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o AP European History Chapter 10 Outlines o 10.

1 The Renaissance in Italy (1375-1527) Renaissance: Prototype of the modern world o Gave rise to secular and scientific values o People adopted ration, statistical approach to reality and rediscovered the worth of an individual o Transition from Medieval to modern times Medieval: Fragmented, feudal society with agricultural economy; church dominated Renaissance: National consciousness and political centralization Beginning of the Renaissance: Death of Petrarch and that of Giovanni Boccaccio o 1527: The end of creative expansion Spanish soldiers looted Rome o French king Francis 1 and the Holy Roman Emperor made dynastic claims to Burgundy Pope Clement took the Frenchs side The Italian City State Renaissance society took distinctive shape in Italy o Cultural advantage: Geography: Which led to a natural gateway o Traded with the East and maintained bright, vibrant, culture o Merchants managed business skills (monopolies, book keeping) o Trade rich cites led to powerful city states Growth of Italian City States o Endemic warfare between the pope, emperor, Guelf and Ghilbelline Chose to weaken one another, which therefore strengthened merchant oligarchies o Free to expand on their own Independent city states, with vibrant, new culture Milan, Florence, Venice, Papal States, and Naples o Social strife and political power and competition led to despotisms Venice= Only one to maintain oligarchy Council of 10 to help govern Social Class and Conflict o Florence: Most striking example of social class Old Rich: Grandi (nobles and merchants) New rich: Popolo Grosso (rich merchant, capitalists, and bankers) Middle Class (often sided with new rich) Lower Class: Popolo Minuto 1/3 of Florentine population were paupers Produced conflict at every level of scety 1378: Ciompi Revolt Fued: Old Rich vs. New Rich, Black Death (social anarchy) led to the collapse of the great banking houses (Bardi and Peruzzi) o 4 year reign of power by lower Florentine classes Cosmo de Medici: Regained stability Despotitism and Diplomacy o Cosmo de Medici Wealthiest Florentine Controlled city from behind, manipulation constitution and elections Signoria: Most powerful guilds men, usually from major clothing industries o Informal relations with electors -> kept loyalty Office of Public Debt Grandson Lorenzo the Malificent: Ruled in totalarism fashion o Hired podesta to prevent internal conflict Maintained law and order Relied on military brokers, Condottierri Executive, military, and judicial authority

Often subject to dissmissial and assassination Political turbulence and warfare of the times gave birth to diplomacy Through diplomats and city states stayed informed of foreign military developments Established resident embassies Gained power and advantage What is Humanism? o Replaced scholasticism o Defined by: individualism, secularism, and classicalism Individualism o Everyone has worth NOW (not in the afterlife) o Live for today, we can improve everyday o Civic Humanism Secularism o Separation of Church and State (eventually led to rise of the monarchs) o Decline of church power/importance (start) Classicalism o Revival of Greek and Roman thought o ART! Renaissance culture was promoted vigorously by despots, republicans, and secular popes o Fueled the Renaissance (wealth wise) Humanism o Scholarly study of the Latin and Greek classic and of the ancient Church fathers Advocated studia humanitatis, a liberal arts program (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics and moral philosophy) Celebrated the dignity of mankind o First humanists: Orators and poets Wrote original literature (classical and vernacular) Taught rhetoric Study of classical and Christian antiquity had existed before the Italian Renaissance Non-significant Italian Renaissance: Secular and lay dominated Broader, more technical skills Unlike secular, less bound to recent tradition Did not summarize and compare views of authorities Most respected sources classical and biblical Petrarch, Dante, & Boccaccio Francessco Petrarch (1304-1374) Father of Humanism o Left legal position to pursue letters and poetry o Served Viscontti family in Milan o Celebrated ancient Rome in Letters to the Ancient Dead Personal letters to Cicero, Livy, Vergil, and Horace o Love Sonnets to Laura o Critical textual studies, elitism, and contempt for the learning of the scholastics were features many later humanists share o Classical and Christian values coexist in his work (uneasily) Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) o Less secular than Petrarch o Vita Nuova and Divine Comedy = Cornerstones of Italian Vernacular Literature Giovanni Boccaccio (1212-1375) o Student of Petrarch o Decameron (accounts of the Black Plague) in Florence o Assembled an encyclopedia of Greek mythology Educational Reforms and Goals o Humanists delighted in taking their mastery of ancient languages directly to the past o

