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Low Carbon Behaviours Framework Key Behaviour Areas Data for Scotland

Table of Contents
Introduction Home Energy 3 5

Personal Transport
Food: Diet & Avoiding Food Waste Consumption: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

25
40 50

Introduction
80% Emissions Target Role of individuals / households Key Behaviour Areas (KBAs)
The Scottish Government has set a target to reduce Scotlands emissions by 80% (1990 baseline) by 2050. Achieving this will require a shift to a low carbon economy and society, with actions from everyone including government, business and households. Around 70% of Scotlands emissions are associated with consumption by households*. Emissions comprise those arising directly from heating homes and driving cars, as well as those embodied in the goods (including food) and services that we buy. The Low Carbon Scotland Behaviours Framework highlighted ten key behaviour areas across four themes (home energy, travel, food and consumption) that contribute the most to household emissions. The Framework included a small number of indicators to track progress in achieving the key behaviours. The data published here is intended to complement these indicators and give a fuller picture.
*Calculated from data in Scottish Consumer-based emissions , 1998-2009

Low Carbon Behaviours Indicators Key Behaviour Areas (KBAs)

Home Energy
Percentage of households who monitor their energy use
47% of people monitor their energy use (very or fairly closely), an increase of 3 percentage points since 2008.

Personal Transport
Percentage of journeys to work made by public or active transport
30% of Scots walk, cycle or use public transport to get to work.
Scotland Performs Performance maintaining.

Food: Diet & Food Waste


Percentage of people who consume 5 or more portions of fruit & veg per day
20% of Scots eat the recommended 5 or more portions of fruit and veg per day, unchanged compared to 2008.

Consumption: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle


Waste generated: local authority municipal solid waste 3.06 million tonnes. Scotland PerformsPerformance improving.

The Key Behaviour Areas Home Energy

Home Energy
The systems that heat our homes Keeping the heat in Managing home heating Saving electricity

Personal Transport
Becoming less reliant on the car Driving more efficiently Using alternatives to flying where practical

Food
Avoiding food waste Eating a healthy diet, high in fruit and vegetables, in season where we live

Consumption
Reducing and reusing

Emissions from home energy


UK domestic energy consumption by end use, 2012**

Emissions from housing account for 29% of greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish households*. The potential to reduce these emissions is substantial. Space and water heating together account for over three quarters of energy use in the home**. Electricity consumed by lighting and appliances accounts for almost a fifth of home energy use**.

Cooking 3%

Lighting and appliances 15%

Water 16% Space heating 66%

* Estimated GHG emissions from Scottish Households, 2006 **DECC (2013) Energy Consumption in the United Kingdom , Domestic Data Tables

Key indicator: Percentage of people who monitor their home energy use
Extent energy use is monitored by householders in Scotland, 2008-2011*
Very closely Fairly closely Not very closely Not at all Don't know

2011

2010

47% of people in Scotland state that they are monitoring their energy use very or fairly closely, an increase of 2% points since 2010 and 3% points since 2008. Nevertheless, this is only part of the picture. The following data gives us a fuller picture of how many households are taking action to reduce their energy use.

2009

2008

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings 2011

Key Behaviour Areas in Home Energy

The systems that heat our homes


Upgrading boilers and heating systems Installing microrenewables

Keeping the heat in


Cavity wall, external wall and loft insulation Double glazing and other draught proofing

Managing home heating


Actively managing space and water heating to reduce energy use

Saving electricity
Reducing electricity use. Washing clothes at low temperatures. Line drying rather than tumble drying. Buying energy efficient products, when these need to be replaced

The systems that heat our homes

Percentage of households with condensing boilers


Boiler types in Scotland 2005/06 2011*
40

84% of Scottish households use a boiler as their primary source of heating. Condensing boilers are the most energy efficient boilers. 28% of households now have some type of condensing boiler, up from 3% in 2005/06.
Percentage

2005/06
35

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

30

25

20

15

10

Standard

Condensing

Combi Boiler Type

Condensing Combi

Back Boiler

*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Energy Use in the Home

The systems that heat our homes

Percentage of households using energy from microgeneration and communal/district heating systems
Households using energy from microgeneration by source, 2011
Geo-thermal energy 4% Wind turbines 6% Photo-voltaics 9%

Around 1% of Scottish households are using energy from micro generation such as solar panels, or air and ground source heat pumps. A further 1% are using energy from communal or district heating systems. Of those using renewable energy in 2011, solar panels were the most common way of generating renewable home energy.

