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Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 06

Passage 21_ Learn to Play the Drums Passage 22_ Managing Cholesterol Passage 23_ MPEG-4 Passage 24_ Pollution and Its Effect on Human Skin

Vocabulary Pre-check
advance affect agent

, ()

inhale

instrument interaction involve itch

~ , , allow for

be known as beat

lessen liver lung

belong to

, comparatively compatibility

mechanically numerous obesity

compress

contrary to cut down on deadly

~ ~

on a daily basis percussion

deal with diabetes diet

play the drums pollution radical

, A B

disorder eczema fatty fiber

replace A with B satellite sensitive sore

, ()

format density

suffer from

tissue () trailer

lipoprotein heart attack

[] ()

transport upcoming

high blood pressure

, increase

weight gain

Passage

Life Sport Music

Many people think that the drums are one of the hardest instruments to learn. , it is not a difficult instrument to learn. Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can quickly and easily learn to play the drums. You might not be great, but you can sure have fun. There are many kinds of drums, from the congo drum to the high hat to the bass drum to the snare drum. Drums, along with the tambourine, (a) belong / are belonging to the percussion family. Percussion instruments involve (b) to hit / hitting one thing against another thing. A drummer can hit the drum with either the hands or sticks. It is just a matter of counting beats as you play either mechanically or by feeling the beat.

instrument [nstrmnt] bass drum involve [invlv] ~ contrary to ~

play the drums belong to ~ count [kaunt] ,

congo drum beat [bi;t]

high hat ()

snare drum

percussion [p;k=n] mechanically [mknikli]

18

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Coherence

2.

As many people know Contrary to popular belief For some reasons No matter if it is true or not Similar to their opinion

Grammar

3.

(a) (b) .

(a) belong (b) hitting

Chapter 06

19

Grammar

Drums, along with the tambourine, belong to the percussion family. cf. Drums are belonging to the percussion family. (X).
+

I know the language. cf. I am knowing the language. (X)

Tips : know, remember, understand / : see, hear, smell /


: like, love, hate / : be, exist, resemble / : have, belong . , .

Quiz

1. He is resembling his grandfather. He resembles his grandfather. 2. I was having a book written by the writer.
I had a book written by the writer.

Structure

()

Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can quickly and easily learn to play the drums.
(anyone) .

Anyone with a good sense of rhythm


()

to play the drums quickly and easily

()

Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can learn

()

to play the drums quickly and easily

20

Level 1-B

Passage 21

Writing

1. The drums are

to learn.

one of the hardest instruments

2.

, it is not a difficult instrument to learn.


Contrary to popular belief

3. Anyone
drums.

can quickly and easily learn to play the

with a good sense of rhythm

4. A drummer can hit the drum


with either the hands or sticks

5. It is just
the beat.

as you play either mechanically or by feeling

a matter of counting beats

Chapter 06

21

Passage

Food Health

Cutting down on high cholesterol foods is generally a good idea to protect your health since a high cholesterol diet leads to weight gain and even obesity. To stay healthy, you should replace the fatty foods you eat on a daily basis with high fiber vegetables. If you do this, you should be able to maintain a healthy weight. And then youll lessen your risk of suffering from weight-related disorders like diabetes, heart problems, high blood pressure, etc. People who are overweight usually have low levels of HDL. HDL is a protein that can remove cholesterol from the tissues and transport it to the liver. By losing weight, you can raise your HDL level and decrease your chances of heart attack from high cholesterol and other weight-related problems.

cut down on ~ replace A with B lessen [lsn]

diet [dit]

weight gain
,

obesity [ob;sti] fiber [fib] () diabetes [dib;tis] heart attack

A B

fatty [fti]

on a daily basis , tissue [tu;]

suffer from ~

disorder [dis;d] , decrease [d;kri;s]

high blood pressure

HDL () (high-density lipoprotein) liver [lv]

transport [trnsp;t] ,

22

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Detail

1.

Detail

2.

Vocabulary

3.

raise .
cut down / lessen / decrease

Analysis

4.

HDL, , , .

low HDL high cholesterol overweight weight-related or heart diseases

Chapter 06

23

Grammar

Cutting down on high cholesterol foods is generally a good idea to protect your health.
+

Crying over spilt milk is not useful.

Tips -ing . , ,
. .

Quiz

1. . To go to bed early is good for health. = Going to bed early is good for health. 2. . To speak English is not easy. = Speaking English is not easy. 3. . To keep a diary in English is not so difficult. = Keeping a diary in English is not so difficult.

Structure

HDL is a protein that can remove cholesterol from the tissues and transport it to the liver.
protein .

can remove cholesterol from the tissues (can) transport it back to the liver
()

HDL is a protein that ~

24

Level 1-B

Passage 22

Writing

1.

~ high cholesterol foods is a good idea to protect your

health.
Cutting down on

2. A high cholesterol diet


leads to

~ weight gain and even obesity.

3. You should replace the fatty foods


vegetables.
you eat on a daily basis

with high fiber

4. Youll

of suffering from weight-related disorders.

lessen your risk

5. People

usually have low levels of HDL.

who are overweight

Chapter 06

25

Passage

Science Technology Nature

MPEG-4 is a radically different file type since it can compress heavy data into a much smaller size and it allows for more compatibility among different file types at different speeds. After the format was introduced in 1998, it has been the media standard since 2000. It is made by the same people who made MPEG-1 and it is an excellent file format which can deal with (a) file types such as 3D objects, sprites, text, etc. Ipods, satellite TV and websites all use the MPEG-4 file format. On the Internet, youll see this format most often used to advertise trailers for upcoming movies. Since MPEG technology can compress files into a still smaller size, it allows multimedia to be shown on networks which use comparatively low bit rates. It can also be used on mobile networks that have (b) the user and the content. . Moreover, content developers are using MPEG-4 for a higher level of interaction between

radically [rdikli] , compatibility [kmptblti]

compress [kmprs] format [f;mt] ,

allow for , , deal with ~ trailer [tril] ()

sprites [spraitz] ( ; ) upcoming [=pk>mi\] , interaction [ntrkn]

satellite [stlit]

comparatively [kmprtivli] ,

26

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

MPEG-4 ?

. . . . .

Coherence

2.

(a) (b) ?

(a) heavy numerous certain various huge

(b) limited bit rates low bit rates increased bit rates high bit rates decreasing bit rates

Inference

3.

optimistic suspicious favorable narrative neutral

Chapter 06

27

Grammar

It can compress heavy data into a much smaller size. Since MPEG technology can compress files into a still smaller size.
+

This book is even better than that.

Tips much, far, still, even, a lot .


', ' .

Quiz

.
. .

Oa lot, still, even, farP more 1. . I want much

Oeven, still, a lot, farP longer than mine 2. . Your hair is much

3. . My car is much Oeven, still, far, a lotP more expensive than yours .

Structure

It allows multimedia to be shown on networks which use comparatively low bit rates.
networks networks .

which use comparatively low bit rates


()

it multimedia .

to be shown on networks
()

()

it allows multimedia

()

to be shown on networks ~

28

Level 1-B

Passage 23

Writing

1. It can

into a much smaller size.

compress heavy data

2. It is an excellent file format which


types.
can deal with

~ numerous file

3. Youll see this format most often


upcoming movies.
used to advertise

~ trailers for

4. It allows

on networks.

multimedia to be shown

5. It can also

be used on mobile networks

Chapter 06

29

Passage

Food Health

One of the greatest enemies that people face every day is pollution. It isnt known as a killer, but it is a silent killer since it causes numerous deadly diseases. Not that many people are aware that it can lead to different types of disorders on skin that is one of the most sensitive parts of the human body. First, air pollution can advance the aging of skin. And dust mist may cause eczema, a skin disease which makes your skin itch and become sore, rough, and broken. Chemicals in thousands of things we use every day also pollute the air. Those agents are released in the air and later land on our skin or are inhaled through our noses into our bodies. These agents can create skin allergies and can affect the lungs, nose, and eyes.

be known as ~ sore [s;]

deadly [ddli]

not that ~

disorder [dis;d] , itch [it]

advance [dvns] , affect [fkt]

aging [id,i\]

eczema [ksm]

agent [id,nt] , lung [l<\] ,

inhale [inhil] ,

30

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Inference

1.

The Main Causes of Pollution and Its Effects Pollution and Its Effect on Human Skin Major Skin Disorders and Their Symptoms The Danger of Chemicals to Human Skin How to Protect Skin from Air Pollution

Info Scan

2.

. . . . .

Reference

3.

Those agents .

Detail

4.

eczema ?

Chapter 06

31

Grammar

Those agents are released in the air and later land on our skin or are inhaled through our noses into our bodies.
+

He analyzed, discussed, questioned and generalized this problem.

Tips and, but, or , , . and or


Those agents are, land, are .

Quiz

1. The pretty girl is intelligent. She is honest. And she is courageous. The pretty girl is intelligent, honest and courageous 2. The King was praised by the soldiers. But he was hated by the people. The King was praised by the soldiers but hated by the people . .

Structure

One of the greatest enemies that people face every day is pollution.
people face every day( ) . ()

the greatest enemies


()

One of the greatest enemies that people face every day is pollution

32

Level 1-B

Passage 24

Writing

1. One of the greatest enemies


that people face every day

is pollution.

2. It can lead to different types of disorders on skin that


.
is one of the most sensitive parts

3. Air pollution can advance


the aging of skin

4. Chemicals in thousands of things


air.
we use every day

also pollute the

5. Those agents
are released

in the air.

Chapter 06

33

Review
A
.

01. belong to 02. compatibility 03. compress 04. diabetes 05. disorder 06. eczema

~ ,

07. inhale 08. itch 09. lessen 10. percussion 11. radical 12. sore

, ,

A .

01. 02. 03. 04. (exhale) 05. (maximize) 06.

have diabetes itching back compress into one book inhale and exhale air maximize compatibility radical change

A .

01. If something 02. 03.


Eczema Percussion

belongs to

you, you own it.

is a term for several different types of skin trouble. instruments are musical instruments that you hit, such as drums.
sore

04. If youve had a(n) doctor. 05. A(n) body. 06. If something
disorder

throat for days, you will need to go see a

is a problem or illness which affects someones mind or

lessens

or you

lessen

it, it becomes smaller in size,

amount, degree, or importance.

34

Level 1-B

Passages 21~24

01. Talking

on the phone for a long time made me so tired. Talk Being talked

02. We could tell that the man was brilliant and to be rich being rich rich

from his speech.

03. Made

a presentation in front of many people is embarrassing. To be making Making

04. The soup is tasting

too salty. taste tastes

05. His house is very

bigger than mine. a lot a lot of

06. Run

is one of the most popular exercises in the world. To running Running

07. She desired much

more than what she was given. very most

08. Her bag is even

more expensive than my car. so too

09. The bag is belonging

to my father. belongs is belonged

10. We havent decided meeting place

and what to do. where to meet to meet

Chapter 06

35

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 07

Passage 25_ Punk Rock Music Passage 26_ Rally Racing Passage 27_ Recycling Aluminum Passage 28_ Sharks in Hawaii

Vocabulary Pre-check

, advocate

origin

aggressive

paved pinpoint

be associated with be at no risk of be used to bother bowl

prevent ~ from -ing probably protector

~ , ~

, purpose

ceremonial object

range from A to B recycle

A B

circuit city-to-city

( )

represent

, ~

competitor

run out of shark

consumer product defender dump

smooth

socialize strip

end up evident

; ~ ,

sundried

furthermore gravel

take place

, ()

take up

hammerhead

thousands of tons of tin

in a variety of ways

~ in the form of

two-thirds valuable waste

3 2

landfill link

musical instrument oppose

whitetip reef shark

woodwork

Passage

Life Sport Music

Punk rock is a genre of music that opposes everything that traditional rock music represented. This kind of music became popular during the mid 1970s in countries like Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom. However, like all other genres of music, it is rather difficult to pinpoint the exact time and place of origin. The advocates of punk music were bands like The Clash, Ramones, and New York Dolls. In fact they were considered to be the early leaders of punk music. Punk rock music is very aggressive and this is clearly evident in the dress, behavior, music, and everything else (a) with punk musicians. Punk rock musicians had a DIY (Do It Yourself) attitude and they were not very (b) with socializing.

oppose [puz] origin [;rd,in] ,

represent [rpriznt] , advocate [dvkit]

pinpoint [pnpint] be associated with ~

aggressive [grsiv]

evident [vidnt] ,

socialize [suliz] ,

bother [b"] ~ , ~

38

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

punk rock ?

punk rock . puck rock . punk rock 70 . The Clash punk rock . punk .

