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Zeta potential

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zeta potential - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zeta potential is a scientific term for electrokinetic potential [1] in colloidal systems. In the colloidal chemistry literature, it is usually denoted using the Greek letter zeta (ζ), hence ζ-potential. From a theoretical viewpoint, the zeta potential is the electric potential in the interfacial double layer (DL) at the location of the slipping plane versus a point in the bulk fluid away from the interface. In other words, zeta potential is the potential difference between the dispersion medium and the stationary layer of fluid attached to the dispersed particle.

A value of 25 mV (positive or negative) can be taken as the arbitrary value that separates low-charged surfaces from highly charged surfaces.

Diagram showing the ionic concentration and potential difference as a function of distance from the

Diagram showing the ionic concentration and potential difference as a function of distance from the charged surface of a particle suspended in a dispersion medium.

The significance of zeta potential is that its value can be related to the stability of colloidal dispersions (e.g., a

multivitamin syrup). The zeta potential indicates the degree of repulsion between adjacent, similarly charged particles (the vitamins) in a dispersion. For molecules and particles that are small enough, a high zeta potential will confer stability, i.e., the solution or dispersion will resist aggregation. When the potential is low, attraction exceeds repulsion and the dispersion will break and flocculate. So, colloids with high zeta potential (negative or positive) are electrically stabilized while colloids with low zeta potentials tend to coagulate or flocculate as

outlined in the table. [2][3]

Zeta potential [mV]

Stability behavior of the colloid

from 0 to ±5,

Rapid coagulation or flocculation

from ±10 to ±30

Incipient instability

from ±30 to ±40

Moderate stability

from ±40 to ±60

Good stability

more than ±61

Excellent stability

Zeta potential is widely used for quantification of the magnitude of the electrical charge at the double layer. However, zeta potential is not equal to the Stern potential or electric surface potential in the double layer. [4] Such assumptions of equality should be applied with caution. Nevertheless, zeta potential is often the only available path for characterization of double-layer properties. Zeta potential should not be confused with electrode potential or electrochemical potential (because electrochemical reactions are generally not involved in the development of zeta potential).


Zeta potential - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1.1 Electrokinetic phenomena 1.1.1 Electrophoresis

1.1 Electrokinetic phenomena 1.1.1 Electrophoresis
1.1 Electrokinetic phenomena 1.1.1 Electrophoresis 1.2 Electroacoustic phenomena

1.2 Electroacoustic phenomena

1.1 Electrokinetic phenomena 1.1.1 Electrophoresis 1.2 Electroacoustic phenomena
2 Calculation of zeta potential

2 Calculation of zeta potential

3 References

3 References

Measurement of zeta potential

Zeta potential is not measurable directly but it can be calculated using theoretical models and an experimentally- determined electrophoretic mobility or dynamic electrophoretic mobility.

Electrokinetic phenomena and electroacoustic phenomena are the usual sources of data for calculation of zeta potential.

Electrokinetic phenomena

Main article: Electrokinetic phenomena

Electrophoresis is used for estimating zeta potential of particulates, whereas streaming potential/current is used for porous bodies and flat surfaces. In practice, the Zeta potential of dispersion is measured by applying an electric field across the dispersion. Particles within the dispersion with a zeta potential will migrate toward the electrode of opposite charge with a velocity proportional to the magnitude of the zeta potential.

This velocity is measured using the technique of the Laser Doppler Anemometer. The frequency shift or phase shift of an incident laser beam caused by these moving particles is measured as the particle mobility, and this mobility is converted to the zeta potential by inputting the dispersant viscosity and dielectric permittivity, and the application of the Smoluchowski theories (see below). [5]


Main article: Electrophoresis

Electrophoretic velocity is proportional to electrophoretic mobility, which is the measurable parameter. There are several theories that link electrophoretic mobility with zeta potential. They are briefly described in the article on electrophoresis and in details in many books on colloid and interface science. [6][7][8][9] There is an IUPAC Technical Report [10] prepared by a group of world experts on the electrokinetic phenomena.

From the instrumental viewpoint, there are two different experimental techniques:

Microelectrophoresis . It has the advantage of yielding an image of the moving particles. On Microelectrophoresis. It has the advantage of yielding an image of the moving particles. On the other hand, it is complicated by electro-osmosis at the walls of the sample cell.