Other 10%

Solar panels 47%

Biomass 8%

Air and ground source heat pumps 11%

Hydro 5%

*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings, 2011

Key Behaviour Areas in Home Energy

The systems that heat our homes


Upgrading boilers and heating systems Installing microrenewables

Keeping the heat in


Cavity wall, external wall and loft insulation Double glazing and other draught proofing

Managing home heating


Actively managing space and water heating to reduce energy use

Saving electricity
Reducing electricity use. Washing clothes at low temperatures. Line drying rather than tumble drying Buying energy efficient products, when these need to be replaced

Keeping the heat in

Insulation: Percentage of cavity and solid walls insulated


Percentage of dwellings with insulated external walls by wall construction, 2007 to 2011*
100 90

Uninsulated dwellings are estimated to lose a third of heat through the walls. In Scotland, 74% of external walls are cavity walls and 24% are solid walls. From 2007 to 2011, the proportion of insulated cavity walls in dwellings has increased significantly from 53% to 66%. On the other hand, the 11% of dwellings with external wall insulation does not indicate a significant rise since 2007. Just over 1 in 3 dwellings with cavity walls (600,000 homes) and 9 in 10 dwellings with solid/other external walls (546,000 homes) dont have them insulated.

Cavity
80 70

Solid/other

Percentage

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2007

2008

2009 Year

2010

2011

*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings, 2011

Keeping the heat in

Insulation: Percentage of lofts with 200mm or more insulation


none 1mm 99mm 100mm 199mm 200mm or more

Depth of loft insulation 2003/04 2011*


100% 90% 80% 70%

It is estimated that in an uninsulated dwelling a quarter of all heat is lost through the roof . In 2011, 45% of dwellings (628,000 homes) had 200mm or more of loft insulation. This compares to 14% in 2003/04 (258,000 homes). Since 2003/04, the number of dwellings with no insulation has more than halved. The recommended depth for mineral wool insulation, the most common type, is 270mm**.

Percentage

60% 50% 40% 30%

20%
10% 0%

Year * Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings ,2011 ** The Energy Saving Trust website

Keeping the heat in

Glazing: Percentage of homes with double or triple glazing


The proportion of households with double glazing has risen from 88% in 2005/06 to 92% in 2011. Nevertheless, two thirds of installations occurred prior to 2003*. The proportion without double or triple glazing has been falling steadily. This is a good example of an energy saving behaviour that has become a norm for householders.

Percentage of dwellings with double glazing, 2005/06 - 2011


100%
98% 96% 94%

Percentage

92%

90%
88% 86% 84% 82% 80% 2005/06 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Year
*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings ,2011

Key Behaviour Areas in Home Energy

The systems that heat our homes


Upgrading boilers and heating systems Installing microrenewables

Keeping the heat in


Cavity wall, external wall and loft insulation, Double glazing and other draught proofing

Managing home heating


Actively managing space and water heating to reduce energy use

Saving electricity
Reducing electricity use. Washing clothes at low temperatures. Line drying rather than tumble drying. Buying energy efficient products, when these need to be replaced

Managing home heating

Turning heating down: Households with a thermostat or time clock


Percentage of households with central heating that have a thermostat and/or time clock to manage heating, 2007-2011*
80% 70% 60% 50% Percentage 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Thermostat & time clock Time clock only

Three-quarters of Scottish households with central heating have a thermostat. Of these, the proportion who say they use it to adjust the heating in their home has risen from 85% in 2007 to 91% in 2011. 84% have a time clock to manage heating. Of these, 85% of households say they use it. The Scottish Household Condition Survey does not collect data on what temperature thermostats are set at.