Grammar

2.

(a) (b) ?

(a) to associate associating associated to be associated is associating

(b) bothering bothered bothered bothering bothered

Analysis

3.

.
rock .

. .

Chapter 07

39

Grammar

Punk rock is a genre of music that opposes everything that traditional rock music represented. This is clearly evident in everything else (that is) associated with them.
Tips . . /
. . (/) . .

who, which , that .

Quiz

.
. < >

1. . Take anything (that) you want.

2. . I have a picture which is very beautiful. . < > 3. . He married a Korean girl who(m) he has known through the Internet. < >

Structure

This is clearly evident in the dress, behavior, music, and everything else associated with punk musicians.
.

dress behavior music everything else associated with punk musicians

()

This is

clearly evident
everything else associated ~

() in the dress, behavior, music, and

40

Level 1-B

Passage 25

Writing

1. Punk rock opposes everything that


traditional rock music represented

2. This is

in the dress, behavior and music.

clearly evident

3. It is rather difficult to pinpoint


the exact time and place

of origin.

4. Punk rock music is


very aggressive

5. They

~ the early leaders of punk music.

were considered to be

Chapter 07

41

Passage

Life Sport Music

Have you ever (a) drove / driven on a Formula 1 race track? Probably not! You cant just get on the track. But you can drive the same route that rally race car drivers take. Unlike the circuit which (b) creates / is created only for Formula 1 races, rally races take place on public roads ranging from smooth paved roads to unpaved gravel or dirt roads. Rallying began over 100 years ago and the first race for which the word rally was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911. After this race, the popularity of the sport increased greatly. The early twentieth century saw the beginning of the great city-to-city races of Europe. The most famous one was the Mile Miglia in Italy in which competitors came from all over Europe. But there was also even a Paris to New York rally and a Peking to Paris rally.

Formula 1 ( ) circuit [s;kit] ( ) smooth [smu;"] , competitor [kmptt]

probably [prbbli] paved [peivd]

rally [rli] , range from A to B A B city-to-city

take place , () Peking [p;k\] ,

gravel [grvl]

42

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Analysis

1.

Formula 1 race rally race ?

length of the track shape of the circuit type of race car track of the race drivers of the race

Info Scan

2.

rally ?

rally Monte Carlo Rally . 19 . . . .

Grammar

3.

(a) (b) .

(a) driven (b) is created

Reference

4.

one ?

rally race city-to-city race a great city Monte Carlo Rally the popularity

Chapter 07

43

Grammar

The early twentieth century saw the beginning of the great city-to-city races of Europe.
+

Airplanes enable people to travel through the air. = People can travel through the air thanks to airplanes.

Tips . ,
~ , ~ , ~, ~, ~, ~ .

Quiz

1. . His letters tell us what kind of person he is.

= From his letters, we know what kind of person he is. 2. 20 . A twenty-minute walk every morning will help to keep you fit.

= If you take a twenty-minute walk every morning, it will help to keep you fit.

Structure

The first race for which the word rally was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911.
(The first race) .

the word rally was used


() rally

The first race for which the word rally was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911

44

Level 1-B

Passage 26

Writing

1.

on a Formula 1 race track?


Have you ever driven

2. Rally races
take place

on public roads.

3. The first race for which


Rally of 1911.
the word rally was used

was the Monte Carlo

4. After this race, the popularity of the sport


increased greatly

5.

was the Mile Miglia in Italy.


The most famous one

Chapter 07

45

Passage

Social Culture Business

About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products is recycled each year. While it seems like a high percentage, it still means that thousands of tons of aluminum is not being recycled. Aluminum is the most common metal on earth and the world is at no risk of running out of it any time soon. But that doesnt mean we dont have to recycle it. The issue is (a) energy. (b) People waste a huge amount of of the energy to make aluminum. While making new aluminum uses a lot of energy, recycling it requires a lot less

products every year. All this waste ends up in landfills, and we are running out of places to dump our waste. Recycling prevents aluminum cans and tins from taking up valuable landfill space.

two-thirds 3 2

consumer product

recycle [ri;sikl] metal [mtl] be at no risk of ~ landfill [lndfl] take up end up ; ~ tin [tin]

thousands of tons of dump [d<mp]

, (=a huge number of)

run out of ~

waste [weist] ;

prevent ~ from -ing ~

valuable [vlju;bl] ,

46

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Vocabulary

2.

(a) ?

the risk the cost the source the container the quality

Coherence

3.

(b) ?

However, there is a concern for not making new aluminum. Even if we recycle most of aluminum, there is another problem. Waste is another important key issue here. What if we are actually running out of this metal on earth? Aluminum is not the only thing that should be recycled.

Analysis

4.

Chapter 07

47

Grammar

About two-thirds of the aluminum is recycled each year.


+ +

Two-fifths of the apple is rotten.

2/5 . 2/5 .

Two-fifths of the apples are rotten.

Tips half, part, most, the rest of


.

Quiz

.
spent on books. English books. of the earths surface is water. drowned.

1. . Half of my money is 2. . Half of my books are 3. 4 3 . Three-fourths of

4. 4 3 . Three-fourths of the sailors were

Structure

About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products is recycled each year.
used in consumer products ? ()

aluminum
()


()

()

About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products is recycled each year

48

Level 1-B

Passage 27

Writing

1. About two-thirds of the aluminum


year.
used in consumer products

is recycled each

2.

~ a high percentage.
It seems like

3. Aluminum is

on earth.

the most common metal

4. The world is
at no risk

of running out of it.

5. We are running out of


places to dump

~ our waste.

Chapter 07

49

Passage

Social Culture Business

Sharks are important creatures for Hawaiians. Sharks have some religious importance since several of their gods are linked to sharks in a variety of ways. Some Hawaiians even believe that some dead people can be born again in the form of a shark. Furthermore, sharks act as aumakua, the spiritual protectors or defenders of some families. The whitetip reef shark and the hammerhead are the most commonly eaten sharks. Long strips of meat are salted and sundried. The dried meat is later used to make a variety of dishes. They also found shark teeth and skin very useful for a variety of purposes such as musical instruments, bowls, woodwork, weapons, knives, and ceremonial objects.

shark [;k]

link [li\k] ,

in a variety of ways

in the form of ~

furthermore [f;"m;]

protector [prtkt]

defender [difnd] strip [strip] purpose [p;ps] , ceremonial object dish [di] ,

whitetip reef shark sundried [s=ndraid] musical instrument

hammerhead [hmhd]

be used to ~ bowl [boul] ,

woodwork [wdw;k] ,

50

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Summary

2.

. ?

We can find the roots of much Hawaiian traditional culture in sharks. The number of sharks around Hawaii has decreased in recent years. Hawaiians believe sharks can protect their food source and their homes. Except for Hawaiians, many cultures treat sharks as normal fish. Sharks are also a good source of food and various materials in Hawaiian culture.

Analysis

3.

Chapter 07

51

Grammar

be used to do / be used to -ing / used to

The dried meat is later used to make a variety of dishes.


+ + +

It is used to absorb extra water. He was used to sleeping late. I used to live in Busan.
~

~ ~

, be used to -ing~ Tips used . < be used to do>~ , used to~ .

Quiz

.
a big shop near here.

1. . There used to be 2. . (transmit) This is used to transmit

commands from the client to the server. before others.

3. . (speak) Im used to speaking

Structure

They also found shark teeth and skin very useful for a variety of purposes.
very useful .

shark teeth and skin


(they found) .

shark teeth and skin are useful

()

They found shark teeth and skin

()

very useful for a variety of purposes

52

Level 1-B

Passage 28

Writing

1. Sharks have some

religious importance

2. Some dead people can be born again


in the form of a shark

3. Sharks are

a good source of food

4. The dried meat


is used to make

~ a variety of dishes.

5. Their gods

~ sharks in a variety of ways.

are linked to

Chapter 07

53

Review
A
.

01. advocate 02. aggressive 03. consumer 04. gravel 05. landfill 06. oppose

07. origin 08. paved 09. pinpoint 10. prevent ~ from -ing 11. run out of 12. take place

, ~ , , ()

A .

01. 02. 03. 04. 05.

consumer product safety the origin of life aggressive attitude paved highway took place in Seoul oppose bilingual education in schools

06. (bilingual education)

A .

01. The police have tried to 02. If you 03. If you exactly. 04. A(n)
advocate run out of pinpoint

prevent

them from carrying weapons.

something, you have no more of it left. the cause of something, you discover or explain the cause

of a particular action or plan is someone who recommends it

publicly. 05. A(n)


landfill

is a large deep hole in which very large amounts of rubbish

are buried. 06. The term


gravel

is used to describe small stones that may be rounded

or sharp-edged.

54

Level 1-B

Passages 25~28

01. They used to

the cold weather. are used not to are not used to

02. You can have one thing that which

you would like. how

03. Three-fourths of the files were was

deleted. is

04. I have a book so

is very old. which as

05. Half of my time are

wasted on TV. were was

06. One-fourth of the merchandise is was

sold the other day. were

07. There used to be

a huge tree in the yard. is used to be used to

08. Those materials used to

build a house. are used to are used to be

09. One-third of my friends is are

from England. was

10. He didnt know the man which whose

he met the other day. whom

Chapter 07

55

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 08

Passage 29_ The Benefits of Being a Lawyer Passage 30_ The Classic Cadillac Car Passage 31_ The Living Jewels Passage 32_ The Model of Supply and Demand

Vocabulary Pre-check
a variety of

.
~

jewel

above all

lifespan luxury

()

anniversary

; (=luxurious)

approximately available average awe basis

make decision make sense of manufacture

neither A nor B offender pet store pioneer practice precise

A B ,

bound to breed

~ , ~

cannot help -ing carp case

~ , ~ (=cannot but do)

, ,

z{ ; () (=suit)

probably rare

certain

contribute corporate

renew

reputation reward roar

costs and benefits criminal dealer decent degree

, , a . select

solid

sought after

, , ,

discouraged economics feed

, start out

such as

superior

( ) ,

focus on

~ ,

supply and demand tend to

fundamental

generation

throughout up to

~ , ~

innocent

Passage

Life Sport Music

People of a certain generation tend to view the profession of law with some degree of awe and respect. What is it about being a lawyer that attracts the best and the brightest? As a beginner in the world of law, the reward you earn at this stage is not (a) many / much . But do not get discouraged. Once you have gained more experience and earned a solid reputation for winning cases, you can charge (b) much / very higher fees. Working as a corporate lawyer also earns you a decent salary starting out at approximately $125,000 a year. As long as society exists, there are bound to be crimes and criminals. The good thing about practicing as a lawyer is that you will never be out of work. Your law degree will always help you find work, or you could always be your own boss. Above all, as a lawyer, you can contribute a great deal to society. You can bring offenders to justice and help the innocent find justice.

certain [s;tn] , reward [riw;d] reputation [rpjtin]

generation [d,nrin]

tend to ~ fee [fi;] ,

awe [;]

discouraged [disk;rid,d] ,

solid [slid] , start out , practice [prktis] , bring ~ to justice

case [keis]z{; () (=suit)

corporate [k;prit] , approximately [prksmitli] degree [digr;] offender [fnd] ,

decent [d;snt] , contribute [kntrbjut]

bound to ~ , ~

above all

58

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Inference

1.

