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00CHAPTER OUTLINE

I0. THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW What is psychology and how did it grow? Psychology is the science that seeks t !n"e#stan" behavior and mental processes$ an" t a%%&' that !n"e#stan"in( in the se#)ice * h!+an ,e&*a#e. Positive psychology * c!ses n the *act #s that +ake &i*e + st , #th &i)in(. A0. S!-*ie&"s * Ps'ch & (' Ps'ch & (ists in "i**e#ent s!-*ie&"s * %s'ch & (' st!"' "i**e#ent t %ics. .0. Cognitive psychologists st!"' -asic +enta& %# cesses an" thei# #e&ati nshi% t -eha)i # in a#eas s!ch as sensati n$ %e#ce%ti n$ &ea#nin($ +e+ #'$ /!"(+ent$ "ecisi n +akin($ an" %# -&e+ s &)in(. 00. Biological # physiological psychologists # neuroscientists st!"' h , -i & (ica& st#!ct!#e an" *!ncti n a**ect -eha)i # an" +enta& %# cesses. 10. Personality psychologists st!"' in"i)i"!a&it'2the !ni3!eness * each %e#s n2 an" ,hethe# s +e c +-inati ns * %e#s na&it' t#aits %#e"ict %atte#ns * -eha)i #. 40. Developmental psychologists st!"' an" "esc#i-e chan(es in -eha)i # an" +enta& %# cesses )e# the &i*e s%an. 50. Quantitative psychologists !se statistica& +eth "s t "esc#i-e$ ana&'6e$ an" inte#%#et "ata c &&ecte" -' %s'ch & (ists in the# s!-*ie&"s. 70. Clinical psychologists (ene#a&&' ha)e a Ph.D. in %s'ch & ('$ %# )i"e the#a%'$ an" +an' st!"' the ca!ses * "is #"e#s. Counseling psychologists ha)e eithe# a Ph.D. # a +aste#8s "e(#ee in %s'ch & (' an" , #k as +enta& hea&th c !nse& #s. Community psychologists t#' t he&% %#e)ent st#ess*!& c n"iti ns that &ea" t "is #"e#s. Psychiatrists a#e +e"ica& " ct #s ,h s%ecia&i6e in a-n #+a& %s'ch & ('. 90. Educational psychologists c n"!ct #esea#ch an" "e)e& % the #ies a- !t teachin( an" &ea#nin(. :0. School psychologists s%ecia&i6e in testin( an" "ia(n sin( &ea#nin( "isa-i&ities$ an" esta-&ish %# (#a+s t i+%# )e st!"ent achie)e+ent an" s!ccess. ;0. Social psychologists st!"' the ,a's that %e %&e in*&!ence ne an the#. .00. Industrial-organizational psychologists st!"' *act #s that a**ect the e**icienc'$ %# "!cti)it'$ an" satis*acti n * , #ke#s an" the #(ani6ati ns that e+%& ' the+. ..0. Othe#s inc&!"e health psychologists$ sports psychologists, forensic psychologists, engineering psychologists, environmental psychologists, an" +an' the#s. <0. Linka(es Within Ps'ch & (' an" <e' n" .0. The )e#&a%%in( s!-*ie&"s a#e s +e,hat a#-it#a#' "esc#i%t #s * a "i)e#se *ie&". = st %s'ch & (ists >*it? se)e#a& s!-*ie&"s an" inte#act ,ith %s'ch & (ists in the# s!-*ie&"s. 00. Ps'ch & (' e+-#aces an" )e#&a%s ,ith +an' the# aca"e+ic "isci%&ines. C0. A <#ie* Hist #' * Ps'ch & (' .0. Inte#est in -eha)i # an" the +in" can -e t#ace" -ack t ancient G#eek %hi& s %he#s s!ch as S c#ates$ P&at $ an" A#ist t&e. a0@ Scienti*ic %s'ch & (' has its # ts in %hi& s %h'. 00. In the .700s %hi& s %he#s s!ch as A hn L cke$ Ge #(e <e#ke&e'$ an" Da)i" H!+e a#(!e" * # empiricism2that kn ,&e"(e c +es th# !(h eB%e#ience an" -se#)ati n.

