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SS 537 : Part 1: 2008 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR Safe use of machinery

Mr Edwin Yap
President Singapore Institution of Safety Officers Managing Director ESIS Asia Pacific Pte Ltd ESIS Inc (Malaysia Branch) ACE EHS Consulting (Shanghai) Co Ltd

Contents of SS 537

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Definitions Principles of risk assessment and reduction Hazard management Safeguards and safety devices Installation considerations Maintenance Safe Work Practices

Introduction Mechanical Hazards

SS 537: Part 1: 2008 to provide guidelines on:
Methods for safeguarding dangerous parts of machinery Enhancing safety in the use of machinery Basic requirements on the design and manufacturer of machinery Safety and health issues installation, testing, maintenance and servicing

Dangerous moving parts that need safeguarding:
The point of operation is the point where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears All other moving parts of the machine which move while the machine is working.

Principles of Risk Assessment & Reduction

Strategy for selecting machine safety measures:
Identify the hazards and assess the risk Eliminate the hazards by inherently safe design Where not practicable:
Use of safeguards Use of safe work practices Use of personal protective equipment

Risk Assessment
To be carried out before:
Work commences on any machinery Establishing and implementing SWP

Collect useful information from:

Design drawings Limits of the machinery Requirements for the life phases of the machinery Information concerning power supply Incident or accident history Information about damage to health

Risk Assessment
Reference to WSH (Risk Management) Regulations To examine hazards associated with machinery Include risk analysis and risk evaluation Risk analysis provides information required for risk evaluation
Examine the limits of machinery, ID hazards and estimate risk involved

Risk evaluation allows judgment to be made on the safety of machinery

Hazard Identification - Mechanical Hazards

Mechanical hazards:
Contact or entanglement with the machinery Trapping between machine and any material or fixed structures Contact or entanglement with any material in motion

Hazard Identification - Mechanical Hazards

Mechanical hazards:
Being struck by ejected parts of the machinery Being struck by material ejected from the machinery

Machinery-Related Injuries
Possible machinery-related injuries:
Crushed hands and arms Severed fingers Blindness Death

Hazard Identification Non-Mechanical Hazards

Non-Mechanical hazards:
Handling and lifting Access
Slips, trips and falls Falling and moving objects Obstructions and projections

Electricity Chemicals Noise and vibration Suffocation Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation Fire and explosion

Risk Estimation
Technical and human possibilities to avoid or limit the harm
By whom the machinery is operated skilled vs. unskilled, manned vs. unmanned The speed of appearance of the hazardous event sudden, slow or fast Any awareness of risk general information, indicating devices Human possibility of avoidance or limiting harm in terms of reflex, agility or possibility of escape By practical experience and knowledge

Risk Reduction Process

Risk Assessment
Protective measures taken by the Designer
Step 1: Inherently safe design measures Step 2: Safeguarding and complementary protective measures Step 3: Information for use At the machine (warning signs) In the instruction handbook RISK

User Input

Designer Input

Residual risk after protective measures have been taken by designer


Protective measures taken by the User

Organization provide SWP, supervision, PTW systems Provision and use of additional safeguards Use of PPE Training Etc

Residual risk after all protective measures have been taken

Hazard Management
Hazard management user check General:
E.g. reduce speed / distance of movement Reduce force, torque and inertia Reduce maximum clearance between relatively moving parts avoid body part from accidentally entering the gap

Hazard Reduction
Methods Controls Position & identification of start, stop & E. stop controls Warning signals

Hazard Reduction Methods

Indicators to warn of a hazardous situation Braking Systems bring hazardous moving parts to rest as quickly as possible Safety catches, overrun and fall-back protection devices Counterweights and similar devices Rotating shafts, spindles and couplings Feeding and take-off devices Hydraulic and pneumatic systems Lifting, handling and transport Lubrication Stability Lighting Hygiene Safety colors and symbols Operating stations platforms and steps

Types of Machine Guards

Major types of machine guarding:
1. Fixed Guard kept closed and in place 2. Interlocking Guard movable or has a movable part, whose movement is interconnected with the power or control system of the machine 3. Push-away Guard is moved into position by the machine. Also known as sweep away guard

Types of Machine Guards

Adjustable Guard fixed or movable guard which is adjustable as a whole. Remains fixed during particular operation Self-Adjusting Guard fixed or movable guard which either in whole or in part adjusts itself to accommodate the passage of material False table carries material to the operating point of machine

Machine Safeguarding Basics

Basic Machine Safeguarding Requirements

In order to protect workers against mechanical hazards, safeguards must meet the minimum general requirements listed below:
Prevent Contact Secure Protect from Falling Objects Create No New Hazard Create No Interference Allow Safe Lubrication

Guard Construction
Ability to withstand the force of ejection Weight and size in relation to the need to be removed and replaced for routine maintenance Compatibility with the material being processed Ability to maintain its physical and mechanical properties (contact with potential contaminants) Suitable material if viewing of machine operation is required through the guard Should not degrade, become brittle and fracture, deform, emit toxic and flammable fumes

Trip Devices
Trip device
A device which causes working machinery to stop or assume an otherwise safe condition To prevent injury when a person approaches the danger zone Mechanical trip device Electro-sensitive protective equipment Pressure-sensitive mats and floors Two-hand control device

Mechanical Restraint Device

Mechanical Restraint Device
A device that applies mechanical restraint to a hazardous part of machinery which has been set in motion due to failure of the machinery controls or other parts of the machinery To prevent a hazardous situation Down-stroking platens

Installation Considerations
Control power source Uninterrupted power supply etc

Layout of machinery and plant Moving parts Services

Lighting Access for maintenance LOTO procedures Cables conduit and services pipes

Operational maintenance of safeguards
Regular inspections Trained and experienced personnel Check on normal machinery control and operational functions Implementation of safe systems of work access to danger zone Waste and spillage removal Removal of swarf, trade waste or spilled materials

Safe Work Practices

For working machinery For isolation and dissipation
Security at interlocking access gates

Supervisory control Permit-to-control systems Information and training

Instruction placards and warning labels Installation, operation and maintenance Target audience: Machinery operators Plant engineers and maintenance staff

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Examples for discussion

Protectives Measures

Summary of SS 537
1. Definitions 2. Principles of risk assessment and reduction 3. Hazard management 4. Safeguards and safety devices 5. Installation considerations 6. Maintenance 7. Safe Work Practices