The Benefits of Being a Lawyer Pros and Cons of Being a Lawyer The Ways to Build a Career as a Lawyer The Reasons Why Lawyers Exist Social Expectations of Lawyers

Info Scan

2.

. . . . .

Analysis

3.

Grammar

4.

(a) (b) .

(a) much (b) much

Chapter 08

59

Grammar

the + =

What is it about being a lawyer that attracts the best and the brightest? You can bring offenders to justice and help the innocent find justice.
~ . Tips the

Quiz

1. . We should be kind to the old 2. . Hes collecting money for the blind 3. . The unemployed are losing hope. = Unemployed people are losing hope. . = Hes collecting money for blind people. . = We should be kind to old people.

Structure

()

The good thing about practicing as a lawyer is that you will never be out of work.
(The good thing) .

about practicing as a lawyer


()

()

The good thing about practicing as a lawyer is that you will never be out of work

60

Level 1-B

Passage 29

Writing

1. People of a certain generation

~ the profession of

law with awe and respect.


tend to view / some degree of

2.

at this stage is not much.


The reward you earn

3. Working as a corporate lawyer also earns you


a decent salary

4.

~ crimes and criminals.


There are bound to be

5. Your law degree will always


help you find work

Chapter 08

61

Passage

Social Culture Business

Cadillacs have been on American roads for over a hundred years. The first Cadillac was manufactured in 1902. And the company (Cadillac) has been going strong since people started to trust the company and their superior and precise manufacturing technology. General Motors (GM) bought the company in 1909 and made it (a) to focus / focus on making large powerful automobiles. As a result the companys reputation spread quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century. In the 1950s, the company renewed its focus (b) produce / to produce luxury vehicles. The company became hugely popular, and Cadillacs were known as the best and most luxurious cars on the market. A cadillac racing down the street caught everyones attention in those days. You couldnt help turning your head if one roared by. In 1952, the company celebrated its 50th anniversary and it was probably the year when the Cadillac was at the peak of its popularity in America.

manufacture [mnjfkt] precise [prisis] , cannot help -ing throughout [^r;ut] ~ , ~

superior [spri] ( ) , reputation [rpjtin]


; (=luxurious) luxury [l=kri]

focus on ~ ,

renew [rin;]

~ (=cannot but do)

roar [r;]

anniversary [nv;sri]

62

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

Cadillac ?

GM Cadillac . Cadillac 1950 . Cadillac GM . 50 Cadillac . Cadillac 50 .

Grammar

2.

(a) (b) .

(a)

focus

(b) to produce

Analysis

3.

Cadillac .

Chapter 08

63

Grammar

It is OwasP ~ that

It was probably the year when the Cadillac was at the peak of its popularity in America.
+

She met James yesterday. James . It was she that met James yesterday. James . It was yesterday that she met James. James .

Tips , It is that . O wasP

Quiz

1. . It was his brother that broke the window a week ago.

2. . It was the window that his brother broke a week ago.

3. . It was a week ago that his brother broke the window.

Structure

The companys reputation spread quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century.
() .

quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century

()

()

The companys reputation spread

() ()

quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century

64

Level 1-B

Passage 30

Writing

1. The first Cadillac

in 1902.

was manufactured

2. People

~ the company.

started to trust

3.

spread quickly.
The companys reputation

4. The company

renewed its focus

5. The Cadillac was

in America.

at the peak of its popularity

Chapter 08

65

Passage

Science Technology Nature

Have you ever seen swimming flowers or living jewels? Probably you have. Koi fish, which mean carp in Japanese, are what they are. Especially in Japan, Koi fish are highly sought after. You can find Koi fish in most pet stores, but some high-quality ones are available only from select dealers. These rare and more expensive breeds can cost as much as a couple of thousand dollars. since the owner can teach them to take food from his hand. Koi fish seem to have the ability to recognize him. They also love to eat a variety of foods which humans eat, such as pieces of fruit and vegetables. The lifespan of an average Koi fish is 40 years, but it has been reported that some fish can live up to 200 years.

carp [k;p]

sought after , , breed [bri;d] ;

pet store dealer [d;l] a variety of ~ feed [fi;d]

available [vilbl] , [] rare [r] , such as ~ lifespan [laifspn] ()

select [silkt] , , average [vrid,]

a couple of thousand dollars up to ~

66

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

Koi fish ?

Koi fish . Koi fish . Koi fish . Koi fish . Koi fish .

Coherence

2.

Not everyone can feed them It takes much effort to feed them You should be careful when you feed them To learn how to feed them takes a long time Feeding them is always fascinating

Reference

3.

him .

Analysis

4.

Koi fishliving jewels .


Chapter 08

67

Grammar

Have you ever seen swimming flowers or living jewels? Probably you have (ever seen them).
+

His family left and also his friends (left).

Tips .
. (1) , (2) ,

(3) if, when, while , .

Quiz

1. , . One will make life happy, the other ( 2. . Though (


he is will make it

) unhappy.

) timid, the student is no coward.

Structure

They also love to eat a variety of foods which humans eat, such as pieces of fruit and vegetables.
which . ()

a variety of foods
()

They love to eat a variety of foods ~

68

Level 1-B

Passage 31

Writing

1. Koi fish, which

, are what they are.

mean carp in Japanese

2. Some high-quality ones are


available

only from select dealers.

3. These

breeds can cost as much as a couple of

thousand dollars.
rare and more expensive

4.

is always fascinating.
Feeding them

5. Koi fish

~ the ability to recognize him.

seem to have

Chapter 08

69

Passage

Social Culture Business

People make decisions based on costs and benefits. If the cost of either buying or doing something is raised, people neither buy nor do it. (a) , if the benefits of buying or doing something are low, who would either buy or do it? This idea is the basis for the economic theory of supply and demand which explains how markets work. Supply and demand is the fundamental economic model used to make sense of the economic world. It is surprising that we do not find the model in the writings of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, or John Stuart Mill, (b) , and all of these pioneers in economics used the words supply and demand frequently. The modern supply-and-demand model did not appear until 1890, when Alfred Marshall published his Principles of Economics.

make decision

costs and benefits

neither A nor B A B

basis [bisis] ,

theory of supply and demand pioneer [pin] ,

fundamental [f>ndmntl]

make sense of ~

economics [;knmiks]

not ~ until ... ~, ~

70

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Coherence

2.

(a) ?

In addition Likewise Unfortunately As a result Nevertheless

Coherence

3.

, (b) ?

even after many years the model introduced since it is not the fundamental economic model while there are many other similar models as it was known to many ordinary people even though it was a very important model

Summary

4.

When the costs of an activity are high are expected, people do more

, of the activity.

people do less of the activity. And when high benefits

Chapter 08

71

Grammar

The economic theory of supply and demand explains how markets work.
+

I dont know if she likes you.

Tips ()
. <>, < if whether +> . think, believe, guess, imagine, suppose, say .

Quiz

.
.

1. . I dont know where she is going 2. . (absent) I wonder if my best friend was absent from school yesterday. they want?

3. ? What do you think

Structure

This idea is the basis for the economic theory of supply and demand which explains how markets work.
(how markets work) . ()

the economic theory of supply and demand


()

()

This idea is the basis for the economic theory of supply and demand ~

72

Level 1-B

Passage 32

Writing

1. People make decisions


based on

~ costs and benefits.

2. People

neither buy nor do it

3. This idea is the basis for the economic theory which


.
explains how markets work

4.

~ that we do not find the model in the writings.


It is surprising

5. The modern supply-and-demand model


did not appear until

~ 1890.

Chapter 08

73

Review
A
.

01. approximate 02. available 03. awe 04. bound to 05. breed 06. contribute

(), , ~ , ~ ;

07. decent 08. lifespan 09. make sense of 10. offender 11. practice 12. precise

, () ~ , , , ,

A .
01. a decent living rare breed a repeated offender the precise moment be bound to win Are you available this afternoon?

02. 03. (repeated) 04. 05. 06. ?

A .

01. When you make sense of something, you succeed in understanding it. 02. If you
contribute

to something, you do things to help to make it successful.

03. A(n) approximate number, time or position is close to the correct number, time, or position but is not exact. 04. Someone who 05. The
lifespan practices

medicine or law works as a doctor or a lawyer.

of a person, animal or plant is the period of time for which

they live or are normally expected to live. 06. If you are in


awe

or stand in

awe

of someone, you have a lot

of respect for that person and are slightly afraid of him or her.

74

Level 1-B

Passages 29~32

01. It was Mike that

stole my bike. what which

02. I wonder if is your brother

home. your brother is it is your brother

03. The city should be redesigned for blind the blind

. blinds

04. It

was my sister that called the police. This She

05. Everyone agreed that rich the rich

should pay more taxes. riches

06. It was the computer which that

he wanted to have. what

07. I didnt see where it went

. where did it go where does it go

08. Everyone should donate to poors poor people

. the poors

09. You can tell me what do you want

. what you want what did you want

10. One went into the kitchen, the other didnt go are

the bathroom. went into

Chapter 08

75

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 09

Passage 33_ Three Blind Men and an Elephant Passage 34_ The True History of Basketball Passage 35_ U.S. Food Companies Promise to Limit Advertising to Kids Passage 36_ Unusual Baby Names

Vocabulary Pre-check

advertising

low-nutrition

affect

meanwhile

agree with ancient

media

(medium )

moreover

as a result athletics

neither A nor B no longer obesity

A B

be concerned about benefit

on one hand

beverage

on the other hand overall

build self-confidence cartoon

parking lot

commercial confusion

peach

playground

consider A as B creature

A B

positive post

driveway , encourage fable

promote

, province

root

first of all further grasp

schoolyard significant specific

gymnasium hoop

v . stress

()

totality trendy trunk

identity indeed

()

instead of limit

unique unusual vine

, , ()

limitation

Passage

Life Sport Music

There is a famous fable of three blind men and an elephant. Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like, but experience different parts of the large creature. One of them touches the elephants leg. He says it feels like a strong tree. The second blind man grasps onto the moving trunk and reports to the others that an elephant is like a growing vine. The third blind man moves his hands along the body of the elephant. He reports that the elephant is neither (a) is, he says, a mountain. Based on their experience with the elephant, they are correct. The problem is that they are not seeing the whole picture and not experiencing the totality of the elephant because the creature is much larger than they are able to grasp. Also they forget their own limitations that they are blind. nor (b) . It

fable [fibl] vine [vain] ()

creature [kr;t]

grasp [grsp]

trunk [tr<\k] () limitation [lmtin] ,

neither A nor B A B

totality [totlti]

78

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Reference

1.

the others ?

trunks legs blind men elephants hands

Analysis

2.

(a) (b) .

(a) a (strong) tree (b) a (growing) vine

Analysis

3.

.
See the whole picture. Dont forget your limitations.

Chapter 09

79

Grammar

each

Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like.
+

Every country has a national flag.

, every Tips each every . each, .

Quiz

.
his own habit. a silver lining. passed the exam.

1. . Each has 2. . Every cloud has

3. . Every student in the class

Structure

what/if/whether

Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like.
(try to understand) .

what the elephant is like


()


()

()

Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like

80

Level 1-B

Passage 33

Writing

1.

of three blind men and an elephant.


There is a famous fable

2. They are trying to understand exactly


what the elephant is like

3. He says it
feels like

~ a strong tree.

4. The creature is much larger than


they are able to grasp

5. They forget their own limitations


that they are blind

Chapter 09

81

Passage

Life Sport Music

Basketball was invented so that kids would have something (a) doing / to do inside during cold northeastern winters. There are hoops on street corners, in parking lots, driveways, schoolyards and playgrounds. Unlike many other popular ball sports in America, basketball doesnt have ancient roots. However, since it was introduced in public in 1881, it has become one of the most popular sports in America. The game was invented by Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian living in Massachusetts, U.S. Dr. Naismith had worked as an athletics director for the University of McGill in Montreal in the Canadian province of Quebec. And while he was working for the YMCA Training School in Massachusetts, he put a peach basket on the wall of the gymnasium and invented the game everyone would love. If he hadnt been living in Massachusetts when he created it, it wouldnt (b) make / have made such a huge hit.

hoop [hup hu;p] () playground [pligrund]

parking lot ancient [innt]

driveway [drivwi]
,

schoolyard [sk;lj;d]
,

root [ru;trut]

athletics [^ltiks] hit [hit] ,

province [prvins/prv-] ,

peach [pi;t]

gymnasium [d,imnizim]

82

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Grammar

1.