I0.

a0@ A %e#s n is - #n a tabula rasa2a >-&ank s&ate$? ,ith n in- #n kn ,&e"(e$ -!t n ,hich eB%e#iences * &i*e >,#ite? t (i)e kn ,&e"(e th# !(h "i#ect sensati n. 10. Wi&he&+ W!n"t * !n"e" the *i#st %s'ch & (' #esea#ch &a- #at #' in Lei%6i($ Ge#+an'$ in .:9;. He atte+%te" t !se e+%i#ica& #esea#ch +eth "s t st!"' consciousness2the +enta& eB%e#iences that a#ise *# + !# sens #'C%e#ce%t!a& s'ste+s. Fi)e #esea#ch "i#ecti ns e+e#(e" in %s'ch & (' in the &ate .:00s. a0@ W!n"t$ an" &ate# E",a#" Titchene# in the Dnite" States$ !se" the techni3!e * introspection$ in ,hich hi(h&' t#aine" s!-/ects ca#e*!&&' "esc#i-e each as%ect * thei# c nsci !s sens #' eB%e#iences. This a%%# ach ,as ca&&e" structuralism$ -eca!se it * c!se" n "esc#i-in( each * the se%a#ate e&e+ents that +ake !% c nsci !s eB%e#ience. -0@ Gestalt psychologists *# + E!# %e$ &e" -' =aB We#thei+e#$ E!#t E **ka$ an" W &*(an( E h&e#$ sa, c nsci !sness as a ,h &e eB%e#ience that c !&" n t -e st!"ie" as se%a#ate %a#ts. c0@ In Vienna$ A!st#ia$ Si(+!n" F#e!" "e)e& %e" psychoanalysis, a the #' that -eha)i # an" c nsci !s eB%e#ience ste+ *# + !nc nsci !s c n*&icts an" "esi#es. "0@ In the Dnite" States$ Wi&&ia+ Aa+es ,as in*&!ence" -' Cha#&es Da#,in8s the #' * e) &!ti n. Aa+es8s a%%# ach$ functionalism$ e+%hasi6e" the st!"' * ,hat c nsci !sness " es2h , it *!ncti ns t he&% %e %&e a"a%t t thei# en)i# n+ents. The * c!s ,as n e)e#Cchan(in( %atte#ns * sensati ns$ +e+ #ies$ an" the# +enta& e)ents #athe# than n the %a#ts that +ake !% c nsci !sness. e0@ A hn Wats n$ a&s in the Dnite" States$ a#(!e" that %s'ch & (ists sh !&" i(n #e +enta& e)ents an" c ncent#ate n&' n observable -eha)i #s. His behaviorism a%%# ach he&" that learning is the + st i+% #tant ca!se * -eha)i #. F.0@ <eha)i #is+ ,as "e)e& %e" *!#the# -' <. F. Skinne#8s functional analysis of behavior$ ,hich * c!se" n h , #e,a#"s an" %!nish+ents sha%e -eha)i #. *0@ In %s'ch & (' t "a' the * c!s is nce a(ain n +enta& acti)it' as in* #+ati n %# cessin(. <i techn & (' has %ene" ne, ,a's t st!"' the -i & (ica& -ases * +enta& %# cessin(. APPROACHES TO THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY Why dont all psychologists explain behavior in the same way? A0. Each * the a%%# aches t %s'ch & (' eB%&ains -eha)i # # +enta& %# cesses *# + a "i**e#ent % int * )ie,. = st %s'ch & (ists a#e eclectic, c +-inin( the *eat!#es * se)e#a& a%%# aches. .0. A iological approach %#es!+es that -i & (ica& *act #s Fe.(.$ (enes$ h #+ nes$ -#ain s'ste+s@ a**ect -eha)i # an" +enta& e)ents. 00. An evolutionary approach e+%hasi6es h , -eha)i # an" +enta& %hen +ena a#e a #es!&t * e) &!ti n th# !(h natural selection$ (ene#ati nCt C(ene#ati n a"a%tati ns * #(anis+s in #"e# t s!#)i)e in thei# en)i# n+ents. 10. The psychodynamic approach, * !n"e" -' F#e!"$ sees c nstant !nc nsci !s c n*&icts ,ithin a %e#s n as the +ain "ete#+inant * -eha)i # an" +enta& &i*e. 40. The ehavioral approach, *# + the -eha)i #is+ * Wats n an" Skinne#$ * c!ses enti#e&' n -se#)a-&e -eha)i #s an" h , these -eha)i #s a#e &ea#ne".