Thermostat only

Year

*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings, 2011

Managing home heating

Turning heating down: Putting on more clothes when feeling cold


Percentage of people in Scotland who put on more clothes when feeling cold rather than putting on or turning up the heating, 2009*

Less than half (44%) of people in Scotland would always or very often put more clothes on rather than turning the heating on or up. More women than men do this.

never 14%

always 24%

not very often 20% very often 20% quite often 22%

* Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study (2011) Early Findings, 2009

Managing home heating

Reducing hours heating is on: Any rooms not heated on winter weekdays/weekends
Percentage of households who dont heat all rooms in winter, 2007-2011*
100 90

There has been little change in this figure over the past five years, despite rising household energy costs.

Percentage

Less than 1 in 4 Scottish households turn the heating off in unused rooms on all winter days.

Weekdays
80 70 60 50 40

Weekends

30
20 10 0

2007

2008

2009 Year

2010

2011

*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Key Findings, 2011

Key Behaviour Areas in Home Energy

The systems that heat our homes


Upgrading boilers and heating systems Installing microrenewables

Keeping the heat in


Cavity wall, external wall and loft insulation, Double glazing and other draught proofing

Managing home heating


Actively managing space and water heating to reduce energy use

Saving electricity
Reducing electricity use. Washing clothes at low temperatures. Line drying rather than tumble drying. Buying energy efficient products, when these need to be replaced

Saving Electricity

Using energy efficient products: Light bulbs


The percentage of households with no fixed low energy lighting more than halved from 55% in 2007 to 20% in 2011.

Percentage of households with 50% or more low energy fixed light fittings, 2007-2011*
60

50

Percentage of households

40

None
30

less than 50% 50% or more

20

The percentage of households with 50% or more fixed low energy lighting more than doubled from 23% to 48% in the same period.
Only 12% of households had 100% low energy fixed light fittings in 2011.

10

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Year
*Scottish Government (2012) Scottish House Condition Survey: Energy Use in the Home

Saving Electricity

Using appliances efficiently: Switching off lights in unused rooms


Percentage of people in Scotland who switch off lights, 2009*

Almost two thirds of people say they always switch lights off in rooms that are not being used (2009 data). A further 1 in 5 do this very often. Only 7% of people never or rarely switch lights off.

* Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study (2011) - Early Findings, 2009

Saving Electricity

Using appliances efficiently: Fully turning off TV overnight

Percentage of people in Scotland who leave TV on standby, 2009*

Nearly 60% of people never leave their TV on standby overnight. However, almost 1 in 4 people always leave their TV on standby.

* Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study (2011) - Early Findings, 2009

Saving Electricity

Using appliances efficiently: Washing clothes at less than 40 degrees


Temperature people wash their clothes at, 2011*
Don't do washing in my household 5%

50+ degrees 4%

Don't know 11%

2 in 5 Scots wash their clothes at less than 40 degrees*


Less than 40 degrees 39%

40-49 degrees 41%

* Zero Waste Scotland/ WRAP 3Rs tracker, Autumn 2011

Home energy key behaviours Summary


The key behaviour indicator for home energy the percentage of people who monitor their energy use (very or fairly closely) has increased by 3% points since 2008 to 47% in 2011. Progress has been made on the uptake of one-off behaviours such as installing more energy efficient boilers and loft and cavity wall insulation. This has been helped by government support through programmes such as CERT, boiler scrappage scheme, Universal Home Insulation Scheme and Energy Assistance Package. Future support will provided as part of Home Energy Efficiency Programmes for Scotland. Heating management behaviours are generally proving more resistant to change. The use of energy efficient light bulbs shows a positive shift, however there is a lack of trend data for Scotland on saving electricity behaviours. The recently published Report on Policies and Proposals (RPP2) and Scotlands Sustainable Housing Strategy outlines the range of actions the Scottish Government is taking forward to encourage people to save energy in the home and/or to generate their own renewable energy.

