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Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos emplo ees. An material contained in this document which is not alread in the pu!lic domain ma not !e copied" reproduced" sold" given" or disclosed to third parties" or otherwise used in whole" or in part" without the written permission of the #ice President" Engineering Services" Saudi Aramco.
$hapter % &elding 'or additional information on this su!(ect" contact 'ile )eference% $*E++,-. A.A. *mar

Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Welding Parameters
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards

Contents Pages 01T)*D2$T0*1................................................................................................................ + $*33*145 2SED 6ASE 3ETA4S 01 T7E *04 A1D 8AS 01D2ST)5..................... 9 6ase 3etal Definition ............................................................................................... 9 6ase 3etal T pes and Properties............................................................................... 9 $ar!on Steels ................................................................................................ . 4ow Allo Steels ........................................................................................... . Stainless Steels .............................................................................................. , 0ron $ar!on )eactions............................................................................................... : 'usion ;one................................................................................................... : 7eat<Affected ;one (7A;)............................................................................ = 6ase 3etal..................................................................................................... = 3elting Properties ......................................................................................... = Solidification Properties ................................................................................ > Thermal $ cles ............................................................................................++ Phase Transformations..................................................................................+? &E4D @*01T DES081S A1D S536*4S........................................................................+A T pes of &eld @oints................................................................................................+A 'illet &eld @oint ...........................................................................................+A 6utt &eld @oint ............................................................................................9Partial Penetration &eld @oint.......................................................................9. $om!ination.................................................................................................9, Stud &eld @oint ............................................................................................9: A&S &eld S m!ols ................................................................................................9? Elements of a &eld S m!ol..........................................................................9? 'illet &eld S m!ol.......................................................................................9A 6utt &eld S m!ol .........................................................................................+ Partial Penetration &eld S m!ol .................................................................... $om!ination.................................................................................................., Stud &eld @oint S m!ol ................................................................................?
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding

&elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards

&E4D018 $*1S23A64ES .............................................................................................= T pes of &elding $onsuma!les ................................................................................= $oated Electrodes..........................................................................................= 6are )ods......................................................................................................> 6are &ires.....................................................................................................> 'lux $ored Electrodes ...................................................................................> A&S $lassifications ................................................................................................,+ $oated Electrodes.........................................................................................,+ 6are )ods and &ire......................................................................................,? 'lux $ored Electrodes ..................................................................................,? Shielding 8asses and 'luxes.........................................................................,A 8ases............................................................................................................,A 'luxes...........................................................................................................,A Storage and 7andling )eBuirements.........................................................................:$oated Electrodes.........................................................................................:6are )ods and &ire......................................................................................:+ 'lux $ored Electrodes ..................................................................................:+ 7EAT 01P2T E''E$TS ....................................................................................................:9 Parameters ...............................................................................................................:9 $urrent .........................................................................................................:9 #oltage.........................................................................................................:. Travel Speed.................................................................................................:. Effects of 7eat 0nput................................................................................................:. 7EAT T)EAT3E1T E''E$TS ........................................................................................:: Preheat.....................................................................................................................:: Purpose ........................................................................................................:: 3ethods .......................................................................................................:? Determination...............................................................................................?Postweld 7eat Treatment .........................................................................................?. Purpose ........................................................................................................?, 3ethods .......................................................................................................?,
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards

)eBuirements................................................................................................?? 84*SSA)5........................................................................................................................=+ &*)C A0D +% 7*& T* 0DE1T0'5 T7E 3*ST $*33*145.....................................=. &*)C A0D 9% 7*& T* 0DE1T0'5 &E4D @*01T DES081S A1D S536*4S ...........=: &*)C A0D .% 7*& T* 0DE1T0'5 &E4D018 $*1S23A64ES................................=? &*)C A0D ,% 7*& T* DES$)06E 7EAT 01P2T E''E$TS .......................................=A &*)C A0D :% 7*& T* DES$)06E 7EAT T)EAT3E1T E''E$TS ...........................A60640*8)AP75 ...............................................................................................................A.
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards +

INTRODUCTION This 3odule provides information on several of the most important parameters that are associated with welding operations. The emphasis on !ase metals and heat affects of welding is

to introduce the Participant to the metallurgical properties of welding. The information on weld (oint designs" s m!ols" and welding consuma!les provides additional !ac/ground on welding parameters and operations. This 3odule contains the following topics% $ommonl 2sed 6ase 3etals in the *il and 8as 0ndustr &eld @oint Designs and S m!ols 0dentif ing &elding $onsuma!les 7eat 0nput Effects 7eat Treatment Effects
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards 9

COMMONLY USED BASE METALS IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY This section contains a discussion of the most commonl used !ase metals in the oil and gas industr and" specificall " in Saudi Aramco. The information in this section provides !ac/ground on welding<related !ase metal considerations and includes the following topics% 6ase 3etal Definition 6ase 3etal T pes and Properties 0ron $ar!on )eactions Base Metal Definition A !ase metal is the metal or metals that are to !e welded. 3ore specificall " the term !ase metal refers to the portion of the weld (oint that has not !een affected ! the welding thermal c cles. &elding (oins two pieces of metal to provide a single piece with mechanical properties that are eBuivalent to the mechanical properties of the original pieces. 7owever" the two pieces of !ase metal that are (oined are not alwa s the same material. 0n some cases" the two !ase metals have completel different chemical and mechanical properties. 0n other cases" the !ase metals are of different product forms such as a forging and a seamless pipe. Base Metal T !es an" #ro!erties The most common t pes of !ase metals that are used in the oil and gas industr are !roadl classified as follows% $ar!on steels 4ow allo steels Stainless steels Each of these common t pes of !ase metal have numerous su!<classifications that are called allo s" t pes" or grades. The American Societ for Testing and 3aterials (AST3) and the American 0ron and Steel 0nstitute (A0S0) have classified all t pes of !ase metals to help identif the huge num!er of !ase metals that are availa!le to the oil and gas industr " as well as other industries. This classification s stem uniBuel identifies the chemical composition" mechanical properties" and product form of the !ase metal. Each of the three common !ase metals that are

used in Saudi Aramco will !e discussed in greater detail in the sections that follow.
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards .

Car$on Steels $ar!on steels are allo s of iron and car!on in which the car!on content is less than + percent" the manganese content is less than +.?: percent" and the copper and silicon content are each less than -.?- percent. 1ormall " other allo agents are onl present in residual amounts. The properties and welda!ilit of car!on steels mainl depend on the car!on content. *ther elements have a limited effect on the properties and welda!ilit of car!on steels. 0ncreased car!on content in a car!on steel leads to increased hardness and strength. There are three t pes of car!on steel !ase metals as follows% 4ow<car!on 3edium<car!on 7igh<car!on Lo%&'ar$on Steels D-.+- to -.9:E car!on ( c )" and -.9: to +.: E magnesium (3n). 4owcar!on steels are widel used for industrial fa!rication and construction. These steels are easil welded with all of the gas and arc welding processes. Me"i()&'ar$on Steels D-.9: to -.:-E c" and -.?- to +.?:E 3n. 3edium<car!on steels are readil welda!le if proper preheat (.--F' to :--F') and postweld heat treatment is applied to the weldment. These steels are easil welded with all of the gas and arc welding processes. Hig*&'ar$on Steels D-.:- to +.-.E c" and -..- to +.--E 3n. 7igh<car!on steels are readil welda!le if proper preheat (,--F' to ?--F') and postweld heat treatment is applied to the weldment. These steels are easil welded with all gas and arc welding processes. Lo% Allo Steels 4ow allo steels are designed to provide a com!ination of higher strength" !etter corrosion resistance" or improved notch toughness compared to conventional car!on steels. 0n accordance with the American 0ron and Steel 0nstitute" steel is considered to !e a low<allo steel when an of the following conditions exist% The amount of manganese is greater than +.?: percent. The amount of silicon is greater than -.?- percent. The amount of copper is greater than -.?- percent. A definite minimum Buantit of an of the following elements is specified or reBuired in allo steels% aluminum" !oron" chromium up to ..>> percent" co!alt" colum!ium" mol !denum" nic/el" titanium" tungsten" vanadium" or Girconium. An other allo ing agent is added to o!tain a desired allo ing effect.
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ,

4ow allo steels are readil welda!le if proper preheat and postweld heat treatment are applied to the weldment. 4ow allo steels are easil welded with all of the arc welding processes. Stainless Steels

Stainless steels iron<!ase allo s with excellent corrosion resistance. Stainless steels do not rust" and the strongl resist attac/ ! a great man liBuids" gases" and chemicals. All stainless steels contain iron as the main element and chromium in amounts that var from a!out ++ percent to .percent. The chromium provides the corrosion resistance. A thin film of chromium<oxide forms on the surface of the metal when the metal is exposed to the ox gen in the atmosphere. This chromium<oxide film acts as a !arrier to further oxidation. 0n general" stainless steels have a lower melting temperature and higher coefficient of thermal expansion than car!on steels. Stainless steels are divided into the five following groups% Austenitic $hromium 3artensitic $hromium 'erritic Duplex Precipitation<hardened A(steniti' Stainless Steels D are the most commonl used welded stainless steel in Saudi Aramco facilities. Austenitic stainless steels provide excellent corrosion resistance and are not magnetic. Among stainless steel groups" austenitic stainless steels are the easiest to weld !ecause preheat and postweld heat treatments are not reBuired. C*ro)i() Martensiti' Stainless Steels D are magnetic steels that contain +9 to +, percent chromium and up to -..: percent car!on. 4ow car!on chromium martensitic stainless steels are readil welded. &elding of the higher car!on allo s generall reBuires preheat and postweld heat treatment. C*ro)i() +erriti' Stainless steels D are also magnetic and readil weldedH however" the gas welding processes are not recommended. Duplex (ferritic<austenitic) Stainless Steel D com!ine the corrosion resistance properties of austenitic S. S. grade" especiall stress corrosion crac/ing (S$$)" and the mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steel grades. 7owever" welding duplex stainless steels reBuires careful control over the selection of welding wiresIelectrodes" heat input" and interpass temperature in order to ensure a weld (oint with similar metallurgical" corrosion resistance" mechanical properties as that of the !ase metal.
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards :

#re'i!itation&*ar"ene" Stainless Steels D can develop high strength with reasona!l simple heat treatmentsH however" not all of the precipitation<hardened stainless steels are readil welda!le. Precipitation<hardened stainless steels that are readil welded reBuire no preheat or solution annealing heat treatment. Iron Car$on Rea'tions Although an in<depth review of the metallurg of a weld is not practical in this introductor course" several /e topics must !e addressed. The heat of welding changes !oth the structure of the !ase metal and the weld metal itself. Some of these changes occur while weldingH other

changes occur after the metal has cooled. The following discussions will present information a!out the properties and metallurgical transformations of iron car!on reactions that occur while welding car!on steels. +(sion ,one 'igure + shows a full penetration weld (oint and a t pical metallographic cross<section of a multipass welded (oint with topical areas pointed out. The fusion Gone in 'igure + represents the area of !ase metal that was melted while welding. The !oundaries of the fusion Gone are !etween the original weld !evel surface and the fusion line. The actual fusion Gone can onl !e determined through removal of a cross<section of the weld to examine the metallurgical structure of the !ase metal. The depth of the fusion Gone depends on the amount of heat applied to the weld (oint while welding. &hen more heat is applied to the weld (oint while welding" the fusion Gone will !e wider. &hen less heat is applied to the weld (oint while welding" the fusion Gone is narrower. The heat applied to the weld (oint is controlled ! the welding voltage" current" and the electrode travel speed.
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Figure 1. Full Penetration Weld Joint
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Heat&Affe'te" ,one -HA,. The heat<affected Gone (7A;) in 'igure + shows the portion of the !ase metal that was not melted !ut whose mechanical properties or microstructure were altered ! the heat of welding. The alteration of the microstructure can !e increased grain siGe as illustrated in the metallographic inset of 'igure +. The !oundaries of the 7A; are !etween the fusion line and some point in the !ase metal. &hen heat is applied to a weldment from the electrode" the heat also transfers into the ad(acent !ase metal. As the heat travels through the !ase metal" the heat dissipates as it gets further from the weld. Even though the temperature ma not !e great enough to melt the !ase metal that is in the 7A;" the temperature is sufficient to alter the microstructure and ph sical properties of the !ase metal in the 7A;. Base Metal The !ase metal in 'igure + shows the material to !e weldedH and the !ase metal is shown as plate material. The !oundaries of the !ase metal include all of the material up to the 7A;. Although the !ase metal is heated while welding" the amount of heat is not sufficient to change the

microstructure and ph sical properties of the !ase metal. 7owever" the heat can distort the !ase metal" which could result in improper alignment of welded components. Melting #ro!erties 3etals are cr stalline solids whose atoms are arranged into distinct structures. The most common cr stalline structures that are found in metals are face centered cu!ic ('$$)" !od centered cu!ic (6$$)" and hexagonal close pac/ed (7$P). These structures are shown in 'igure 9. &hen metal is in a liBuid state (e.g." molten weld metal)" the metal loses its cr stallinit and has no distinct structure or orderl arrangement of atoms. The individual atoms move freel within the liBuid. The mo!ilit of the atoms allows the liBuid metal to ield to the slightest pressure and to conform to the shape of the weld (oint. As heat is applied to the metal during welding" the thermal energ increases the /inetic energ of the individual atoms. &hen the /inetic energ of the atoms increases to a certain level (the melting point temperature)" the atoms overcome the !onding energ in the cr stalline structure and the atoms can move freel .
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Figure 2. Common Crystal Structures in Metals


