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2. Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics Sir Isaac Newton was the first to correctly state the basic laws governing the motion of a particle and to demonstrate their validity. The dynamics of continuum uses the concept of a particle, called the fluid particle, which follows Newton's second law of motion. In continuum mechanics, they are written in the form of conservation equations. In this forms of conservation laws are introduced to mass, linear momentum, an- {gular momentum and energy. One of which is Cauchy's equation, which is equivalent to Newton’s second law of motion. These conservation equa- tions are unconstituted; however, later chapters looking at specific types of fluid flow will consider constituted equations as well 2.1 Mass Conservation Let us begin to consider the flow system of a continuum medium, which consists of fluid particles. A fluid particle, that moves with a velocity w and has the density (x,t) at position x= .x(xy,f), is a representative ob- ject of the medium, having the mass of finite volume . The mass of the fluid particle can be obtained, see Fig. 2.1, using volume integral by m= { pay Qu.) If we postulate that there are no sources or sinks in the medium, the mass of the fluid particle does not change in position and time, i.e. the mass is conserved in space and time as follows Dm_D dV =0 2.1.2 BoD @12) By setting F as =, in the Reynolds’ transport theorem given by Eq, (1.5.8), we have 43 44 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics f [22 Av. ajar Since the volume of the fluid particle is arbitrary, the volume integral in Eq. (2.1.3) can be made to vanish in an identical manner from the fluid system of the continuum, which gives 2.13) Dp 22. p(v.u)=0 214 pt Alva) 1.4) Equation (2.1.4) can be further expanded, using the definition of the mate- rial derivative of Eq, (1.1.7) to give ap V-pu=0 2.1.5 tvepe 2.1.5) Equations (2.1.4) and (2.1.5) are both called the equation of continuity (or the continuity equation). Considering the nature of derivation and for the sake of distinguishing between the two, Eq. (2.1.4) is often called the non- conservation form of the continuity equation, and Eq. (2.1.5) is called the conservation form of the continuity equation. pu in Eq. (2.1.5) is identi- fied as the mass flux. If the medium of continuum is incompressible, the density p of each material point x is kept constant with to time ¢. This will lead Eq. (2.1.4) toa form, setting Dp/Dt =0,, as follows, veu=0 2.1.6) The flow field described by Eq. (2.1.6) is called the solenoidal velocity field. When, in fact, the flow of a medium is incompressible, the flow is an isotropic flow, in which pressure change does 2.2 Linear Momentum Conservation Studying the dynamics of flow in a continuous medium requires the forces acting on a fluid particle and the acceleration of the fluid particle to be in an inertial frame of reference. The law that governs the dynamic motion of continuum medium is given by the conservation of linear momentum. Note that “linear” is understood as the motion of a particle in the direc- tion of the acceleration, and is used in order to distinguish it from the “angular” momentum. Below we have shown two kinds of fore when in dealing with the motion of a continuum medium. As previously 2.2 Linear Momentum Conservation 45 descried in Section 1.6, they are surface forces, representatively written as 4,8 for a surface element dS, and body forces, similarly expressed peav for a volume element dV. The linear momentum at a position of x=(xp,1) can be written pud¥ for a volume element inside the finite volume of the fluid particle Fig. 2.1 A fluid particle moving with velocity ‘The volume element, the density of which is p, is in motion with a ve- ity of u, as shown in Fig. 2.2. The conservation of the linear momen- tum of the fluid particle can be written 3h pudl =f t.d8+ f ped” 22.1) where the left hand side of Eq, (2.2.1) represents the change of linear mo- mentum, and the first term of the right hand side of Eq. (2.2.1) corresponds to the net surface force and the second term signifies the net body force acting on the fluid particle. This is an integral form of the equation of mo- tion, derived from the principle of the conservation of linear momentum, ‘The equation of (2.2.1) can be changed by considering Cauchy’s stress formula given by Eq, (1.6.8) and can be reduced into the volume integral form, using Gauss” divergence theorem. After applying Reynolds” transport theorem from Eq. (1.5.8) to the