(a) (b) .

(a) to do (b) have made

Coherence

2.

So even these days, winter is the most popular season for the game. But these days you can find kids playing the game anywhere you go. But soon it became a game that people can play in summer. So in the beginning the game was known as a kids winter sport. But when it was first introduced, it was not very popular.

Info Scan

3.

. . . Naismith YMCA . 19 .

Chapter 09

83

Grammar

If he hadnt been living in Massachusetts when he created it, it wouldnt have made such a huge hit.
+

If it had not snowed, we could have climbed the mountain.

Tips . <( had )>


, < have > .

Quiz

1. , . If I had been rich , I could have bought the house.

2. . If she had come , the party would have been more delightful.

Structure

He invented the game (that) everyone would love.


everyone would love . ()

the game
()

Rthe game everyone that .

He invented the game (that) everyone would love

84

Level 1-B

Passage 34

Writing

1. Kids would have

something to do inside

2. You can find kids


playing the game

anywhere you go.

3. It has become

in America.

one of the most popular sports

4. The game

~ Dr. James Naismith.

was invented by

5. He invented the game


everyone would love

Chapter 09

85

Passage

Food Health

Advertising affects what children want to eat. So its great news that several food and beverage companies have promised to encourage children under the age of 12 to eat healthier foods. These companies have posted their promises on the Council of Better Business website. Since everyone is concerned about obesity in children, they consider this as a positive development. But the food and beverage companies need to go even further. While all the food companies agree with the overall goal, their specific plans are different. McDonalds, for example, said its commercials and ads would encourage children to choose healthy food items. (a) , Coca-Cola said its ads would stress the health benefits of kids choosing water and juice instead of sugary beverages. (b) , Pepsi said its ads would simply promote an active lifestyle. Maybe we can also get some of the media companies to limit the use of cartoon characters to promote low-nutrition foods in the near future.

advertising [dvtizi\] obesity [ob;sti] specific [spisfik] instead of ~ cartoon [k;t;n]

affect [fkt]

beverage [bvrid,] be concerned about ~ positive [pztiv] overall [uvr;l] , stress [stres] benefit [bnft] limit [lmit] media [m;di] (midium )

encourage [enk;rid,] , further [f;"] ,

post [poust] , agree with ~

consider A as B A B commercial [km;l]

promote [prmut] ,

low-nutrition [lounu;trn]

86

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Reference

2.

this .

Coherence

3.

(a) (b) ?

(a) As mentioned However In the same way Likewise On the other hand

(b) However Like other companies Next On the other hand Furthermore

Analysis

4.

.

. . .

Chapter 09

87

Grammar

get++ to vs. have OmakeP ++

We can also get some of the media companies to limit the use of cartoon characters.
+

I had him repair my radio.

. <++ Tips have, make, let ~ > . get , get to . get .

Quiz

.
my watch. .

1. . ( repair) I got him to repair

2. . The teacher made the students memorize the poem

Structure

to

Several food and beverage companies have promised to encourage children under the age of 12 to eat healthier foods.
.

to encourage ~

()

(encourage) .

to eat healthier foods

()

Several food and beverage companies have promised to encourage children under the age of 12 to eat healthier foods

R to . to
children under the age of 12 .

88

Level 1-B

Passage 35

Writing

1. Advertising affects

what children want to eat

2. Everyone

~ obesity in children.

is concerned about

3. All the food companies


agree with

~ the overall goal.

4. Ads would

~ healthy food items.

encourage children to choose

5. We can get media companies


to limit the use

of cartoon characters.

Chapter 09

89

Passage

Life Sport Music

A persons name will affect his or her life in many ways. It gives a person an identity. Names tell people who they are. Moreover, it is not easy to change once they are given their names. As a result, choosing a babys name is a significant custom in many societies throughout the world. Mothers and fathers often desire unique and unusual names for their babies, but there are good and bad things about having a unique and unusual name. (a) , they can give an individual the belief that he or she is indeed unique. This may be a way to build selfconfidence in people. (b) , their names can be difficult to remember since we havent heard them very often. They can therefore cause confusion. Also, an unusual or unique name does not remain unusual or unique for a long time. A unique name can often become trendy and within a short time it is no longer unique or special.

identity [aidntti] indeed [ind;d]

moreover [m;ruv]

as a result , unusual [>nj;,ul] , confusion [knfj;,n] ,

significant [signfiknt] , trendy [trndi] ,

unique [ju;n;k] , no longer ~

build self-confidence

90

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Inference

1.

Why Parents Want Their Babies to Have Unique Names Good and Bad Sides of Unique or Unusual Names How a Name Can Affect a Persons Life Why Naming Is an Important Event in Some Society Some Tips for Choosing a Good Name for a Baby

Analysis

2.

. . . . .

Analysis

3.

.
.

Coherence

4.

(a) (b) ?

(a) First of all However For example Meanwhile

(b) Second Therefore Moreover On the other hand As a result of these

On one hand

Chapter 09

91

Grammar

An unusual or unique name does not remain unusual or unique for a long time.
+

People found the movie boring.

Tips . . ,
.

Quiz

.
. . .

1. . ( pale) The little child looked pale 2. . (diligent) I believe him to be diligent 3. . The bread smells good

Structure

They can give an individual the belief that he or she is indeed unique.
. (give )

(~) ()

an individual

(~)

the belief

the belief() .

that he or she is indeed unique


()

They can give

an individual the belief that he or she is indeed unique

92

Level 1-B

Passage 36

Writing

1. It gives

a person an identity

2. Names tell

people who they are

3. There are

about having a unique and unusual name.

good and bad things

4. This may be

~ self-confidence in people.

a way to build

5. It

~ unique or special.
is no longer

Chapter 09

93

Review
A
.

01. affect 02. beverage 03. commercial 04. confusion 05. further 06. grasp

, ,

07. identity 08. obesity 09. peach 10. province 11. trendy 12. unique

, , ,

A .

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06.

sweet beverages go further how to grow peaches a unique person grasp me by the hand affect the future

A .

01. Your 02. A(n)

identity commercial

is who you are. is an advertisement that is broadcast on television or radio.


obesity

03. Junk food may be the main cause of

. , you mean that they are

04. If you say that something or someone are very fashionable and modern. 05. A(n) 06.
province

trendy

is a geographic area that has some governance.

Confusion

is a situation in which everything is in disorder, especially because

there are lots of things happening at the same time.

94

Level 1-B

Passages 33~36

01. Each own

his car. owns owning

02. Every table was

cleaned after the restaurant closed. tables were table are

03. In order to make it to happen

, you should try hard. happen happens

04. They got me to buy

the old car. buy buying

05. If she visited

him, she could have heard the news. had visited has visited

06. Every person agree

in the room person agrees

with the plan. people agree

07. The teacher made her read to read

five books over the weekend. reading

08. If I had been there, I could meet

him. can meet could have met

09. The boy looked really sad

. sadly really sadly

10. We believe her to be honesting honest

. honestly

Chapter 09

95

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 10

Passage 37_ Vegetables Passage 38_ Who Thinks Harry Should Have Died? Passage 39_ Why Do Fingers and Toes Wrinkles in the Bathtub? Passage 40_ Why Does Pepper Make You Sneeze?

Vocabulary Pre-check
a variety of abuse alternative annoying attach

.
~

irritate keratin lettuce mucus noble

landlord

at snack time

, (detach)

nerve ending nutrient pepper pitcher release

automatically

, , ,

average baked boiled carrot celery cell

nutritious piperine

~ , be tired of

broccoli

, plentiful

root vegetable sacrifice sneeze spice spinach

confusing dead diet

cornerstone delicious

v . season

, disappointed essential

spine-tingling sternutation stick substance swell

, (=sneezing)

get rid of greasy

home plate

(=home base)

substitute A for B take in tension warrior wrinkle

B A ,

improvement in order to incredibly insensitive

~, ~ in exchange for

tax collector

in quantities

, , ,

, ,

Passage

Food Health

The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables that are grown in plentiful quantities everywhere in the world. In order to get all the nutrients you need to stay healthy, you must eat a variety of vegetables. Root vegetables like potatoes provide different vitamins and essential substances than lettuce, spinach and broccoli which grow above the ground. , you can substitute carrot and celery sticks for potato chips. A delicious vegetable dip for the carrots and celery sticks will make you forget all about those unhealthy chips at snack time. You can also substitute a side salad for those greasy French fries the next time you have a burger. And if you are tired of plain old baked or boiled potatoes, you should try sweet potatoes or yams instead. Both are incredibly healthy alternatives to ordinary potatoes, putting you on the road to a healthier lifestyle.

cornerstone [k;nstun] , plentiful [plntifl] , nutrient [n;trint] , substance [s=bstns]

nutritious [nu;trs] ,

diet [dit] essential [isnl]


B A ,

in quantities , , , a variety of ~

in order to ~

root vegetable , substitute A for B

lettuce [ltis]

spinach [spnit]

stick [stik] ,

delicious [dils] baked [beikt]

at snack time boiled [bild]

greasy [gr;si]

be tired of ~ ,

sweet potato (=yam)

incredibly [inkrdbli] ,

alternative [;lt;ntiv] ,

98

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . , , .

Coherence

2.

Lets take other root vegetables for example To see how vegetables work for your body To work different kinds of vegetables into your diet To make vegetables more nutritious Instead of eating many other vegetables

Analysis

3.

.
. / . / .

Chapter 10

99

Grammar

You must eat a variety of vegetables. You can substitute carrot and celery sticks for potato chips. A delicious vegetable dip will make you forget all about unhealthy chips. You should try sweet potatoes or yams instead.
Tips , . can(~
), must(~ ), will(~ ), should( ~ ), may(~ ) .

Quiz

.
He will be free this evening. the school rules. you are sad. by 10:00.

1. .

2. . (obey) You should obey 3. . You may come whenever 4. 10 . She must come back

Structure

The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables that are grown in plentiful quantities everywhere in the world.
(the vegetables) .

that are grown in plentiful quantities everywhere in the world


()

(the cornerstone) .

of a nutritious diet

()

( + )

The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is

the vegetables that ~

100

Level 1-B

Passage 37

Writing

1. The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables .


that are grown everywhere

2.

provide different vitamins.


Vegetables like potatoes

3. A delicious vegetable dip will


unhealthy chips.
make you forget

~ all about

4. You

~ plain old baked or boiled potatoes.

are tired of

5. You

~ carrot and celery sticks for potato chips.

can substitute

Chapter 10

101

Passage

Social Culture Business

<Person A> In theory, Harry Potter died. He sacrificed himself to save everyone else. He didnt know that he would live after he walked to his death. That act alone is noble enough even if he didnt die. I wasnt happy with the ending of the movie, but still didnt want Harry to die. His death wouldnt have been an improvement to the ending. <Person B> It would have been better if Harry had died. The spine-tingling tension leading up to his death was unbelievable. But then he came back, which was really confusing. I think it hurt the movie. You might think I am cold and , but if he had really died, it would have been better.

sacrifice [skrfis]

save [seiv]

noble [nubl] , , tension [tnn]

improvement [impr;vmnt] , confusing [knfj;zi\] ;

spine-tingling [spain-t\gli\] ,

102

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Summary

2.

. < Person A> . < Person B> .

Vocabulary

3.

insensitive understanding concerned patient caring

Chapter 10

103

Grammar

His death wouldnt have been an improvement to the ending. = Even if he had died, it wouldnt have been an improvement to the ending.
Tips . .