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Soli"ifi'ation #ro!erties $r stalline solids are usuall produced when a liBuid metal solidifies. 'igure . illustrates the solidification process of liBuid weld metal on a solid !ase metal. This figure shows the initial cr stal formation" continued solidification" and complete solidification. &hen molten weld metal starts to cool to its solidification temperature" solid particles !egin to form small initial cr stals" which are called dendrites. These small initial cr stals are alread arranged in the specific atomic structure that is characteristic of the particular metal. This dendritic growth is a result of the hotter" solid material growing into the cooler" liBuid" weld metal and more readil dissipating the latent heat of solidification. Solidification proceeds ! the growth of the dendrites into larger solid particles that are called solid grains. As the amount of solid particles increases" the amount of liBuid weld metal decreases. As the grains grow" the individual grains ultimatel meet. The (unction at the individual grains is a random arrangement of the atoms" which is called the grain !oundar . The overall arrangement of grains and grain !oundaries in a metal ma/es up the uniBue microstructure of that metal.
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Figure . Process o! Solidi!ication


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T*er)al C 'les The most important ph sical characteristic of a normal arc weld is the weldJs thermal !ehavior" which is the wa in which the temperatures change in the weld and in the heat<affected Gone. &elding is a d namic process that causes rapid temperature changes. These rapid temperature changes result in a complex temperature environment that produces a wide variet of heat treatments in a weld. 6ecause the various heat treatments can change some of the properties of metals" engineers need to understand how temperatures change at and near a fusion weld. Engineers also need to understand how a metal !ehaves during and after welding. 0n a !utt weld" the electrode moves along the weld (oint and applies heat to a specific point. 6ecause the !ase metal is cold when welding is initiated" heat continuall flows into the !ase metal and awa from the region that is heated ! the welding arc. The rate of heat flow into the surrounding !ase metal is governed ! man factors that include the ph sical properties of the !ase metal and the rate of applied heat that is produced ! the welding arc. 'igure , shows a plate groove weld in<process with the !ase metal" solidified weld metal" and molten weld metal identified. To see the effects of heat flow while welding" a thermal KpictureK of the weld puddle and plate at an given instant must !e examined. Figure ". #n$Process Plate %roo&e Weld
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards +9

'igure : is a thermal picture of a weld puddle and plate that illustrates the effect of heat flow while welding and a graphic illustration of the isothermal lines in the plate for a specific direction of welding. 'igure : also shows the temperature profiles in a mild steel plate at a given instant while welding. 0n the figure" the & represents molten weld metalH the shaded area is the metal that is in the mush stage and is !ounded ! the liBuidus temperature (9"=>:F') and the solidus temperature (9"=+,F'). The num!ers + through : are reference points at various locations from the centerline of the weld. As the welding arc moves" the isotherms (lines of constant temperature) move along with the welding arc and do not change. The temperatures" ,--F' through 9::-F'" in 'igure : are ar!itrar temperatures that are used to indicate the temperature differences of the isothermal lines. As the welding arc moves" a wave of temperature is created that moves along with the welding arc. The line & n<nJ mar/s the location of the pea/ temperatures at an distance from the centerline of the weld at a given instant in time.
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Figure '. Weld Temperature Pro!iles

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'igure ? shows the thermal c cles that occur in the five reference locations (from 'igure :) on an ar!itrar scale of temperature versus time (in seconds) to show relative temperature effects. T3 represents the melting point of the metal that is !eing welded" and line n<nJ mar/s the location of the pea/ temperatures at an distance from the centerline of the weld at a given instant in time. 'igure ? shows that each reference point is rapidl heated to an elevated temperature" dwells momentaril " and then rapidl cools. The shape of these curves will var !ased on the travel speed during the welding process. The following are the general characteristics of thermal c cles% The pea/ temperature that is reached decreases as the distance from the centerline of the weld increases. The time that is reBuired to reach the pea/ temperature increases as the distance from the centerline of the weld increases. The heating and cooling rates decrease as the distances from the centerline of the weld increases. Figure (. T)ermal Cycles
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards +: Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards +?

#*ase Transfor)ations Temperature differences cause the atoms of man metals to var their cr stallographic structure. 'or example" the cr stalline structure of iron at temperatures !elow +"?=-F' is !od centered cu!ic (6$$)H at temperatures !etween +"?=-F' and 9":,-F'" the cr stalline structure of iron is face centered cu!ic ('$$)H and at temperatures !etween 9":.:F' and 9"=>:F' (the temperature at which iron melts)" the cr stalline structure of iron is again 66$. The change in cr stalline structure is formall called a phase transformation. 7owever" steel is primaril an allo of iron and car!on. The presence of car!on alters the temperature at which freeGing and other phase transformations occur. 0ron<car!on allo s freeGe over a range of temperatures. Different liBuidus and solidus temperatures exist for each uniBue composition. As the car!on content of steel increases up to ,..E car!on" the liBuidus and solidus temperatures decrease. Phase changes and solidification are !est shown through use of a phase diagram or an eBuili!rium diagram. A !rief explanation of the iron<car!on phase diagram provides insight into the !ehavior of steels during welding thermal c cles and heat treatment. 'igure = shows an ironcar!on allo phase diagram with - to :E car!on content. As previousl mentioned" iron exhi!its two different cr stalline structures (6$$ and '$$). A!ove 9"=>:F'" pure iron (-E car!on) is in

a liBuid state and no cr stalline structure exists. 6elow 9"=>:F'" pure iron solidifies and has a 6$$ structure that is called Kdelta ironK. As the temperature is further reduced !elow 9":,-F'" a transformation occurs and the cr stalline structure changes to an '$$ structure that is called Kgamma ironK. As much as 9.+E car!on can !e held in solution in gamma iron at a specific temperature" which esta!lishes a dividing point on the phase diagramH the allo s of iron and car!on that contain less than 9.+E car!on are called steels" and the allo s that contain more than 9.+E car!on are referred to as cast irons. 6elow" +?=-F'" the iron transforms !ac/ to the 6$$ structure that is called Kalpha ironK. To !etter understand the iron<car!on phase diagram" consider a steel with a composition of -.9:E car!on. This steel is indicated on 'igure = ! drawing a vertical line midwa !etween the -.- and -.:E car!on line. A!ove approximatel 9"=?AF'" the -.9:E car!on steel is molten. As the temperature decreases" delta iron starts to form in the liBuid. At (ust !elow 9"=.9F'" the delta iron transforms to austenite (a solid solution of car!on in gamma iron) and molten metal. At a!out 9"?>?F'" all of the liBuid metal solidifies and the composition is austenite. At approximatel +":--F'" the austenite !rea/s down and forms a new phase at the grain !oundaries. This new phase is almost pure iron or ferrite. 'errite formation continues until a temperature of +".,-F' is reached.
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards +=

Figure *. #ron$Car+on Alloy P)ase Diagram


Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards +A

WELD /OINT DESIGNS AND SYMBOLS The following section identifies several of the most common weld (oints and associated weld s m!ols that are used at Saudi Aramco. &elds are made at the (unction of at least two mem!ers. These weld (unctions" which are called weld (oints" are the location at which two or more mem!ers are (oined. The placement of these mem!ers defines the weld (oint design. The American &elding Societ (A&S) has developed a set of standard weld s m!ols to represent all the different t pes of weld (oint designs that (oin mem!ers together. The information in this section provides some !ac/ground on several t pes of welds and weld s m!ols. This information includes the following topics% T pes of &eld @oints A&S &eld S m!ols T !es of Wel" /oints As was noted in 3odule $*E ++,.-+" the five !asic t pes of weld (oints are !utt" corner" tee" lap" and edge. 0n some instances" several t pes of weld (oints ma !e used in com!ination to complete a weldment. The specific weld (oints designs descri!ed in this 3odule include fillet" !utt" partial penetration" and stud. Several illustrations of each t pe of weld (oint will !e presented in the following sections.

+illet Wel" /oint A fillet weld (oint is a (oint !etween two mem!ers that are at right angles to each other. The weld that (oins fillet (oints is called a fillet weld and it has an approximatel triangular crosssection. 'igure A shows a lap (oint" a tee (oint" and a corner (oint with fillet welds. 'igure A also shows the nomenclature of fillet welds including !ase metal" face of fillet weld" root of fillet weld" toe of fillet weld" throat of fillet weld" eBual leg fillet weld" uneBual leg fillet weld" and the leg and siGe of fillet weld.
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Figure ,. Fillet Welds


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B(tt Wel" /oint A !utt weld (oint is a (oint !etween two mem!ers that are aligned approximatel in the same plane. The weld that (oins !utt (oints is called a groove weld. 'igure > identifies the nomenclature of complete penetration !utt welds including !ase metal" face of weld" toe of weld" root of weld" external weld reinforcement" and root reinforcement.
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Figure -. Complete Penetration .utt Weld /omenclature


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'igure +- shows single<groove !utt welds" including a single<sBuare groove weld" a single< !evel groove weld" a single<# groove weld" and a single<2 groove weld with complete penetration.
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Figure 10. Single$%roo&e .utt Welds


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'igure ++ shows dou!le<groove !utt welds including a dou!le<sBuare groove weld" a dou!le!evel groove weld" a dou!le<# groove weld" and a dou!le<2 groove weld.
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Figure 11. Dou+le$%roo&e .utt Welds


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#artial #enetration Wel" /oint A partial penetration weld (oint is an (oint design !etween two mem!ers in which complete weld penetration is not possi!le. 'igure +9 shows a partial penetration single<sBuare groove weld" a partial penetration single<# groove weld" and a partial penetration dou!le<# groove weld. 'igure +9 also shows the uniBue nomenclature of partial penetration welds including root

penetration and (oint penetration (also called the effective throat). @oint penetration of a partial penetration weld is the minimum distance (less an reinforcement) from the root of a weld to the face of the weld.
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Figure 12. Partial Penetration Welds


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Co)$ination A com!ination weld (oint is an (oint with more than one (oint design. The welds that (oin com!ination (oints are /nown ! their individual names such as !utt weld and fillet weld. 'igure +. shows the most common t pe of com!ination weld" a single<# groove weld with a fillet weld cover. A single<# grove weld is used almost exclusivel to weld pipe noGGles to pressure vessels. 'igure +. also shows the nomenclature of a com!ination weld including !ase metal" root of weld" face of weld" single<#<groove weld" and fillet weld.
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Figure 1 . Com+ination Weld


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St(" Wel" /oint A stud weld (oint is a (oint !etween a metal stud (of an shape) and a !ase metal. The weld that (oins a metal stud to !ase metal is called a stud weld. Stud welds have essentiall the same configuration as a fillet weld. 'igure +, shows stud (oints with different stud shapes and the stud welds. 'igure +, also identifies the nomenclature of stud welds including !ase metal" stud" stud weld" toe of weld" and siGe of weld.
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Figure 1". Stud Weld