The Key Behaviour Areas Personal Transport

Home Energy
The systems that heat our homes Keeping the heat in Managing home heating Saving electricity

Personal transport
Becoming less reliant on the car Driving more efficiently Using alternatives to flying where practical

Food
Avoiding food waste Eating a healthy diet, high in fruit and vegetables, grown in season where we live

Consumption
Reducing and reusing

Reasons Why People Travel


Emissions from transport account for 29% of greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish households*. People travel for a variety of reasons. Data show that commuting and business travel is the largest category of personal transport mileage (2,076 miles in 2009/10)**. However, when leisure activities (visiting friends and other leisure) are considered together, travelling for leisure purposes becomes the biggest category of personal transport mileage (2,716 miles in 2009/10)**.
Average distance travelled per person by year by purpose**
Commuting/ Business Other leisure (eg sport, day trip, other) Visiting friends Personal business / Other escort Shopping Education/ Escort education

500

1,000 1,500 Miles

2,000

2,500

*Estimated GHG emissions from Scottish Households, 2006 **National Travel Survey (2009/2010 data)

Key Behaviour Areas in Personal Transport

Less reliant on cars


Walking and/or cycling Using public transport Car sharing

Driving more efficiently


Using a low carbon vehicle Following fuel efficient driving principles

Alternatives to flying
Flying less frequently Taking trains instead of domestic flights

Less reliant on cars

Key indicator - Percentage of journeys to work made by public transport or active travel

The proportion of people walking, cycling or taking public transport to work has remained relatively unchanged at around 30% since 1999. Cars are still the main mode of travel, with two thirds of people getting to work this way.

Within this, more people are driving (55% 61%), and fewer are travelling as car passengers (12% 6%).
How people travel to work, 1999 2012*
35
Percentage of people 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rail

Bus
Bicycle Walking

*Transport Scotland (Scottish Household Survey data) Scottish Transport Statistics, 2012

Less reliant on cars

Modal share of public transport and active travel

Walking, cycling and public transport are the main mode of travel for journeys under 1km with 67% of people travelling this way. Around a third of journeys under 1km are undertaken by car, either as a driver or passenger. Driving a car is the main mode of transport for all journeys over 1km, and just over half (51%) of the journeys we make by car are under 5km.
Mode of public transport and active travel journeys made, 2011
40km and over 20 to 40km 15 to 20km

Walking Bicycle Bus Rail

Distance

10 to under 15km 5 to under 10km 3 to under 5km 2 to under 3km 1 to under 2km Under 1km 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

100

Percentage * Scottish Household Survey Travel Diary, 2011

Less reliant on cars

People who regularly car share


Percentage of people who say they car share, 2009* always 6% very often 9% quite often 14%

15% of Scots say they always or very often car share. Over half the population never car share*. Less than two fifths of car journeys are undertaken by two or more people. The number of lone car journeys has increased by 8% points since 1999**.
Percentage of car journeys with 2 or more people, 1999-2011**
100

never 54%

Five or more Four Three Two

90
80 70 60

not very often 17%

50
40 30 20 10 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

*Understanding Society UK Longitudinal survey (2009 data) ** Scottish Household Survey 2011 Travel Diary datasets

Key Behaviour Areas in Personal Transport

Less reliant on cars


Walking and/or cycling Using public transport Car sharing

Driving more efficiently


Using a low carbon vehicle Following fuel efficient driving principles

Alternatives to flying
Flying less frequently Taking trains instead of domestic flights

Driving more efficiently

Proportion of new fuel efficient vehicles (GB data)


Drivers are encouraged to buy cars in emission bands A, B or C (emitting less that 120g/km) with significantly lower rates of Vehicle Excise Duty (VED). The proportion of new vehicles in bands A, B or C increased from 1% in 2001 to 37% in 2012*. Correspondingly, there have been steep falls in the proportion of new cars in band F or below.