Kept them in search of new information Assembled magnificent manuscript collections Like medicine for ill society o Goal: Wisdom eloquently spoken Learning enabled people o Idea of education and well-rounded people inspired far reaching reforms in traditional education o Quintilian: Education of the orator Basic classical guide for humanist revision and traditional curriculum Vittorino da Feltre: Vigorous physical exercise and games Guarino da Verona: Study of classical languages Castiglone: Book of the Courtier o Knowledge of the past was a challenge and model Educated noblewoman o Christine de Pisan-Italian born daughter of the physical and astrologer of Charles V Expert in classical, French, and Italian languages The Treasure of the City of Ladies The Florentine Academy and the Revival of Platonism o Revival of Greek Studies o Factors of Revival Foundation laid in 1397 when the city invited Manuel Chrysoloras to come from Constantinople to promote Greek learning o 1439: Council of Ferrara-Florentine negotiated reunion of East and West Churches Opened the door for many Greek scholars and manuscripts that eventually spread to the West o After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, Greek scholars fled to Florence Florentine Platonic Academy, under Patronage of Cosimo de Medici, supervision of Marsilo Ficino, and Pica Della Mirandola Not a formal school, informal gathering of influential Florentine humanists devoted to the works of Plato and the Neoplatonists o Appeal of Platonism lay in its flattering view of human nature Distinguished between eternal sphere of living, and perishable world where humans lived Human reason: To have preexisted in this pristine world and still commune with it, to which human knowledge of the eternal mathematical and mortal truth bore direct witness Strong Platonic influence evident in Picos oration on the Dignity of Man (900 theses) Drew on Platonic teaching to depict humans as the only creatures in the world who expressed the freedom to be whoever they chose o Crtical works of the Humanists: Lorenzo Valla Could become critics of tradition without intention Lorenzo Valla Reveals explosive character of the new learning Donation of Constantine o Revealed the vast territories that the Roman emperor Constantine donated to the pope o Proved what others had suspected o Rhetoric to gain popularity o Pointed out errors in the Latin Vulgate o Civic Humanism Education should promote individual virtue and public service Examples in Florence 3 humanists where Chancelors: Coluccio Salutati, Leonardo Bruni, and Proggio Bracclolini o Used rhetorical skills to rally Florentines against aggression of Naples and Milan Bruni and Poggio wrote adulatory histories of the city Leon Batista Alberti: Noted Florentine architect and builder o End of Humanism -> Deep scholarship and practical politics

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Renaissance Art Church lose power and influence Laymen governed, not clerics Art fully embraced natural world and human emotions Rational, mathematical, order (symmetry) Helped by development of new technical skills o Shading and linear perspective Giotto: Father of Renaissance painting Painted the natural world Masacio and Donatello portrayed world naturally Leonardo da Vinci: Exhibited Renaissance idea of universal person Advised Italian princes and French King Francais 1 on military engineering Science: Experimentation, anatomy, self-taught botanist Foresaw airplanes and machines Convey emotion (Mona Lisa) Raphael Great kindness and a painter of great sensitivity Madonnas and frescos on the Vatican (The School of Athens) Michelangelo: Statue of David in Florence Symmetry, proportion, and human form 4 different popes commissioned work for Michelangelo Frescoes in Sistine Chapel (Pope Julius 2) o Worked on his tomb Later works suggest personal changes Mark passing of High Renaissance painting -> mannerism o Gave room for feelings of the artist Slavery in the Renaissance Flourished as art and culture Contemporaries looked on such slavery as merciful act o Plantation slavery in eastern Mediteranean Demands for slaves soar after Black Death o Taken randomly from conquered people Complete power over slaves Strong, young, healthy slave = wages to free servant over several years Accepted as family members Italys Political Decline: The French Invasions Relied on internal cooperation for its peace and safety from foreign invasion Maintained by Treaty of Lodi Brought Milan and Naples (enemies) with Florence Stood together against Venice (papal states) 1490: Milanese despot Ludovico il Moro, hostilities between Milan and Naples resumed Treaty of Lodi ended in 1494 Naples: Supported by Florence and the Boriga Pope Alexander 6, threatened Milan Ludovico appealed to France for aid French kings had ruled Naples from 1266-1442 before being driven out by Duke Alfonso of Sicily o Invited French to reenter Italy to reclaim Dynastic claims to Naples Did not recognize claims to Milan th Charles 7 s March through Italy Piero de Medici (Florence) who allied with Naples against Milan tried to placate Charles by handing over Pisa and Florentine possessions Savonrola exiled him