Electrophoretic light scattering . It is based on dynamic light scattering . It allows measurement Electrophoretic light scattering. It is based on dynamic light scattering. It allows measurement in an open cell which eliminates the problem of electro-osmotic flow for the case of an Uzgiris, but not a capillary cell. And, it can be used to characterize very small particles, but at the price of the lost ability to display images of moving particles.


Zeta potential - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Both these measuring techniques may require dilution of the sample. Sometimes this dilution might affect properties of the sample and change zeta potential. There is only one justified way to perform this dilution - by using equilibrium supernatant. In this case the interfacial equilibrium between the surface and the bulk liquid would be maintained and zeta potential would be the same for all volume fractions of particles in the suspension. When the diluent is known (as is the case for a chemical formulation), additional diluent can be prepared. If the diluent is unknown, equilibrium supernatant is readily obtained by centrifugation.

Electroacoustic phenomena

Electroacoustic techniques have the advantage of being able to perform measurements in intact samples, without dilution. Published and well-verified theories allow such measurements at volume fractions up to 50%, see reference. Calculation of zeta potential from the dynamic electrophoretic mobility requires information on the densities for particles and liquid. In addition, for larger particles exceeding roughly 300 nm in size information on the particle size required as well.

Calculation of zeta potential

The most known and widely used theory for calculating zeta potential from experimental data is that developed by Marian Smoluchowski in 1903. [11] This theory was originally developed for electrophoresis; however, an extension to electroacoustics is now also available. [8] Smoluchowski's theory is powerful because it is valid for dispersed particles of any shape and any concentration. However, it has its limitations:

Detailed theoretical analysis proved that Smoluchowski's theory is valid only for a sufficiently thin double layer, when the Debye length , 1/κ, is much smaller than the particle radius a : Debye length, 1/κ, is much smaller than the particle radius a:

, 1/κ, is much smaller than the particle radius a : The model of the "thin

The model of the "thin double layer" offers tremendous simplifications not only for electrophoresis theory but for many other electrokinetic and electroacoustic theories. This model is valid for most aqueous systems because the Debye length is typically only a few nanometers in water. The model breaks only for nano-colloids in a solution with ionic strength approaching that of pure water.

Smoluchowski's theory neglects the contribution of surface conductivity . This is expressed in modern theories as the condition of a small surface conductivity. This is expressed in modern theories as the condition of a small Dukhin number:

theories as the condition of a small Dukhin number : The development of electrophoretic and electroacoustic

The development of electrophoretic and electroacoustic theories with a wider range of validity was a purpose of many studies during the 20th century. There are several analytical theories that incorporate surface conductivity and eliminate the restriction of the small Dukhin number for both the electrokinetic and electroacoustic applications.

Early pioneering work in that direction dates back to Overbeek [12] and Booth. [13]


Zeta potential - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Modern, rigorous electrokinetic theories that are valid for any zeta potential and often any κa, stem mostly from the Ukrainian (Dukhin, Shilov and others) and Australian (O'Brien, White, Hunter and others) schools. Historically, the first one was Dukhin-Semenikhin theory. [14] A similar theory was created 10 years later by O'Brien and Hunter. [15] Assuming a thin double layer, these theories would yield results that are very close to the numerical solution provided by O'Brien and White. [16] There are also general electroacoustic theories that are valid for any values of Debye length and Dukhin number. [8][9]



^ Definition of electrokinetic potential (http://goldbook.iupac.org/E01968.html) in "IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology", 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2Fgoldbook).


^ Greenwood, R; Kendall, K (1999). Journal of the European Ceramic Society 19 (4): 479–488.








^ a b Hunter, R.J. "Foundations of Colloid Science", Oxford University Press, 1989 ISBN 0-19-855189-4



^ M. von Smoluchowski, Bull. Int. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 184 (1903)


^ Overbeek, J.Th.G., Koll. Bith, 287 (1943)



^ Dukhin, S.S. and Semenikhin, N.M. Koll. Zhur., 32, 366 (1970)


^ O'Brien, R.W. and Hunter, R.J. Can. J. Chem., 59, 1878 (1981)


^ O'Brien, Richard W.; White, Lee R. (1978). "Electrophoretic mobility of a spherical colloidal particle". Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 2 74: 1607. doi:10.1039/F29787401607