Percentage of new cars in emissions bands A, B and C, 2001 2012*


40 Band C: 111 - 120 g/km Band B: 101 - 110 g/km 30 Band A: Up to 100 g/km

35

Percentage

25

20

15

10

0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Year * DVLA / UK Department for Transport UK Vehicle Licensing Statistics

Driving more efficiently

Proportion of licensed fuel efficient vehicles (GB data)


Fuel efficiency of licensed vehicles, 2001 2012*
Band F or below (140g/km or more) Band D or E (120-140g/km) Band A, B or C (120g/km or less)
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

The influence of the emissions profile of new car purchases can be seen in the proportion of licensed fuel efficient vehicles. There is a clear pattern towards ownership of vehicles that emit less. The proportion of vehicles emitting less than 140g CO2/km is increasing (bands A-E). The proportion of vehicles emitting the most (band F) is decreasing. Turnover of vehicles within the overall stock will nevertheless take a number of years.

40%
30% 20% 10% 0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

* DVLA / UK Department for Transport UK Vehicle Licensing Statistics

Driving more efficiently

Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Licensed in Scotland


Currently less than 1% of licensed road vehicles in Scotland are electric or hybrid electric. ** The number of electric and hybrid electric vehicles on the road has increased in recent years, albeit from a very low baseline.

Number of licensed electric and hybrid electric vehicles in Scotland, 2002-2012*

* Department for Transport 2012 Licensed vehicles by propulsion ** Scottish Transport Statistics 2012 datasets

Driving more efficiently

Drivers agreeing that they drive slower to save money on fuel


For most cars, the most fuel efficient speed is 45-50mph. Driving at 50mph rather than 70mph reduces fuel consumption by 10%**. Just under half of car drivers surveyed in 2012 said they reduce their speed to save money on fuel. 55% of drivers either dont or dont know if they adjust driving speed for fuel efficiency.
* Energy Saving Trust 2012 Fuel Efficiency Driving Survey ** Energy Saving Trust website

Percentage of car owners and drivers who reduce speed for fuel efficiency, 2012* Cant recall 4%

Yes, I do 45%

No, I dont 51%

Key Behaviour Areas in Personal Transport

Less reliant on cars


Walking and/or cycling Using public transport Car sharing

Driving more efficiently


Using a low carbon vehicle Following fuel efficient driving principles

Alternatives to flying
Flying less frequently Taking trains instead of domestic flights

Alternatives to flying

Percentage of people taking fewer flights


Percentage who say they take fewer flights when possible, 2009*
always 6% very often 5% quite often 9%

Only 11% of people say they always or very often take fewer flights when possible. Three in five Scots (61%) say they never take fewer flights, and a further 19% dont avoid flying very often. Our flying emissions are strongly related to income. The international aviation emissions of the highest earners are more than ten times that of the lowest income households**.

never 61%

not very often 19%

* UK Household Longitudinal Survey (2011) Early Findings 2009 ** Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2013) Distribution of Carbon Emissions in the UK: Implications for Domestic Energy Policy

Alternatives to flying

Domestic air travel


Grams of CO2 emitted per passenger km for different modes of UK transport, 2012**
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Grams of CO2 per pass-km

Number of domestic passengers travelling to/from Scotlands five major airports, 2001-2011*
16,000 Number of passengers (thousands) 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0

The number of air transport passengers has more than doubled since 1990. Domestic passengers account for around half of the total. However, there has been a decline in domestic passenger numbers since 2006. This reflects the growth of air travel from low cost operations, which levelled off and reversed during the economic downturn. As the economy has improved, the position has picked up again in the last 2 years*. Domestic flights have the highest emissions per passenger/km of all modes of transport**.
* Scottish Transport Statistics 2012 datasets ** Adapted from Defra/DECC's Conversion Factors to Company Reporting, 2009

Personal transport behaviours Summary


The key low carbon behaviour indicator for transport the percentage of journeys to work made by public transport or active travel has remained unchanged at around 30% since 1999. More positively, in terms of driving more efficiently, there is a clear trend towards the purchase of fuel efficient vehicles, whilst the purchase of alternatively fuelled vehicles is increasing, albeit from a very low base.