Quiz

1. . A true friend would not say so.

= If he were a true friend, he would not say so. 2. . A man of sense would not do such a thing.

= If he were a man of sense, he would not do such a thing.

Structure

The spine-tingling tension leading up to his death was unbelievable.


tension .

The spine-tingling

/ leading up to his death

()

The spine-tingling tension leading up to his death was unbelievable

104

Level 1-B

Passage 38

Writing

1.

, Harry Potter died.


In theory

2. He

to save everyone else.


sacrificed himself

3. That act alone is


noble enough

4. I

~ the ending of the movie.


wasnt happy with

5.

~ I am cold and insensitive.


You might think

Chapter 10

105

Passage

Science Technology Nature

Have you ever stepped out of the bathtub and been disappointed to see your skin as wrinkled as your grandmothers skin? Your skin wrinkles if you spend a lot of time in water. The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple. Being in the water, the dead keratin cells are taking in water. This causes the surface area of the skin to swell. The surface of the skin is attached to our bodies, therefore the increased surface area of the skin .

This only happens to hands and feet, and not to other parts of the body since the hands and feet have the thickest layer of dead keratin cells. The skin in these places is hard and tough since it is subjected to a lot of physical abuse every day as we play and work. If the skin on our hands and feet were soft and sensitive, we couldnt do many of the things that we do every day.

disappointed [dspintid] , dead [ded] , attach [tt] , (detach)

wrinkled [r\kld] cell [sel]

wrinkle [r\kl] take in swell [swel]

keratin [krtin]

abuse [bj;z] ,

106

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Info Scan

1.

. . . . .

Detail

2.

. . . . .

Coherence

3.

.
wrinkles

Vocabulary

4.

soft and sensitive .


hard and tough

Chapter 10

107

Grammar

Being in the water, the dead keratin cells are taking in water. = As the dead keratin cells are in the water, the dead keratin cells are taking in water.
+

Walking along the street, I met the teacher. = As I walked along the street, I met the teacher.

Tips <> , .
, . .

Quiz

.
, he smiled at me. , they clapped their hands. , you will see the house.

1. , . Seeing me 2. . (merrily) Singing merrily 3. , . (turn) Turning to the right

Structure

The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple.


The reason .

your skin wrinkles


()

(+)

The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple

108

Level 1-B

Passage 39

Writing

1. Have you ever been disappointed


your grandmothers skin?
to see your skin as wrinkled as

2.

is very simple.
The reason your skin wrinkles

3. This

~ the surface area of the skin .


/ to swell

causes

4.

~ hands and feet.


This only happens to

5. We couldnt do many of the things


that we do every day

Chapter 10

109

Passage

Science Technology Nature

Pepper makes you sneeze because it contains piperine, a chemical, which goes into your nose whenever you use pepper to season your food. (A) Once piperine is in your nose, you automatically sneeze since the chemical irritates the nerve endings inside your nose. (B) Sneezing, also called sternutation, is the only way for the nose to get rid of this (a) annoyed / annoying substance. Since there are 5 million nerve endings in our noses, its really easy for pepper (b) irritating / to irritate the nose. When we sneeze, air moves out faster than the average baseball pitcher throws his fastball towards home plate. (C) And the average nose also produces two to four cups of mucus a day. Pepper is one of the oldest spices. In history, .

(D) In ancient Greece and Rome, warriors would demand pepper in exchange for stopping a fight or for releasing a prisoner. (E) In the Middle Ages, tax collectors and landlords would accept pepper instead of money.

pepper [pp] irritate [irtit] annoying [nii\]

sneeze [sni;z] nerve ending substance [s=bstns]

season [s;zn]

automatically [;tmtikli] get rid of ~ spice [spais] ,


,

sternutation [st;njtin] (=sneezing) average [vrid,] mucus [mj;ks]

pitcher [pt]

fastball [fstb;l]z{( ) warrior [w(;)ri] , tax collector

home plate (=home base)

in exchange for ~, ~

release [ril;s] ,

landlord [lnl;d] ,

110

Level 1-B

Aim High Reading

Coherence

1.

pepper has been used among limited people pepper wasnt valued as much as it is now pepper was used as a form of money pepper has been used in restricted areas pepper has been the most expensive spice

Grammar

2.

(a) (b) .

(a) annoying (b) to irritate

Info Scan

3.

. . . . .

Coherence

4.

(A)~(E) ?

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)


Chapter 10

111

Grammar

to

Sneezing is the only way for the nose to get rid of this annoying substance.
+

It is very kind of you to help me. .

Tips to . < for > ,


< of > . kind, good, wise, foolish, nice () .

Quiz

.
. .

1. . It is easy for me to go there

2. . (too ~ to) This river is too deep for me to swim in 3. . (foolish) It is foolish of her to go there.

Structure

Sneezing, also called sternutation, is the only way for the nose to get rid of this annoying substance.
sternutation .

Sneezing
(the only way) .

to get rid of this annoying substance


to get rid of this annoying substance .

the nose


(+)

(+ )

( + )

Sneezing, also called sternutation,

is the only way for the nose to get rid of this annoying substance

112

Level 1-B

Passage 40

Writing

1. Pepper

makes you sneeze

2. You use pepper

to season your food

3. The chemical

inside your nose.

irritates the nerve endings

4. Sneezing is the only way


for the nose to get rid of

~ this substance.

5. Landlords would

accept pepper instead of money

Chapter 10

113

Review
A
.

01. abuse 02. alternative 03. attach 04. get rid of 05. greasy 06. insensitive

, , , , ( detach) ~ ,

07. irritate 08. nutritious 09. release 10. season 11. swell 12. warrior

, ,

v.

A .

01. (unknown) 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. ?

the unknown warrior child abuse alternative energy be released from prison the problem of greasy food Has science gotten rid of God?

A .

01. I

seasoned

the meat with salt and pepper just now. something to an object, you join it or fasten it to the object.
irritates

02. If you

attach

03. If something

you, it keeps annoying you.


swells

04. If the amount or size of something before. 05.


Nutritious

, it becomes larger than it was

food contains substances that help your body to be healthy.


insensitive

06. Someone who is about it.

to a situation or to a need does not think or care

114

Level 1-B

Passages 36~40

01. This track is too huge for me run to run

. running

02. You may

leave the room. I cant ask you to stay. wont will

03. It wasnt easy to us driving

all the way up there. for us driving for us to drive

04. She must

take the course. It is a mandatory. may can

05. Danced

with me, she whispered in my ear. Dancing To dance

06. The man was too hard

for me to please. I gave up. hard person hard enough

07. To turn to

left, we found the shop. Turing to Turn to

08. Looked

at my picture, he smiled. Looking To look

09. I must

bring whatever you ask me to. Feel free to ask. can cant

10. It is nice of you to visit

him in the hospital. for you to visit to you to visit

Chapter 10

115

Level

1-B

AIM HIGH
READING
Answer Keys

Chapter 06
Vocabulary Pre-check
percussion advance , affect () agent , allow for ~ , , be known as ~ beat belong to ~ comparatively , compatibility compress contrary to ~ cut down on ~ deadly deal with ~ diabetes diet disorder , eczema fatty , fiber () format , density lipoprotein [] () heart attack high blood pressure increase , inhale , instrument interaction involve ~ itch lessen liver lung , mechanically numerous , obesity on a daily basis , play the drums pollution radical , replace A with B A B satellite sensitive sore suffer from ~ tissue trailer () transport , upcoming , weight gain

Passage

21

| | 1. 2. 3. (a) belong (b) hitting | | 1. A drummer can hit the drum with either the hands
or sticks. , , .

2. , Contrary to
popular belief .

3. (a) belong
. (b) involve (hitting) .

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

| | Many people think that the drums are one of the hardest instruments to learn. Contrary to popular belief, it is not a difficult instrument to learn. Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can quickly and easily learn to play the drums. You might not be great, but you can sure have fun. There are many kinds of drums, from the congo drum to the high hat to the bass drum to the snare drum. Drums, along with the tambourine, belong to the percussion family. Percussion instruments involve hitting one thing against another thing. A drummer can hit the drum with either the hands or sticks. It is just a matter of counting beats as you play either mechanically or by feeling the beat. | |
. , . . , . (), , . , . . . .

and easily learn to play the drums.


(anyone) .

Anyone with a good sense of rhythm


: . : to play the drums : quickly and easily < >

Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can learn to play the drums

quickly and easily

WRITING
1. The drums are one of the hardest instruments to learn. ( ) 2. Contrary to popular belief, it is not a difficult instrument to learn. ( ) 3. Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can quickly and easily learn to play the drums.
( )

4. A drummer can hit the drum with either the hands or sticks. ( ) 5. It is just a matter of counting beats as you play either mechanically or by feeling the beat.
( )

| |
with either the hands or sticks / either mechanically or by feeling the beat
<either A or B> A B .

Passage

22

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. He is resembling his grandfather.

| | 1. 2. 3. cut down / lessen / decrease 4. high cholesterol / overweight | | 1. obesity, diabetes, heart problems, high blood

He resembles his grandfather.


2. I was having a book written by the writer.

I had a book written by the writer. STRUCTURE


Anyone with a good sense of rhythm can quickly

Answer Keys

pressure .

. , HDL , .

2. you should replace the fatty foods you eat on a


daily basis with high fiber vegetables . , 3. raise, cut down, lessen, decrease.

| |
you should replace the fatty foods [you eat on a daily basis] with high fiber vegetables
<replace A with B> A B . you eat on a daily basis the fatty foods , you which .

4. HDL ,
.

People [who are overweight] usually have low

| | Cutting down on high cholesterol foods is generally a good idea to protect your health since a high cholesterol diet leads to weight gain and even obesity. To stay healthy, you should replace the fatty foods you eat on a daily basis with high fiber vegetables. If you do this, you should be able to maintain a healthy weight. And then youll lessen your risk of suffering from weight-related disorders like diabetes, heart problems, high blood pressure, etc. People who are overweight usually have low levels of HDL. HDL is a protein that can remove cholesterol from the tissues and transport it to the liver. By losing weight, you can raise your HDL level and decrease your chances of heart attack from high cholesterol and other weightrelated problems. | |
, . , . , . , , . HDL . HDL

levels of HDL.
, .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

To go to bed early is good for health.


= Going to bed early is good for health.
2. .

To speak English is not easy.


= Speaking English is not easy.
3. .

To keep a diary in English is not so difficult.


= Keeping a diary in English is not so difficult.

STRUCTURE
HDL is a protein that can remove cholesterol from the tissues and transport it to the liver.
protein .

can remove cholesterol from the tissues (can) transport it back to the liver
: < >

HDL is a protein that ~

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

WRITING
1. Cutting down on high cholesterol foods is a good idea to protect your health.
(~ )

2. A high cholesterol diet leads to weight gain and even obesity. (~ ) 3. You should replace the fatty foods you eat on a daily basis with high fiber vegetables.
( )

can compress heavy data into a much smaller size and it allows for more compatibility among different file types at different speeds. After the format was introduced in 1998, it has been the media standard since 2000. It is made by the same people who made MPEG-1 and it is an excellent file format which can deal with numerous file types such as 3D objects, sprites, text, etc. Ipods, satellite TV and websites all use the MPEG-4 file format. On the Internet, youll see this format most often used to advertise trailers for upcoming movies. Since MPEG technology can compress files into a still smaller size, it allows multimedia to be shown on networks which use comparatively low bit rates. It can also be used on mobile networks that have low bit rates. Moreover, content developers are using MPEG-4 for a higher level of interaction between the user and the content. | |
MPEG-4 , , . 1998 , 2000 . MPEG-1 3D, , . , TV, MPEG-4 . . MPEG , . . , MPEG-4 .

4. Youll lessen your risk of suffering from weightrelated disorders. ( ) 5. People who are overweight usually have low levels of HDL. ()

Passage

23

| | 1. 2. 3. | | 1. MPEG-4
, .