a0@ The cognitive-behavioral # social-cognitive a%%# ach st!"ies the ,a's ,e &ea#n th !(hts$ attit!"es$ an" -e&ie*s an" h , these a**ect !# -se#)a-&e -eha)i #s. 50. The cognitive approach * c!ses n h , %e %&e take in$ +enta&&' #e%#esent$ %# cess$ an" st #e in* #+ati n. a0@ Cognitive science is a +!&ti"isci%&ina#' *ie&" * c!sin( n the st!"' * inte&&i(ent s'ste+s in h!+ans an" c +%!te#s. 70. The humanistic approach Fa&s kn ,n as the phenomenological a%%# ach@ sees each %e#s n8s !ni3!e %e#ce%ti ns * the , #&" as (!i"in( hisGhe# th !(hts an" acti ns. II0. HD=AN DIVERSITY AND PSYCHOLOGY ow does your cultural bac!ground influence your behavior? A0. As "i)e#sit' a+ n( %s'ch & (ists has inc#ease"$ s $ t $ has thei# inte#est in the "i)e#sit' * %e %&e in (ene#a&. The' n & n(e# %#es!+e that a&& h!+ans a#e essentia&&' the sa+e an" a&& #esea#ch *in"in(s a#e !ni)e#sa&&' a%%&ica-&e. <0. A&& h!+ans %# -a-&' a#e a&ike in ce#tain -eha)i #a& an" +enta& a-i&ities. F # eBa+%&e$ a&& ne,- #n h!+ans ha)e #e*&eBes that s& ,&' #ece"e )e# se)e#a& + nths as thei# -#ains "e)e& %. C0. Sociocultural varia les a#e *act #s s!ch as (en"e#$ ethnicit'$ s cia& c&ass$ an" c!&t!#e that %# "!ce #ea& "i**e#ences in -eha)i #a& an" +enta& %# cesses. .0. Culture is the acc!+!&ati n * )a&!es$ #!&es * -eha)i #$ * #+s * eB%#essi n$ #e&i(i !s -e&ie*s$ cc!%ati na& ch ices$ an" the &ike * # a (# !% * %e %&e ,ith a c ++ n &an(!a(e an" en)i# n+ent. a0@ In individualist c!&t!#es %e %&e * c!s n an" )a&!e %e#s na& ( a&s #athe# than (# !% ( a&s. -0@ In collectivist c!&t!#es %e %&e *ten ten" t think * the+se&)es as %a#t * *a+i&' # , #k (# !%s #athe# than as in"i)i"!a&s. c0@ = st c !nt#ies a#e multicultural$ h stin( +an' subcultures ,ithin thei# - #"e#s. 00. N t n&' %s'ch & (ists inte#este" in cross-cultural #esea#ch$ -!t a&s %s'ch & (ists in (ene#a&$ eB%& #e s ci c!&t!#a& )a#ia-&es as %s'ch & (' st#i)es t -e the science * all -eha)i #. III0. THINEING CRITICALLY A<ODT PSYCHOLOGY FOR ANYTHING ELSE@ ow can critical thin!ing save you money? A0. Critical thin!ing is the %# cess * assessin( c&ai+s an" +akin( /!"(+ents n the -asis * ,e&&Cs!%% #te" e)i"ence. Fi)e +ain 3!esti ns * #+ the -asis * ( " c#itica& thinkin(. .0. What a+ I -ein( aske" t -e&ie)e # acce%tH 00. Is the#e e)i"ence a)ai&a-&e t s!%% #t the c&ai+H 10. Can that e)i"ence -e inte#%#ete" an the# ,a'H 40. What e)i"ence , !&" he&% t e)a&!ate the a&te#nati)esH 50. What c nc&!si ns a#e + st #eas na-&eH <0. Ps'ch & (ists !se c#itica& thinkin( in scienti*ic #esea#ch. .0. I!esti ns a- !t -eha)i # an" +enta& %# cesses a#e %h#ase" in te#+s * a hypothesis2a s%eci*ic$ testa-&e state+ent. Resea#ch is " ne t (athe# e)i"ence t s!%% #t # #e*!te this state+ent. 00. "perational definitions a#e "esc#i%ti ns * the eBact +eth "s # %e#ati ns that ,i&& -e !se" in a #esea#ch st!"' * the h'% thesis. F # eBa+%&e$ an %e#ati na& "e*initi n * hei(ht , !&" -e inches.