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o Convinced Florentines that French kings arrival was long delayed Savonrola ruled for 4 years after Charles o Antipapal theocracy, difficult to survive o Italians reunited and executed him Ferdinand of Aragon created League of Venice Brought Venice, Papal Sates, Emeperor Maxmillon against French Luovico il Moro joined LOV th Pope Alexander 6 and the Borgia Family th Returned to Italy under Charles successor, Louis 12 Pope of Borgia assisted Promoted political careers of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia o Put pope second and secured military base in Romagna Tried to get Venice (League of Venice) into his loyalty Steps to secure French alliance th th o Anulled Louis 12 s marriage to Charles 8 s sister o Made Raven, Louis favorite archbishop, cardinal th o Alexander 6 agreed to abandom League of Venice (League became too weak) Cesare Borgia received sister of King of Navarre, Charlotte d Albert -> Gave Borgia strength Land grants, promise of French military aide in Romagna Louis invaded Milan in August 1499 o Ferdinand of Aragon divided Naples o Cesare Borgia -> Duke of Romagna nd Pope Julius 2 Patronage and Warrior Pope Commissioned painting of the Sistine Chapel & School of Athens th Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, strong opponent of Borgia family, succeeded Alexander 6 as pope Supressed Borgias Raised Renaissance papacy to its peak of military prowess Drove Venetians out of Romagna and fully secured papal states Julius, Ferdinand of Aragon, and Venice formed a second Holy League Joined by Maxmillon and Swiss rd Invaded a 3 time under Louis successor, Francis 1 o Destroyed Swiss soliders for Holy League Niccolo Machiavelli Saw that Italian political unity and independence justified any means Humanist, impressed by the way Roman rulers and citizens defended land (virtu) Exaggerated stories Republican ideas Blamed invasion on internal problems Wrote The Prince: How to Govern Advised rulers to discover advantages of fraud Secular: Better to be feared than loved Dedicated it to Lorenzo de Medici 10.3 The Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe 1450: The emergence of truly sovereign rulers from feudalism began to shift Dynastic and Chivalric ideals of feudal monarchy did not Feudal monarchy of middle ages was characterized by the division of the basic powers of government, between the king and his vassals Towns began to side with kings -> Broke bonds of feudal society Sovereign State: Power of taxation, war making, and law enforcement belonged to monarchs