2. (a) such as 3D objects, sprites, text, etc.


(a) numerous . MPEG-4 heavy data , (b) comparatively low bit rates . , (b) .

3. MPEG-4 .
(favorable) . , ,

| |
MPEG-4 is a radically different file type since it can compress ~. / it has been the media standard since 2000.

| | MPEG-4 is a radically different file type since it

Answer Keys

since ~ , ~ .

( )

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

I want much O a lot, still, even, far P more.


2. .

Passage

24

Your hair is much O even, still, a lot, far P


longer than mine.
3. .

| | 1. 2. 3.

My car is much O even, still, far, a lot P more


expensive than yours.

4. STRUCTURE
It allows multimedia to be shown on networks which use comparatively low bit rates.
networks networks .

| | 1. ,
Pollution and Its Effect on Human Skin( ) . 2. . .

which use comparatively low bit rates


: it multimedia .

to be shown on networks
: < >

it allows

multimedia to be shown
()

3. Those agents Chemicals in


thousand of things we use every day . , .

on networks ~

WRITING
1. It can compress heavy data into a much smaller size. ( ) 2. It is an excellent file format which can deal with numerous file types. (~ ) 3. Youll see this format most often used to advertise trailers for upcoming movies.
(~ )

4. And dust mist may cause eczema, a skin disease


which makes your skin itch and become sore, rough, and broken. . .

| | One of the greatest enemies that people face every day is pollution. It isnt known as a killer, but it is a silent killer since it causes numerous deadly diseases. Not that many people are aware that it can lead to different types of disorders on skin that is one of the most

4. It allows multimedia to be shown on networks.


( )

5. It can also be used on mobile networks.

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

sensitive parts of the human body. First, air pollution can advance the aging of skin. And dust mist may cause eczema, a skin disease which makes your skin itch and become sore, rough, and broken. Chemicals in thousands of things we use every day also pollute the air. Those agents are released in the air and later land on our skin or are inhaled through our noses into our bodies. These agents can create skin allergies and can affect the lungs, nose, and eyes. | |
. , . . , . . . . , , .

The King was praised by the soldiers but


hated by the people.

STRUCTURE
One of the greatest enemies that people face every day is pollution.
people face every day( ) . ()

the greatest enemies


: < >

One of the greatest enemies that people

face every day is pollution

WRITING
1. One of the greatest enemies that people face every day is pollution. ( ) 2. It can lead to different types of disorders on skin that is one of the most sensitive parts.
( )

3. Air pollution can advance the aging of skin.


( )

4. Chemicals in thousands of things we use every day also pollute the air. ( ) 5. Those agents are released in the air. ()

| |
And dust mist may cause / eczema, / a skin disease [which makes your skin itch and become sore, rough, and broken].
eczema a skin disease . [which ~ broken] .

Review
|A| 01. ~ 02. 03. 04. 05. , 06. 07. , 08. 09.

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. The pretty girl is intelligent. She is honest. And she is courageous.

The pretty girl is intelligent, honest and


courageous.
2. The King was praised by the soldiers. But he was hated by the people.

Answer Keys

10. 11. , 12. |B| 01. have diabetes 02. itching back 03. compress into one book 04. inhale and exhale air 05. maximize compatibility 06. radical change |C| 01. belongs to 02. Eczema 03. Percussion 04. sore 05. disorder 06. lessens / lessen

|D| 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 07
Vocabulary Pre-check
socialize , advocate , aggressive be associated with ~ be at no risk of ~ be used to ~ bother ~ , ~ bowl , ceremonial object circuit ( ) city-to-city competitor consumer product defender , dump end up ; ~ evident , furthermore gravel hammerhead in a variety of ways in the form of ~ landfill link , musical instrument oppose origin , paved pinpoint prevent ~ from -ing ~ probably protector purpose , range from A to B A B recycle represent , run out of ~ shark smooth , strip sundried take place , () take up thousands of tons of , tin two-thirds 3 2 valuable , waste ; whitetip reef shark woodwork ,

Passage

25

| | 1. 2. 3. rock . /
. / . / .

| | 1.
, . .

2. everything else (that is) associated


, be not bothered .

3.
, (very aggressive) , (DIY) , (not very bothered with socializing) .

Answer Keys

| | Punk rock is a genre of music that opposes everything that traditional rock music represented. This kind of music became popular during the mid 1970s in countries like Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom. However, like all other genres of music, it is rather difficult to pinpoint the exact time and place of origin. The advocates of punk music were bands like The Clash, Ramones, and New York Dolls. In fact they were considered to be the early leaders of punk music. Punk rock music is very aggressive and this is clearly evident in the dress, behavior, music, and everything else associated with punk musicians. Punk rock musicians had a DIY (Do It Yourself) attitude and they were not very bothered with socializing. | |
. 1970 , . , . The Clash, Ramones New York Dolls . . , , , . DIY( ) .

2. .

I have a picture which is very beautiful.


< >

3. .

He married a Korean girl who(m) he has


known through the Internet. < >

STRUCTURE
This is clearly evident in the dress, behavior, music, and everything else associated with punk musicians.
.

dress behavior music everything else associated with punk musicians


< >

This is

clearly evident () in the dress, behavior, music, and everything else associated ~

WRITING
1. Punk rock opposes everything that traditional rock music represented.
( )

2. This is clearly evident in the dress, behavior and music. ( ) 3. It is rather difficult to pinpoint the exact time and place of origin. ( ) 4. Punk rock music is very aggressive.
( )

| |
Punk rock music is very aggressive and this is clearly evident
this and Punk rock music is very aggressive .

5. They were considered to be the early leaders of punk music. (~ )

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

Take anything (that) you want.


< >

10

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Passage

26

| |
Formula 1 ? ! . . Formula 1 ( ) , . 100 , rally 1911 Monte Carlo Rally. , . 20 . the Mile Miglia. , .

| | 1. 2. 3. (a) driven (b) is created 4. | | 1. Formula 1 , rally race


, track of the race.

2. 1911 Monte Carlo Rally


, 20 .

| |
Have you ever driven on a Formula 1 race track?
.

3. (a) <have+p.p.>
. drive drivedrovedriven driven . (b) Formula 1 , is created .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

4. one the beginning of the


great citytocity races of Europe , one citytocity race .

His letters tell us what kind of person he is.


= From his letters, we know what kind of person he is.
2. 20 .

| | Have you ever driven on a Formula 1 race track? Probably not! You cant just get on the track. But you can drive the same route that rally race car drivers take. Unlike the circuit which is created only for Formula 1 races, rally races take place on public roads ranging from smooth paved roads to unpaved gravel or dirt roads. Rallying began over 100 years ago and the first race for which the word rally was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911. After this race, the popularity of the sport increased greatly. The early twentieth century saw the beginning of the great city-to-city races of Europe. The most famous one was the Mile Miglia in Italy in which competitors came from all over Europe. But there was also even a Paris to New York rally and a Peking to Paris rally.

A twenty-minute walk every morning will


help to keep you fit. = If you take a twentyminute walk every morning, it will help to keep you fit.

STRUCTURE
The first race for which the word rally was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911.
(The first race) .

the word rally was used


: rally < >

The first race for which the word rally

was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911

Answer Keys

11

WRITING
1. Have you ever driven on a Formula 1 race track? ( ) 2. Rally races take place on public roads. () 3. The first race for which the word rally was used was the Monte Carlo Rally of 1911. (
)

. , . ? .

4.
, .

4. After this race, the popularity of the sport increased greatly. ( ) 5. The most famous one was the Mile Miglia in Italy. ( )

| | About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products is recycled each year. While it seems like a high percentage, it still means that thousands of tons of aluminum is not being recycled. Aluminum is the most common metal on earth and the world is at no risk of running out of it any time soon. But that doesnt mean we dont have to recycle it. The issue is the cost of the energy to make aluminum. While making new aluminum uses a lot of energy, recycling it requires a lot less energy. Waste is another important key issue here. People waste a huge amount of products every year. All this waste ends up in landfills, and we are running out of places to dump our waste. Recycling prevents aluminum cans and tins from taking up valuable landfill space. | |
2/3 . , . , . . . , . . . ,

Passage

27

| | 1. 2. 3. 4.
/

| | 1. Aluminum is the most common metal on earth


and the world is at no risk of running out of it any time soon. . 2/3 . . . .

2. (a) ,
the cost() .

3. All this waste ,


Waste is another important key issue here.( .) .

12

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

. .

Passage

28

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

| | 1. 2. 3. /

Half of my money is spent on books.


2. .

Half of my books are English books.


3. 4 3 .

Three-fourths of the earths surface is water.


4. 4 3 .

| | 1. The dried meat is later used to make a variety of


dishes. . .

Three-fourths of the sailors were drowned. STRUCTURE


About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products is recycled each year.
used in consumer products ? ()

2.
Sharks are also a good source of food and various materials in Hawaiian culture.( .) . . . . , .

aluminum
: < >

About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products

is recycled each year

3.
, .

WRITING
1. About two-thirds of the aluminum used in consumer products is recycled each year.
( )

| | Sharks are important creatures for Hawaiians. Sharks have some religious importance since several of their gods are linked to sharks in a variety of ways. Some Hawaiians even believe that some dead people can be born again in the form of a shark. Furthermore, sharks act as aumakua, the spiritual protectors or defenders of some families. Sharks are also good source of food and various materials in Hawaiian culture. The whitetip reef

2. It seems like a high percentage. (~ ) 3. Aluminum is the most common metal on earth.
( )

4. The world is at no risk of running out of it.


( )

5. We are running out of places to dump our waste. (~ )

Answer Keys

13

shark and the hammerhead are the most commonly eaten sharks. Long strips of meat are salted and sundried. The dried meat is later used to make a variety of dishes. They also found shark teeth and skin very useful for a variety of purposes such as musical instruments, bowls, woodwork, weapons, knives, and ceremonial objects. | |
. , . . , aumakua . . . . . , , , , , .

< >

They found

shark teeth and skin very useful for a variety of purposes ()

WRITING
1. Sharks have some religious importance.
( )

2. Some dead people can be born again in the form of a shark. ( ) 3. Sharks are a good source of food.
( )

4. The dried meat is used to make a variety of dishes. (~ ) 5. Their gods are linked to sharks in a variety of ways. (~ )

Review
|A| 01. , 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. , 08. 09. 10. ~ 11. , 12. , () |B| 01. consumer product safety 02. the origin of life 03. aggressive attitude 04. paved highway

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

There used to be a big shop near here.


2. .

This is used to transmit commands from the


client to the server.
3. .

Im used to speaking before others.

STRUCTURE
They also found shark teeth and skin very useful for a variety of purposes.
very useful .

shark teeth and skin


(they found) .

shark teeth and skin are useful

14

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

05. took place in Seoul 06. oppose bilingual education in schools |C| 01. prevent 02. run out of 03. pinpoint 04. advocate 05. landfill 06. gravel

|D| 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

Answer Keys

15

Chapter 08
Vocabulary Pre-check
pioneer , a variety of ~ above all anniversary approximately
available ,

practice , precise , probably rare , renew reputation reward roar select , , solid , sought after , , start out , such as ~ superior ( ) , supply and demand tend to ~ throughout ~ , ~ up to ~

average awe basis , bound to ~ , ~ breed ; cannot help -ing ~ , ~


(=cannot but do)

carp casez{; () (=suit) certain , contribute corporate , costs and benefits criminal dealer decent , degree discouraged , economics feed focus on ~ , fundamental generation innocent , jewel lifespan ()
; (=luxurious) luxury

Passage

29

| | 1. 2. / 3. 4. (a) much (b) much | | 1. ,


The Benefits of Being a Lawyer( ) .

make decision make sense of ~ manufacture neither A nor B A B offender , pet store

16

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

, . . , . 1 125,000 . , . . , . , , . .

2.
, , . the reward you earn at this stage is not much .

