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# University of Toronto Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE557F Systems Control Practice problems on linear algebra 1.

(a) Show that P n , the set of all polynomials of degree n, an xn + + a1 x + a0 , is a vector space of dimension n + 1. (b) Consider the transformation L : P n P n dened as L(an xn + an1 xn1 + + a0 ) = an1 xn1 + + a0 . Show that it is linear. (c) Find the matrix representation of L in the basis you chose in part a. (d) Find bases for ker(L) and Im(L). (e) Is L one-to-one? Is it onto? 2. (a) Consider a linear transformation L : Rn Rn dened as L(x) = Ax, where A is an n n matrix with real coecients. Let {v1 , . . . , vn } be a basis of Rn . Find the matrix representation of L in this basis. (b) Now let L : R2 R2 denote the rotation by angle . In class we have shown that L(x) = cos sin x. sin cos

Consider the basis of R2 , {v1 , v2 } = {[1 1] , [0 1] }. Using your result from part a, nd the matrix representation of L in this basis. 3. Consider the vector space R3 . Let V be a plane through the origin, and W be a line through the origin, not lying on the plane V . Then, R3 = V W , and so any point x R3 can be expressed uniquely as x = v + w, with v V and w W . Now consider the linear transformation L : R3 V which maps a point x R3 to the unique point v V in the expression x = v + w. (a) Check that Im(L) = V and ker(L) = W .

(b) If V = Span{v1 , v2 }, and W = Span{w}, nd the matrix representation of L. 4. Let V1 , V2 , V3 be subspaces of a real vector space X . Find an explicit counterexample showing that the identity V1 (V2 + V3 ) = V1 V2 + V1 V3 is in general false. 5. Show that a linear transformation L : X Y is one-to-one if and only if ker(L) = 0. 6. Consider a linear transformation L : X Y . Show that if L(x) = L(y ), then x = y + v , where v is some vector in ker(L). 7. In this problem, youll follow a number of steps leading to the proof of the fact, presented in class, that if L : X Y is an LT, then dim(Im(L)) + dim(ker(L)) = n, where n = dim(X ). 1

(a) Show that if {L(v1 ), . . . , L(vk )} are linearly independent, then {v1 , . . . , vk } are linearly independent. (b) Let {w1 , . . . , wk } be a basis for Im(L). Let {v1 , . . . , vk } be vectors in X such that Avi = wi , i = 1, . . . , k. Let {z1 , . . . , zl }, zi X , be a basis for ker(L). Show that {v1 , . . . , vk , z1 , . . . , zl } are linearly independent. [Hint: show that if they werent linearly independent, then there would exist two nonzero vectors v, z , with v Span{v1 , . . . , vk }, z Span{z1 , . . . , zl }, such that v + z = 0. From this fact you can derive a straightforward contradiction.]

## (c) Show that k + l = n = dim(X ).

[Hint: again, prove it by contradiction. Assume that k + l < n. Then, there is a vector x X that does not belong to Span{v1 , . . . , vk } Span{z1 , . . . , zl }. Use this fact to derive a contradiction.]

8. You are given an LT L : R2 R3 with the following properties: L([1 1] ) = [0 2 1] , L([1 1]) = [ 2 0 1] . Using the natural bases of R2 and R3 , nd the matrix representation of L. 9. Let A be an n n real matrix. If is a real eigenvalue of A, and v Rn is the associated eigenvector, then the eigenspace V = Span{v } is A-invariant. Now suppose that a ib are complex conjugate eigenvalues of A, with eigenvectors v and v . Show the subspace of V of Rn dened as V = Span{Real(v ), Imaginary(v )} is A-invariant. [Hint: Look at the form of the matrix AP when P = [Real(v ), Imaginary(v )].]