10. #aria les a#e the s%eci*ic *act #s # cha#acte#istics that can -e a&te#e" an" +eas!#e" in #esea#ch. Hei(ht , !&" -e a )a#ia-&e. 40. Then the 3!a&it' * the e)i"ence is e)a&!ate". a0@ $elia ility #e*e#s t ,hethe# the #es!&ts a#e c nsistent # #e%eata-&e. -0@ #alidity #e*e#s t ,hethe# the #es!&ts acc!#ate&' #e*&ect ,hat the' c&ai+. 50. Resea#ch e)i"ence (athe#e" *# + n!+e# !s st!"ies is #(ani6e" int a theory2 an inC"e%th eB%&anati n * the %hen +ena st!"ie". The the #' * #+s the -asis * # *!#the# #esea#ch in the a#ea that +a' &ea" t #e)isi n # e)en a-an" n+ent * the the #'$ i* it is n t s!%% #te". IV0. RESEARCH =ETHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY ow do psychologists learn about people? The scienti*ic +eth " (ene#a&&' c nsists * * !# +ain ( a&s: describe the %hen +en n$ ma!e predictions a- !t the %hen +en n$ control the %hen +en n t ask s%eci*ic 3!esti ns a- !t it$ an" explain the %hen +en n. A0. Nat!#a&istic O-se#)ati n: Watchin( <eha)i # .0. In a naturalistic o servation, a #esea#che# ,atches an" #ec #"s a %hen +en n as it nat!#a&&' cc!#s ,ith !t inte#*e#in( ,ith it. 00. S!-/ects +a' act "i**e#ent&' i* the' kn , that the' a#e -ein( -se#)e". 10. O-se#)ati ns can -e "ist #te" # inc +%&ete i* -se#)e#s a#e n t ,e&& t#aine" # a#e -iase" a- !t ,hat the' eB%ect t see. 40. O-se#)ati n a& ne cann t &ea" t c nc&!si ns a- !t ca!se an" e**ect. <0. Case St!"ies: Takin( a C& se# L k .0. Case studies a#e intensi)e eBa+inati ns * -eha)i # # +enta& %# cesses in a %a#tic!&a# in"i)i"!a&$ (# !%$ # sit!ati n. 00. Case st!"ies a#e !se*!& * # ne,$ c +%&eB$ # #a#e %hen +ena$ s!ch as th se st!"ie" -' ne!# %s'ch & (ists. 10. Case st!"ies +!st -e inte#%#ete" ca!ti !s&' -eca!se the' +a' n t #e%#esent %e %&e in (ene#a& an" +a' c ntain n&' the e)i"ence a %a#tic!&a# #esea#che# c nsi"e#e" i+% #tant. C%& S!#)e's: L kin( at the <i( Pict!#e .0. Surveys !se inte#)ie,s # 3!esti nnai#es t ask %e %&e a- !t thei# -eha)i #$ attit!"es$ -e&ie*s$ %ini ns$ # intenti ns. 00. The )a&i"it' * s!#)e' "ata "e%en"s %a#t&' n the , #"in( * s!#)e' 3!esti ns. 10. A s!#)e'8s )a&i"it' a&s "e%en"s n ,h is s!#)e'e" an" ,h ch ses t #es% n". 40. Pe %&e +a' -e #e&!ctant t a"+it !n"esi#a-&e # e+-a##assin( thin(s a- !t the+se&)es. D0. C ##e&ati na& St!"ies .0. Correlational studies !se "ata c &&ecte" *# + nat!#a&istic -se#)ati ns$ case st!"ies$ # s!#)e's t & k * # #e&ati nshi%s -et,een )a#ia-&es2in the# , #"s$ t *in" !t h , +!ch ne )a#ia-&e %#e"icts the the#. 0. Va#ia-&es "i**e# in h , st# n(&' an" in ,hat "i#ecti n the' a#e #e&ate". a0@ Positive correlations: T, )a#ia-&es inc#ease t (ethe# # "ec#ease t (ethe#. -0@ "egative correlations: T, )a#ia-&es + )e in %% site "i#ecti nsJ as ne inc#eases$ the the# "ec#eases. 10. The in"icat # * the %#e"icta-i&it' an" the "i#ecti n * a c ##e&ati n is the correlation coefficient# It can )a#' *# + K..00 t L..00 an" is a statistic +eas!#in( the st#en(th an" "i#ecti n * a c ##e&ati n. The a-s &!te )a&!e * a

