on Divergencevs.Convergence&Analysisvs.Synthesisin VedantaResources. problemsolving. Volkema(1995)ManagingtheProcess Coevolutionofproblemandsolutionspaces. ofFormulatingtheProblem. Boundedcognitionandsatisficing. Roberts(2002):NoteonTechniquesfor AnalyzingBusinessProblems. GarvinandRoberto(2001)WhatYou DontKnowAboutMakingDecisions. Data,information,knowledge,wisdom;tacitvs.explicit knowledge. Rothschild(2006):Induction,Deduction andtheScientificMethod. BazermanandChugh(2006):Decisions withoutBlinders.

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Epistemology ofProblem Solving

2,5

Whatisvalidknowledge?Indianknowledgesystemsandthe pramanas. Makinginferences:induction,deduction,abduction. Hypothesesvs.reality. Correlationandcausality.

Ssn

Topic

CLO

Concepts Creativityandcreativethinking.

CASE/REFERENCE Amabile(1998)HowtoKillCreativity.

810

Reviewof Methods

3,5

Hughes(2003)AddCreativitytoYour Variousmethodsandtechniquesusedindifferentstagesof DecisionProcesses. problemsolvinganddecisionmaking,includingVisioning,Brain Stickgold(2009)TheSimplestWayto Storming,theDelphiMethod,LateralThinking,Cognitive RebootYourBrain. Mapping,MorphologicalAnalysis,HierarchicalDecomposition. Coveystheoryofproactivity. Serendipity. LearningandParadoxinOrganizations;Janusianthinking. SystemsThinking:Introduction. Counterintuitivebehaviour. Feedback,causalloops,reinforcingandbalancingcycles. Oscillation. HowVENSIMcanbeusedtobuildmodels. Hardvs.SoftSystemsMethodology. Martin(2007)HowSuccessfulLeaders Think. NorthAnIntroductiontoSystems Thinking. Sweeney(2001)WhatisSystems Thinking? Czeisler(2006)SleepDeficit:The PerformanceKiller.

Systems 1112 Thinking

4,5

Presentations 1316 of Assignment2

1,2,3, 4,5

Groupwisepresentations.

PART3:SUPPLEMENTARYINFORMATION Twoitemsofcoursematerialsareprovidedtoyou,asdescribedbelow: 1. The Course Pack: The course pack contains necessary information and reference material for this course. Specifically, the following artifacts are a part of the course pack: a. thiscourseoutline. b. referencematerialsandcases. More reference materials and cases may be given during the course, if felt necessary. 2. The Course Notebook: A hardbound notebook is provided to each student for makingnotes,tobeusedexclusivelyforthiscourse. TheCoursePackandtheCourseNotebookmustbebroughttoeveryclass. LatecomingPolicy:Astudentintendingtoattendasessionisexpectedtobepresentin theclassroomatleast1minutebeforethescheduledstartoftime,aspertheclassroom clock. Arriving later than this can lead to being barred from attending that particular session and being marked absent for that session. Considering that this course runs duringtheheavymonsooninManipal,rushinginatthelastminutemayleadtophysical injuries and other undesirables. Hence, students are expected to plan to reach the classroomseveralminutesearly.

LISTOFARTICLESGIVENINTHECOURSEPACK No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Description Singh(2011)AnAnalysisofCorruptioninIndia. RittelandWebber(1973)TenPropertiesofWickedProblems. TheCPSofOsbornandParnes. Scott(2005)ManagerialDecisionMakingandProblemSolving. SurvivalInternational(2008)ReportonVedantaResources. Volkema(1995)ManagingtheProcessofFormulatingtheProblem. Roberts(2002)NoteonTechniquesforAnalyzingBusinessProblems. GarvinandRoberto(2001)WhatYouDontKnowAboutMakingDecisions. Rothchild(2006)Induction,DeductionandtheScientificMethod. BazermanandChugh(2006)DecisionswithoutBlinders. Amabile(1998)HowtoKillCreativity. Hughes(2003)AddCreativitytoYourDecisionProcesses. Stickgold(2009)TheSimplestWaytoRebootYourBrain. Czeisler(2006)SleepDeficit:ThePerformanceKiller. Martin(2007)HowSuccessfulLeadersThink. NorthAnIntroductiontoSystemsThinking. Sweeney(2001)WhatisSystemsThinking?