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AWS Wel" S )$ols The American &elding Societ (A&S) Standard A9.," Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination" is the standard for weld s m!ols in Saudi Aramco. A weld s m!ol represents the weld (oint on a drawing so that the details of the weld (oint do not have to !e shown. The specific weld s m!ols descri!ed in this 3odule include fillet" !utt" partial penetration" com!ination" and stud. To aid in the understanding of these weld s m!ols" each weld s m!ol will include an illustration of the desired weld detail that matches the weld s m!ol. Ele)ents of a Wel" S )$ol 'igure +: shows the !asic components of a weld s m!ol including the reference line" arrow leader" tail" arrow side of the reference line" other side of the reference line" weld<all<around

s m!ol" and field weld s m!ol. The reference line is the horiGontal line from which all elements of a weld s m!ol are positioned. The arrow leader points to the (oint to !e welded. The tail is used onl if additional reference information needs to !e included. &eld s m!ols !elow the reference line are on the Karrow sideK" and the weld is made on the same side of the (oint where the arrow leader points. &eld s m!ols a!ove the reference line are on the Kother sideK" and the weld is made on the opposite side of the (oint from where the arrow leader points. &eld s m!ols that are placed !oth a!ove and !elow the reference line are considered to !e K!oth sideK" and the weld is made on !oth sides of the (oint where the arrow leader points.K The weld<all<around s m!ol means that a weld that extends around a series of connected (oints must !e completel welded around the entire series of connected (oints. The weld<all<around s m!ol is not reBuired for circumferential !utt welds. The field weld s m!ol identifies those welds that must !e made in the field.
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Figure 1'. Components o! a Weld Sym+ol


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Additional elements can !e added to this !asic weld s m!ol to provide more weld (oint information. To esta!lish uniformit among all possi!le weld s m!ols" the A&S has standardiGed the location of these elements on a weld s m!ol. 'igure +? shows the standard location of elements for an weld s m!ol that includes the finish s m!ol" contour s m!ol" root opening" groove weld siGe" depth of penetration" welding procedure specification (or other reference)" !asic weld s m!ol" num!er of spot" stud" or pro(ection welds" pitch" length of weld" and groove angle.

T S L-P F A ( !" (#!


($%T& S'( S!
Finish S)*+ol ,roove Weld Si-e (epth o. $evel/ Si-e or Stren0th .or 1ertain Welds Speci.ication2 Process2 or other "e.erence

1ontour S)*+ol Len0th o. Welds Pitch (1enter-To-1enter Spacin0! o. Welds ,roove An0le3 'ncluded An0le o. 1ounter Sin4 .or Plu0 Welds #u*+er o. Spot2 Stud2 or Pro5ection Welds $asic Weld S)*+ol or (etail "e.erence "oot %penin03 (epth o. Fillin0 For Plu0 and Slot Welds

Figure 1(. Standard 1ocation o! Elements on a Weld Sym+ol


Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards 9A

+illet Wel" S )$ol The dimensions of fillet welds are alwa s shown on the same side of the reference line as the weld s m!ol" and the generall identif the siGe of the weld" the length of the weld" and the pitch of the weld. 'igure += shows a weld s m!ol for a :I+?K fillet weld on the arrow side of the (oint. 'igure += also shows the desired weld. Figure 1*. Arro2 Side Fillet Weld Sym+ol 'igure +A shows a weld s m!ol for a +I9K fillet weld on the arrow side of the (oint and a +I,K fillet weld on the other side of the (oint. 'igure +A also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 1,. .ot) Side Fillet Weld Sym+ol


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'igure +> shows a weld s m!ol for a +I,K (3em!er A) ! +I9K (3em!er 6) fillet weld (uneBual leg) on the arrow side of the (oint. 'igure +> also shows the desired weld. 6ecause the weld s m!ol convention does not provide sufficient detail" a note is reBuired when it is necessar to accuratel locate the +I9K leg.
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Figure 1-. 3ne4ual 1eg Fillet Weld Sym+ol 'igure 9- shows a weld s m!ol for a +I,K intermittent fillet weld on !oth sides of the (oint that is 9K long with a pitch of :K. 'igure 9- also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 20. #ntermittent Fillet Weld Sym+ol


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'igure 9+ shows a weld s m!ol for a .IAK staggered intermittent fillet weld that is staggered on !oth sides of the (oint and that is .K long with a pitch of +-K. 'igure 9+ also shows the desired weld. Figure 21. Staggered #ntermittent Fillet Weld Sym+ol
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards .+

B(tt Wel" S )$ol

The dimensions of !utt welds are also shown on the same side of the reference line as the weld s m!ol. 6utt weld s m!ols generall identif the root opening" groove angle" contour s m!ol" and finish s m!ol. 'igure 99 shows a weld s m!ol for a single<# groove weld with Gero root opening" a reference to &PS +?" a ?-F included !evel on the arrow side of the (oint" and the desired weld.
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Figure 22. Single$5 %roo&e Weld Sym+ol


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'igure 9. shows a weld s m!ol for a dou!le<# groove weld with a +IAK root opening" a ?-F included angle" a .I,K depth of preparation" a ground convex face. 'igure 9. also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 2 . Dou+le$5 %roo&e Weld Sym+ol 'igure 9, shows a weld s m!ol for a single<2 groove with a +I+?K root opening" a ,-F included angle" and a =IAK depth of preparation on the other side of the (oint. 'igure 9, also shows the desired weld. Figure 2". Single$3 %roo&e Weld Sym+ol
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ..

#artial #enetration Wel" S )$ol The dimensions of partial penetration welds generall identif the root opening" groove angle" depth of preparation" groove weld siGe" contour s m!ol" and finish s m!ol. 'igure 9: shows a weld s m!ol for a single<# groove weld with Gero root opening" a ?-F included angle on the arrow side of the (oint" a depth of preparation of +I,K and a weld siGe of .IAK. 'igure 9: also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 2'. Partial Penetration Single$5 %roo&e Weld Sym+ol 'igure 9? shows a weld s m!ol for a dou!le<# groove weld with a Gero root opening" a ?-F included angle" a depth of preparation of +I,K and a weld siGe of =I+?K. 'igure 9? also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 2(. Partial Penetration Dou+le$5 %roo&e Weld Sym+ol


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Co)$ination The dimensions of com!ination welds ma include the root opening" groove angle" depth of preparation" groove weld siGe" contour s m!ol" finish s m!ol" fillet weld siGe" the length of the weld" and the pitch of the weld. 'igure 9=shows a weld s m!ol for a sBuare groove weld (!oth sides) with Gero root opening" a weld siGe of .IAK" and a +I,K fillet weld (!oth sides). 'igure 9= also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 2*. Com+ination S4uare %roo&e6Fillet Weld Sym+ol


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'igure 9A shows a weld s m!ol for a single<# groove weld (!oth sides) with a Gero root opening" a ?-F included angle" a depth of preparation of +I,K" a weld siGe of >I+?K" and a .IAK fillet weld (!oth sides). 'igure 9A also shows the desired weld.
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Figure 2,. Com+ination Single$5 %roo&e6Fillet Weld Sym+ol


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St(" Wel" /oint S )$ol The s m!ol for a stud weld is a circle with a cross in the center. 'igure 9> shows a stud weld s m!ol with a -.9:K stud diameter" a pitch of +K" and five stud welds. The stud weld s m!ol does not indicate the welding of a (oint in the ordinar senseH therefore" it has no arrow or other side significance. The stud weld s m!ol must !e placed !elow the reference line and an arrow must clearl point to the surface to which the stud is to !e welded. As with other weld s m!ols" the dimensions must !e placed on the same side of the reference line as the stud weld s m!ol. 6ecause a stud weld s m!ol cannot locate the first and last stud weld" the drawing must also specif the exact location of the first and last stud welds that are in a single line. 0n 'igure 9>" the first and last studs are positioned .I,K from the edges of the plate. Figure 2-. Stud Weld Sym+ol
Engineering Enc clopedia &elding &elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards .=

WELDING CONSUMABLES The following section will descri!e the identification standards for welding consuma!les. 6ecause there are so man t pes of welding consuma!les" each t pe has !een assigned a uniBue classification num!er ! the American &elding Societ (A&S). The information in this section provides some !ac/ground on welding consuma!le identification and includes the following topics% T pes of &elding $onsuma!les A&S $lassifications Storage and 7andling )eBuirements Shielding 8ases and 'luxes T !es of Wel"ing Cons()a$les Several t pes of welding consuma!les" generall referred to as Kfiller metal"K are availa!le for different welding processes and materials. During welding" the filler metal melts in the heat of the welding arc and is consumed in the finished weld. The following !asic t pes of welding consuma!les are descri!ed in this 3odule% $oated Electrodes 6are )ods

6are &ires 'lux $ored Electrodes Coate" Ele'tro"es $oated electrodes are the most popular t pe of filler metal that is used in arc welding. $oated electrodes are also readil adapta!le to field welding applications that use the shielded metal arc welding (S3A&) process. $oated electrodes have a solid metal rod as core and the electrodes have a coating of !a/ed<on flux. The solid metal rod is made of various materials such as car!on steel" low car!on allo s" stainless steel" and nic/el allo s. The formulation of the electrode flux is ver complex. The flux determines the usa!ilit of the electrode" the composition of the deposited weld metal" and the specification of the coated electrode. The original purpose of the flux was to shield the welding arc from atmospheric ox gen and nitrogen. )esearchers determined that ioniGing agents that are added to the flux to help sta!iliGe the arc to ma/e the electrodes suita!le for alternating current. )esearchers also found that silicates and metal oxides helped to form slag. Slag improves the weld !ead shape due to the reaction at the surface of the weld metal. 0n addition" allo agents that are added to the flux improve the strength and provide specific weld metal deposit composition. 3ost recentl " iron powder has !een added to the flux to improve the weld metal deposition rate.
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Toda " the flux on a coated electrode is designed to achieve the following desira!le characteristics. 0t is designed to% Provide a specific composition and enhance mechanical properties of the deposited weld metal )educe weld metal porosit )educe weld metal crac/ing Provide a desira!le weld deposit contour Provide a desira!le weld metal surface finish (e.g." smooth with even edges) )educe undercut ad(acent to the weld )educe spatter ad(acent to the weld $ontrol slag in all positions of welding Provide a sta!le welding arc Provide penetration control (e.g." deep or shallow) Provide for immediate arc initiation and re<initiation capa!ilities )educe electrode overheating while welding Two common t pes of coated electrodes are the cellulosic and low h drogen<iron powder. &hen !urned in the electric welding arc" the flux coating on a cellulose<sodium coated electrode (e.g." E?-+- and E=-+-) produces !oth $*9 and h drogen. The solid metal rod of the cellulosic

electrode must contain sufficient deoxidiGers to counteract the effects of ox gen from the flux. The cellulosic<coated electrodes tend to have an arc that produces deep penetration into the !ase metal. The weld deposit is somewhat rough and the spatter is at a higher level than other coated electrodes. $ellulosic<coated electrodes are one of the earliest t pes of coated electrodes that were developed. $ellulosic<coated electrodes are widel used for welding cross<countr pipelines" using the downhill welding techniBue. The low h drogen<iron powder<coated electrodes do not use cellulose" cla s" as!estos" or other minerals that contain com!ined water. These components are not used to ensure the lowest possi!le h drogen content in the arc atmosphere. The low h drogen<iron powder coated electrodes provide superior weld metal properties" such as resistance to crac/ing" !etter !ead appearance" and improved strength with moderate penetration.
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Bare Ro"s 6are rods are t picall manufactured in .?K straight lengths with diameters that range from -.-,:K to .I+?K. 6are rods were first used with ox acet lene welding to add filler metal to the weld (oint. Toda " !are rods are predominantl used with the gas tungsten arc welding (8TA&) process and the torch !raGing process. 6are rods are similar to the coated electrode in that !are rods are made of various materials such as car!on steel" low car!on allo s" stainless steel" nic/el allo s" and aluminum allo s. Bare Wires 6are wire electrodes are similar to !are rods except that !are wire is manufactured in continuous lengths with diameters that range from -.-9-K to +IA.K The solid !are wire was developed for use with automatic and semi<automatic welding processes such as gas metal arc welding (83A&)" 8TA&" and su!merged arc welding (SA&). The !are wire is wound onto spools that range from ,K to .-K in diameterH however" for high volume applications" the !are wire ma even !e provided in large drums. 6are wire is similar to !are rods in that !are wire is made of various materials such as car!on steel" low car!on allo s" stainless steel" nic/el allo s" and aluminum allo s. The car!on and low allo steel wires are also coated with a thin la er of copper to prevent rusting and to improve the current pic/<up !etween the contact tip and the electrode. +l(0 Core" Ele'tro"es 'lux cored electrodes consist of tu!ular wire that is manufactured in continuous lengths with diameters that range from -.-,:K to :I.9.K The tu!ular wire is actuall a metal sheath that is filled with a flux material and allo ing compounds. 'igure .- shows several different t pes of flux cored electrodes. As with coated electrodes" the flux inside the electrodes improves the welding characteristics of the electrode. The ma(orit of flux cored electrodes are car!on steelH however" some low car!on allo s" stainless steel" and chromium<nic/el allo s are also

manufactured and used in flux cored arc welding ('$A&) applications.