change of linear momentum, specifically setting F = pu in Eq. (2.2.1), we can obtain the conservation of linear momentum in volume integral form 46 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics Fig. 2.2 Foree acting on a fluid 222) {Pes ts wa - [y-tar However, since the volume V of the fluid particle is arbitrary, this equation is only satisfied if Plo) + pul? -u)=V-Ts pe 223) which can semaine be expressed 2H 6 ar Considering the continuity equation, Eq. (2.2.4), where paw is called the (pun) = T= pg 2.2.4) linear momentum flux, can be re-arranged as Eq. (2.1.5) Du, {ee oH u| 2s pw |=v-T+ eat a tP ) Pe 225) and thus Du Pu Lyte 2.2.6) 7 ee 2.2.6) ‘The Eq, (2.2.6) is called Cauchy’s equation of motion. The equation is valid for any continuum when the stress tensor T and the body force pg 2.3 Angular Momentum Conservation 47 are specified. It should be noted that the body force of gravity furnishes an example of g for problems we consider in the text. Equation (2.2.6) can bbe further reduced to a form, using the definition of the substantial deriva- tive given by Eq, (1.1.7) as follows {Stew va }ev T+ pe e2n Again considering the nature of derivation, and to clearly distinguish between Eqs. (2.2.4) and (2.2.7), Eq. (2.2.4) is often called the conserva- tion form of the linear momentum and Eq. (2.2.7) the non-conservation form ofthe linear momentum, If the continuum is incompressible, ic. V-u=0 and we take the rota- tion, ie. Vx( ), ofeach of the terms in Eq. (2.2.7), we can then obtain pes pw Veo po-Vu=Vx(V-T) 22.8) Equation (2.2.8) is called the vorticity transport equation. The advantage of using Eq, (2.2.8) is that the gravitational acceleration g , where g =-g@., can be eliminated in the same way, if the force can be identified as a potential force, such that p= p”—pg-x, with the pressure gradient Vp" =Vp - pg. Asa result of this reduction, Eq. (2.2.8) may be expressed in the following form 2+ pu-Veo~ po Vu=Vx(V-2) (2.29) where + is the deviatoric stress tensor, as introduced in Eq, (1.6.13). Equa- tion (2.2.9) is particularly useful when a velocity field is described by a stream function. In this case, the system of flow can be expressed with a ‘component of the vorticity vector normal to the flow plane and the stream function. The terms appearing in the left hand side of Eqs. (2.2.8) and (2.2.9) in kinematics of « are respectively the transient term, the convee- erm and the straining term. 2.3 Angular Momentum Conservation Some continuum while in motion are strongly effected by an external field. ‘As such, the angular momentum per unit mass does not simply equate to the moments of the linear momentum per unit mass. This is particularly 48 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics true when there are other torques, which are not part of the moments of force, appearing in the linear momentum equation. Such material of con- tinuum is called polar material. Within the frame of the continuum me- cchanie, speaking in general terms, we will derive a conservation equation of angular momentum, Before proceeding to the polar fluid, we will exam- ine non-polar fluid in great detail, so that its properties and character are clearly understood. We shall designate xx pwdV as the angular momentum of a volume element in a fluid particle while xx pgdV and xxfj,)d5 are torques due to body force and surface force respectively. Next, applying the conserva- tion law to these forces, it suggests that the net change of the angular mo- mentum is equal to the net torque acting upon the fluid particle, see Fig. 2.3. The conservation equation of the angular momentum can be thus writ- ten as follows D - , 5 Fy [lex euler = f(x pear + [extn )as 23.) With the aid of the Reynolds’ transport theorem of Eq. (1.5.8) and the con- tinuity equation of Eq. (2.1.5), setting F=xxa and using the relation uxu=0 and D(xxu)/Dt = xxdu/dt, we have J Attn = [olexahir + [boa a)as 232) The second term of the right hand side of Eq. (2.3.2) can be further re- duced to the following forms, using Cauchy's stress formula given by Eq. (168). Eo (exanar Fig. 2.3 Torques due to body force and surface foree 2.3 Angular Momentum Conservation 49 Jesper mr Fig. 2.4 Body couple and surface couple J. lextoy)as =—[ (at )exas =— [a (exes =f v-Grex)ar 233) Here, we used the polyadie alternator 4, and the Gauss’ diver- gence theorem, shown as [oeuntim a= f Furthermore, it will be shown that the ith component of V-(Txx) , ie. AewlsTe) gy oa) 2 {ee (v7 )IP x1 . can be expressed by the following relations aleve Te) aula a-xx(V-T)-A 23.5) where we used @x) /ax; = 5. The vector A in Eq, (2.3.5) is a pseudovec- tor, which has these components of the skew-symmetric part of the stress tensor T, which is demonstrated here as A=8 (Ty Ta} 42,(T, Ths) +2y(Tin—Ts)=2.4 2A +8, 2.3.6) where the components of A are derived from the matrix 50 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics fo 4 nA Ta]-4 0 4 37 4 0 where, is the skew-symmetric part of the tensor T’ derived from the fol- lowing relationship (ot) Qe )_n et, eas) T= L 2 where T, i the symmetric part of the tensor T Equation (2.3.6) implies the fact that 4 is the vector of the tensor'T, indicating that A can be obtained from the tensor T and conversely T, can be found from the pseudoveetor 4 as follows Aa-e:T 23.9) and T.=se4 2.3.10) Employing Eqs. (2.3.3) and (2.3.5) to the integral equation of Eq. (2.3.2), we have the resultant integral equation [= ‘The volume integral vanishes identically since the volume is arbi- trary, so that bu — — pg -V-T |d¥= | Adv Tn meV Tar f ean (Du ax{ pt pe-V 1\=4 23.12) ‘The left hand side vanishes identically by Cauchy’s equation of motion (sce given by Eq, (2.2.6)), the conservation law of linear momentum, con- sequently, we reach the conclusion that A=0. This implies from Eq, (2.3.10), that the skew-symmetric part of the stress tensor T vanishes, so that the str (2.3.13) 2.3 Angular Momentum Conservation 51 Considering the angular momentum of the linear momentum equation (Cauchy's equation of motion), for a non-polar fluid it can be concluded that the stress tensor is symmetric. If, in other words, the stress tensor of a continuum medium in motion is symmetric, the angular momentum of a linear momentum equation is always conserved so that the motion of fluid can only be determined by the linear momentum equation. In treating a polar fluid, however, an angular momentum due to a long- range force may be exerted on a fluid particle, and likewise for the body force per unit mass from distant surroundings. As displayed schematically in Fig. 2.4, for example, the extra angular momentum we introduce to a polar fluid may be a body couple pf in addition to the body torque xx/pg, ie. f per unit mass. In similar fashion, a surface couple Cia) per unit surface may also be introduced to the surface of a fluid particle, as a surface traction couple, due to a short-range force, and likewise for the sur- face torque xxf(.). The total angular momentum L of a fluid particle is considered in a certain way that L may consist of the sum of the moment of linear momentum x pu per unit mass and an internal angular momen- tum (or intrinsic angular momentum s) per unit mass, which accounts for the local spin field of a material clement. Thus, in consideration of the bal- ance of total angular momentum, we have J.Gex ag + phar + J (ext) + Cinas (23.14) In Eq. (2.3.14), ti ean be given by Cauchy’s stress formula, as seen earlier in Eq, (1.68), ie. f)= similar expression given below, since Cj,) arises from di -T. Analogously, Cj) can also be found by a sive transport of internal angular momentum where ¢ is called the couple stress tensor. Cu) =fe (23.15) Introducing Eqs. (1.6.8) and (2.3.15) to Eq. (2.3.14) yields, after tensor calculus likewise deriving Eq. (2.3.5), we have FJ plexus sar fpf +xx pgtV-erxx(V-T)}Ay 23.16) 52 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics Applying the Reynolds” transport theorem and the continuity equation to the left hand side of Eq, (2.3.16), and vanishing the volume integration due to an arbitrary volume, we have pDlexuss)= pf +xxpe+¥ cexx(V-T)+4 317) Equation (2.3.17) is an equation of the total angular momentum of general form for polar fluids. In order to exploit the conservation of angular mo- mentum, Eq. (2.3.17) can be further reduced to simpler form with the lowing procedure. That is, first taking the vector product of x to ‘Cauchy's equation of motion, we can obtain Du xx prtaxx pet xxV-T 2.3.18 Pap kee (23.18) and then using the relationship xx Du/Dr = D(xxu}{Dr, Eq. (2.3.17) can be reduced to the following expression after subtracting Eq, (2.3.18) from (2.3.17) as follows =pf Vcr (23.19) This is a resultant equation for the intemal angular momentum for a polar fluid. In the case of a polar fluid, the skew-symmetric part of the stress t sorT, from Eq, (2.3.10) would be generated by an effect of the body cou- ple pf and the diffusion of the surface couple Ve to the net change of the internal angular momentum p(Ds/D1). Equation (2.3.19) is a non- conservation form. The conservation form of the equation for the internal angular momentum can be