c ##e&ati n in"icates the c ##e&ati n st#en(th. The si(n in"icates the t'%e * c ##e&ati n2its "i#ecti n. A %&!s si(n in"icates a positive correlation$ a +in!s si(n in"icates a negative correlation. 40. C ##e&ati ns " n t "esc#i-e ca!se an" e**ect $ the' sh , that a #e&ati nshi% * s +e kin" eBists -et,een )a#ia-&es$ -!t n t ,h' a #e&ati nshi% eBists. E0. 0EB%e#i+ents: EB%& #in( Ca!se an" E**ect .0. An e'periment is the n&' #esea#ch +eth " that (i)es the c nt# & nee"e" t "i#ect&' test ca!seCan"Ce**ect #e&ati nshi%s -et,een )a#ia-&es$ # *act #s. 00. Whi&e a&& the# )a#ia-&es a#e he&" c nstant$ ne )a#ia-&e is "i#ect&' +ani%!&ate" an" its e**ect n an the# is )a#ia-&e -se#)e". The )a#ia-&e that the #esea#che# +ani%!&ates is the independent varia le& The )a#ia-&e that the #esea#che# -se#)es * # an e**ect is the dependent varia le -eca!se it depends n the in"e%en"ent )a#ia-&e. 10. The e'perimental group #ecei)es the >t#eat+ent$? an" the control group #ecei)es n t#eat+ent # s +e the# t#eat+ent. C nt# & (# !%s %# )i"e -ase&ines a(ainst ,hich t c +%a#e the %e#* #+ance * the eB%e#i+enta& (# !%. 40. F c!s n Resea#ch: St!"'in( E=DR a0@ What was the researchers %uestion? H'% theses a#e state" as c&ea#$ %#ecise %#e"icti ns that can -e teste". D#. Sha%i# 8s h'% thesis ,as &'() treatment causes significant reduction in anxiety# -0@ ow did the researcher answer the %uestion? An %e#ati na& "e*initi n "esc#i-es eBact +eth "s # +eas!#e+ents. In D#. Sha%i# 8s h'% thesis$ the in"e%en"ent )a#ia-&e$ &(') treatment, ,as %e#ati na&&' "e*ine" as a ce#tain n!+-e# * -ackCan"C* #th e'e + )e+ents %e# sec n" * # a %a#tic!&a# %e#i " * ti+e. The "e%en"ent )a#ia-&e$ significant reduction in anxiety, ,as "e*ine" as a ce#tain a+ !nt * #e"!cti n in c&ients8 se&*C#e% #te" "isc +* #t.