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Figure 0. 5arious Types o! Flu7 Cored Electrodes


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AWS Classifi'ations The American &elding Societ (A&S) has esta!lished specifications for filler metals and fluxes. Each specification contains information a!out the chemical and ph sical properties of the filler metal such as manufacturing" pac/aging" and identification reBuirementsH testing reBuirements and acceptance criteriaH and additional information a!out the use of welding consuma!les. $urrentl " .- specifications in the A&S A:.x series prescri!e the reBuirements for filler metals and fluxes. These welding material specifications are identical to the specifications in Section 00" Part $ of the AS3E 6LP# $ode" Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals. Each A&S specification covers numerous t pes of metallurgicall similar filler metals. To readil identif each t pe of filler metal" the A&S has developed a uniBue filler metal classification s stem. The A&S classification s stem provides a uniBue identification for all standard filler metals including coated electrodes" !are rods" !are wires" and flux cored electrodes. Due to the large num!er of A&S classifications and variations within the classification s stem" onl the most common t pes of filler metal classifications will !e descri!ed in this module. Coate" Ele'tro"es The A&S classifications for car!on and low allo steel coated electrodes are !ased on an KEK (electrode) prefix with a four or five digit num!er (EMMMMM). The first two digits (or three digits in a five digit num!er) indicate the minimum reBuired tensile strength in the Nas depositedO weld metal (not stress relieved) in thousands of pounds per sBuare inch. 'or example" ?- P ?-"--- psi and +-- P +--"--- psi. The next to the last digit indicates the welding position(s) in which the coated electrode can ma/e satisfactor welds% + P all positions and 9 P flat and horiGontal fillet welds. Ta!le + is a ta!ulation of A&SIAS3E Section 00" Part $ classification of E?MMM and E=-MM car!on steel electrodes which shows t pe of electrode coating" welding position " and t pe of welding current and polarit . A ta!ulation of t pical welding current ranges for these car!on steel electrodes is shown in Ta!le 9.
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Page left !lan/ intentionall Ta+le 18 AWS6ASME9 Section ##9 Part C Classi!ication o! Coated Car+on Steel Welding Electrodes

A&S $4ASS0'0 $AT0*1 T5PE *' $*#E)018 SAT0S'A$T*)5 &E4D018 P*S0T0*1S(a) T5PE *' $2))E1T(!) E12 Series Ele'tro"es E?-+- 7igh cellulose sodium (*rganic) '" #" *7" 7 D$EP E?-++ 7igh cellulose potassium (*rganic) '" #" *7" 7 A$ or D$EP E?-+9 7igh titania sodium ()utile) '" #" *7" 7 A$ or D$E1 E?-+. 7igh titania potassium ()utile) '" #" *7" 7 A$ or D$ either polarit E?-9- 7igh iron oxide 7<fillets A$ or D$E1 E?-99( c ) 7igh iron oxide ' A$ or D$ either polarit E?-9= 7igh iron oxide" iron powder 7<fillets" ' A$ or D$E1
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E32 Series Ele'tro"es E=-+, 0ron powder" titania '" #" *7" 7 A$ or D$ either polarit E=-+: 4ow h drogen sodium '" #" *7" 7 D$EP E=-+? 4ow h drogen potassium '" #" *7" 7 A$ or D$EP E=-+A 4ow h drogen potassium" iron powder '" #" *7" 7 A$ or D$EP E=-9, 0ron powder" titania 7<fillets" ' A$ or D$ either polarit E=-9= 7igh iron oxide" iron powder 7<fillets" ' A$ or D$E1 E=-9A 4ow h drogen potassium" iron powder 7<fillets" ' A$ or D$EP E=-,A 4ow h drogen potassium" iron powder '" *7" 7" #down A$ or D$EP a. The a!!reviations" '" #" #<down" *7" 7" A1D 7<fillets indicate the welding positions as follows% ' P 'lat 7P 7oriGontal 7<fillets P 7oriGontal fillets #<down P #ertical down Q# P #ertical Q*7 P *verhead Q1ote% 'or electrodes .I+?in.(,.Amm) and under" except :I.9 in. (,.- mm) and under for classifications E=-+," E=-+:" E=-+?. And E=-+A !. The term D$EP refers to direct current" electrode positive (D$ reverse polarit ). The term D$E1 refers to direct current" electrode negative (D$ straight polarit ). c. Electrodes of the E?-99 classification are for single<pass welds.
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Page left !lan/ intentionall


Engineering Enc clopedia &elding

&elding Parameters Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ,:

Ta+le 28 Typical Welding Current :anges For Mild Car+on Steel Electrodes
Electrode diameter in. mm E?-+and E?-++ E?-+9 E?-+. E?-9- E?-99 E?-9= and E=-9= E=-+, E=-+:" E=-+?"and E=-+?<+ E=-+A and E=-+A<+ E=-9,<+" E=-9," and E=-9A E=-,A +I+? +.? R 9- to ,- 9- to ,- R R R R R R R R :I?, 9: to ?- 9: to ?- R R R R R R R R R .I.9 a 9., a ,- to A- .: to A: ,: to >- R R R A- to +9: ?: to ++- =- to +-- +-- to +,: R +IA ..9 =: to +9: A- to +,- A- t- +.- +-- to +:++- to +?+9: to +A: ++- to +?- +-- to +:- ++: to +?: +,- to +>- A- to +,:I.9 ,.- ++- to +=++- to +>+-: to +A- +.- to +>+,- to +>+?- to 9,- +:- to 9+- +,- to 9-- +:- to 9-- +A- to 9:- +:- to 99.I+? ,.A +,- to 9+: +,- to 9,+:- to 9.- +=: to 9:+=- to ,-9+- to .-- 9-- to 9=: +A- to 9:: 9-- to 9=: 9.- to .-: 9+- to 9==I.9 :.? +=- to 9:9-- to .99+- to .-- 99: to .+.=- to :99:- to .:- 9?- to .,- 9,- to .9- 9?- to .,- 9=: to .?: R S ?., 9+- to .99:- to

,-9:- to .:- 9=: to .=: R .-- to ,9- ..- to ,+: .-- to .>- .+: to ,-- ..: to ,.- R :I+? a A.- a 9=: to ,9: .-- to :-.9- to ,.- .,- to ,:R .=: to ,=: .>-to :-- .=: to ,=: .=: to ,=- ,-- to :9: R a. These diameters are not manufactured in the E=-9A classification Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ,?

The A&S classifications for stainless steel coated electrodes are also !ased on an KEK prefix with onl a three digit num!er and a two digit suffix (EMMM<MM). The first three digits represent the American 0ron and Steel 0nstituteJs (A0S0) num!ering s stem for stainless steels. The .-- series designates austenitic stainless steels and the ,-- series designates martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. The two digits in the suffix indicate the t pe of current and the t pe of coating for the electrode. These two digits are similar to the final two digits of car!on and low allo steel coated electrodes that were shown in Ta!le +. 3ost stainless steel coated electrodes have suffixes of either +: (lime coating) or +? (titania coating). 'or example" an E.-A<+: coated electrode is a .-A stainless steel material that can !e welded in all positions with dcT (reverse polarit ) onl whenE.-A<+? can operate on A$ or dcT. E.-A< +: coated electrodes have a low h drogen coating. 0n the A&S classification E.-A4<+:" the K4K represents a low car!on version of the filler metal with a maximum of -.-.E $ and a minimum of -.-AE $ for conventional grades. Bare Ro"s an" Wire The A&S classifications for car!on and low allo steel !are rods and wire have an KE)K prefix with a two or three digit num!er and a one or two digit suffix (E)MMMS<MM). The KEK indicates an electrode" and the K)K indicates a welding rodH therefore" KE)K indicates either an electrode or a welding rod. The first three digits KMMMK indicate the minimum reBuired tensile strength in thousands of pounds per sBuare inch. These three digits are similar to the first three digits of the car!on coated electrodes. The KSK indicates a solid electrode or rod. The one or two digits in the suffix indicate the chemical composition of the deposited weld metal. The A&S classifications for stainless steel !are rods and wire have an KE)K prefix with a three

digit num!er (E)MMM). The first three digits represent the American 0ron and Steel 0nstituteJs (A0S0) num!ering s stem for stainless steels. The .-- series designates austenitic stainless steels" and the ,-- series designates the martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. 0n the A&S classification E).-A4" the K4K represents a low car!on version of the filler metal. +l(0 Core" Ele'tro"es The A&S classifications for car!on and low allo steel flux cored electrodes have an KEK prefix with a two digit num!er KMM and a one digit suffix (EMMT<M). The KEK indicates an electrode and the KTK indicates a tu!ular electrode. The first two digits indicate the minimum reBuired tensile strength in thousands of pounds per sBuare inch. These first two digits are similar to the first two digits of the car!on coated electrodes. The one digit suffix indicates the chemical composition of the deposited weld metal" gas t pe" and usa!ilit factor. 'or example" an E=-T<+ flux cored electrode has a =-"--- psi tensile strength and it uses $*9 shielding gas for flat position welding. The method of classification of car!on steel and stainless steel electrodes for flux<cored arc welding is illustrated in 'igure .+.
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E;;T$;
(esi0nates an electrode. 'ndicates the *ini*u* tensile stren0th o. the deposite weld *etal in a test weld *ade with the electrode and in accordance with speci.ied weldin0 conditions. 'ndicates the pri*ar) weldin0 position .or which the electrode is desi0ned/ 'ndicates usa+ilit) and per.or*ance capa+ilities. 'ndicates a .lu6 cored electrode. Note:The letter " X " as used in this figure and in electrode classifications this specification substitutes for specific designations indicated by this figure. 0-.lat and hori-ontal positions 7-all positions

<A= Car+on Steel !lu7$cored electrodes suc) as E*0T$1

E;;;T$;
'ndicates an electrode. (esi0nates a .lu6 cored electrode (esi0nates the e6ternal shieldin0 *ediu* to +e e*plo)ed durin0 weldin0 (See#otes! (esi0nate classi.ication accordin0 to co*pposition

<.= Stainless steel !lu7$cored electrodes suc) as E 1(T$ 8


E444T&5 6 "esignates an ele'tro"e (sing 'ar$on "io0i"e s*iel"ing !l(s a fl(0 s ste) 7 E444T&8 D designates an electrode using a mixture of argon with 9E ox gen plus a flux s stem. E444T&9 D designates an electrode using no external shielding gas wherein shielding is provided ! the flux s stem contained in the electrode core (self<shielding). EMMMT<8 D indicates an electrode with unspecified method of shielding" no reBuirements !eing imposed except as agreed !etween purchaser and supplier. Each producer of an EMMMT<8 electrode shall specif the chemical composition and mechanical propert reBuirements for his electrode.