reduced to the following form, after the mass conservation is taken in account, so as to yield the following, where us is called the spin flux. vip) =p f4V-erA 2.3.20) 2.4 Energy Conservation ‘The energy conservation of a continuum medium can be considered from the first law of thermodynamics, when the law is applied to the thermodynamic 2.4 Energy Conservation 53 system of a particle. The first law of thermodynamics in a dynamic system implies the conservation of thermal energy and work, which means that d(k +0) =60-3W Qa) where 4W and AQ are the work done by the system, and the h plied to the system respectively. k and u in Eq. (2.4.1) are the kinetic en- ‘ergy and the internal energy of the system respectively. When the system is at equilibrium, Eg. (2.4.1) can be written with a unit of power by d(k+u) _ 60 6W or =6-1 (242) sup- where W and Q are the work output by the system and the heat input to the system respectively. In consideration of the first law of thermodynamics as applied to a sys- tem of a certain fluid particle as depicted in Fig. 2.5, we may be able to ob- tain the work output 1” in the first place, taking a dot product to the forces of the fluid particle as follows W= [ty ud f ped (2.43) ‘The first term of the right hand side is the work output by a surface force and the second term is the work output by a body force. While applying a dot product of w to Cauchy’s equation of motion from Eq. (2.2.6), we can have the following expression Dw 2) Ja) ws pen r2[H)- YM PB =V-(Te) TVs pg Q44) Equation (2.4.4) can also be written by a volume integral form as 2 j Fotumar + frevaar Vi(T aa + [pg aay 2.45) 54 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics Fig. 2.5 The first law of thermodynamics to a fluid particle Denoting Cauchy’s stress formula from Eq. (1.6.8), ie. fy) =A-T and applying Gauss’ divergence theorem to the surface integral in Eq. (2.4.3), we can write the work output W’ as We JV (Du)ar + f pg-nar (2.4.6) ‘Thus, equating the right hand side of Eq, (2.4.5) with Eq, (2.4.6), we can newly express the work output Hi” as 2 [Solu a)aV + [T-Vudy 47) Equation (2.4.7) indicates that the work output of a system of a fluid parti- cle can be divided into two parts; the change of kinetic energy and the rate at which the internal stresses do work. Let us examine further the scenario where T is not symmetric. Denot- ing again T=(T,+7,) in Eq. (2.3.8), and Vu=e +e in Eq, (1.1.18), the work output due to the intemal stress can be written as T:Vu=(T,+T,):(e+@) Ti:e+T,:@ (2.48) 2.4 Energy Conservation 55 Thus, we have de ymposed Var into the symmetric and skew-symmetric parts so that other products vanish identically. Let us further consider the second term of Eq. (2.4.8) from Eq. (1.1.29) for the spin tensor (2.4.9) Furthermore, T, as given by Eq, (2.3.10), utilizing these identities, we can reduce the term to (2.4.10) As a result, Eq. (2.4.10) indicates that the skew-symmetric part of the stress tensor does produce an output work, owing to the vorticity. However, as easily demonstrated when the stress is symmetric, the work output due to the internal stress is simply shown by the deformation as TVu=T,:¢ 4.1 ‘The heat input of the system of a fluid particle is conceived to consist of heat transferred to the system through the surface and heat generated in the system, so that in be written as O=-[.q-ds+ f poav (2.4.12) Here, q is the heat flux vector; the negative sign is assigned toward the surface, ile. opposite to the surface direction fi. Moreover, b is the amount of heat generated per unit mass in the system. Equation (2.4.12) ‘can be converted into a volume integral by applying Gauss’ divergence theorem as follows O= |. Cv-a+ bar (2.4.13) The total change of the system energy expressed with k and w in Eq, (2.4.2) can be written as 56 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics d(k+u)_ D 1 usu) + pu\av eu) [Sot )ep Jar (2.14) [As we can see, 1 is the internal energy per unit mass. The energy pos- sessed by the system may include spin energy if the continuum has an in= temal structure and field energy derived from an externally imposed filed, depending upon the circumstance and property of the continuum in motion. Generally speaking, within the continuum mechanies we write the energy ‘equation of a fluid, by substituting Eqs. 2.4.7) and (24.13) together with Eq, (2.4.14) into Eq. (2.4.2), we can obtain the equation of the energy con- servation as Zf, puar = [ (t Vv w-V-q+ pb)dv 2.4.15) Note that the power 1” is chosen as to the work input to the system in Eq, (2.4.15), where the