3. always be your own boss()


. 4. (a) the reward many much . (b) much, still, a lot, further .

| | People of a certain generation tend to view the profession of law with some degree of awe and respect. What is it about being a lawyer that attracts the best and the brightest? As a beginner in the world of law, the reward you earn at this stage is not much. But do not get discouraged. Once you have gained more experience and earned a solid reputation for winning cases, you can charge much higher fees. Working as a corporate lawyer also earns you a decent salary starting out at approximately $125,000 a year. As long as society exists, there are bound to be crimes and criminals. The good thing about practicing as a lawyer is that you will never be out of work. Your law degree will always help you find work, or you could always be your own boss. Above all, as a lawyer, you can contribute a great deal to society. You can bring offenders to justice and help the innocent find justice. | |
. ?

| |
Working as a corporate lawyer / also earns / you / a decent salary [starting out at approximately $125,000 a year].
(Working) 3 (earns) . starting a decent salary .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

We should be kind to the old.


= We should be kind to old people.
2. .

Hes collecting money for the blind.


= Hes collecting money for blind people.
3. .

The unemployed are losing hope.


= Unemployed people are losing hope.

STRUCTURE
The good thing about practicing as a lawyer is that you will never be out of work.
(The good thing) .

about practicing as a lawyer


: < >

The good thing about practicing as a lawyer

Answer Keys

17

is that you will never be out of work

WRITING
1. People of a certain generation tend to view the profession of law with some degree of awe and respect. (~ / ) 2. The reward you earn at this stage is not much.
( )

| | Cadillacs have been on American roads for over a hundred years. The first Cadillac was manufactured in 1902. And the company (Cadillac) has been going strong since people started to trust the company and their superior and precise manufacturing technology. General Motors (GM) bought the company in 1909 and made it focus on making large powerful automobiles. As a result the companys reputation spread quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century. In the 1950s, the company renewed its focus to produce luxury vehicles. The company became hugely popular, and Cadillacs were known as the best and most luxurious cars on the market. A cadillac racing down the street caught everyones attention in those days. You couldnt help turning your head if one roared by. In 1952, the company celebrated its 50th anniversary and it was probably the year when the Cadillac was at the peak of its popularity in America. | |
. 1902 . () . GM 1909 , . 20 . 1950, . , . . . 1952 , 50 , .

3. Working as a corporate lawyer also earns you a decent salary. ( ) 4. There are bound to be crimes and criminals.
(~ )

5. Your law degree will always help you find work.


( )

Passage

30

| | 1. 2. (a) focus (b) to produce 3.


| | 1. A cadillac racing down the street caught


everyone s attention in those days. . Cadillac 50 .

2. (a) < make++()>


to focus focus . (b) , to produce .

3. And the company (Cadillac) has been going


strong since people started to trust the company and their superior and precise manufacturing technology. Cadillac

18

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

| |
And the company (Cadillac) has been going strong since people started to trust the company and their superior and precise manufacturing technology.
since , .

5. The Cadillac was at the peak of its popularity in America. ( )

Passage

31

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

| | 1. 2. 3. 4.

It was his brother that broke the window a


week ago.
2. .

It was the window that his brother broke a


week ago.
3. .

| | 1. You can find Koi fish in most pet stores, but some
high-quality ones are available only from select dealers. Koi fish , Koi fish .

It was a week ago that his brother broke the


window.

STRUCTURE
The companys reputation spread quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century.
() .

2. since the owner can teach them to


take food from his hand Koi fish seem to have the ability to recognize him. , ( Koi fish ) .

quickly throughout the first half of the twentieth century


< > ()

The companys reputation spread

quickly () throughout the first half of the twentieth century

3. him the owner ,


. 4. Koi fishliving jewels .

WRITING
1. The first Cadillac was manufactured in 1902.
()

| | Have you ever seen swimming flowers or living jewels? Probably you have. Koi fish, which mean carp in Japanese, are what they are. Especially in Japan, Koi fish are highly sought after. You can find Koi fish in most pet stores, but some high-quality ones are available

2. People started to trust the company.


(~ )

3. The companys reputation spread quickly.


( )

4. The company renewed its focus.


( )

Answer Keys

19

only from select dealers. These rare and more expensive breeds can cost as much as a couple of thousand dollars. Feeding them is always fascinating since the owner can teach them to take food from his hand. Koi fish seem to have the ability to recognize him. They also love to eat a variety of foods which humans eat, such as pieces of fruit and vegetables. The lifespan of an average Koi fish is 40 years, but it has been reported that some fish can live up to 200 years. | |
? . Koi fish . , Koi fish . Koi fish , . . Koi fish , . Koi fish . Koi fish . Koi fish 40, 200 .

STRUCTURE
They also love to eat a variety of foods which humans eat, such as pieces of fruit and vegetables.
which . ()

a variety of foods
: < >

They love to eat a variety of foods ~

WRITING
1. Koi fish, which mean carp in Japanese, are what they are. ( ) 2. Some high-quality ones are available only from select dealers. ( ) 3. These rare and more expensive breeds can cost as much as a couple of thousand dollars.
( )

4. Feeding them is always fascinating.


( )

5. Koi fish seem to have the ability to recognize him. (~ )

| |
Koi fish, / which mean carp in Japanese, / are what they are.
Koi fish, are, what they are which mean carp in Japanese .

Passage

32

| | 1. 2. 3. 4. high / more | | 1. The modern supply-and-demand


model did not appear until 1890, when Alfred Marshall published his Principles of Economics.

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. , .

One will make life happy, the other (will


make it) unhappy.
2. .

Though (he is) timid, the student is no


coward.

20

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

, Alfred Marshall .

1890, when Alfred Marshall published his Principles of Economics. | |


. , . , , ? . . , Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, John Stuart Mill . - 1890 , Alfred Marshall .

2. (a)
, Likewise() .

3.
, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, or John Stuart Mill . , even though it was a very important model( ) .

4. .
When the costs of an activity are high, people do less of the activity. And when high benefits are expected, people do more of the activity. ( , . , .)

| |
If the cost of either buying or doing something is raised, people neither buy nor do it. / Likewise if the benefits of buying or doing something are low, who would either buy or do it?
<either A or B> A B , <neither A nor B> A B .

| | People make decisions based on costs and benefits. If the cost of either buying or doing something is raised, people neither buy nor do it. Likewise, if the benefits of buying or doing something are low, who would either buy or do it? This idea is the basis for the economic theory of supply and demand which explains how markets work. Supply and demand is the fundamental economic model used to make sense of the economic world. It is surprising that we do not find the model in the writings of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, or John Stuart Mill, even though it was a very important model, and all of these pioneers in economics used the words supply and demand frequently. The modern supply-and-demand model did not appear until

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

I dont know where she is going.


2. .

I wonder if my best friend was absent from


school yesterday.
3. ?

What do you think they want? STRUCTURE


This idea is the basis for the economic theory of supply and demand which explains how markets work.

Answer Keys

21

(how markets work) . ()

the economic theory of supply and demand


: < >

This idea is the basis for the economic theory of supply and demand ~

|B| 01. a decent living 02. rare breed 03. a repeated offender 04. the precise moment 05. be bound to win 06. Are you available this afternoon? |C| 01. make sense of 02. contribute 03. approximate 04. practices 05. lifespan 06. awe / awe |D| 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

WRITING
1. People make decisions based on costs and benefits. (~ ) 2. People neither buy nor do it.
( )

3. This idea is the basis for the economic theory which explains how markets work.
( )

4. It is surprising that we do not find the model in the writings. (~ ) 5. The modern supply-and-demand model did not appear until 1890. (~ )

Review
|A| 01. (), 02. , 03. 04. ~ , ~ 05. ; 06. 07. , 08. () 09. ~ 10. , 11. , , 12. ,

22

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Chapter 09
Vocabulary Pre-check
parking lot advertising affect agree with ~ ancient , as a result , athletics be concerned about ~ benefit beverage
build self-confidence

peach playground positive post , promote , province , root , schoolyard significant , specific stress v. totality , trendy , trunk () unique , unusual , vine ()

cartoon commercial confusion , consider A as B A B creature driveway encourage , fable first of all further , grasp gymnasium hoop () identity indeed instead of ~ limit limitation , low-nutrition meanwhile media (medium ) moreover neither A nor B A B no longer ~ obesity on one hand on the other hand overall ,

Passage

33

| | 1.
2. (a) a (strong) tree (b) a (growing) vine 3. See the whole picture. / Dont forget your limitations.

| | 1. the others . 2. a strong tree ,


a growing vine . a mountain . .

Answer Keys

23

3. . , See the whole picture. Don t forget your limitations. .

| |
Also they forget their own limitations that they are blind.
that that. their own limitations they are blind .

| | There is a famous fable of three blind men and an elephant. Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like, but experience different parts of the large creature. One of them touches the elephants leg. He says it feels like a strong tree. The second blind man grasps onto the moving trunk and reports to the others that an elephant is like a growing vine. The third blind man moves his hands along the body of the elephant. He reports that the elephant is neither a (strong) tree nor a (growing) vine. It is, he says, a mountain. Based on their experience with the elephant, they are correct. The problem is that they are not seeing the whole picture and not experiencing the totality of the elephant because the creature is much larger than they are able to grasp. Also they forget their own limitations that they are blind. | |
. , . . . . . () () . . , . . .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

Each has his own habit.


2. .

Every cloud has a silver lining.


3. .

Every student in the class passed the exam. STRUCTURE


Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like.
(try to understand) .

what the elephant is like


: < > ()

Each of the three blind men is trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like

WRITING
1. There is a famous fable of three blind men and an elephant. ( ) 2. They are trying to understand exactly what the elephant is like. ( ) 3. He says it feels like a strong tree.
(~ )

4. The creature is much larger than they are able to grasp. ( ) 5. They forget their own limitations that they are blind. ( )

24

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

Passage

34

America. The game was invented by Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian living in Massachusetts, U.S. Dr. Naismith had worked as an athletics director for the University of McGill in Montreal in the Canadian province of Quebec. And while he was working for the YMCA Training School in Massachusetts, he put a peach basket on the wall of the gymnasium and invented the game everyone would love. If he hadnt been living in Massachusetts when he created it, it wouldnt have made such a huge hit. | |
. . , . , . 1881 , . James Naismith . Naismith . YMCA , . , .

| | 1. (a) to do (b) have made 2. 3. | | 1. (a) something something


to . to do . (b) , <If++had+p.p. ..., +would have+p.p. ...>. have made .

2.
, But these days you can find kids playing the game anywhere you go.( .) . . . . , .

3. Naismith ,
YMCA , .

| |
he / put a peach basket on the wall of the gymnasium / and invented the game [(that) everyone would love]
he put invented and . everyone would love that the game .

| | Basketball was invented so that kids would have something to do inside during cold northeastern winters. But these days you can find kids playing the game anywhere you go. There are hoops on street corners, in parking lots, driveways, schoolyards and playgrounds. Unlike many other popular ball sports in America, basketball doesnt have ancient roots. However, since it was introduced in public in 1881, it has become one of the most popular sports in

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. , .

If I had been rich, I could have bought the

Answer Keys

25

house.
2. .

. .

If she had come, the party would have been


more delightful.

| | 1. Maybe we can also get some of the


media companies to limit the use of cartoon characters to promote low-nutrition foods in the near future. .

STRUCTURE
He invented the game (that) everyone would love.
everyone would love . ()

the game
: < >

2. this great news, that several


food and beverage companies have promised to encourage children under the age of 12 to eat healthier foods . , .

He invented the game (that) everyone would love

WRITING
1. Kids would have something to do inside.
( )

3.
, . , 4. . .

2. You can find kids playing the game anywhere you go. ( ) 3. It has become one of the most popular sports in America. ( ) 4. The game was invented by Dr. James Naismith.
(~ )

| | Advertising affects what children want to eat. So its great news that several food and beverage companies have promised to encourage children under the age of 12 to eat healthier foods. These companies have posted their promises on the Council of Better Business website. Since everyone is concerned about obesity in children, they consider this as a positive development. But the food and beverage companies need to go even further. While all the food companies agree with the overall goal, their specific plans are different. McDonalds, for example, said its commercials and ads would encourage children to choose healthy food items. Likewise, Coca-Cola said its ads would stress the health benefits of kids

5. He invented the game everyone would love.


( )

Passage

35

| | 1. 2.