The number of domestic air passengers has decreased since 2006, although this is likely to be due to factors other than positive behaviour change, such as the economic slowdown.
The recently published Report on Policies and Proposals (RPP2) outlines the range of actions the Scottish Government is taking forward to positively influence personal transport behaviours.

The Key Behaviour Areas Food

Home Energy
The systems that heat our homes Keeping the heat in Managing home heating Saving Electricity

Personal transport
Becoming less reliant on the car Driving more efficiently Using alternatives to flying where practical

Food
Eating a healthy diet, high in fruit and vegetables, in season where we live Avoiding food waste

Consumption
Reducing and reusing

Key Behaviour Areas in Food Diet

Eating a healthy, local diet


Eating more fruit and vegetables Eating food in season where we live

Avoiding food waste


Throwing away less food Reusing leftover food

Eating a healthy, local diet


45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Sustainable Healthy Diet Choices


Contribution of pre-RDC GHGE compared to the relative quantities of food in the eatwell week **
Quantity of food (percentage by weight in the eatwell diet) Pre-Regional Distribution Centre GHGE for different food groups

Percentage

Fruit & vegetables Bread, rice, potato, Meat, fish, eggs, pasta & other beans & other nonstarchy foods dairy sources of protein

Milk & dairy

Food & drinks high in fat &/or sugar

Other foods

Food Groups

Food accounts for around a fifth of Scottish households greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE)*. Evidence shows that dietary choice can influence the carbon footprint from the food we eat. Currently, the composition of the average diet in Scotland is not balanced to meet our health and low carbon targets. The eatwell week, developed by the Food Standards Agency (FSA) in Scotland, shows that it is possible to eat a healthy, balanced diet that has lower GHGE. The eatwell week is estimated to be approximately 28% lower in pre-RDC GHGE than the current UK diet**. The chart shows the share of different food groups in the eatwell week and their associated GHGE. For example, fruit and vegetables account for 42% of food (by weight) and 36% of GHGE, whilst meat, fish, eggs and other non-dairy sources of protein account for 10% of food and 27% of GHGE. This reflects the relative weight of these foods within a healthy diet and their associated GHGE. The figures illustrate the importance of eating a balanced diet.
*Estimated GHG Emissions from Scottish Households (2006), Table 15. This includes the emissions associated with the production and transportation of food, but excludes emissions from food waste. **Derived from Macdiarmid et al. (2013), Table 1, for the FSA in Scotland. GHGE estimates only based on the first stages of the life cycle of a food, which includes production to the farm gate and minimal processing, up to the point in the life cycle of the regional distribution centre (RDC).

Eating a healthy, local diet

Key indicator People eating 5 or more fruit and vegetables a day


Consumption of recommended five portions-a-day of fruit and veg: 20082012
Percentage of adults consuming recommended 5-a-day
50%
45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

The Scottish Governments dietary targets include: increasing our consumption of fruit & vegetables, wholegrains and pulses reducing our fat intake Average daily consumption of fruit and vegetables increased from 259g in 2001 to 279g in 2009 . This is equivalent to 3 portions per person*. While this shows progress, it is short of the Governments target of a minimum of 400g - 5 portions - of fruit and vegetables a day. As the chart shows, a fifth of people ate the recommended 5 or more portions in 2012, with no statistically significant change compared to 2008**. Further research in the area of healthy diets and GHGE is required, e.g. to take account of the whole life cycle GHGE of different foods. The Scottish Government will continue to fund and monitor the evidence base and keep under review the most appropriate key behaviour indicator for this area.

*Food Standards Agency (2012) Estimation of Food and Nutrient Intakes from Food Survey Data in Scotland ** Scottish Health Survey (2008-2012)

Eating a healthy, local, in season diet Summary


The key behaviour indicator shows little change so far in peoples food consumption behaviours. The Scottish Government promotes a healthy, balanced diet through a variety of means, including the EatWell Plate, Healthier Scotland Cooking Bus and Community Food and Health Scotland, and improves access to fresh fruit and vegetables in local communities through the Healthy Living Programme. The farming industry is reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the Farming For a Better Climate Initiative. Between 2010-11, there were decreases in emissions of 3% from the agriculture and related land use sector (0.3 MtCO2e)*. Initiatives such as Nourish Scotland are working towards sustainable localised food systems. The Scottish Government continues to fund scientific research to help enable healthy, sustainable dietary choices that are based on sound evidence.
*Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2011

Key Behaviour Areas in Food Avoiding Food Waste

Eating a healthy, local diet


Eating more fruit and vegetables. Eating food in season where we live.