c0@ What did the researcher find? The #esea#che# * !n" that th se #ecei)in( E=DR t#eat+ent eB%e#ience" a c +%&ete an" nea#&' i++e"iate #e"!cti n in anBiet' #e&ate" t thei# t#a!+atic +e+ #ies ,hi&e the c nt# & (# !% sh ,e" n chan(e. "0@ What do the results mean? The st#!ct!#e # "esi(n * the eB%e#i+ent ,as *&a,e" -eca!se the eB%e#i+enta& (# !%8s sessi n &aste" * # 50 +in!tes$ ,he#eas the c nt# & (# !% * c!se" n thei# +e+ #ies n&' * # : +in!tes. e0@ What do we still need to !now? EB%e#i+ents that c nt# & the t#eat+ent sit!ati n t e)a&!ate a&te#nati)e eB%&anati ns * # the E=DR e**ect a#e -ein( c n"!cte". Confirmation bias cc!#s ,hen %e %&e & k n&' * # e)i"ence that s!%% #ts thei# h'% thesis. 50. <e,a#e * *&a,s in eB%e#i+enta& c nt# &. Confounding varia les a#e the# *act #s that +i(ht ha)e in*&!ence" the "e%en"ent )a#ia-&e. These eBt#a "i**e#ences confound # c n*!se inte#%#etati n * eB%e#i+ents -eca!se ' ! cann t kn , #es!&ts ,e#e ca!se" -' the in"e%en"ent )a#ia-&e # -' the c n* !n"in( )a#ia-&e. a0@ $andom varia les a#e !nc nt# &&e"$ s +eti+es !nc nt# &&a-&e *act #s &ike ,eathe#$ c!&t!#a& -ack(# !n"s$ in"i)i"!a& "i**e#ences$ an" s * #th. The

random assignment * %a#tici%ants t "i**e#ent (# !%s ,i&& #e"!ce the i+%act * #an" + )a#ia-&es -' s%#ea"in( thei# e**ects ac# ss (# !%s. -0@ 0Pa#tici%ants8 eB%ectati ns a- !t the eB%e#i+ent can a**ect #es!&ts. F # eBa+%&e$ i* %a#tici%ants eB%ect a t#eat+ent t he&% the+$ the' +a' sh , i+%# )e+ent /!st -eca!se * thei# eB%ectati ns. This is ca&&e" the placebo effect# F.0@ T "i#ect&' a) i" s!ch e**ects$ a c nt# & (# !% +a' #ecei)e a place o, a t#eat+ent that a%%ea#s t -e the sa+e as the eB%e#i+enta& t#eat+ent$ -!t that &acks the c#itica& >in(#e"ient.? c0@ *Dnintenti na& eB%e#i+ente# eB%ectati ns can a&s a**ect #es!&ts. E'perimenter ias cc!#s ,hen #esea#che#s ina")e#tent&' enc !#a(e ce#tain #es!&ts. T (!a#" a(ainst this$ #esea#che#s +i(ht !se a dou le- lind design$ in ,hich - th the eB%e#i+ente# an" the %a#tici%ants a#e !na,a#e * ,h is in the eB%e#i+enta& an" ,h is in the c nt# & (# !%. F0. Se&ectin( H!+an Pa#tici%ants * # Resea#ch .0. Sampling is the %# cess * se&ectin( #esea#ch %a#tici%ants t st!"' *# + the )e#a&& % %!&ati n. a0@ A representative sample is a sa+%&e * %a#tici%ants that is t'%ica& # #e%#esentati)e * the s%eci*ic % %!&ati n * inte#est. -0@ A random sample Fan i"ea& se&" + -taine"@ a&& ,s e)e#' +e+-e# * a % %!&ati n an e3!a& chance * -ein( se&ecte". c0@ A iased sample cc!#s i* e)e#' ne " es NOT ha)e an e3!a& chance * -ein( ch sen. "0@ <eca!se #an" + sa+%&in( is eB%ensi)e an" ti+e c ns!+in( , convenience samples * %a#tici%ants *# + ,hate)e# % %!&ati ns a#e a)ai&a-&e a#e *ten !se". V0. LINEAGES: PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND <EHAVIORAL GENETICS A0. Ps'ch & (ists st!"' the eBtent t ,hich -eha)i # an" +enta& %hen +ena a#e "!e t an #(anis+8s -i & (ica& nature )e#s!s the en)i# n+enta& e)ents that nurture #(anis+s. <0. Resea#che#s in ehavioral genetics st!"' h , (enes an" en)i# n+ents , #k t (ethe# t sha%e -eha)i # an" +enta& %# cesses. .0. Ea#&' -eha)i #a& (enetics #esea#ch eBa+ine" the e**ects * se&ecti)e -#ee"in( n ani+a& -eha)i #. Inte#%#etati n * s!ch #esea#ch is "i**ic!&t$ -eca!se -eha)i #s the+se&)es a#e n t inhe#ite" -!t ten"encies t ,a#" ce#tain -eha)i #s$ ,hich a#e st# n(&' a**ecte" -' en)i# n+ent. a0@ *Le(a&$ + #a&$ an" ethica& c nsi"e#ati ns %# hi-it +ani%!&ati ns s!ch as se&ecti)e -#ee"in($ s c nt# & in h!+an st!"ies is i+%e#*ect. 00. Resea#ch "esi(ns in h!+ans inc&!"e *a+i&' st!"ies$ t,in st!"ies$ an" a" %ti n st!"ies. a0@ +amily studies eB%& #e ,hethe# # n t c& se *a+i&' #e&ati)es a#e + #e &ike&' than "istant nes t sh , si+i&a#ities in -eha)i # an" +enta& %# cesses. -0@ ,win studies eB%& #e the nat!#eCn!#t!#e +iB -' c +%a#in( si+i&a#ities seen in i"entica& t,ins ,ith th se * n nCi"entica& t,ins. I"entica& t,ins8 (enes a#e the sa+e$ ,he#eas n nCi"entica& t,ins ha)e (enes that a#e n + #e si+i&a# than th se * the# si-&in(s. C +%a#in( the+ i"enti*ies cha#acte#istics that +a' ha)e a si(ni*icant (enetic c +% nent. c0@ -doption studies eBa+ine the -eha)i #a& si+i&a#it' * -i & (ica& *a+i&' +e+-e#s ,h sha#e si+i&a# (enes -!t ,h ha)e -een #aise" se%a#ate&' *# + -i#th$ th!s #e"!cin( c ++ n en)i# n+enta& eB%e#iences.