sign of plus is assigned. After vanishing the volume in- tegral from both sides of equation (2.4.15) for an arbitrary volume and with Reynolds’ transport theorem to the right hand side of Eq. (2.4.15), we can obtain the resultant equation to yield 4 ae (pu)= = Veg + T:Vus ph (2.4.16) This is the conservation equation of energy, which is called the Neumann ‘energy equation in the conservation form. The equation can also be re= duced to the non-conservation form, as practiced previously by consider- ing the equation of mass continuity, which yield the form V q+ T-Vuspb 4.17) PD ‘The Neumann energy equation given by Eq. (2.4.16) or (2.4.17) pression derived from the first law of thermodynamics. The equations con- tain thermodynamic properties, such as uw and , so that the equations can bbe further expanded thermodynamically in order to define the state of con- tinuum undergoing thermal proces. 2.5 Thermodynamic Relations The state of a thermodynamic system can be determined by its thermody- ‘namie properties, which are connected by its relationship to the general term 2.5 Thermodynamic Relations 57 Sey T)= ‘As such, pis the thermodynamic pressure, or simply the pressure, v is 25.1) volume v=I/p and Tis the absolute temperature. Equation alled the equation of state, where its functional form depends upon the state of the thermodynamic properties of the substance contained in the system. Any one of the three variables in Eq. (2.5.1) can be ex- pressed as a function of the other two by solving Eq, (2.5.1). This means that the thermodynamic state is completely determined by two remaining thermodynamic properties. An important concept to note here is the state ‘of equilibrium, which we can determine through the thermodynamic state from Eq. (2.5.1). The state of equilibrium is that property which does not vary over time when the external conditions remain unchanged. In some situations, when a continuum is in motion with chemical reaction, a relaxation process or in a large temperature gradient, that is a process that results in the inability of the system to reach the state of ‘equilibrium in the time available, some processes have to be considered by the states of non-equilibrium. However, the majority of processes in engineering fluid mechanics are in the state of equilibrium, and the system undergoes the reversible process where the process is connected only between those initial and final states which are states of equilibrium As introduced in Eq, (2.4.1), the first law of thermodynamics in a dy- ‘namic system of a continuum, the internal energy 1 can be regarded as in- dependent of the kinematics of the motion of flow in the limit of the equi- librium thermodynamics (thermostatics) as follows du=60- ow (25.2) ‘The first law of thermodynamics, demonstrated by Eq. (2.5.2), gives the conservation of energy in quantity, but does not have any information on the quality of the energy. The work done by the system 41V and the h supplied to the system 6Q are not thermodynamic properties, which can- not be determined by being given two equilibrium states between a tran: formation process. However, 61” may be determined by a known reversi- ble process of work transfer, considering p and v at two given equilibrium points of states as follows OW = pay 2.5.3) It is the 8Q that can not be determined by any other known thermody- namic properties, but only by the thermodynamic property s, the entropy ‘The second law of thermodynamics gives a corollary that there exists a 58 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics thermodynamic property of a system such that a change in its value from state 1 to 2 is equal to fBesn-s pe =As (25.4) For any reversible process, 52 can be written by the change (the differen- tiation) of the entropy as o0=Tds (2.5.5) ‘Thus, Eq, (2.5.2) can be written with Eqs. (2.5.3) and (2.5.5) as follows su =T8s — pv 256 1) du=ras~pa{ +) es \P) Obtaining a new thermodynamic property s, we have the following thermodynamic relationship between the thermodynamic properties of pals (25.8) (25.9) (2.5.10) 25.1) Equations (2.5.8) to (2.5.11) are called the Maxwell equations, which form the basis for obtaining further important thermodynamic relationships which may be utilized for evaluation of thermal properties of continuum substance. 