o Taxes, wars, and laws became a national matter Only as monarchs became able to act independently of the nobility and representative assembles could they overcome the decentralization that impeded nation building Theorists emphatically defended the sovereign rights of the monarchy Rulers demonstrated that the law was their creature Appointed civil servants whose vision was no longer merely local or regional o Corregidores, justices of peace, baliffs Kings army: Soliders recruited Professional Army = High pay Cost of warfare-> new ways to find money Sale of public offices and bonds Higher class believed they were immune from taxes Collected rent from royal domains o Levy national tax and taille France th Charles 7 was a king made great by those who served him o Created professional army (drove England out of France) th Father: Jacques Coer (Son Louis 11 ) o Strong economy, diplomatic corps, and national administration th Louis 11 : France was a great power 2 political cornerstones o Collapse of English empire in France o Defeat of Charles the Bold and Burgundy Divided and conquered Burgundian lords (Maxmilian 1) Ended constant intruge of French king th Louis 11 : Harness nobility, expanded trade, national postal system, and silk industry Future rulers conquest -> Left France divided like in 100 years war Spain Castile and Aragon poorly ruled and divided in mid 1th century Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon changed everything Castile: Richer, more populous, lucrative sheep farming industry, Mesta Ferdinand and Isabella: Subdued realms, secured borders, ventured abroad militarily and Christianized Spain Conquered Moors and Grenada in 1482 and 1492 Secure Northern borders Won allegiance of Hermandad State controlled religion Appointed higher clergy and Inquisition Contracted anti-French marriage alliances Grandson Charles 1 was first to rule over a united Spain o Empire almost equaled that in size of Charlemagne Failure of Catherin of Aragons church was key factor in the formation of the Anglican Church Sponsored Christopher Columbus England Civil Warfare between England: House of York and Lancaster nd Roots of war lay in the forced desposition of eratic Richard 2 o War of roses th Duke of York and his supporters challenged Lancastrian Monarchy of Henry 6 th o Edward 4 , son of duke of york, instituted strong arm rule that lasted for 20 years o Increased power and fiancs of the monarchy rd o Richard 3 took the throne

Tudor dynasty portrayed as an unprincipaled villain who murdered Edwards sons in the tower of London o Reign saw growth and support for exiled Hary Tudor Defeated Richard in Bosward Field th Harry Tudor = Henry 7 th Married Edward 4 daughter, Elizabeth of York Created Star Chamber -> Ended overmighty nobles Confiscated land and money of nobles, rule without Parliament The Holy Roman Empire Germany and Italy were exceptions to the steady development of the politically th centralized lands in the last of the 15 century o Germany: Resisted every effort of national consolidation and unity Carolingian Times: Rulers continue to partition their kingdoms Princes and cities worked together to create law and order th Emperor Charles 4 and the major German territorial rulers created the Golden Bull o 7 member electoral college consisting of archbishops Gave emperor = Single ruler o Rights of princes were balanced Reichstag: Imperial diet National assembly of 7 electors, the 7 non electoral princes, and representatives from the 65 imperial free cities o Assembly of Worms = Won from Emperor Maxmilian 1 an imperial ban on private warfare, the creation of a supreme court of justice, and council of regency th th 16 and 17 centures, the territorial princes became virtually sovereign rulers o Added religious and territorial discontent The Northern Renaissance Religious and Educational reforms Northern Renaissance = Stimulated by the importation of Italian learning as students who had studied in Italy traded information and goods o Christian Humanism o More social diversity o Religious movement began in the Netherlands and permitted men and women to live a shared religious life without making formal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience o Literature was written for lay audiences o Art depicted the life of a common man Northern humanists came from diverse social backgrounds; devoted to religious reform Printing press! The Printing Press! Manuscript books inscribed on vellum o Carved wood and stamped it Johann Gutenberg Printing press in Mainz o Books produced for ordinary lay readers, scholars and clerics alike o Wider distribution o Gutenberg Bible: Scholars gained access to a dependable, standardized, text 1500 (50 years), printing press -> 200 cities Literacy affected people everywhere o Nurtured self-esteem and a critical frame of mind o Print revolution made anyone who can read an instant authority Church less credible Propganda

Erasmus Most famous Northern Humanist Illustrated the power of the printing press o Gained fame as an educational and religious reformer Thomas Moore th Councilor to Henry the 8 English lawyer, social philosopher, and author Catholic: Major religious reforms Earned living by tutoring o Wrote short, Latin, dialogues Colloquies-Anticlerical dialogues, religious dogmatism, and superstition o Contemporary adverbs Adages Unite classical ideals of humanity with Christian ideals of love and piety o Disciplined study of classics and bible to reform society Philosophia Christ Immitation of Christ True Idealist o Made ancient Christian sources available in their original versions People would only imbibe pure sources of faith