Avoiding food waste


Throwing away less food Reusing leftover food

Emissions from food waste


Emissions associated with household food waste in Scotland are estimated to be the equivalent of 1.7 million tonnes of CO2 each year*. If avoided, this would be equivalent to removing one in every five cars from Scottish roads. A fifth of the food and drink we buy ends up being thrown away. This costs the average Scottish household 430 per year**.

* Zero Waste Scotland Love Food Hate Waste website ** WRAP (2009) The Food We Waste in Scotland Final Report (2008 data)

Avoiding food waste

People throwing food away


Hardly any A reasonable amount A small amount Quite a lot

Percentage of people who throw food away by quantity (Spring 2011, 2012, 2013)*
None some

2013

59% of people say they waste little or no food and only 1% admit to wasting quite a lot*. However, food and kitchen waste accounts for almost a third (31.5%) of all household waste by far the biggest share by waste type**. This suggests people arent always aware of how much food theyre throwing out.

2012

2011

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

* Zero Waste Scotland/ WRAP Consumer Food Waste Prevention Tracker (Spring 2013) ** Zero Waste Scotland (2010) The Composition of Municipal Solid Waste in Scotland

Avoiding food waste

People who reuse leftover food


Percentage of people who reuse and throw away leftovers, 2011-2013**
100%

More people say they reuse leftover food than throw it away*. Almost half of Scots use leftovers as part of another meal, and about a third use leftovers as a meal in itself. Less than one in six say they throw leftovers away**.
Percentage

90% 80% 70%

60% 50%
40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2011 2012 2013

Used as part of another meal

Used as a meal in themselves


Didn't get used and were thrown away

Year * Multi-code question where more than one response was possible

** Zero Waste Scotland/ WRAP Consumer Food Waste Prevention Tracker (Spring 2011, 2012, 2013 data)

Food waste behaviours Summary


There is limited trend data on food behaviours. The data that we do have since 2011 shows little change so far in peoples behaviours. By changing our behaviour around how we buy, store, and prepare our food we can reduce food waste. Prevention involves behaviour throughout the food journey. The Scottish Governments 2012 national food waste prevention campaign combined practical advice with information on the cost and environmental impacts of food waste. Furthermore, major grocery manufacturers and supermarkets have signed up to use their influence to help consumers make further reductions, for example through pack design, clearer date labelling and storage advice.

The Key Behaviour Areas - Consumption

Home Energy
The systems that heat our homes Keeping the heat in Managing home heating Saving Electricity

Personal transport
Becoming less reliant on the car Driving more efficiently Using alternatives to flying where practical

Food
Avoiding food waste Eating a healthy diet, high in fruit and vegetables, grown in season where we live

Consumption
Reducing and reusing, in addition to the efforts we already make on recycling

Reducing Purchasing second hand goods and avoiding unnecessary packaging.

Reusing and repairing Giving products a second use and only replacing when necessary.

Recycling Closing the production loop by recovering, and processing materials that would otherwise become waste, into the original or similar products.

Reducing, reusing and recycling

Reducing and reusing , and recycling

Key indicator Municipal solid waste generated


A reduction in the amount of waste generated is an indicator of greater resource efficiency and more sustainable consumption behaviour addressing the first step in the waste hierarchy ('Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover'). In the first instance, the indicator measures local authority collected municipal solid waste with a view to focusing on household waste when data becomes available.
This type of waste decreased by 3% in 2011/12, continuing a downward trend from 2006/07.

Local authority collected municipal solid waste, 2000/01- 2011/12*


3.4 3.2 3 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2

Waste Arising (Million Tons)

The amount of waste is now 11% lower than at its peak in 2006/07.