2.5 Thermodynamic Relations 59 Among others, an important thermal property is the specific heat, which is a quantity that gives the heat supplied to the system when the temperature difference is given, so that 60 =cdT (25.12) where c is the specific heat. Substituting Eq. (2.5.12) to the first law of thermodynamics Eq. (2.5.2) and denoting 61 = pdv from Eq. (2.5.3), we have the following relationships; cdT = du + pdv (2.5.13) cd = dh—vdp e514) Such that / is defined as -ve{s) 2515) > In Eq, (2.5.15) h is the enthalpy per unit mass, which is a specific energy function. From Eqs. (2.5.13) and (2.5.14), therefore, we can obtain two kinds of specific heat: (2.5.16) and of la), 25.17) ¢, denotes the specific heat evaluated at constant volume (constant den- sity) and ¢» denotes the specific heat evaluated at constant pressure. Considering the thermodynamic relations, we are now in position to ‘expand the Neumann energy equation of Eq. (2.4.17) by decomposing the total stress tensor T into r and p as described in Eq, (1.6.13). Denoting that p in Eq, (1.6.13) is regarded as the thermodynamic pressure in the state of equilibrium, so that Eq. (2.4.17) becomes, Du Di V.q—pV-ute: Vat pb 25.18) 60 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics Since Du in Eq, (2.5.18) can be regarded as the total differentiation by the two thermodynamic properties v and, it then yields (2.5.19) From Eq, (2.5.6), we can write Eq. (2.5.19) as as) ) Dv -{-vo) J (@s/év), is obtained from the Maxwell equation of Eq. (2.5.10). The mate- rial derivative of v in Eq. (2.5.20) in a limit of dr=I/p can be written as follows (2.5.20) wf Dr Dt (25.21) Thus, using Eqs. (2.5.20) and (2.5.21), Eq, (2.5.18) can be rewritten as br ( ep PT Lv ger: vant] wept la), (2.5.22) Here, the term (du/@T), was replaced by the specific heat , given by Eq, (2.5.16). With a similar manipulation, using the enthalpy defined in Eq. (2.5.15), ie. u=h~ py, into Eq. (2.5.18), we can obtain the following ex- pressions for the conservation equation of energy as follows; pep Dav egte a al 7+ pb " ein? J, Pr (2.5.23) and br Dp ep PE av ger, Yur fT 4 pb 2.5.24) Perea + AT + pl (2.5.24) We can now see that the term(éh/a7), was replaced by the specific heat cp defined by Eq. (2.5.17). In Eq, (2.5.24), By is the coefficient of ther- mal expansion, which is made apparent by 2.5 Thermodynamic Relations 61 1 ép < (2) ons Pp Note that for an ideal gas, =I/T and for a liquid, f, is usually smaller than I/T'. The enthalpy change dh is also written by using the quantity i, and it can be thus derived from the thermodynamics relationship; ah pat += p72 2526 2 In the case of an incompressible flow, ie. V-u=0, or if the pressure variation is supposed to be small enough that the term Dp/Dt in Eq, (2.5.23) can be disregarded, which is really limited to nearly incompressi- bble material, the conservation equation of energy will become br cp oe = -V-g er: Vas pb 2.5.27) Pr ger: Vusp 2.5.27) It should be kept in mind that in a compressible flow or a nearly in- compressible flow of continuum, the specific heat is cp. In most practice flows of nearly incompressible materials, it is satisfactory to say that Considering Eq. (2.4.12), the heat transfer g to a fluid parti sidered to be carried out by heat conduction through the surface. In this case q is given by Fourier’s law; q=kVT (2.5.28) Here, ke is the thermal conductivity, noting that A is directed toward the surface in Eq. (2.4.12). It is further to be noted that Eq. (2.5.28) stands for homogeneous and non-diffusing mixtures. Thus, using Eqs. (2.5.28), (2.5.27) is written per Lever Vu ph (2.5.29) Moreover, for a constant k: , Eq. (2.5.29) can be further simplified: BP wre] |e vast 2.530) Di Be ce 62 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics where, ka =ke/ pep is called the thermal diffusivity. Equation (2.5.30) gives an equation for the temperature field of the flow. Exercise Exercise 2.1 Mass Conservation Consider a steady state flow in a branching channel, entering inlet section 1 and leaving sections 2 and 3 with mean velocity vectors m,, a; and respectively, normal to the cross sectional area (surface element) of 4, Az and Ay as shown in Fig. 2.6. Write the continuity equation of the sys- tem. If outlet section 3 is blocked, what will the continuity equation be? Ans, Using the continuity equation of (2.1.5) for the steady state, afét=0, the integral equation may be recovered by Gauss’s divergence theorem f, v ‘puay =f, pudS=0 a Applying Eq, (1) to the current system gives =f omis[ rmise[ nmisef, measo0 ey Since atthe channel surface there isa relationship of w dS, whieh is to say that there will be no flow across the wall, the last term of Eq, (2) van- ishes. So that Pri, = paAatts + prAts @) This is the continuity equation of the system. If 5 = 0, Eq. (3) becomes, Prd = prAatis ® Exercise 