Figure 18 Classi!ication Met)od o! Car+on Steel and Stainless Steel Flu7$ Cored Electrodes8
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ,A

S*iel"ing Gasses an" +l(0es All welding processes reBuire some protection for the molten weld metal while welding. This protection is called weld shielding and it ta/es the form of either shielding gas or flux. The primar purpose of the shielding gas or flux is to protect the molten weld metal from contamination ! the ox gen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Gases &eld shielding gases are considered consuma!les and are mostl used with the 8TA&"83A&" and the '$A& welding processes. The Bualit of commercial shielding gases are governed ! specifications that were developed ! the $ompressed 8as Association. Although argon and helium are the onl two inert gases that are availa!le in sufficient Buantities to support welding operations" the inert gases argon" helium" neon" /r pton" and xenon are commerciall availa!le. Argon D is an inert gas that is most widel used ! Saudi Aramco with the 8TA& process. 6ecause it is heavier than air" argon forms a protective !lan/et over the weld area. Heli() D !ecause it is lighter than air" i?t does not ma/e a good shielding gas when welding outdoors. 0f it is used" helium must !e highl controlled to ensure that the shielding gas can actuall protect the molten weld metal and not rise from the weld and disperse. &hen !utt welding the stainless and nic/el allo steels" a purge gas must also !e used to protect the molten weld metal that is at the root of the weld. Car$on Dio0i"e ($*9)D This gas is most widel used ! Saudi Aramco to weld car!on and low allo steels with the 83A& and '$A& processes. 6ecause $*9 contains ox gen" the filler metals must contain sufficient deoxidiGers to counteract the effects of ox gen from the shielding gas. $*9 is a used mainl !ecause of its relative low cost. +l(0es 'luxes are also considered consuma!les and are used mostl with the S3A&" '$A&" and the SA& processes. The coatings on car!on and low allo steel electrodes ma have from ? to +9 of the following ingredients% $ellulose < to provide a gaseous shield with a reducing agent. The gas shield that surrounds the are is produced ! the disintegration of the cellulose. 3etal $ar!onates < to ad(ust the !asicit of the slag and to provide a reducing atmosphere. Titanium Dioxide < to help form a highl fluid !ut Buic/<freeGing slag and to provide ioniGation for the welding arc.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ,>

'erromanganese and 'errosilicon < to help oxidiGe the molten weld metal and to supplement the manganese and silicone content of the deposited weld metals.

$la s and 8ums < to provide the elasticit for extruding the plastic coating material and to help provide strength to the coating. $alcium 'luoride < to provide shielding gas to protect the welding arc" to ad(ust the !asicit of the slag" and to provide fluidit and solu!ilit of the metal oxides. 3ineral Silicates < to provide slag and to give strength to the electrode. Allo ing 3etals <to provide allo content" (such as" nic/el mol !denum" and chromium) to the deposited weld metal. 0ron or 3agnesium *xide < to ad(ust the fluidit and other properties of the slag. 0ron Powder < to increase the productivit ! providing additional metal to !e deposited in the weld. Through com!inations of various amounts of the a!ove ingredients" an infinite variet of electrode coatings are possi!le. The flux in flux cored electrodes is essentiall the same as the flux on coated electrodes" however" to do the same (o!" more flux is reBuired on the coated electrodes than in flux cored electrodes. &hen electrodes are manufactured" !inders (other ingredients) are added to /eep the coating intact. The !inders allow for the extrusion f the coating. 6ecause the flux on a coated electrode contains additional !inders a greater volume of flux is reBuired. The flux that is used with the su!merged arc welding (SA&) process is separate from the filler metal. The flux is a granular form that is made up of ma of the same ingredients that were listed previousl for the S3A& coated electrodes. Three t pe of SA& fluxes used are as follows% 'used 'lux < the ingredients are dr mixed" melted in a furnace at approximatel 9">--'" and Buenched to form a glass material This material is then dried crushed" siGed" and pac/aged. Agglomerated 'lux < < ingredients are wet mixed and dried in a rotar /iln at approximatel +"A--' to form small !alls of flux. After the flux !alls are cooled the !alls of flux are siGed and pac/aged. 6onded 'luxes < are ver similar to the agglomerated fluxes with the exception that the flux mixture is !onded at a lower temperature. &hen allo materials are not added to the flux" the flux is considered NneutralO. 0n accordance with the Saudi Aramco standards" agglomerated fluxes and !onded fluxes should not !e used !ecause of their high affinit for moisture. &elds that are made ! using these fluxes are /now to develop weld metal h drogen dela crac/s.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards :-

Storage an" Han"ling Re:(ire)ents The proper storage and handling of filler metals is crucial to maintain the cleanliness and Bualit of the filler metal. The storage of filler metal includes not onl the pac/aging reBuirements of the filler metal !ut also the interim storage reBuirements of the pac/ages until the filler metal is actuall used. The handling of filler metals refers to the following movements% 3ovement of the filler metal from the receipt location to the storage location 3ovement of the filler metal from the storage location to the issuance location 3ovement of the filler metal from the issuance location to the wor/ location Coate" Ele'tro"es

6ecause of the flux coating" coated electrodes can !e easil damaged when improperl stored or handled. )ough handling in shipment or in storage can cause a portion of the flux coating to crac/ loose from the solid metal rod" which can ma/e the electrode unsuita!le for welding. &hen most coated electrodes are !ent" the flux coating will crac/ loose from the solid metal rod. &hen opening a sealed container of coated electrodes" the container must !e inspected for evidence of damage. A dented or punctured container can indicate possi!le damage to the coating of the electrodes. &hen the solid metal rod is exposed" coated electrodes should not !e used. Although coated electrodes ma loo/ similar" not all coated electrodes have the same pac/aging and storage reBuirements. &hen the flux coating is exposed to moisture for an extended period of time" some coated electrodes ma !ecome unusa!le. The popular low h drogen coated electrodes are extremel sensitive to moisture (e.g." rain" humidit ). The cellulosic<coated electrodes are less sensitive to moisture pic/<up and actuall reBuire moisture levels of three to seven percent to maintain the flux coating. Toda " the ma(orit of coated electrodes are pac/aged in hermeticall <sealed metal containers to prevent excessive moisture intrusion. $oated electrode containers must !e stored in a clean" dr area. $oated electrode containers should !e stored separatel ! A&S classification. *nce the low h drogen coated electrodes are removed from the container" the coated electrodes must !e placed in storage ovens at approximatel 9:-F' to ensure that the coated electrodes do not a!sor! an moisture. &hen the low h drogen coated electrodes are reBuired to !e ta/en into the field (for more than four hours) to perform welding" the low h drogen coated electrodes must !e placed in small porta!le storage ovens at approximatel +:-F'. SAES<&<--+ specifies storage temperatures for t pes of 4.7. electrodes. The lids on the porta!le storage ovens must remain closed at all times except when electrodes are removed.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards :+

&hen the low h drogen coated electrodes are used in the field for less than four hours" the low h drogen coated electrodes must !e /ept dr !ut the do not need to !e stored in a heated oven. All low h drogen coated electrodes that are exposed to the atmosphere must !e re!a/ed for a period of at least four hours. Saudi Aramco procedures SAES<&<--+ and SADP<&<--+ specif the proper re!a/e temperature for a variet of coated electrodes. The cellulosic<coated electrodes do not reBuire storage in heated ovens" !ut the must !e /ept in a dr environment. $oated electrodes should never !e placed directl on cold concrete or steel that can draw heat out of the coated electrode and allow moisture to enter the coating. $oated electrodes that !ecome

wet should never !e used for welding and must !e discarded. Bare Ro"s an" Wire 6are rods and wire must !e stored in sealed containers" which must !e placed in a clean" dr environment. An !are rods or wires with visi!le rusting or contamination must not !e used for welding and must !e discarded. After removal from the sealed containers" !are rods and wires must remain dr and clean in the field. $ontamination on !are wire can cause porosit in the weld or operation difficulties in the wire feed mechanism. +l(0 Core" Ele'tro"es 'lux cored electrodes must also !e stored in sealed containers in a clean" dr environment. An flux cored electrodes with visi!le rusting or contamination must not !e used for welding and must !e discarded. After removal from the sealed containers" flux cored electrodes must remain dr and clean in the field. $ontamination on flux cored electrode wire can cause porosit in the weld or operation difficulties in the wire feed mechanism. $onsideration must !e given to the storage of flux cored electrodes in heated ovens !ased on the t pe of flux and the electrode manufacturerJs recommendations.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards :9

HEAT IN#UT E++ECTS The following section introduces the relation of heat input to welding. 7eat input will !e descri!ed in terms of the welding process varia!les that contri!ute to variations in the amount of heat input to a weld. This section includes the following topics% Parameters Effects of 7eat 0nput #ara)eters 7eat is reBuired for all welding processes to melt the surface of the metal to !e welded and the filler metal that is added to the weldment so that coalescence can occur. The most common heat source for welding is the electric arc. The three /e welding parameters affect the amount of heat input to a weld are% The welding current The welding arc voltage The travel speed of the welding process Preheat and interpass temperatures are additional varia!le that can affect the amount of heat input to a weldment. 6ecause preheat is not directl associated with a welding process" preheat will !e descri!ed in the next section. Each of the three welding parameters is descri!ed !elow. C(rrent The current in a welding circuit is the amount of electric charge that flows through the welding ca!le in one second. The amount of electric per second that flows through the welding ca!le is called an ampere and it is designated ! the letter K0K. 7igh welding current results in greater

!ase metal penetration" and a lower welding current results in shallow !ase metal penetration. An increase in the welding current increases the heat input to the weld. An increase in the welding current also increases the melt<off rate of the electrode and improves productivit !ecause more weld metal is deposited.
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;oltage #oltage is the force that causes a current to flow. The measure of electrical pressure is the volt. The difference in potential or voltage causes the current to flow in an electric circuit. As EBuation + shows" !oth current and voltage affect the heat input to a weld. The letter K#K is used to designate voltage. 7igh welding voltage results in greater !ase metal penetration" while lower welding voltage is indicative of shallow !ase metal penetration. An increase in the welding voltage increases the heat input to the weld. Tra<el S!ee" The rate that a welding electrode progresses along a weld (oint while welding is called the travel speed. The letter KSK designates the travel speed. Several welding varia!les affect the travel speed" such as" the welding process" the position of the weld" the welder" and the wire feed speed. Slow travel speeds ma/e wide weld !eads with deep !ase metal penetration. 'ast travel speeds ma/e narrow weld !eads and shallow !ase metal penetration. A decrease in the travel speed increases the heat input to the weld. Effe'ts of Heat In!(t The electric arc welding process uses a high temperature heat source that can melt the !ase metals. An extensive difference in temperature !etween a high temperature heat source and the !ase metal can cause thermal expansion and contraction !etween the !ase metal and the weld metal. The following are some of the disadvantages of excessive heat input that can affect weld Bualit % &arpage and distortion caused ! high residual differential shrin/age stresses $rac/s caused ! a reduction of ductilit or a degree of hardening Premature failure caused ! the deterioration of the toughness properties of the weld (oint Premature failure caused ! the loss of strength of certain wor/ hardened" Buenched" and tempered materials Even though the electric welding arc is a heat source that moves continuousl " stead state conditions are esta!lished and the temperature distri!ution relative to the heat source is relativel sta!le.
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6ecause man varia!les are involved" the heat input<time<temperature relationship (the thermal c cle of a weld) cannot !e precisel determined. 7owever" fairl accurate estimates can predict

the effects of heat input from a specific welding process. The total heat input to a weldment must !e !alanced to produce the desired weld properties. Extra heat is reBuired" over and a!ove the heat that is needed to melt the !ase metal and filler metal" to compensate for the heat that is conducted awa from the weld and into the ad(acent !ase metal. The heat input to a weldment (in (oules per inch of weld) ! a welding process can !e estimated with EBuation +" located in &or/ Aid , E4AM#LE: 0f a weld is to !e made with the S3A& process and a +IAK coated electrode at +,: amperes" 99 volts" and a travel speed of ten (+-) inches per minute" the amount of heat input to the weld could !e estimated as follows%

( )( )
7eat 0nput = (oules per inch = +,: 99 ?++>"+,0f a :I.9K coated electrode is used at 9+- amperes and 9, volts with a travel speed of onl six (?) inches per minute" the heat input is significantl increased.