Year

*Scotland Performs National Indicators : Reduce Waste Generated, SEPA data ** Local Authority Collected Municipal Waste is waste generated by households, plus commercial and industrial waste similar to that generated by households, collected by councils

Reducing and Reusing, and recycling

How common household items are disposed of


LARGE APPLIANCES (266) % Disposed of at my local tip Arranged for a collection by the council Donated to charity It was taken away when the new product was delivered Gave to family or friends 23 Disposed of at my local tip Gave to family or friends Threw it away in my bin ELECTRICALS (421) % 60 Disposed of at my local tip FURNITURE (267) % 31

Pathways of disposal for reusable household items, 2013*


CLOTHING / TEXTILES (832) % Donated to charity Disposed of at my local tip 68

This table indicates different pathways of disposal for reusable items. Donating to charity is the most popular option for disposing of clothes and textiles, and the second most popular option for disposing of furniture. For all categories except clothing/textiles, disposal at the tip is the most popular option. Potential for re-use and recycling at the tip is site dependent.
* Zero Waste Scotland 3Rs Survey Feb 2013

14

22

10

Donated to charity

29

Other

Arranged for a collection by the council


Gave to family or friends

21

Donated to charity

16

Arranged for a collection by the council

Base: All who dispose of each item bases in brackets above

Reducing and Reusing, and recycling

People choosing to buy second hand items


Furniture (31% including bed frames, sofas/armchairs & other large furniture) and clothing/textiles (15%) are the most popular second hand purchases. Only a small proportion of people currently buy, or consider buying, second hand electrical goods.

Percentage of people buying an item that chose to buy second hand, 2013*

16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Percentage

Item bought second hand


Base: All who dispose of each item bases in brackets above

* Zero Waste Scotland 3Rs Survey Feb 2013

Reducing and Reusing, and recycling

Recycling different items

Percentage of householders recycling different items, 2013*


Paper (1054) Card / cardboard (1086) Food and drinks cans/tins (1086) Plastic bottles (1088) Garden waste (917) Glass jars or bottles (1086) Drink cartons/tetrapak (1060) Plastic pots, tubs and trays (1080) Aerosol cans (1014) Foil (1072) Soft plastic packaging (1088) Food waste (1046) Plastic carrier bags (1060) Batteries (1058)

Recycle kerbside

Recycle other means

Put in the general rubbish

Do something else

Paper and card/cardboard are the most recycled items, with a high proportion being recycled kerbside. Food and drinks cans/tins, plastic bottles, garden waste and glass jars or bottles also have the highest levels of recycling. The figures for kerbside recycling broadly reflect the availability of this service. Foil (62%), soft plastic packaging (62%) and food waste (58%) are currently the items most likely put in the general rubbish.
Base: All who dispose of each item bases in brackets above * Zero Waste Scotland 3Rs Survey Feb 2013

Consumption: Reduce, reuse, recycle Summary


The trend data for the key behaviour indicator shows that the volume of municipal solid waste collected by local authorities is declining. The Scottish Government and Zero Waste Scotland (ZWS) are working together to improve data collection on the 3Rs behaviours that will complement other sources of data. For example, from 2012 the Scottish Household Survey will provide trend data on households use of local authorities food waste kerbside collection service and home composting. The Scottish Government and ZWS are working to improve the collection of reusable items and recycling particularly food waste with over 1 million households (46% ) expected to have access to a food waste collection service by February 2014. Work with reuse organisations to help them expand their operations is currently underway.

Key contacts and the data reported in this publication are available to download from the Scottish Government website as a separate Excel file.
Published: October 2013

Crown copyright 2013 You may re-use this information (excluding logos and images) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/ or e-mail: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identied any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. ISBN: 978-1-78256-901-5 (web only) The Scottish Government St Andrews House Edinburgh EH1 3DG Produced for the Scottish Government by APSGroupScotland DPPAS14749 (09/13) Published by the Scottish Government, September 2013 w w w . s c o t l a n d . g o v . u k