3. 4. .

26

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

choosing water and juice instead of sugary beverages. On the other hand, Pepsi said its ads would simply promote an active lifestyle. Maybe we can also get some of the media companies to limit the use of cartoon characters to promote low-nutrition foods in the near future. | |
. 12 . Council of Better Business . , . . , . , . . . .

promised to encourage children under the age of 12 to eat healthier foods.


.

to encourage ~
: (encourage) .

to eat healthier foods


: < >

Several food and beverage companies have promised to encourage children under the age of

12 to eat healthier foods

WRITING
1. Advertising affects what children want to eat.
( )

2. Everyone is concerned about obesity in children. (~ ) 3. All the food companies agree with the overall goal. (~ ) 4. Ads would encourage children to choose healthy food items.
( ~ )

5. We can get media companies to limit the use of cartoon characters. ( )

| |
Advertising affects what children want to eat.
what , affects , eat .

Passage

36

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

| | 1. 2. / / 3. . /
.

I got him to repair my watch.


2. .

The teacher made the students memorize


the poem.

4. STRUCTURE
Several food and beverage companies have

| | 1. ,

Answer Keys

27

Good and Bad Sides of Unique or Unusual Names .

| |
. . . , . , . , . , . . , . . . , .

2.
(gives a person an identity), (affect his or her life), (not easy to change) .

3.
.

4. (a) , (b)
, On one hand, On the other hand .

| |
Moreover, it is not easy to change once they are given their names.
it, to change .

| | A persons name will affect his or her life in many ways. It gives a person an identity. Names tell people who they are. Moreover, it is not easy to change once they are given their names. As a result, choosing a babys name is a significant custom in many societies throughout the world. Mothers and fathers often desire unique and unusual names for their babies, but there are good and bad things about having a unique and unusual name. On one hand, they can give an individual the belief that he or she is indeed unique. This may be a way to build selfconfidence in people. On the other hand, their names can be difficult to remember since we havent heard them very often. They can therefore cause confusion. Also, an unusual or unique name does not remain unusual or unique for a long time. A unique name can often become trendy and within a short time it is no longer unique or special.

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

The little child looked pale.


2. .

I believe him to be diligent.


3. .

The bread smells good. STRUCTURE


They can give an individual the belief that he or she is indeed unique.
. (give )

(~) an individual (~) the belief :


the belief() .

that he or she is indeed unique


: < >

They

28

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

can give an individual the belief that he or she is indeed unique

WRITING
1. It gives a person an identity. ( ) 2. Names tell people who they are.
( )

|B| 01. sweet beverages 02. go further 03. how to grow peaches 04. a unique person 05. grasp me by the hand 06. affect the future |C| 01. identity 02. commercial 03. obesity 04. trendy 05. province 06. Confusion |D| 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

3. There are good and bad things about having a unique and unusual name. ( ) 4. This may be a way to build self-confidence in people. (~ ) 5. It is no longer unique or special.
( ~ )

Review
|A| 01. 02. 03. 04. , 05. , 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. , 11. , 12. ,

Answer Keys

29

Chapter 10
Vocabulary Pre-check
a variety of ~ abuse , alternative , annoying at snack time attach , (detach) automatically average , baked be tired of ~ , boiled broccoli carrot

celery cell confusing ; cornerstone , dead , delicious diet disappointed , essential get rid of ~ greasy home plate (=home base) improvement , in exchange for ~, ~ in order to ~ in quantities , , , incredibly , insensitive , irritate keratin landlord , lettuce mucus nerve ending noble , ,

nutrient , nutritious , pepper piperine pitcher plentiful , release , root vegetable , sacrifice season sneeze spice , spinach spine-tingling , sternutation (=sneezing) stick , substance substitute A for B B A , swell take in tax collector tension warrior , wrinkle

Passage

37

| | 1. 2. 3. . /
. / .

30

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

| | 1. In order to get all the nutrients you need to stay


healthy, you must eat a variety of vegetables. . .

. , , . , . . , . , . , .

2.
, To work different kinds of vegetables into your diet .

3. ,
, , . .

| |
the vegetables that are grown in plentiful quantities everywhere in the world / lettuce, spinach and broccoli which grow above the ground
that which .

| | The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables that are grown in plentiful quantities everywhere in the world. In order to get all the nutrients you need to stay healthy, you must eat a variety of vegetables. Root vegetables like potatoes provide different vitamins and essential substances than lettuce, spinach and broccoli which grow above the ground. To work different kinds of vegetables into your diet, you can substitute carrot and celery sticks for potato chips. A delicious vegetable dip for the carrots and celery sticks will make you forget all about those unhealthy chips at snack time. You can also substitute a side salad for those greasy French fries the next time you have a burger. And if you are tired of plain old baked or boiled potatoes, you should try sweet potatoes or yams instead. Both are incredibly healthy alternatives to ordinary potatoes, putting you on the road to a healthier lifestyle. | |
.

In order to get all the nutrients (that) you need to stay healthy
.

A delicious vegetable dip for the carrots and celery sticks will make you forget all about those unhealthy chips at snack time.
< make++()> .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

He will be free this evening.


2. .

You should obey the school rules.


3. .

You may come whenever you are sad.


4. 10 .

She must come back by 10:00. STRUCTURE


The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables that are grown in plentiful quantities

Answer Keys

31

everywhere in the world.


(the vegetables) .

| | 1.
. . . t have been an 2. Person A His death wouldn improvement in the ending. . Person B if he had really died, it would have been better Person B .

that are grown in plentiful quantities everywhere in the world


: (the cornerstone) .

of a nutritious diet
: < >

The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables that ~

3. Person B
, cool insensitive( , ) .

WRITING
1. The cornerstone of a nutritious diet is the vegetables that are grown everywhere.
( )

2. Vegetables like potatoes provide different vitamins. ( ) 3. A delicious vegetable dip will make you forget all about unhealthy chips.
( ~ )

| | <Person A> In theory, Harry Potter died. He sacrificed himself to save everyone else. He didnt know that he would live after he walked to his death. That act alone is noble enough even if he didnt die. I wasnt happy with the ending of the movie, but still didnt want Harry to die. His death wouldnt have been an improvement to the ending. <Person B> It would have been better if Harry had died. The spine-tingling tension leading up to his death was unbelievable. But then he came back, which was really confusing. I think it hurt the movie. You might think I am cold and insensitive, but if he had really died, it would have been better. | |
<Person A> , . . . . , .

4. You are tired of plain old baked or boiled potatoes. (~ ) 5. You can substitute carrot and celery sticks for potato chips. (~ )

Passage

38

| | 1. 2. <Person A>
. <Person B> .

3.

32

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

. <Person B> , . . , . . , .

4. I wasnt happy with the ending of the movie.


(~ )

5. You might think I am cold and insensitive.


( ~ )

| |
It would have been better if Harry had died. / If he had really died, it would have been better.
<If++had+ , + would+have+> .

Passage

39

| | 1. 2. 3. wrinkles 4. hard and tough | | 1. ,


. , .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

A true friend would not say so. = If he were a


true friend, he would not say so.
2. .

A man of sense would not do such a thing. =


If he were a man of sense, he would not do such a thing.

2. This only happens


to hands and feet, and not to other parts of the body since the hands and feet have the thickest layer of dead keratin cells. . , .

STRUCTURE
The spine-tingling tension leading up to his death was unbelievable.
tension .

3.
wrinkles.

The spine-tingling / leading up to his death


: < >

4. soft and sensitive hard


and tough.

The spine-tingling tension leading up

| | Have you ever stepped out of the bathtub and been disappointed to see your skin as wrinkled as your grandmothers skin? Your skin wrinkles if you spend a lot of time in water. The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple. Being in the water, the dead keratin cells are taking in water. This causes the surface area of the skin to swell. The surface of the skin is attached to our bodies, therefore the increased surface area of the skin wrinkles.

to his death was unbelievable

WRITING
1. In theory, Harry Potter died. () 2. He sacrificed himself to save everyone else.
( )

3. That act alone is noble enough. ( )

Answer Keys

33

This only happens to hands and feet, and not to other parts of the body since the hands and feet have the thickest layer of dead keratin cells. The skin in these places is hard and tough since it is subjected to a lot of physical abuse every day as we play and work. If the skin on our hands and feet were soft and sensitive, we couldnt do many of the things that we do every day. | |
? . , . . , . , . , . , .

The reason .

your skin wrinkles


: < >

The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple

WRITING
1. Have you ever been disappointed to see your skin as wrinkled as your grandmothers skin?
(~ )

2. The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple.


( )

3. This causes the surface area of the skin to swell. (~ / ) 4. This only happens to hands and feet.
( ~ )

5. We couldnt do many of the things that we do every day. ( )

| |
Have you ever stepped out of the bathtub and been disappointed to see your skin as wrinkled as your grandmothers skin?
<have+> . stepped been Have .

Passage

40

| | 1. 2. (a) annoying (b) to irritate 3. 4. | | 1. In the Middle Ages, tax collectors and
landlords would accept pepper instead of money. pepper was used as a form of money( ) .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. , .

Seeing me, he smiled at me.


2. .

Singing merrily, they clapped their hands.


3. , .

Turning to the right, you will see the house. STRUCTURE


The reason your skin wrinkles is very simple.

34

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B

2. (a) substance ,
annoying . (b) it to , to for pepper. to irritate .

, . , . ( .) . . . .

3. ,
. .

4. (C) And the average nose also produces two to


four cups of mucus a day. , .

| | | | Pepper makes you sneeze because it contains piperine, a chemical, which goes into your nose whenever you use pepper to season your food. Once piperine is in your nose, you automatically sneeze since the chemical irritates the nerve endings inside your nose. Sneezing, also called sternutation, is the only way for the nose to get rid of this annoying substance. Since there are 5 million nerve endings in our noses, its really easy for pepper to irritate the nose. When we sneeze, air moves out faster than the average baseball pitcher throws his fastball towards home plate. (And the average nose also produces two to four cups of mucus a day.) Pepper is one of the oldest spices. In history, pepper was used as a form of money. In ancient Greece and Rome, warriors would demand pepper in exchange for stopping a fight or for releasing a prisoner. In the Middle Ages, tax collectors and landlords would accept pepper instead of money. | |
, , . , . sternutation . 5

it contains piperine, a chemical, which goes into your nose whenever you use pepper to season your food
piperine a chemical . which piperine , a chemical .

GRAMMAR Quiz
1. .

It is easy for me to go there.


2. .

This river is too deep for me to swim in.


3. .

It is foolish of her to go there. STRUCTURE


Sneezing, also called sternutation, is the only way for the nose to get rid of this annoying substance.
sternutation .

Sneezing
(the only way) .

to get rid of this annoying substance


to get rid of this annoying substance .

the nose
< > (+)

Sneezing, also called

Answer Keys

35

sternutation, is the only way for the nose to get rid of this annoying substance

WRITING
1. Pepper makes you sneeze.
( )

|B| 01. the unknown warrior 02. child abuse 03. alternative energy 04. be released from prison 05. the problem of greasy food 06. Has science gotten rid of God? |C| 01. seasoned 02. attach 03. irritates 04. swells 05. Nutritious 06. insensitive |D| 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10.

2. You use pepper to season your food.


( )

3. The chemical irritates the nerve endings inside your nose. ( ) 4. Sneezing is the only way for the nose to get rid of this substance. ( ~ ) 5. Landlords would accept pepper instead of money. ( )

Review
|A| 01. , , 02. , 03. , ( detach) 04. ~ 05. 06. , 07. 08. , 09. , 10. 11. 12. ,

36

Aim High Reading | Level 1-B