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Differences between L1 and L2 acquisition

Ellis 94 (based on Bley-Vroman 1988); updated in Cook (2009 !li!k abo"e link) Feature L1 acquisition L2 (foreign language) acquisition adult %2 learners are unlikely to a!#ie"e per$e!t %2 mastery !omplete su!!ess rare %2 learners "ary in o"erall su!!ess and route &ll impli!itly see 'su!!ess' in t#e sense o$ (#at a mono-lin)ual nati"e speaker does not an %2 user VC's objections

1. O erall success

!#ildren normally a!#ie"e per$e!t %1 mastery su!!ess )uaranteed little "ariation in de)ree o$ su!!ess or route tar)et lan)ua)e !ompeten!e

2. !eneral failure ". Variation

#. !oals

%2 learners may be !ontent (it# less t#an tar)et lan)ua)e !ompeten!e or more !on!erned (it# $luen!y t#an a!!ura!y !ommon plus ba!kslidin) (i*e* return to earlier sta)es o$ de"elopment &nd %2 users too #a"e %1 attrition

$. Fossilisation



!#ildren de"elop !lear intuitions about !orre!tness not needed !orre!tion not $ound and not ne!essary not in"ol"ed

%2 learners are o$ten unable But bilin)ual !#ildren to $orm !lear )rammati!ality are better at t#is +ud)ments t#an monolin)uals #elp$ul or ne!essary !orre!tion )enerally #elp$ul or ne!essary play a ma+or role determinin) pro$i!ien!y &ll depends, -e!asts are in $a!t based on %1 a!.uisition ideas &)ain measured a)ainst monolin)uals

'. &nstruction (. )egati e e idence *. +ffecti e factors

EFL English as a Foreign Language is the name given to the English taught in commercial language schools. Students are typically young people who have come to an English-speaking country

for a period which may range from a couple of weeks to a full year, with the main aim of improving their English. The meaning of the term is that teaching English as a foreign language re uires a whole range of skills and approaches which are not used in teaching !say" children their own language. The term often also covers teaching English to specialists or academics, and to lessons that people take in private language schools in their own country. ESL or ES#L English as a Second !or other" Language is more aimed at people who have come to an English-speaking country to live, $y choice or !as in the case of refugees, for e%ample" from necessity. ESL is often taught in colleges, &dult Education centres or other government-funded organisations. The aim is primarily to prepare students for life in the host country, so typically lessons contain much more 'survival English' !things like filling in forms and going for interviews" and information a$out the host country than EFL classes do. (n practice, however, the two often overlap.