( )( )

7eat 0nput = (oules per inch = 9+- 9, ?+.-"9,This heat input eBuation is used to calculate the heat that is developed in an electric arc and can !e used to compare welding procedures when heat input is a consideration. The !ase metal temperature changes in an arc welding operation are much Buic/er and more a!rupt than for most metallurgical processes (e.g." heat treatments). The metallurgical reactions from welding heat input do not follow the normal heat treating relationships due to the short time duration at temperature. 3ore specificall " in the arc welding process" melting and solidification occur with relative Buic/nessH and eBuili!rium is not achieved as it is achieved in direct treatment processes.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ::

HEAT TREATMENT E++ECTS &ith some welding processes and materials" heat must !e applied to a weld prior to welding (preheat treatment). *ther welding processes and materials reBuire the use of heat after the welding is complete (postweld treatment). The information in this section provides !ac/ground

on the heat treatment of welds and includes the following topics% Preheat Postweld 7eat Treatment #re*eat Preheat is defined as the heat that is applied to the !ase metals of a weld (oint immediatel !efore welding. The construction standards that are associated with s stems and components at Saudi Aramco facilities identif the reBuired preheat temperatures for the various !ase metals. 7owever" the preheat temperature depends on man factors such as the composition of the !ase metal" the am!ient temperature" and the welding procedure. Several methods of preheat determination and application" along with t pical preheat reBuirements for commonl used materials" are descri!ed in more detail !elow. #(r!ose The main purpose of preheat is to reduce the rate at which a weld cools. The preheat of weldments has the following advantages% )educes shrin/age stresses in the weld and heat<affected Gone that lead to crac/s A slower rate at which the weld metal cools through the critical temperature range (approximatel +"?--' to +"..-')" which prevents excessive hardening and loss of ductilit of !oth the weld metal and the heat<affected Gone A slower rate at which the weld metal cools through the ,--' range" which allows more time for an h drogen that is present to diffuse awa from the weld and ad(acent !ase metal to avoid under!ead crac/ing 3aintains sufficient heat at the weld area on highl conductive or thic/ !ase metals )emoves moisture from the weld (oint
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards :?

'igure .9 is a graph of temperature versus time that shows the effect of preheat on a plate !utt weld. As the graph shows" a greater temperature drop in one second exists at a given temperature (T+) when the initial temperature (To) of the plate is =-F' than when To is .--F'. 0n other words" the cooling rate (F'Isec) is slower when preheat is used. Preheat should also !e considered !efore thermal cutting (i.e." ox acet lene cutting). Thermal cutting tas/s ma include the preparation of weld (oint !evels" the removal of attachments" or the removal of defective material. 'or thic/ car!on and low allo steels" preheat ensures that the !ase metal cools at a slower rate and prevents excessive hardening and loss of ductilit in the !ase metal.
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Figure 2. E!!ect o! Pre)eat on Cooling :ate Met*o"s Several methods are availa!le for preheat treatment. The most common tools are ox acet lene torches and electric resistance heaters. The choice of the preheat tools depends on factors such as the following% The preheat temperature The duration of the preheat c cle

The siGe and shape of the weldment The need for a one<of<a</ind or a continuous production preheat operation
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards :=

'or the ma(orit of pipe welds" an ox acet lene torch provides sufficient preheat to support the welding operation. *x acet lene torches are usuall limited to small weldments or circumferential pipe welds that are less than +9K in diameter and that are less than .I,K thic/. 'or small weldments or circumferential pipe welds" actual preheat temperature is measured with a temperature indicating cra on. &hen an ox acet lene torch is used to preheat a weld" the surface of the !ase metal is generall much hotter than the average temperature in the !ase metal. &hen possi!le" temperature measurements should !e made on !oth sides of the weld (oint. 6ecause the welder must constantl switch !etween the welding process and the preheat process" the use of an ox acet lene torch is not the most productive tool to appl preheat. &hen preheat for a single weld or for multiple welds that are in close proximit is reBuired for a long period of time" electric resistance heaters are often more convenient to use than ox acet lene torches. 8as !urners are more effectivel and more widel used in pressure vessels (and in !uilding industries in general) than handheld torches. The resistance heater elements are commonl availa!le in either rope" rope pads" or ceramic pads. 'igure .. shows a t pical arrangement for rope resistance heaters and the power connections that provide preheat for a circumferential !utt weld in pipe.
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Figure

8 Typical Arrangement o! :ope :esistance >eaters

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'igure ., shows a t pical arrangement for resistance heating pads and the power connections that provide preheat for a circumferential !utt weld in pipe.
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Figure "8 Typical Arrangement o! :esistance >eating Pads 'igure .: shows a t pical arrangement for ceramic resistance heater pads and the power connections that provide preheat for a circumferential !utt weld in pipe. The limitations of electric resistance heaters include the ina!ilit to adapt to small intricate parts and to adeBuatel heat materials greater than six inches thic/.
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Figure '. Typical Arrangement o! Ceramic :esistance >eater Pads


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'igure .? shows an electric resistance heater s stem that consists of a power suppl " a temperature controller" a temperature recorder" resistance heating wires" power ca!les" thermocouples" and thermocouple signal ca!les. 0n electric resistance heaters" thermocouples attach directl to the !ase metal that is ad(acent to the weld to measure the exact preheat temperature of the weld. The thermocouples provide signals to the temperature controller that regulates the electrical power that is reBuired for the preheat. The temperature recorder ma/es a

permanent record of the exact preheat temperature throughout the preheat and welding operation.
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+ig(re 917 Electric )esistance 7eater S stem


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Deter)ination The necessit to preheat weld (oints and the temperature reBuirements should !e esta!lished ! Engineering and should !e demonstrated ! a welding procedure specification (&PS). The preheat temperature depends upon these factors% T pe of !ase metal and its composition @oint thic/ness degree of restraint T pe and composition of filler metal The interpass temperature should also !e considered. The interpass temperature is the highest temperature in the weld (oint immediatel prior to welding. 2suall " the minimum interpass temperature will !e the same as the preheat temperature. The weldment temperature should never !e allowed to !ecome lower than the preheat or the interpass temperature. &hen welding is interrupted for an reason" the preheat temperature must !e attained !efore welding is started again. Preheat and interpass temperatures must !e maintained through the entire thic/ness of the welding area. The interpass temperature is usuall specified as a maximum temperature to prevent excessive heat input to a weldment. &hen welds are made on a small weldment" the interpass temperature increases due to the heat input from welding. 2nder certain conditions" allowing the interpass temperature to exceed a specific temperature is usuall not desira!leH therefore" a maximum interpass temperature is specified. &hen the heat !uild up !ecomes excessive" the weldment must !e allowed to cool !ut must not cool !elow the minimum preheat temperature. *therwise" distortion and lowered ducti!ilit of the weld (oint can result. The temperature of the welding area must !e maintained within the minimum preheat and the maximum interpass temperature. 7igher preheat temperatures should !e considered when the !ase metal has a car!on content in excess of -..-E" when the !ase metal is thic/ (over +<+I9K)" or when the weld (oint is highl restrained (e.g." a piping closure weld). Car$on E:(i<alent -CE. D &hile the material thic/ness" the t pe of !ase metal to !e welded" the degree of (oint restraint" and the filler metal are ta/en into account when preheat reBuirements are determined" some ad(ustment ma !e needed for specific material composition. 8enerall " as the car!on content of a material increases" the necessit for preheat also increases !ut the critical cooling rate decreases. 7owever" car!on is not the onl element that influences the critical cooling rate.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?+

*ther elements in steel materials are responsi!le for the hardness and the loss of ductilit that occur with rapid cooling. The determination of preheat reBuirements must account for the total hardena!ilit of a material. This total hardena!ilit can !e represented ! a Kcar!on eBuivalentK. This common measure of the effects of car!on and other allo elements on hardening is the !asis for preheat and interpass temperature estimates. $E empirical values that represent the sum of the effects of various elements on the hardena!ilit . *ne of the most widel used car!on eBuivalent formulas is shown in EBuation 9" &or/ Aid :. 'or car!on steels (all AS3E p<1o.9 materials" including AP0 pipe grades up to and including M?-)" the minimum preheat is calculated using Standard Drawing AE<-.?,:+. 'or car!on steel piping and pipeline welds" the minimum preheat reBuirements are listed in the preheat ta!les of SAES<&<-++ and SAES<&<-+9. 'or all other materials" the minimum preheat shall !e no less than what is listed or specified in the applica!le codes and standards" such as AS3EIA1S0 6.+.." 6.+.," 6.+.A" and A&S D+.+" Structural &elding $ode. Metal T*i'=ness DAs previousl stated" the thic/ness of the material to !e welded also affects the reBuired amount of preheat. 0n general" thic/er materials reBuire more preheat. The reBuired amount of preheat can !e determined through review of the applica!le construction standards or industr guidelines that are !ased on car!on eBuivalenc . The preheat reBuirements of applica!le construction standards will !e discussed in the following paragraphs. The AS3E standards present the minimum preheat temperature !ased upon the applica!le P 1um!er (from AS3E Section 0M) of the materials to !e welded. &hen materials of two different P 1um!ers are welded together" the preheat temperature is normall the highest preheat temperature that is recommended for either of the materials. The A&S D+.+ standard also presents the preheat temperature reBuirements !ased on similar material (specific to structural construction) groups. The AP0 standards provide more generic preheat temperature information. The preheat temperature information that is presented !elow is !ased on the applica!le construction standards. Ta!le . summariGes the AS3E preheat reBuirements for the following materials% P 1um!er + (car!on steel) P 1um!er . (low<allo steels) P 1um!er , (+<+I, chrome<mol steels) P 1um!er : (9<+I, chrome<mol steels) P 1um!er A (stainless steels)
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?9

Ta+le . ASME Construction Standard Pre)eat Temperature :e4uirements


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&here% $ P car!on content $r P chromium content t P material temperature Tp P preheat temperature Ts P minimum specified tensile strength
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?.

The A&S D+.+ standard categoriGes structural steel !ase materials into four main groups that are" for the most part" considered car!on steels. Slight differences exist !etween each of the categories" and !ase metal thic/ness is the primar determinant of the minimum preheat temperatures. Ta!le , shows the preheat temperature ranges have !een developed and are !ased upon the four standard thic/ness ranges that are listed in A&S D+.+. Ta+le "8 Pre)eat Temperature :anges !or t)e Four T)icknesses :anges 1isted #n AWS D1818 Thic/ness of Thic/est Part at Point of &elding (0nches Preheat Temperature (') )ange UUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUU 2p to .I, 1one :*ver .I, through +<+I9 :- +:*ver +<+I9 through 9<+I9 +:- 99: *ver 9<+I9 99: .-AP0 ?9- and ?:- do not specificall reBuire preheat treatment when welding tan/s. 7owever" !oth construction standards do ac/nowledge the !enefit of preheat and suggest that all preheat treatments !e Bualified with the welding procedure specification prior to production welding. 'iller 3etal $oating T pe and $omposition D 3inimum preheat temperature is also affected ! the t pe of electrode coating (low versus non <low h drogen) t pes as well as its chemical composition. &hen used to weld materials of the same thic/ness and chemical composition" the minimum preheat temperature is much higher with the non<low h drogen electrodes than those of the low h drogen t pe. Similarl " welding electrodes containing allo s are elements that contri!ute to the weld UUUUUUUUU such as $r" 3o" etc. will reBuire higher preheat than those that dont contain these elements. The difference in preheat temperatures levels as a function of welding electrode t pes is shown ! preheat ta!les of A&S D+.+ structural welding and Saudi Aramco piping and pipeline standards SAES<&<-++ and <-+9. #ost%el" Heat Treat)ent A num!er of postweld heat treatments exist for weldments !ut stress relief is the most widel used postweld heat treatment. Some other postweld heat treatments include annealing and normaliGing. 'or the purposes of this 3odule" postweld heat treatment will !e s non mous with

stress relief. Postweld heat treatment is an heat treatment that is applied to a weld or weldment after welding to reduce residual stresses. The construction standards for s stems and components at Saudi Aramco facilities identif the reBuired postweld heat treatments for the various !ase metals. 7owever" the postweld heat treatment depends on man factors such as the QcompositionQ of the !ase metal (oint thic/ness and t pe of service. Several methods of postweld heat treatment temperature determination and application" along with t pical postweld heat treatment reBuirements for commonl used materials are descri!ed in more detail !elow.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?,