63, Fig. 2.6 Flow in branching channel and ty = th ©) Equation (5) indicates that the mass flow rate rir is conserved from the inlet to the outlet of the channel Exercise 2.2 Conservation of Linear Momentum A steady state flow ection of a channel as shown in Fig. 2.7. The fore volume) are due to the ing the inlet’s mean vel passing through a F, and F, acting on the control volume (the channel surface force and body force respectively. Assum- ity u, and outlet’s mean velocity w, are respec- tively parallel to the surface element 4, and 4,, write a linear momentum ‘equation of this system, Ans, For steady state of flow, the conservation equation of linear momentum can be written by referring to Eq. (2.2.4) as follows, V- puu=V-T+ pg w Using the volume integral in the equation and applying Gauss’s divergence theorem we have 64 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics [vere =| pear Fig. 2.7 Forces acting on a section of channel [leuuas = fv tay + [ pgay =F + Fs 2 The left hand side of Eq. (2) is calculated as follows when applied to the system Jylomuass J (anu 48+ J, (auju-as =o.) (pads ny The integral over the channel wall becomes null due to no cross flow through the wall. Therefore, Eq. (2) can be reduced to the form a) ots — nay = B+ Fs With the continuity equation from Exercise 2.1, i.e. rin =rin =ri,, we can derive the conservation equation of linear momentum for this system as follows miu; —u))= Fy +P © Equation (5) is nothing but Newton’s second law of motion, stating the change of momentum is equal to the sum of forces applied to the system. Exercise 65 Exercise 2.3 Torque on Control Volume When considering non-polar fluid, the conservation equation of the angu- lar momentum given by Eq. (2.3.1) can be altematively expressed by the ‘general form DL_ Sten L a a where Z is the net angular momentum acting on a control volume (in the Eulerian description) and N is defined as the net torque exerted on the system. Verify the steady torque \V, around the z axis due to the change of L, where L is obtained from =| (xx pu)av 2 See ig. 2.8 for the flow configuration. Ans. With the aid of Reynolds’ transport theorem, to the left hand side of Eq (1) we have D fp Alxxpu) pe 2 (wxpular = f SEXPO. f(x puuds 3 By Joeman = [EPO | fox aud ° Additionally, fora steady state ic. @/ét =0, Eq. (3) will be DL_¢ , PE | (xx u\ipu)- ids 4 Bro fy fexnkow) @ Equation (4) can be integrated, as depicted schematically in Fig. 2.8, to give the surface of the control volume; J Gexmlou) tas: = f,@ xa You) dS + f (x2 us Yiprus) Ads + f(x u)(pu)- id (5) Since there would not be any cross flow through the channel wall, the last term of Eq. (5) vanishes and we have DE Di pus (xi xan) posts tala xa) = arin (x au) ra (x x2) © 66 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics ‘Therefore the change of angular momentum around the 2 axis can be ob- tained by applying the dot product of @, to Eq. (6), which is DL. ) =i G4, o 1 ty Dr Note that 13, and 1, are the tangential components of the velocity vector 14, and a, respectively, perpendicular to the 2 axis. Considering the equa- tion of continuity, ie. rir=rnn =, we can finally derive the torque N-, which is given by the following formula; Ne = rita, =m.) 6) Fig. 2.8 Torque exerted on control volume From the perspective of engineering application, torque is a very im- portant parameter to characterize rotating machineries, particularly for the rotors of turbomachines in fluid engineering. Equation (8) is often referred to as Buler’s pump or turbine equation, which will be studied in more de- tail for turbomachines in a few sections of Chapter 4. Exercise 2.4 Energy Conservation of a System stem, where Consider a control volume as a thermodynami fluid enters from s a perfect ection I and leaves from section 2. Velocities a: and a: at each section are parallel to the surface elements 4, and Az respectively, Exercise 67 as shown in Fig. 2.9. If we assume that the system gives mechanical work Wy to the surrounding, besides its work input 17; to the system, the first law of thermodynamics in the system may be applied to the system by writing the conservation of energy as follows D i )-w phew =(0+",)-W, w Derive an expression of an energy conservation equation at a steady state for the system in Fig. 2.9. Note that the minus sign of the mechanical work done ¥7,, by the system is meant to be toward the outside (surround- ing) of the system and the plus sign of Q is heat transferred to the system from the outside (the surrounding), Fig. 2.9 Energy conservation of a system Ans, We shall