Edited works of the Church fathers -> created a Greek edition of a new testament -> Latin o Church not pleased o One point, his books were banned Humanism and Reform Germany Rudolf Agricola: Fatther of German humanism Conrad Celtis and Ulrich von Hutten gave German humanism a nationalist coloring Johann Reuchiln was Europes foremost Christian authority on Hebrew and Jewish learning o First reliable Hebrew grammar by a Christian scholar England Came by Italian scholars visiting England Lectures by William and Grocyn and Thomas Linacre at Oxford and those of Erasmus at Cambridge marked scholarly maturation of English humanism Thomas Moore o Utopia: Conservative criticism of contemporary society Imaginary society based on reason and tolerance that overcame social and political injustice by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to earn their bread by doing their own work France French invasions spread Italian learning Educational and religious reform Guilaume Bude and Jacuqes Lefevre d Etaples Martin Luther Margeurite d Angouleme, cultivated young humanists Spain Entered through Catholic church Fransico Jimenez de Cisneros o Grand Inquistor o Founded University of Alcala o Printed Greek edition of the new testament o Complutensian Polygot Bible Hebrew, Greek, and Latin verses in parallel columns

10.5 Prince Harry The Navigator captured N. African city of Cueta o Quest for gold and spices and convert to Christianity o Sea route around Africa to Asia spice markets o Began slave trade Wanted to get spices direct from East o Portuguese beat powerful Venetian-Muslim monopoly 1455, Pope gave Portgual spoils of war: Land, goods, and slaves all from coast of Guinea in West Africa to Indies in East Asia o Treaty of Tordesillas -1494 th Portgual was granted south of Canary Islalands by Borgia Pope Alexander 6 North go to Spain, conflict arises East to Portugal, West to Spain Bartholomew Dias: Safely rounded Cape of Good Hope in 1487 Vasco de Gama: Shores of India in 1498, brought back spices worth 60 times more than cost of voyage Columbus: In 1492, landed in San Salvador but thought he was in East Indies o Met friendly natives Amerigo Vespucci and Ferdinand Magellan: Coastline of America o Magellan: Crew circumnavigate the world Discovery eventually led to conquest o Wealth from conquest financed Spains commanding role in political and relig ious war Aztec: Mesoamerica o Spanish conquest = All of mexico from Tenochitlan o Demanded heavy tribute in goods and labour from subjects Human sacrifice o Hernan Cortes: Tried to befriend Moctezume, Moctezume believed he was a revengeful God Appease with gold Forged alliances with the Aztecs subject peoples, especially with Tlaxcala (enemy) Driven out by hostility Conquered under emperor Cuauhtemoc Incas: Peru o Compelled subjects to work on a regular basis o Fransicco Pizarro Lured Atahualpa, seized and killed his followers Atahualpa tried to ransom with gold -> execute Captured Cuzco Inca resistance did not end until the 1570s Fundamental turning point in Native American peoples with Spanish conquests o Forced to accomdomate to Europeans The Church in Spanish America o Foster philosphia Christ into new world Bring European learning and civilization o Able to convert only if conquest Bartolme De Casas criticized Black Legend unprincipaled and inhumane Conquest was not necessary to convert Church in Spanish America became the colonial status quoe Mining: Conquistadors wanted gold! o Silver in mid 1750 o Spanish crown received 1/5 profit from metal mining Agricultrue: Hacienda o Large land estates owned by Spainards or Creoles

Footstuffs for mining areas and urban and leather goods West Indies: Plantation Urban service occupations (gov. office, legal professions and shipping) Labor Servitude: Slaves o Encomienda: Certain number of slaves for a period of time o Repartemiento: Males worked on a certain amount of days to Spanish economic enterprises o Free labor resultd Montaigne critized abuse of Native Americas Overload of Spices: Inflation Age of Discovery led to increased skepticism about wisdom of the ancients

How did the French consolidate power? The French consolidated power