#(r!ose The purpose of postweld heat treatments is to reduce the residual stresses that are within weldments. The following are the advantages of postweld heat treatment of weldments% )educe residual stresses that are inherent to an weldment" casting" or forging Soften hardened weld Gones 0mprove resistance to corrosion and caustic em!rittlement 0mprove dimensional sta!ilit of the weldment when machined 0ncrease service life of the weldment Met*o"s &ith the exception of welding torches" similar methods as that utiliGed for preheat are used for use for postweld heat treatment (P&7T) of welds Electric resistance heaters are the most popular method of P&7T for field applications. Postweld heat treating furnaces are generall ver large permanent structures that can accommodate an entire pressure vessel. 'urnaces are generall used ! manufacturers of large components that reBuire P&7T. Temporar furnaces are also used and are usuall !uilt around a field constructed component such as a pressure vessel. The choice of the P&7T methods is similar to preheat treatment methods and depends on factors such as the following% The postweld heat treatment temperature The duration of the postweld heat treatment c cle The siGe and shape of the weldment or component The need for a one<of<a</ind or a continuous production postweld heat treatment operation Ele'tri' Resistan'e Heaters D 'or most pipe welds" electric resistance heaters suffice for postweld heat treatment operations. These resistance heaters are identical to the preheat devices that were descri!ed earlier in this 3odule. 'igure .? showed an electric resistance heater s stem that consisted of a power suppl " a temperature controller" a temperature recorder" resistance heating wires" power ca!les" thermocouples" and thermocouple signal ca!les. As with preheating operations" thermocouples directl attach to the !ase metal ad(acent to the weld to measure the exact P&7T weldment temperature. The thermocouples provide signals to the temperature controller to regulate the electrical power that is reBuired for the P&7T. The num!er and

location of thermocouples that should !e attached to the weldment and other P&7T reBuirements are outlined in SAES<&<-+-" SAES<&<--++" and SAES<&<-+9.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?:
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Figure (8 Electric :esistance >eater System To reduce the time that is necessar to get the weldment up to the P&7T temperature and to provide a slower cooling down period" welds that reBuire P&7T are usuall well insulated. As with preheat" the temperature recorder provides a permanent record of the exact P&7T temperature throughout the P&7T. The ma(or limitations of electric resistance heaters include the ina!ilit to adapt to small intricate parts and the ina!ilit to adeBuatel heat ver thic/ materials. 'urnace P&7Ts D &hen using the furnace P&7T" the following factors must !e consider% The support reBuirement of the component to !e heat treated 'reedom of the material to expand and contract The placement of sufficient thermocouples to verif the accurac of the P&7T The t pe of heat source
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ??

The heat source for furnaces is either natural gas or fuel oil. 'or uniform application of heat" the component to !e treated is carefull and strategicall surrounded ! heating noGGles. To expedite the heating process" heating noGGles ma also !e arranged inside the component to improve the heat<up rate and thorough heat soa/ of the component. The componentJs location in the furnace must also !e considered to avoid hot or cold spots. The location of severe temperature gradients depends upon the arrangement of the furnace and the location of the heat source. The duration of a P&7T c cle includes the heating time to maximum temperature (ramp up)" the holding time at the specified maximum temperature (soa/)" and the cooling time to am!ient temperature (ramp down). A t pical soa/ time that is specified in the construction standards is one hour per inch of material thic/ness. 0n some cases" o!taining the reBuired maximum P&7T temperature or soa/ time is not possi!le. 0n these cases" the construction standards have provisions for alternate temperatures and soa/ times. )egardless of the P&7T method that is emplo ed" the heating and su!seBuent cooling rates are critical to the success of the operation. &hen the heating rate is too high" the temperatures of thin sections of material increase faster than thic/ sections. Similarl " when the cooling rate is too low" the temperatures of thin sections of material decrease faster than thic/ sections. 1onuniform heating and cooling can cause distortion" residual stresses" and crac/s. 'or this reason" the heating and cooling rates are specified ! the applica!le construction standards. Re:(ire)ents The ma(orit of postweld heat treatment applications in Saudi Aramco must !e in accordance

with AS3E Section #000" Division +" Paragraph 2$S<:?. All construction standards that were addressed in earlier 3odules contain mandator P&7T reBuirements for specific t pes of materials. &hen a P&7T temperature must !e determined for a particular welding operation" the applica!le construction standard is the first place to loo/. T picall " the construction standards reBuire that the heating rate must not exceed .--F' to ,--F' per hour when the !ase metal of the weld or component is a!ove A--F'. &hile the weld or component is ramping up in temperature" the heating rate is not critical !elow A--F'. The cooling rate must not exceed ,--F' to :--F' per hour when the !ase metal of the weld or component is a!ove A--F'. &hile the weld or component is ramping down in temperature" the cooling rate is not critical !elow A--F'.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?=

The postweld heat treatment temperature information presented !elow is !ased on the applica!le construction standards. This information has !een greatl simplified !ecause the construction standards provide man exemptions from the mandator P&7T reBuirements. The P&7T temperature reBuirements for materials that are covered ! AS3E construction standards are similar to each other !ut care must !e ta/en !ecause the differences are ver su!tle. Specific P&7T reBuirements must !e directl derived from the applica!le construction standards. 'igure .> summariGes the AS3E P&7T reBuirements for the following materials% P 1um!er + (car!on steel) P 1um!er . (low<allo steels) P 1um!er , (+<+I, chrome<mol steels) P 1um!er : (9<+I, chrome<mol steels) $ar!on Steels D The P&7T temperature reBuirements for mild car!on steels (P 1um!er +) that are covered ! AS3E Section 0" Section #000" 6.+.+" and 6.+.. are similar. The P&7T temperature for materials with a thic/ness that exceeds .I,K is generall !etween +"+--F' and +"9--F'. AS3E Section #000 is the onl exception in that P&7T is not reBuired until the material thic/ness (t) exceeds +<+I9K. 3aterials !etween +<+I,K and +<+I9K in thic/ness also reBuire P&7T per Section #000 when the preheat temperature (T
p

) is less than 9--F'. Ta!le : summariGes the AS3E preheat reBuirements for P 1um!er + materials.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?A

Ta+le '8 ASME Construction Standard PW>T Temperature :e4uirements


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&here% $ P car!on content $r P chromium content *.D. P outside diameter 1PS P nominal pipe siGe t P material temperature Tp P preheat temperature

Ts P minimum specified tensile strength


Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ?>

The A&S D+.+ construction standard does not specificall reBuire P&7Ts of weldments. A&S D+.+ ac/nowledges that the need for P&7T must !e identified on the contract drawings or specifications. 7owever" A&S D+.+ does provide guidelines for P&7T temperature !etween +"+--F' and +"9--F' for most car!on steels and heating and cooling rates that are similar to those previousl discussed. 6ecause the siGe and weight of field erected tan/s do not permit adeBuate support at P&7T temperatures" AP0 ?9- does not specificall reBuire the use of P&7T when welding tan/s. AP0 ?:- does descri!e P&7T for all flush<t pe cleanout fittings and shell connections. 0n general" the P&7T temperatures are !etween +"+--F' and +"9--F'. #ariations in the P&7T reBuirements are !ased on the diameter of the opening" the material group" and the thic/ness of the tan/ shell material. Lo% Allo Steels 6 The postweld heat treatment temperature reBuirement for low allo steels (P 1um!er .) in AS3E Section 0 and 6.+.+ is +"+--F' when the material thic/ness (t) is in excess of :IAK and the car!on content ($) is in excess of -.9:E. AS3E Section #000 reBuires P&7T at +"+--F' for all P 1um!er ." 8roup 1um!er ." materials. 8roup 1um!er + and 9 materials reBuire P&7T at +"+--F' when the material thic/ness exceeds +I9K and the car!on content exceeds -.9:E. AS3E 6.+.+ reBuires P&7T at temperatures !etween +"+--F' and +"9--F' when the material thic/ness exceeds :IAK and the car!on content exceeds -.9:E. AS3E 6.+.. reBuires P&7T at temperatures !etween +"+--F' and +"9--F' when the material thic/ness exceeds .I,K or the minimum specified tensile strength (T
s

) exceeds =+ /si. 'igure .> summariGes the AS3E P&7T reBuirements for P 1um!er . materials. The postweld heat treatment temperature reBuirement for low allo steels (P1um!er ,) in AS3E Section 0 and #000 is +"+--F' when the outside diameter (*.D.) is greater than ,K" when the material thic/ness (t) is greater than :IAK" or when the car!on content ($) is greater than -.+:E" when the minimum preheat temperature(T
p

) is less than 9:-F'. AS3E 6.+.+ reBuires P&7T at temperatures !etween +".--F' and +".=:F' when the nominal pipe siGe (1PS) is greater than ,K" the material thic/ness (t) is greater than of +I9K" the car!on content ($) is greater than -.+:E" or the minimum preheat temperature(T
p

) is less than 9:-F'. AS3E 6.+.. reBuires P&7T at temperatures !etween +".--F' and +".=:F' when the material thic/ness (t) is greater than +I9K or the minimum specified tensile strength (Ts) exceeds =+ /si. 'igure .> summariGes the AS3E

P&7T reBuirements for P 1um!er , materials.


Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =-

The postweld heat treatment temperature reBuirement for low allo steels (P1um!er :) in AS3E Section 0 and #000 is +"9:-F' when the chromium content is greater than ..-E" when the outside diameter (*.D.) is greater than ,K" when the material thic/ness (t) is greater than :IAK" when the car!on content ($) is greater than -.+:E" or when the minimum preheat temperature(Tp) is less than .--F'. AS3E 6.+.+ reBuires P&7T at temperatures !etween +".--F' and +",--F' when the nominal pipe siGe (1PS) is greater than ,K" when the material thic/ness (t) is greater than +I9K" when the chromium content is greater than ..-E" when the car!on content ($) is greater than -.+:E" or when the minimum preheat temperature(Tp) is less than .--o '. AS3E 6.+.. reBuires P&7T at temperatures !etween +".--F' and +",--F' when the material thic/ness (t) is greater than +I9K" the chromium content is greater than ..-E" or the car!on content is greater than -.+:E. 'igure .> summariGes the AS3E P&7T reBuirements for P 1um!er : materials.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =+

GLOSSARY a'i"it A chemical term relating to the Bualit or condition of !eing acidic in composition. annealing A heat treatment that increases the temperature of steel a!ove the critical temperature and then is slowl cooled to remove internal stresses that result in a steel of lower strength and higher ductilit . $asi'it A chemical term relating to the Bualit or condition of !eing !asic in composition. 'oales'en'e The growing together or growth into one !od of the materials !eing welded. inter!ass te)!erat(re The highest temperature in the weld (oint immediatel prior to welding" or" in the case of multiple pass welds" the highest temperature that is in the section of the previousl deposited weld metal immediatel !efore the next pass is started. li:(i"(s te)!erat(re The lowest temperature at which a metal or allo is completel liBuid" i.e." the temperature at which freeGing starts. nor)ali>ing A heat treatment that increases the temperature of steel a!ove the critical temperature and is then air cooled to remove internal stresses that result in a steel of higher strength and lower ductilit than annealing. !ost%el" *eat treat)ent 'or stress relieving applications" an heat treatment that is applied to a weld or weldment su!seBuent to welding in order to reduce stresses or to alter the weld structure. !re*eat 7eat that is applied to the !ase metals of a weld (oint immediatel !efore welding. re"('ing agent A material that adds h drogen to an element or compound. re"('ing treat)ent

at)os!*ere An atmosphere of h drogen (or other su!stances that readil provide electrons) surrounding a chemical reaction or ph sical device. The effect is the opposite to that of an oxidiGing atmosphere. root !enetration The depth of fusion that is o!tained with the root pass.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =9

soli"ifi'ation te)!erat(re S non mous with solidus temperature. soli"(s te)!erat(re The highest temperature at which a metal or allo is completel solid" i.e." the temperature at which melting starts. te)!erat(re in"i'ating 'ra on A temperature measuring device that is made from a chal/<li/e material and that is formulated to melt at specific temperatures with a +E accurac t*er)o'o(!le A thermoelectric device that measures temperature differences. %el")ent An assem!l of component parts that is (oined ! welding.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =.