10. <eha)i #a& (enetics %#i+a#i&' * c!ses n group "i**e#ences. <e ca#e*!& a- !t inte#%#etin( *# + s!ch "ata t +ake "ecisi ns a- !t a particular %e#s n8s -eha)i #a& an" +enta& a-i&ities. 40. The H!+an Gen +e P# /ect$ ,hich has "eci%he#e" the (enetic c "e * DNA$ ,i&& he&% #esea#che#s !n"e#stan" h , he#e"it' inte#acts ,ith the en)i# n+ent t c nt#i-!te t in"i)i"!a& "i**e#ences in h!+an -ein(s. 50. The *ie&" * epigenetics "esc#i-es the ,a's in ,hich e)ents ,ithin ce&&s can a&te# the functions * (enes Fi.e.$ h , the (enes a#e eB%#esse"@. Recent #esea#ch a&s s!((ests that chan(es ,ithin ce&&s can a&te# the st#!ct!#e * (enes Fca&&e" imprinted genes@ that can -e %asse" n t *!t!#e (ene#ati ns.

VI0. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH RESDLTS What does it mean when scientists announce that a research finding is .significant/? A0. Data a#e n!+-e#s "esc#i-in( #esea#ch *in"in(s. (escriptive statistics s!++a#i6e a set * "ata$ ,he#eas inferential statistics !se +athe+atica& %# ce"!#es t +ake /!"(+ents an" c nc&!si ns a- !t ,hat "ata +ean. When a c ##e&ati n # the# statistica& ca&c!&ati n is * !n" t -e statisticallysignificant, it cc!#s t s +e eBten" -' + #e than chance a& ne. F # + #e "etai&s see the a%%en"iB >Statistics in Ps'ch & (ica& Resea#ch.?

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VII0.ETHICAL GDIDELINES FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS (o psychologists deceive people when they do research? A0. Ps'ch & (ists +!st ana&'6e an" #e% #t #esea#ch *ai#&' an" acc!#ate&'. A&& #esea#ch +!st %# tect the ,e&*a#e * s!-/ects. <0. H!+an s!-/ects +!st -e a-&e t +ake in* #+e" "ecisi ns a- !t thei# ) &!nta#' %a#tici%ati n. I* "ece%ti n is !se"$ it +!st -e #e)ea&e" an" eB%&aine" a*te#,a#". C0. St!"ies sh , that ani+a&s !se" in %s'ch & (ica& #esea#ch a#e se&" + s!-/ecte" t eBt#e+e %ain$ sta#)ati n$ # the# inh!+ane c n"iti ns. Hi(h stan"a#"s * # ani+a& ca#e an" t#eat+ent a#e #e3!i#e" -' &e(a& an" ) &!nta#' %# *essi na& (!i"e&ines an" -' %#inci%&es * ( " scienti*ic #esea#ch.