derive an expression for the energy balance to the heat input and the mechanical work by writing o-W, (k+u)-W, Q D Di ‘The right hand side of Eq. (2) ean be expanded in consideration of Eqs. (2.4.3) and (2.4.14) as follows 68 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics 2 ean)-the= a J ffotw sexe] (fae 485+ [pg-wsr’) 8 Furthermore, for the stress vector fj), Cauchy’s stress formula of Eq, (1.6.8) can be applied as t= a-T=A-(—pl) “ Note that the flow is assumed to be a perfect fluid as given by Eq, (1.6.11). Substituting Eq, (4) into (3) and applying Reynolds’ transport theorem to the first term of right hand side of Eq. (3) with the condition a/é¢ =0 yields O- tin = [Sout +p} fads ~{[owst 65+ [ pugs) fas} 6 Here, the volume integration of Eq. (3) was transformed into the surface integral by Gauss’s divergence theorem, and it is noted that the gravita- tional acceleration g is given by the potential g =-Vgz . Carrying over the surface integral of Eq. (5) to the control volume, noting that there would not be any cross flow through the wall of the control volume, but only through the inlet and outlet sections, as depicted Fig. 2.9, we can ob- tain o-W, (Seat Femi? (pring = pinto) Di - + 02) oma phos) { Pe A os walle -wth(2 2.) olen) lig -t0) 6 PP Here, notations of ug and 1g are the intemal energy per unit mass at the outlet and inlet respectively (in order to distinguish between the velocity ‘components and the intemal energy). In deriving Eq. (6), the equation of continuity is used by setting t= ri, =r, Problems 69 Problems 2-1. Give some examples, in which the equation of continuity given by Eq (2.1.5) does not follow; provide reasons as well Ans. [Chemical reactionsin he ow process, te] 2-2. In incompressible irrotational flow, the velocity field is entirely de- scribed by a scalar function of (x), by solving the Laplace’s equa- tion V°¢=0. Give proof of this problem. So that 92 2.3. Write the non-conservation form of the lin 2.27), in Cartesian coordinates system, ad =u st,), T=TosTy sr momentum given by Eg. ing x, y, = as coordi- 8=(gog0.g:),and p Ans. [See Appendix B-7] 2-4, Write the vorticity transport equation given by Eq. (2.2.9) on a two- dimensional plane (the x—y plane), setting « = axé:. Use notations similar to those of Problem 2-3. Pm Ah ing 2 4 uy SOE pRB pc AO 4 2 2.5. Ifthe stress tensor T has the skew-symmetric part, what care has to be taken in order to analyze the flow system? Ans, “Angular momentum equation’ Ans. | to be included tothe system of equations 70 2 Conservation Equations in Continuum Mechanics 2-6. Obtain a form to caleulate the power from Eq, (8) in Exercise 2.3 sy =H inhi isthe angular velocity AMS.) 66 tye ow etation sound = 2-7. In the energy conservation equation, Eq. (2.5.29), if the stress is sym- metric, write a two-dimensional equation using the Cartesian coordi- nates system (the x—y plane) assuming the thermal conductivity is constant, and ignore the internal heat generation. Nomenclature A pseudovector ‘Ay,Aq, Ay: components of pseudovector Cu diffusive transport of internal angular momentum, « couple stress tensor cp specific heat evaluated at constant pressure 6 specific heat evaluated at constant volume 8 body force g ‘gravitational acceleration h specific enthalpy k specific kinetic energy k. thermal conductivity ke thermal diffusivity L external angular momentum th mass flow rate ai unit normal (surface direction) vector P thermodynamic pressure Bibliography 71 ° heat input 4 heat flux vector s specific entropy 48,4: surface element and surface areas T total stress tensor 1, skew-symmetric part of the tensor 1, symmetric part of the tensor Tr absolute temperature 1 time tw) stress vector u velocity vector u specific internal energy and x-directional velocity component v finite volume of fluid particle or control volume v specific volume (1/p ) w ‘work output By coefficient of thermal expansion Pe density t deviatoric stress o vorticity o angular velocity Bibliography Conservation laws in continuum mechanics are found in almost all texts. To a detailed extent, angular momentum conservation and energy conservation are found in the following texts listed below: 1. A. Rutherford, Vectors, Tensors, and the Basic Equation of Fluid Mechan- ics, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1962. 2. RE. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics, Cambridge University Press, ‘Cambridge, MA, 1985. Republished from Dover Publications, Inc., 1997. 3. S.M. Richardson, Fluid Mechanics, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1989,