WOR? AID 5: HOW TO IDENTI+Y THE MOST COMMONLY !e follo"ing Wor# $id "ill assist you in identifying t!e most common metals used in t!e oil and gas industry% TY#E O+ METAL OR SUBGROU# DESCRI#TION $ar!on Steel (Three T pes) $ar!on content is less than + percent 3anganese content is less than +.?: percent $opper and silicon content are each less than -.?- percent (+). 4ow<car!on Steel D to -.9:E car!on ( c ) <-.9: to +.: E magnesium (3n) (9). 3edium<car!on Steel D-.9: to -.:-E c" -.?- to +.?:E 3n. -9.7 Hig*&'ar$on Steels D-.:- to +.-.E c" -..- to +.--E 3n. 4ow Allo Steels The amount of manganese is greater than +.?: percent. The amount of silicon is greater than -.?- percent. The amount of copper is greater than -.?- percent. A definite minimum Buantit of an of the following elements is specified or reBuired in allo steels% aluminum" !oron" chromium up to ..>> percent" co!alt" colum!ium" mol !denum" nic/el" titanium" tungsten" vanadium" or Girconium. An other allo ing agent is added to o!tain a desired allo ing effect.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =,

Stainless Steels ('ive groups) All stainless steels contain iron as the main element and chromium in amounts that var from a!out ++ percent to .-

percent. $hromium provides corrosion resistance (+) Austenitic D most commonl used" corrosive resistant" easil welded" does not reBuire pre or post heat. (9) $hromium 3artensitic D are magnetic steels that contain +9 to +, percent chromium and up to -..: percent car!on (.) $hromium 'erritic D are also magnetic and readil weldedH however" the gas welding processes are not recommended (,) Duplex D com!ine the corrosion resistance properties of austenitic S. S. grade" especiall stress corrosion crac/ing (S$$)" and the mechanical properties of the ferritic stainless steel grades (:) Precipitation<hardened D can develop high strength with reasona!l simple heat treatmentsH Precipitationhardened stainless steels that are readil welded reBuire no preheat or solution annealing heat treatment.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =:

WOR? AID 8: HOW TO IDENTI+Y WELD /OINT DESIGNS AND SYMBOLS !is Wor# $id consists of Figure & t!roug! Figure '( in t!e )nformation Section of t!is module% *se t!e able of +ontents for Figures to locate t!e page numbers%
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WOR? AID 9: HOW TO IDENTI+Y WELDING CONSUMABLES !is Wor# $id "ill assist you in identifying "elding consumables% 'ollowing is a s nopsis of the four !asic t pes of welding consuma!les% 7. $oated Electrodes 3ost popular t pe of filler metal for arc welding Also used in the S3A& welding process The A&S classifications for car!on and low allo steel coated electrodes are !ased on an KEK (electrode) prefix with a four or five digit num!er (EMMMMM). The first two digits (or three digits in a five digit num!er) indicate the minimum reBuired tensile strength in the Nas depositedO weld metal (not stress relieved) in thousands of pounds per sBuare inch. The next to the last digit indicates the welding position(s) in which the coated electrode can ma/e satisfactor welds% (a! D + P all positions (+! D 9 P flat and horiGontal fillet welds The A&S classifications for stainless steel coated electrodes are also !ased on an KEK prefix with onl a three digit num!er and a two digit suffix (EMMM<MM). The first three digits represent the American 0ron and Steel 0nstituteJs (A0S0) num!ering s stem for stainless steels. (a) D The .-- series designates austenitic stainless steels (+! D The ,-- series designates martensitic and ferritic stainless steels The two digits in the suffix indicate the t pe of current and the t pe of coating for the electrode. 8. 6are )ods and &ires 6are rods are t picall manufactured in .?K straight lengths with diameters that range

from -.-,:K to .I+?K. 6are rods are predominantl used with the gas tungsten arc welding (8TA&) process and the torch !raGing process. 6are wire electrodes are similar to !are rods except that !are wire is manufactured in continuous lengths with diameters that range from -.-9-K to +IA.K
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards ==

The A&S classifications for car!on and low allo steel !are rods and wire have an KE)K prefix with a two or three digit num!er and a one or two digit suffix (E)MMMS<MM). The KEK indicates an electrode" and the K)K indicates a welding rodH therefore" KE)K indicates either an electrode or a welding rod. The first three digits KMMMK indicate the minimum reBuired tensile strength in thousands of pounds per sBuare inch. The KSK indicates a solid electrode or rod. The one or two digits in the suffix indicate the chemical composition of the deposited weld metal. The A&S classifications for stainless steel !are rods and wire have an KE)K prefix with a three digit num!er (E)MMM). The first three digits represent the American 0ron and Steel 0nstituteJs (A0S0) num!ering s stem for stainless steels. The .-- series designates austenitic stainless steels" and the ,-- series designates the martensitic and ferritic stainless steels. 0n the A&S classification E).-A4" the K4K represents a low car!on version of the filler metal. 9. 'lux cored Electrodes. Tu!ular wire that is manufactured in continuous lengths with diameters that range from -.-,:K to :I.9.K The A&S classifications for car!on and low allo steel flux cored electrodes have an KEK prefix with a two digit num!er KMM and a one digit suffix (EMMT<M). The KEK indicates an electrode and the KTK indicates a tu!ular electrode. The first two digits indicate the minimum reBuired tensile strength in thousands of pounds per sBuare inch. The one digit suffix indicates the chemical composition of the deposited weld metal" gas t pe" and usa!ilit factor. ()efer to 'igure .+) Example" An E=-T<+ flux cored electrode has a =-"--- psi tensile strength and it uses $*9 shielding gas for flat position welding.
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards =A

WOR? AID @: HOW TO DESCRIBE HEAT IN#UT E++ECTS !is Wor# is a synopsis of t!e effects of !eat input% 7. Parameters of heat input The three /e welding parameters affect the amount of heat input to a weld are% The welding current (a! 7igh welding current results in greater !ase metal penetration" and a lower welding current results in shallow !ase metal penetration. (+! An increase in the welding current increases the heat input to the weld. (c! An increase in the welding current also increases the melt<off rate of the electrode and improves productivit !ecause more weld metal is deposited

The welding arc voltage (a) #oltage is the force that causes a current to flow. (+! The difference in potential or voltage causes the current to flow in an electric circuit. (c! The letter K#K is used to designate voltage (d! 7igh welding voltage results in greater !ase metal penetration" while lower welding voltage is indicative of shallow !ase metal penetration. (e! An increase in the welding voltage increases the heat input to the weld The travel speed of the welding process. (a) The rate that a welding electrode progresses along a weld (oint while welding is called the travel speed. (+! The letter KSK designates the travel speed. (c! Several welding varia!les affect the travel speed" such as" the welding process" the position of the weld" the welder" and the wire feed speed. (d! Slow travel speeds ma/e wide weld !eads with deep !ase metal penetration. (e! 'ast travel speeds ma/e narrow weld !eads and shallow !ase metal penetration (.! A decrease in the travel speed increases the heat input to the weld
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8. Disadvantages of excessive heat input that can affect weld Bualit . &arpage and distortion caused ! high residual differential shrin/age stresses $rac/s caused ! a reduction of ductilit or a degree of hardening Premature failure caused ! the deterioration of the toughness properties of the weld (oint Premature failure caused ! the loss of strength of certain wor/ hardened" Buenched" and tempered materials 9. Use the .ollowin0 e:uation to deter*ine heat input. E4uation 18 >eat #nput &here% 0 P the welding current in amperes # P the arc voltage in volts S P the travel speed in inches per minute
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards A-

WOR? AID A: HOW TO DESCRIBE HEAT TREATMENT E++ECTS This Work Aid is a synopsis of the effects of heat treatment. 7. Preheat 7eat that is applied to the !ase metals of a weld (oint immediatel !efore welding. Preheat temperature depends on man factors such as the composition of the !ase metal" the am!ient temperature" and the welding procedure. The main purpose of preheat is to reduce the rate at which a weld cools. Preheating the weld has these advantages% )educes shrin/age stresses in the weld and heat<affected Gone that lead to crac/s A slower rate at which the weld metal cools through the critical temperature range (approximatel +"?--' to +"..-')" which prevents excessive hardening and loss of ductilit of !oth the weld metal and the heat<affected Gone A slower rate at which the weld metal cools through the ,--' range" which allows more time for an h drogen that is present to diffuse awa from the weld

and ad(acent !ase metal to avoid under!ead crac/ing 3aintains sufficient heat at the weld area on highl conductive or thic/ !ase metals )emoves moisture from the weld (oint The choice of the preheat tools depends on factors such as the following% The preheat temperature The duration of the preheat c cle The siGe and shape of the weldment The need for a one<of<a</ind or a continuous production preheat operation 'or the ma(orit of pipe welds" an ox acet lene torch provides sufficient preheat to support the welding operation &hen preheat for a single weld or for multiple welds that are in close proximit is reBuired for a long period of time" electric resistance heaters are often more convenient. 8as !urners are more effectivel and more widel used in pressure vessels (and in !uilding industries in general) than handheld torches. The necessit to preheat weld (oints and the temperature reBuirements should !e esta!lished ! Engineering and should !e demonstrated ! a welding procedure specification (&PS).
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards A+

The preheat temperature depends upon these factors% T pe of !ase metal and its composition @oint thic/ness degree of restraint T pe and composition of filler metal The interpass temperature should also !e considered. The interpass temperature is the highest temperature in the weld (oint immediatel prior to welding. The weldment temperature should never !e allowed to !ecome lower than the preheat or the interpass temperature. *se t!e follo"ing formula to determine carbon e,uivalent of base metals E4uation 28 Car+on E4ui&alent Formula $E P E$ T (E3nI?) T ( Er 3o v : = + ) T ( 1i $u +.: +) &here% E$ P Percent of $ar!on E3n P Percent of 3anganese E1i P Percent of 1ic/el E3o P Percent of 3ol !denum E$r P Percent of $hromium E$u P Percent of $opper 8. Postweld 7eat Treatment A num!er of postweld heat treatments exist for weldments !ut stress relief is the most widel used postweld heat treatment.. Postweld heat treatment is an heat treatment that is applied to a weld or weldment after welding to reduce residual stresses.

Advantages of postweld heat treatment of weldments% )educe residual stresses that are inherent to an weldment" casting" or forging Soften hardened weld Gones 0mprove resistance to corrosion and caustic em!rittlement 0mprove dimensional sta!ilit of the weldment when machined 0ncrease service life of the weldment
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards A9

Similar methods as that utiliGed for preheat are used for use for postweld heat treatment (P&7T) of welds. T he choice of the P&7T methods is similar to preheat treatment methods and depends on factors such as the following% The postweld heat treatment temperature The duration of the postweld heat treatment c cle The siGe and shape of the weldment or component The need for a one<of<a</ind or a continuous production postweld heat treatment operation The ma(orit of postweld heat treatment applications in Saudi Aramco must !e in accordance with AS3E Section #000" Division +" Paragraph 2$S<:?. T picall " the construction standards reBuire that the heating rate must not exceed .--F' to ,--F' per hour when the !ase metal of the weld or component is a!ove A--F'. The cooling rate must not exceed ,--F' to :--F' per hour when the !ase metal of the weld or component is a!ove A--F'
Engineering Enc clopedia Saudi Aramco Des/Top Standards A.

BIBLIOGRA#HY A&S A:.x series" +>>+ AS3E Section 0" )ules for $onstruction of Power 6oilers" +>?? AS3E Section 00" Part $" Specifications for &elding )ods" Electrodes" and 'iller 3etals" +>?? AS3E Section #000" Pressure #essels" +>?? AS3E Section 0M" Vualification Standards for &elding" +>?? AS3EIA1S0 6.+.." Process Piping" +>?? AS3EIA1S0 6.+.," 4iBuid Transportation of 7 drocar!ons" +>>9 A&S D+.+" Structural &elding $ode" +>>?