KEY TERMS (n activity ased on the !ey terms could e used to introduce students to
search engines li!e PsycI)*" or Psyc($+IC,ES& +his could e done as an in-class demonstration or as an assignment& -eha)i #a& a%%# ach (pp. 14-16) -eha)i #a& (enetics (pp. 35-38) -iase" sa+%&e (p. 34) -i & (ica& a%%# ach (p. 14) -i & (ica& %s'ch & (ists (pp. 4, 6, and 13) case st!"ies (pp. 22, 25-28, 35, and 38) c&inica&$ c !nse&in($ an" c ++!nit' %s'ch & (ists (p. 5) c (niti)e a%%# ach (p. 16) c (niti)e %s'ch & (ists (pp. 3, 8-9, and 27) c n* !n"in( )a#ia-&e (pp. 31, 33-35, and 40)

c nsci !sness (pp. 10-12) c nt# & (# !% (pp. 31-33, and 39) c ##e&ati n (pp. 29 and 36) c ##e&ati na& st!"ies (pp. 25, 28-30, 35-36 and 38 ) c#itica& thinkin( (pp. 3, 20, and 22-24) c!&t!#e (pp. 3 and 18-20) "ata (pp. 4, 27-29, 35-36, and 38-39) "e%en"ent )a#ia-&e (pp. 31-35) "e)e& %+enta& %s'ch & (ists (pp. 4 and 6) " !-&eC-&in" "esi(n (p. 33) e"!cati na& %s'ch & (ists (p. 5) e+%i#icis+ (p. 9) en(inee#in( %s'ch & (ists (p. 6) en)i# n+enta& %s'ch & (ists (pp. 6 and 8) epigenetics (p. 37) e) &!ti na#' a%%# ach (pp. 14-15 and 17) eB%e#i+ent (pp. 10, 12-13,25, 30-36, and 38-40) eB%e#i+enta& (# !% (pp. 31-33) eB%e#i+ente# -ias (p. 33) * #ensic %s'ch & (ists (p. 6) hea&th %s'ch & (ists (p. 6) h!+anistic a%%# ach (pp. 16-17) h'% thesis (pp. 23-24 and 32-33)

in"e%en"ent )a#ia-&e (pp.31-33 and 35) in"!st#ia& an" #(ani6ati na& %s'ch & (ists (pp. 5-6 and 25) nat!#a&istic -se#)ati n (pp. 13, 25, and 28) -se#)ati na& +eth "s (pp. 25-26, 28, 35, and 38) %e#ati na& "e*initi ns (pp. 24 and 32) %e#s na&it' %s'ch & (ists (p. 4) %&ace- (pp. 31 and 33) % siti)e %s'ch & (' (pp. 3-4, and 17) %s'ch "'na+ic a%%# ach (p. 15) %s'ch & (' (pp. 3 and 9) 3!antitati)e %s'ch & (ists (p. 4) #an" + assi(n+ent (pp. 31-32 and 34) #an" + sa+%&e (p. 34) #an" + )a#ia-&es (pp. 31 and 33) #e&ia-i&it' (pp. 24-25) #e%#esentati)e sa+%&e (p. 34) sa+%&in( (p. 34) sch & %s'ch & (ists (p. 5)

s cia& %s'ch & (ists (pp. 5-6) s ci c!&t!#a& *act #s (pp. 18 and 20) s% #t %s'ch & (ists (p. 6) statistica&&' si(ni*icant (p. 39) s!#)e's (pp. 25, 27-29, 35 and 39)

the #' (pp. 24-25) )a&i"it' (pp. 24-25 and 27-28) )a#ia-&es (pp. 24, 28-31, 33-36 and 38-40)