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Brake System Design (5 marks)

Design considerations, weight transfer, brake system details and calculations, lay-out, pedal force versus deceleration.

APPENDIX E SAE RULES AND REGULATIONS [5] ARTICLE 11: BRAKING SYSTEM B11.1 FOOT BRAKE The vehicle must have hydraulic braking system that acts on all wheels and is operated by a single foot pedal. The pedal must directly actuate the master cylinder through a rigid link (i.e., cables are not allowed). The brake system must be capable of locking ALL FOUR wheels, both in a static condition as well as from speed on pavement AND on unpaved surfaces.

B11.2 INDEPENDENT BRAKE CIRCUITS The braking system must be segregated into at least two (2) independent hydraulic circuits such that in case of a leak or failure at any point in the system, effective braking power shall be maintained on at least two wheels. Each hydraulic circuit must have its own fluid reserve either through separate reservoirs or by the use of a dammed, OEM-style reservoir. Note: Plastic brake lines are not allowed

B11.3 BRAKE(S) LOCATION The brake(s) on the driven axle must operate through the final drive. Inboard braking through universal joints is permitted. Braking on a jackshaft through an intermediate reduction stage is prohibited

B11.4 CUTTING BRAKES Hand or feet operated cutting brakes are permitted provided the section (B11.1) on foot brakes is also satisfied. A primary brake must be able to lock all four wheels with a single foot. If using two separate pedals to lock 2 wheels apiece; the pedals must be close enough to use one foot to lock all four wheels. No brake, including cutting brakes, may operate without lighting the brake light.

BRAKING SYSTEM An excellent braking system is the most important safety feature of any land vehicle. Competition regulations require at least two separate hydraulic braking systems, so that in the event of a failure of one, the other will continue to provide adequate braking power to the wheels. The main requirement of the vehicles braking system is that it must be capable of locking all four wheels on a dry surface. Ease of manufacturability, performance and simplicity are a few important criteria considered for the selection of the braking system. OBJECTIVES The goals for the braking system were: 1. Reduce weight in the overall system. 1. Increased reliability 2. Improved performance.

DESIGN APPROACH The two main types of braking systems under consideration were Drum and Disc brakes. But in case of drum braking there is a high possibility of mud and debris to gather in the space between the shoe and the drum. Same problem is faced in mechanical disc brakes, but not in hydraulic disc brakes. Hydraulic brakes are found to be suitable for all type of terrain

across worldwide. So we have decided to use hydraulic disc brakes in the front and the rear. We will be using two master cylinders, one for the front and the other for the rear. The master cylinders will be mounted in parallel such that both the master cylinders are connected to a same linkage which connects them to brake pedals and actuates braking in all the four wheels when foot pedal is pressed. The internal diameter of our rim is 8 inches, so we need a small disc and calliper assembly. We will be using discs and callipers of Maruti 800. The diameter of the disc is 180mm which is optimum as per our need. And also will help us easily mount the disc and the calliper on Maruti 800 knuckle.

In general brakes are used to control the speed of the vehicle; they are seldom used for sudden braking which may cause the vehicle to nose-dive. We have decided to increase the CG height by around 5-6 inches to increase ground clearance and improve driver comfort, hence greater pitching tendency is expected in our design, and therefore we have taken pro-active measures by using anti-dive geometry in suspensions.

BRAKING SYSTEM The criterion for designing the brakes stated as per the rule book is that all the four wheels should lock simultaneously as the brake pedal is pressed. Dynamics:For designing the braking system, we will have to calculate the dynamic weight using the formulae as given below Front axle dynamic load = w1+(a/g)*W*(H/L) Rear axle dynamic load = w2- (a/g)*W*(H/L). Where, w1=weight on the front axle in the static condition. w2=weight on the rear axle in the static condition. g=acceleration due to gravity. W=total weight of the vehicle. H=height of the centre of gravity. L=length of the wheel base. a=deceleration of the vehicle. Some formulae that we used for designing our brakes : T(disc)= W1*(f/g)*R1+W2*(f/g)*R2. T(disc)=m*R*(P*A)*2*no. of disc brake. Where, T(disc)= frictional torque on the disc. f=deceleration. W= weight of the body. R= Effective radius of the disc.

R1=radius of the front tyre. R2=radius of the rear tyre. P=pressure applied by the TMC. m=coefficient of friction. A=area of calliper for disc brake. Components:Tandem master cylinder ,oil tank, proportioning valve, oil lines, disk valves. Actuation System The system is hydraulically actuated, via a brake padel which in turn generates a pressure in the master cylinder, which about 50 kPa, this pressure transmitted via the oil carrying line to the brakes.